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Normalization (normalizatsiia). A 1935 agreement between the Ukrainian National

Democratic Alliance (UNDO) and the Polish government, designed as a rapprochement
between Ukrainians and the Sanacja regime. The term is said to have been coined by Ostap
Lutsky. Normalization came about as a result of growing Ukrainian anxieties about the
deterioration of international relations (anti-Ukrainian repression in the Soviet Union, the
growing affinity between Poland and Germany), the weakening of UNDO's political position
as a result of the Pacification in 1930 and new electoral ordinances threatening the
Ukrainians with fewer seats in the Polish parliament, growing dissatisfaction from the
nationalist wing of UNDO and the secession of Dmytro Paliiv's Front of National Unity
group, and an increase in dealings with the Polish government. Discussions were held in July
1935 in Lviv between UNDO leaders and the minister of internal affairs, M. Zyndram-
Kościałkowski. An electoral compromise reached at that time guaranteed the Ukrainians 14
seats in the Sejm and five in the Senate, the position of vice-marshal in both chambers, and
the elimination of Russophile representation. The government made a proposal for an
amnesty, which some activists of the Organization of Ukrainian Nationalists took advantage
of; it also extended credit to several Ukrainian economic organizations in Galicia and made
assurances to the Ukrainians for the maintenance of the status quo in schooling. In return the
UNDO delegates in the Sejm supported government proposals for ‘state necessities’ (the
budget, military matters, and the like). Normalization did not encompass Ukrainian territories
north of the Sokal border, which omission sparked Dmytro Levytsky's protest and
resignation as UNDO leader. The new leader and spokesman for normalization policies
became Vasyl Mudry, who was also vice-marshal of the Sejm.

The UNDO began to press the government for more substantial changes—the introduction of
cultural autonomy for eastern Galicia, concessions in elementary and secondary schooling, a
Ukrainian university, territorial self-government, an end to colonization, the introduction of
the term ‘Ukrainian’ into the official language, access to administrative postings for
Ukrainians, the regulation of rivers, and measures against starvation in the mountain regions.
The government, apart from satisfying a few minor demands, ignored the overtures. The only
positive effects were arrangements for material goods to be supplied to invalids of the former
Ukrainian army, an increase in the enrollment of Ukrainian students at university, equal[2/10/2018 12:27:24 PM]


status for the terms ‘Ukrainian’ and ‘Ruthenian’ in bureaucratic usage, bilingual signs on
public service buildings in eastern Galicia, and the acceptance of Ukrainian representatives
into government committees. Demands for the elimination of bilingualism in schools, the
dismantling of the Bereza Kartuzka concentration camp, higher numbers of Ukrainian
teachers in the Galicia region, and the extending of credits to Ukrainian farmers were

At the same time that the Sanacja regime was backing away from any substantial measures to
meet Ukrainian demands, an increasingly strident posture toward Ukrainians was being
adopted by Polish politicians, local state administrative offices, and military circles. The
accord lost almost all its credibility and support as a result. The fiasco, meanwhile, had led to
a substantial split in the Ukrainian National Democratic Alliance ranks as early as 1936,
which included such critics of the policy as Dmytro Levytsky, Volodymyr Kuzmovych, Ivan
Kedryn, and Ostap Lutsky (who grouped around the newspaper Dilo).

Andrzej Zięba

List of related links from Encyclopedia of Ukraine pointing to Normalization entry:

1 Front of National Unity

2 Galicia
3 History of Ukraine
4 Khomyshyn, Hryhorii
5 Mudry, Vasyl

6 Paliiv, Dmytro
7 Poland
8 Sanacja regime
9 Ukrainian National Democratic Alliance

A referral to this page is found in 9 entries.

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