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DEEPTI .D                                                                K.L.KIRAMMAI




          E­MAIL ID:

1) Abstract

2) Why to Consider Alternative Energy?

3) Ethanol

- Why to adopt ethanol as an alternate fuel

- Use of ethanol in IC engines

- Results and discussion

4) Hydrogen

- Hydrogen in IC engines

- Examples

5) Conclusion

“Necessity is the mother of invention. Energy
crisis is the cry of future.” Why to Consider Alternative Energy?
The historical and the present-
day civilization are closely interwoven with energy and in Alternative energy sources provide many benefits.
future, our existence will be more dependent upon energy. Renewable energy development can create quality jobs
The conventional sources of energy, the single most
and promote economic development, especially in rural
important pre-requisite for power generation, are
areas. If used to diversify utility resource portfolios,
depleting fast. The world is heading towards a global
energy crisis mostly due to running out of these energy alternative energy technologies can provide a hedge
sources; decreasing the dependency on fossil fuels is against rising fuel prices and can be valuable risk
recommended. Yet, the sources of energy are infinite. The
management tools.
greatest task today is to exploit the non-conventional
While some renewable energy resources are not always
energy resources for power generation.
available (that is, the wind does not always blow and the

sun does not always shine), the technologies perform

reliably when the "fuel" is available. In this regard, they

can add to the reliability of the electricity grid, especially

for businesses in which power outages are extremely reduction in exhaust NOX, smoke and particulate

costly. matter.

At the point of use, solar and wind technologies are

emissions-free. This makes them attractive from an WHY TO ADOPT ETHANOL AS ALTERNATE
environmental standpoint. An additional environmental FUEL?

benefit could be the "brightfields" concept: installing

1. Many alternate fuels are being considered for
clean energy technology-related businesses in
automotive vehicles and ETHANOL of the best
environmentally blighted areas (brownfields). alternate fuels. Ethanol is produced from
molasses, which is a by-product of sugarcane

Finally, selected applications of energy efficiency and 2. Ethanol can be produced in large quantities at
low cost from these mollasses
renewable energy technologies can enhance the disaster
3. Its high oxygen content improves the
resiliency of communities and individual structures. For combustion characteristics
example, roof- or skid-mounted solar electric systems can 4. It also reduces the harmful emissions from IC
engines such as sulphur-di-oxide, oxides of
provide needed power to hospitals, fire stations, police
nitrogen, particulate emissions
departments, gas stations, national guard armories, etc.

the sunny days that follow destructive storms.


 High cost of petroleum products and

The various techniques by which the ethanol can be
surge the cost of hydrocarbon fuels
 Increased demand for petroleum used as a fuel for compression ignition engines are_

products. 1.Blend formation

 Strict emissions norms like EURO
KYOTO PROTOCOL, etc. 3.Dual injection
 Global warming and adverse 4.Spark ignition
environment effect due to pollution
5.Ignition improvers
from the automobiles.
6.Surface ignition

The easiest method by which ethanol could be used is in
Among the various options, Ethanol, an alcohol seems to
the form of diesel ethanol blend. But ethanol has limited
be a most promising option for countries like India
because of its availability from agriculture products. solubility in diesel; hence ethanol/diesel solutions are
Alcohol can be used in diesel engines in following ways. restricted to small percentages (typically 20%). This
One method is injection of ethanol with inlet air using
problem of limited solubility has been overcome by
carburetion or electronic injection system and other is
emulsion of diesel and ethanol. And also enable a emulsions, which have the capability of accommodation
larger displacement of diesel up to 40% by volume. But to engine by carbureting or vaporizing the ethanol into
the major drawbacks of emulsions are the cost of
intake stream. This method requires addition of a
emulsifiers and poor low temperatures physical carburetor or vaporizer along with a separate fuel tank,

properties. lines and controls. But with the emergence of electronic

injection techniques the fumigation technique has been
DUAL INJECTION: made possible by using an injector in the intake
Dual injection is a method by which nearly 90%

Displacement of diesel by ethanol is possible. The

drawback of this method includes the complexity and MODIFICATION REQUIRED FOR
expense of a second injection system and a second fuel USING ETHANOL

tank and system.

Though alcohols have been identified as successful 

SPARK IGNITION: contenders for replacing diesel fuel, a large number of 

Spark ignition of neat ethanol in diesel engines provides innovative concepts need to be used to overcome the 

a way of displacing 100% of diesel. A spark plug and the

problems associated with ethanol in a diesel engine, 
associated ignition system components must be added to
either neat or its blends with diesel. Modification like hot 
the engine. Space must be available for spark plugs in the

cylinder head and its also important for sparkplugs in the surface ignition, continuously operated glow plugs, spark 

cylinder head and it’s also important for proper plug plugs, fuel additives, exhaust gas re­circulation, diesel 

injection, special piston design like sonex combustion 
system (SCS) [8], intake air heating either by controls on 
Another method of using neat ethanol is to increase their

cetane numbers sufficiently with ignition improving flow from turbocharger or by electric heater are some of 

additives to ensure that compression ignition will occur. the successful methods by which the best performance 

This method saves the expense and complexity of engine
and also higher percentage of energy replacement are 
components changes, but adds fuel costs.

This is another method of using ethanol 100% ethanol in GRAPH: 1                                 

diesel engines. Surface ignition occurs when the

temperature of the air-fuel mixture adjacent to a hot

surface exceeds its self-ignition limit.


Fumigation is a method by which ethanol is introduced in

The variation of TFC with power of the engine operated

with diesel and substitution of diesel with ethanol by

fumigation and emulsification is shown in the Graph-2


Hydrogen is clean because water is the product after 

combustion in an internal combustion engine. However, it 
  It is observed from the Graph­1 that the engine running  is important to note that nitrogen oxides [NOx] are 

with ethanol shows higher brake thermal efficiency when  produced as well because the high temperature in the 

compared   with   engine   running   with   diesel.   As   ethanol  engine makes it possible for the nitrogen in air to react 

reduces the heat loss to the combustion chamber walls,  with oxygen. However, the NOx produced is still less than 

the value of brake thermal efficiency is greatly increased. that from petrol/diesel internal combustion engines.



The internal combustion engine is a heat engine in
which combustion occurs in a confined space called a
combustion chamber. Combustion of a fuel creates high
temperature and pressure gases, which are permitted to
expand.The expanding gases are used to directly move a
piston, turbine blades, rotors, or the engine itself thus
doing useful work. Internal combustion engines can be
powered by a fuel that can be combined with an oxidizer
in the chamber.
Internal combustion engines are most commonly
used for mobile propulsion systems.. When very high
power is required, such as jet aircraft, helicopters and
large ships, they appear mostly in the form of gas
turbines. They are also used for electric generators and by
For low power mobile and many non-mobile
applications an electric motor is a competitive
alternative. Electric motors may also become competitive
for most mobile applications. However the high cost and Hydrogen internal combustion engine cars are
weight and poor energy density of batteries and lack of different from Hydrogen fuel cell cars. The Hydrogen
affordable onboard electric generators such as fuel cells internal combustion car is a slightly modified version of
has largely restricted their use to specialist applications. the traditional gasoline internal combustion engine car.
All internal combustion engines depend on the These cars burn Hydrogen directly, with no other fuels
exothermic chemical process of combustion: the reaction and produce water vapor exhaust. The problem with these
of a fuel, typically with air, although other oxidisers such cars is the Hydrogen fuel that can be stored in a normal
as nitrous oxide maybe employed.The most common fuels size tank is used up rapidly.
in use today are made up of hydrocarbons and are derived An existing conventional car can be converted to
from petroleum like diesel, gasoline and liquified run on Hydrogen, or a mixture of Hydrogen and other
petroleum gas. gases. Since Hydrogen can burn in a very wide range of
Research shows that Hydrogen can replace such air/fuel mixtures, a small amount of Hydrogen can also
fuels. With the introduction of Hydrogen fuel cell be used to ignite various liquid fuels in existing internal
technology, the use of internal combustion engines may combustion engines under extremely lean burning
be phased out. The volumetric efficiency of Hydrogen is conditions. In 2005, an Israeli company claimed it
roughly five times lower than petrol. This is why succeeded in conquering most of the problems related to
Hydrogen must be compressed if there is to be a useful producing Hydrogen internal combustion engine by using
amount of energy. a device called a Metal-Steam combustor that separate
All internal combustion engines must have a Hydrogen out of heated water. A tip of a Magnesium or
means of ignition to promote combustion and an Aluminium coil is inserted into the Metal-Steam
electrical or a compression heating ignition system. combustor together with water where it is heated to very
Electrical ignition systems generally rely on a lead-acid high temperatures. The metal atoms bond with Oxygen
battery and an induction coil to provide a high voltage from the water,creating metal oxide. As a result, the
electrical spark to ignite the air-fuel mix in the engine’s Hydrogen molecules become free, and are sent into the
cylinders. Compression heating ignition systems (Diesel engine alongside the steam. The solid waste product in
engines and HCCI) rely on heat created in the air by the process, in the form of metal oxide, will later be
compression in the engine’s cylinders to ignite the fuel. collected in the fuel station and recycled for further use.
Hydrogen cars generally use the Hydrogen in one of the
two methods: combustion or fuel-cell conversion. In
combustion, the “Hydrogen” is burned in engines in
traditionally the same method as traditional gasoline
cars. In fuel-cell conversion, the Hydrogen is turned into
electricity through fuel cells which then powers electric
motors.with either method, the only byproduct is water.
Some Hydrogen cars use the common internal
combustion engine, usually fueled with gasoline or diesel
liquids, can be converted to run on gaseous Hydrogen.             HONDA’S NEW FCX VEHICLE WITH HOME 
The most efficient use of Hydrogen involves the use of
fuell cells and electric motors instead of a traditional
engine. Hydrogen reacts with oxygen inside the fuel cells,
which produces electricity to power the motors.
          The first Hydrogen refueling station was opened in 
∙ Thor Industries (the largest maker of buses in the U.S.), 
Reykjavik,   Iceland   on   April   2003.   This   station   serves 
based on UTC Power fuel cell
three buses that are in service in the public transport net 
of Reykjavik. The station produces the Hydrogen it needs 

by itself, with an  electrolysing unit,  and does  not  need 

refilling: all that enters is electricity and water.

           There are numerous prototype or production cars 

and buses based on fuel cell technology being researched 

or manufactured. Research is ongoing at companies like 

BMW, Hyundai, and Nissan, among many others. There 

are   fuel   cell­powered   buses   currently   active   or   in 

production, such as a fleet of Thor buses with UTC Power 

fuel   cells   in   California,   operated   by   SunLine   Transit  The BMW Hydrogen 7 Series IC Engine

Agency.                                                          [135KW power output]


  Some Automobile 


∙ BMW — 7 series 
(auxiliary   power), 

based on UTC Power fuel cell technology

∙ Ford Focus FCV — a Hydrogen fuel cell modification 
of the Ford Focus

∙ Honda is experimenting with a variety of alternate fuels 
and fuel cells with experimental

   vehicles based on the Honda EV Plus The hydrogen internal combustion engine inside a bus

∙ Mazda – RX­8, with a dual­fuel (hydrogen or gasoline) 
rotary – engine

           A few bus companies conducting Hydrogen fuel 
In conclusion finally it can be inferred that of all the
cell research are
alternative fuels, hydrogen is the best and efficienct

∙ DaimlerChrysler, based on Ballard fuel cell technology alternate fuel for the internal combustion engines. It

seems to be best alternate fuel because of its silent
characteristic like clean and high efficiency. But only
drawback at present is handling and storage problem
apart from a best, most suitable and feasible way of
producing it.