Arthur Schopenhauer (22 February 1788 21 September 1860) was a German philosophe r known for his pessimism and philosophical

clarity. At age 25, he published his doctoral dissertation, On the Fourfold Root of the Principle of Sufficient Reas on, which examined the fundamental question of whether reason alone can unlock a nswers about the world. Schopenhauer's most influential work, The World as Will and Representation, clai med that the world is fundamentally what we recognize in ourselves as our will. His analysis of will led him to the conclusion that emotional, physical, and sex ual desires can never be fulfilled. Consequently, he eloquently described a life style of negating desires, similar to the ascetic teachings of Vedanta and the D esert Fathers of early Christianity.[2] Schopenhauer's metaphysical analysis of will, his views on human motivation and desire, and his aphoristic writing style influenced many well-known thinkers inc luding Friedrich Nietzsche,[3] Richard Wagner, Ludwig Wittgenstein, Erwin Schrödin ger, Albert Einstein, [4] Sigmund Freud, Otto Rank, Carl Gustav Jung, Leo Tolsto y, and Jorge Luis Borges. Life Arthur Schopenhauer was born in the city of Danzig (Gdansk) as the son of Heinri ch Floris Schopenhauer and Johanna Schopenhauer,[5] both descendants of wealthy German Patrician families. When the Kingdom of Prussia acquired the Polish-Lithu anian Commonwealth city of Danzig in 1793, Schopenhauer's family moved to Hambur g. In 1805, Schopenhauer's father might have committed suicide.[6] Schopenhauer' s mother Johanna shortly after moved to Weimar, then the centre of German litera ture, to pursue her writing career. After one year, Schopenhauer left the family business in Hamburg to join her. Schopenhauer became a student at the University of Göttingen in 1809. There he stu died metaphysics and psychology under Gottlob Ernst Schulze, the author of Aenes idemus, who advised him to concentrate on Plato and Kant. In Berlin, from 1811 t o 1812, he had attended lectures by the prominent post-Kantian philosopher J. G. Fichte and the theologian Schleiermacher. Schopenhauer as a youth In 1814, Schopenhauer began his seminal work The World as Will and Representatio n (Die Welt als Wille und Vorstellung). He would finish it in 1818 and publish i t the following year. In Dresden in 1819, Schopenhauer fathered an illegitimate child who was born and died the same year.[7][8] In 1820, Schopenhauer became a lecturer at the University of Berlin. He scheduled his lectures to coincide with those of the famous philosopher G. W. F. Hegel, whom Schopenhauer described as a "clumsy charlatan".[9] However, only five students turned up to Schopenhauer's lectures, and he dropped out of academia. A late essay, "On University Philosop hy", expressed his resentment towards university philosophy. While in Berlin, Schopenhauer was named as a defendant in an action at law initi ated by a woman named Caroline Marquet.[3] She asked for damages, alleging that Schopenhauer had pushed her. According to Schopenhauer's court testimony, she de liberately annoyed him by raising her voice while standing right outside his doo r.[10] Marquet alleged that the philosopher had assaulted and battered her after she refused to leave his doorway. Her companion testified that she saw Marquet prostrate outside his apartment. Because Marquet won the lawsuit, he made paymen ts to her for the next twenty years.[11] When she died, he wrote on a copy of he r death certificate, Obit anus, abit onus ("The old woman dies, the burden flies ").[12] In 1821, he fell in love with nineteen-year old opera singer, Caroline Richter ( called Medon), and had a relationship with her for several years. He discarded m arriage plans, however, writing, "Marrying means to halve one's rights and doubl e one's duties", and "Marrying means, to grasp blindfolded into a sack hoping to find out an eel out of an assembly of snakes." When he was forty-three years ol

[13] . seventeen-year old Flora Weiss recorded rejecting him in her diary.d.

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