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IS-01

SET –I

1. List out some unsafe acts? (2M)


Unsafe acts:
 Working without authority;
 Failure to warn others of danger;
 Using dangerous equipment;
 Using wrong equipment;
 Failure to issue control measures.; and
 Horseplay
2. What is an accident? Explain the techniques for accident prevention? (8M)

Every accident has one or more identifiable causes. The employer is responsible for ensuring a safe
system of work is in place and therefore must take action to prevent accidents from occurring or
recurring. For some, this concept still causes difficulty. The term "accident" suggests that an event
occurred itself, with some degree of chance and it implies no blame or responsibility. Some people
associate or equate an accident with injury or damage, when on many occasions accidents do not
result in injury or damage. These events are often termed "near misses".
Determining where, why and how accidents occur is fundamental to understanding the causation
and implementing preventive measures. Once the circumstances and causes have been identified,
effective measures can be taken to prevent similar occurrences.
TECHNIQUES FOR ACCIDENT PREVENTION
All employers, employees and self-employed persons have a duty of care towards their own, and
others ‘health and safety at their workplace.
Compliance with legislative requirements may assist by providing either performance based or
prescriptive criteria to achieve required results. Various legislative requirements may impact on
activities within workplaces to ensure that workers are able to work in a safe environment.
Under general duty of care legislation, employers have a duty to ensure, as far as practicable, that
employees are not exposed to hazards at the workplace. Under regulations and in accordance with
codes of practice, employers also have an obligation to identify workplace hazards, to assess the
associated risks and to make the necessary changes to minimise the risks. These three basic steps
should be taken to ensure a safe and healthy workplace and prevent accidents. They are based on
the concept that the workplace should be modified to suit people, not vice versa. The three steps
are:
Identifying the Hazard - involves recognising things which may cause injury or harm to the health
of a person, for instance, flammable material, ignition sources or unguarded machinery.
Assessing the Risk - involves looking at the possibility of injury or harm occurring to a person if
exposed to a hazard.
Controlling the Risk - by introducing measures to eliminate or reduce the risk of a person being
exposed to a hazard.
It is important to regularly review the steps, especially if there are changes in the work environment,
new technology is introduced, or standards are changed.
READING PRINCIPLES OF ACCIDENT PREVENTION
OHS legislation promotes cooperation and consultation between the employer and employees
within the workplace to achieve a healthy and safe work environment. Employers should consult
with OHS representatives, if any and employees during these steps. Involvement of elected OHS
representatives can provide an opportunity for problems to be resolved using knowledge within the
immediate work area.
3. Explain about BIS 14489-1998? (2M)
BIS 14489-1998:
In order to promote public education and public safety, equal justice for all, a better informed
citizenry, the rule of law, world trade and world peace, this legal document is hereby made
available on a non-commercial basis, as it is the right of all humans to know and speak the laws
that govern them.
EPA has broad authority under the law to issue:
 Information collection regulations that require the submission of health and safety studies
which are known or available to those who manufacture, process, or distribute in commerce
specified chemicals; and
 Regulations designed to gather information from manufacturers and processors about
production/import volumes, chemical uses and methods of disposal, and the extent to
which people and the environment are exposed.
4. Explain the different types of Communication Systems? (2M)
Two-way communication is essential in the business world. Messages are transmitted
between employers, employees, customers and other stakeholders, and feedback is
required to be certain that the message was received and understood.
Two-Way Communication Systems
Many businesses and municipal services rely on two-way communication systems to stay
in touch with their employees on site and in the field. One of the most common examples
of two-way communication systems are the radio, telephone, and computer-aided dispatch
systems used by police, fire, and emergency response personnel. These systems allow
dispatchers and supervisors to keep in touch with individuals and to coordinate the
activities of groups of responders. Two-way communications systems are also routinely
used in the construction and building trades, public transportation, the trucking industry,
and aviation by commercial and non-commercial pilots, just to name a few. Two-way
communication systems vary greatly in sophistication and special features. They range
from simple hand held two-way transceivers that use a single dedicated channel to more
complex systems that allow a large number of users to share several channels. The type of
system chosen depends on many factors, such as the intended use, the location, the number
of users, the frequency band, and the cost of the system. Regardless of the type of system
chosen, the one common feature is that all of the components must be compatible and work
together to support a common purpose.

5. Explain Global warming and their effects? (8M)

Global warming effects - mitigate temperature increase


We would like to show the urgent need to act in order to mitigate global warming. For this purpose,
we simulate different scenarios for the future emissions of carbon dioxide (CO2) and calculate
their effects on the rise of the average temperature on Earth. Information about the simulation
model can be found further down at the end of this article.
Let's first repeat some basic facts of global warming:
Global warming is caused by the emission of greenhouse gases. 72% of the totally emitted
greenhouse gases are carbon dioxide (CO2). Therefore CO2 emissions are the most important
cause of global warming
.
 CO2 is created by burning fossil fuels like e.g. Oil, natural gas, and diesel. The emissions
of CO2 have been dramatically increased within the last 50 years and are still increasing
(CO2 emissions by country).
 Carbon dioxide remains in the atmosphere for 80 to 200 years.
 According to recent investigations, unimaginable catastrophic changes in the environment
are expected to take place if the global temperatures increase by more than 2° C (3.6° F).
A warming of 2° C (3.6° F) corresponds to a carbon dioxide (CO2) concentration of about
450 ppm (parts per million) in the atmosphere.
 The current (year 2007) concentration of CO2 is at about 380 ppm and it is currently
increased by 2 to 3 ppm each year.
Simulations of the effects of global warming: average temperature increase
Let's first look at the "business as usual" scenario. What would happen if we carried on with
increasing CO2 emissions and if no measures were taken to mitigate global warming? The
prediction of CO2 emissions are taken from "World energy outlook 2006" of the International
Energy Agency (IEA) for 2007 until 2030. After 2030, we have extrapolated the trend.
6. Define the term First-Aid Plan? (2M)
First-Aid Plan - Accidents happen and people fall ill. Always make sure you have the basic
services for first aid provided at any sized event. Be prepared with the numbers of all important
emergency services that you can distribute to your staff. Depending on whether you have a large
number of people in attendance you will need to find first aid provisions suitable enough, like
having a medical officer on staff.
7. Explain different communication patterns? (8M)
COMMUNICATION PURPOSE PROCESS AND TYPES
One of the most effective ways to improve a safety culture and prevent injuries is to optimize safety-related
communication throughout an organization (Williams, 2003). Unfortunately, employees often fail to “speak
up” when they observe risky behaviours even when they know they should.
The Safety Culture Survey administered to hundreds of organizations by Safety Performance Solutions Inc.
(SPS) indicates 90 per cent of respondents believe employees should caution others when they’re operating
at-risk.
However, only 60 per cent say they actually do provide this critical feedback.
During training and structured interviews, we ask employees why there’s such a gap between people’s
values (“should caution”) and actual behaviours (“do caution”). Participants respond that giving safety-
related feedback will create interpersonal conflict, indicating, “It’s not our job to give safety feedback.”
Also, they often do not feel competent at giving safety feedback or they don’t want to insult co-workers
who have more experience (Geller & Williams, 2001).
It is unfortunate employees are reluctant to warn co-workers when they observe risky behaviours, especially
considering that most injuries have a behavioral component (along with system factors; Geller, 2001, 2005,
2008).
Ironically, people underestimate others’ willingness to receive safety feedback. In fact, 74 per cent of
respondents (from the SPS Safety Culture Survey) confirm they welcome peer observations for the purposes
of receiving safety related feedback. Yet, only 28 per cent believe other employees feel the same way.
Employees will be more open to safety-related feedback if co-workers do a better job of providing and
receiving it. To provide effective corrective feedback to others when they are working at-risk, don’t make
it personal – focus on behaviour. Ask questions to facilitate discussion, and don’t lecture. Give feedback
immediately and one-on-one, while showing genuine concern for others’ feelings and wellbeing. Offer the
opportunity to work together to find better solutions. Finally, thank the person for listening.
To receive corrective feedback effectively, you must actively listen and don’t interrupt. Remain open and
receptive and don’t get defensive. Discuss better ways of doing the task. Finally, thank the person for
providing feedback.
In addition to cautioning co-workers operating at-risk, it’s important to praise employees who regularly do
their jobs safely. This builds a more open, positive safety culture and increases the likelihood these work
practices will be performed safely in the future. However, most employees say they almost never receive
one-on-one praise or appreciation for their safety-related behaviours. Employee’s at all organizational
levels are well served to provide frequent, genuine praise for safe work practices (Williams, 2003, 2002).
Before addressing more communication guidelines, it’s useful to consider various communication styles.
Communication Styles
A complicating factor with safety communication is that people have different styles of communication.
Broun stein (2001) defines four basic communication patterns: the Dominant, Passive, Passive-Aggressive
and Empathic styles.
The first three styles are generally maladaptive and stifle the cultivation of a total safety culture. The fourth
style, the Empathic pattern, is ideal and most conducive to effective communication and culture
improvement.
The Dominant Communicator – Dominant communicators tend to “run people over” in interpersonal
conversations.
Dominant communicators often believe they’re never wrong, their opinions are more important than those
of others, and people who disagree with them are either disloyal or misinformed. These misguided beliefs
often lead to maladaptive behaviours such as public criticism of others, blaming others when problems
arise, acting bossy and negative, using verbally aggressive and threatening language, showing a lack of
appreciation for the accomplishments of others, interrupting others and even finishing their sentences or
dismissing new ideas without listening to the rationale.
Dominant communicators often provoke fear, counter control and alienation among others. Their behaviour
fosters resistance, defiance, sabotage, and retaliation, formation of alliances, lying and covering up.
Dominant communicators damage corporate culture and morale and hinder optimal organizational
performance. Basketball coach Bobby Knight is an example of a dominant communicator.
The Passive Communicator – Passive communicators tend to turn people off by being indirect and meek
in their interpersonal communication. Passive communicators often believe you shouldn’t express your true
feelings, make waves or disagree with others. Woody Allen is cited as an example of a passive
communicator.
They often think other people’s opinions are more important than their own. These beliefs often lead to
maladaptive behaviours such as remaining quiet, even when being treated unfairly; asking for permission
unnecessarily; frequently complaining rather than acting; and delegating personal choice to others. Passive
communicators retreat from interpersonal conflict and accept directions without question. Passive
communicators create frustration and mistrust because of not knowing where they stand. They create the
presumption they lack the courage to be a leader. They also hinder open communication.
The Passive-Aggressive Communicator – Passive-aggressive communicators tend to believe you should
“go behind people’s backs” instead of dealing with people directly. They appear to agree with others when
they really don’t agree. They make sarcastic remarks and take subtle digs at others. They send critical
messages via e-mail and copy others. They hold grudges, value “getting even” and sabotage others behind
their backs (i.e., spreading negative gossip). Passive-aggressive communicators refuse to help others or give
others “the silent treatment.”
Passive-aggressive communicators cause increased factions and favoritism in the workplace. They increase
negative gossip or “back stabbing,” creating an environment of low interpersonal trust. Their actions often
lead to diminished job performance, increased uncertainty and job dissatisfaction and increased turnover.
The Empathic Communicator – Unlike the previous three styles, the empathic communicator interacts
effectively with others to maintain healthy, long-term relationships (Williams, 2006). Companies with
numerous empathic communicators are likely to have more healthy organizational cultures. Empathic
communicators generally believe that personal opinions and the opinions of others are important and that
the process of coming to a decision – not just the outcome – is important. They think acquiring input from
others boosts morale and generally leads to better decision making.
These beliefs often lead to desirable behaviours, such as communicating expectations instead of demands.
The focus tends to be on proactive and action-oriented conversation, with stated, realistic expectations.
Empathic communicators, an example of which is Oprah Winfrey, communicate in a direct and honest
manner, and work to achieve goals without compromising others. Empathic communicators increase
perception of autonomy or personal control, and motivate people to achieve and “go beyond the call of
duty” for the organization. They foster an improved sense of appreciation and respect, which in turns leads
to increased levels of interpersonal trust, respect, honesty and openness. The end result is enhanced
organizational communication, higher morale and better performance.
Improving Listening Skills
What good is an empathic communicator if no one listens? Of course, empathic communicators also are
good listeners. They listen for both emotion and content to understand what the other person is saying. They
also reflect back what the speaker is saying to show understanding (“So what you’re saying is…”).

8. What does site specific safety plan mean? (2M)


Site specific safety plan is designed by keeping the specific hazards that are most common in the
work place in mind. As with the changing work place, the nature of hazards also changes. So, the
safety plan that is designed for a specific site is known as site specific safety plan.
A site specific safety plan is a documented procedure that is designed to cover the hazards with a
high chance of occurrence. Safety plans are custom made documents that can be amended and
changed keeping in view the hazards of the work place. For example, in a workplace where there
is a stacking of flammable liquids, the site safety plan will specifically cover the fire safety
procedures. On a construction site, the site specific safety plan will include the procedures of
Personal Protective Equipment, the fencing procedures, procedures regarding working at heights,
etc...
Purpose:
Planning is the key to ensuring that potential health and safety risks have been anticipated and
assessed, and appropriate measures have been established to control the risks involved.
9. List out Management needs? (2M)
Management needs:
Leader Ship skills;
• communication skills;
• Techniques of safety and health management;
• Training , instruction, coaching and problem-solving skills relevant to safety and health;
• Understanding of the risks in a manager’s area of responsibility;
• Knowledge of relevant legislation and appropriate methods of control, including risk assessment;
• Knowledge of the organization’s planning, measuring, reviewing, and auditing arrangements;
• Awarness of the financial and economic benefits of good safety performance.
Some managers in key positions may have particular needs. This would apply to those who devise
and develop the safety and health management system, investigate accidents or incidents, take part
in review and audit activity, or who implement emergency procedures.
10. Explain the Emergency preparedness and responses? (8M)
Emergency Preparedness and Response
The organisation should establish and maintain procedures to respond to accidents and emergency
situations, and to prevent and minimise the safety and health impacts associated with them. Emergency
planning should cover:
• T h e development of emergency plans;
• T h e testing and rehearsing of these plans and related equipment, including firefighting equipment
and fire alarms;
• Training personnel on what to do in the event of an emergency, particularly those people who have to
carry out duties (e.g. Fire-fighting teams, first- aiders);
• Advising people working or living near the installation about what they should do in the event of an
emergency;
• Familiarizing the emergency services with the facilities at the organisation so that they know what to
expect in the event of an emergency.
The emergency plan itself should include:
• Details on the installation, availability, and testing of suitable warning and alarm systems;
• Details of emergency scenarios that might occur, including the means for dealing with these scenarios;
• the emergency procedures in the organisation, including the responsibilities of key personnel, procedures
for fire-fighting and evacuation of all personnel on site, and first-aid requirements;
• Details of emergency services (e.g. Fire brigade, ambulance services, spill clean-up services), and the
contact arrangements for these services;
• Internal and external communications plan;
• training plans and testing for effectiveness;
• Details on the availability of emergency rescue equipment and its maintenance log.
The organisation should periodically test, review, and revise its emergency preparedness and response
procedures where necessary, in particular after the occurrence of accidents or emergency situations. The
plan should dovetail with the safety statement as required by section 20 of the 2005 Act.
11. Explain the OS&H Audit? (8M)
Executing the OS&H Audit
This would include a field visit with the auditee organization by the audit team which would cover the
following activities. During this field visit, the Concerned officials of the auditee would accompany the
team during their visits around the plant.
4. 3. 1 Opening Meeting
The purpose of an opening meeting is to;
— introduce the members of the audit team to the auditor’s senior management;
— review the scope and the objectives of the audit;
— provide a short summary of the methods and procedures to be used to conduct the audit;
— establish the official communication links between the audit team and the auditee;
— confirm that the resources and facilities needed by the audit team are available;
— fix a schedule of visits to individual plants/departments;
IS 14489: 1998
— discuss the auditor’s senior management; the areas of concerned and suggested areas of focus by the
audit team;
— confirm the time and date for the closing meeting and any interim meetings of the audit
Team and the auditor’s senior management;
— clarify any unclear details of the audit plan,
4.3.2 Presentation by auditee management on organization, manufacturing processes; organization structure
and specified requirements of the OS&H system.
4.3.3 Examination
4.3.3. 1 collecting evidence
Evidence should be collected through interviews, examination of documents, and observation of activities
and conditions in the areas of concern. Clues suggesting nonconformities should be noted if they seem
significant, even though not covered by check-lists, and should be investigated. Information gathered
through interviews should be tested by acquiring the same information from other independent sources,
such as physical observation, measurements and records
NOTE — a questionnaire for performing safety audit has been given in Annex C for guidance only.
4.3.3.2 Audit observations
Ail audit observations should be documented. After all activities have been audited, the audit team should
review all of their observations to determine which are to be reported as nonconformities. The audit team
should then ensure that these are documented in a clear, concise manner and are supported by evidence.
Nonconformities should be identified in terms of the specific requirements of the standard or other related
documents against which the audit has been conducted. Observations should be reviewed by the lead auditor
with the responsible auditee manager. All observations of nonconformities should be intimated to the
auditee and acknowledged by it.
It should be remembered that purpose of audit is not to comprehensively check implementation of each
safety system element- The purpose is to sample/test check the implementation of each element of the
OS&H system. Therefore, the information is to be corrected for a few cases of nonconformity in respect of
each element; as a basis for evaluating implementation of that element. However, recommendations are not
only to correct the observed nonconformities, but the implementation of the element as a whole.
4.3.4 Audit Recommendations
The desired end result of an OS&H audit is the identification of primarily unrecognized hazards, in the light
of experience and early recognition of short comings in the areas such as the maintenance and testing of
critical equipment. The auditor should make recommendations to the auditee for the improvements to the
OS&H system.
In case of an organization whose OS&H system specified requirements/description are well developed; it
would be sufficient to point out nonconformities with the requirement. However when these are not well
laid down, it becomes all the more important to make recommendations.
These recommendations are of two types:
— For improvement in the system's specified requirements; and
— For more effective implementation of the specified requirements of the system.
It is up to the auditee to determine the extent, the way and means of actions to improve the OS&H system
as per recommendations of the audit team. However, the recommendations regarding compliance with
statutory and legal requirements are to be fully implemented.
4.3.5 Closing Meeting with Auditee
At the end of the OS&H audit, prior to preparing the audit report, the audit team should hold a meeting with
the auditor’s senior management and those responsible for the functions concerned. The main purpose of
this meeting is to present audit observations and recommendations to the senior management in such a
manner so as to ensure that they clearly understand the results of the audit.
The lead auditor should present observations and recommendations, taking into account their perceived
Significance. The lead auditor should present the audit team's conclusions regarding the OS&H system's
effectiveness in ensuring that objectives will be met.
Records of the closing meeting should be kept.
12. Explain the roles and functions of safety and health advisers? (8M)
Safety and health advisers should:
• s u p p o r t the provision of authoritative and independent advice;
• have a direct reporting line to directors on matters of policy, and have the authority to stop work if it
contravenes agreed standards and puts people at risk of serious injury;
• h a v e responsibility for professional standards and systems; on large sites or in a
Group of companies, they may also have line-management responsibility for other safety and health
professionals.
Relationships outside the Organisation
Safety and health advisers will need to liaise with a wide range of bodies and individuals as necessary,
including:
• T h e Health and Safety Authority;
• L o c a l - a u t h o r i t y Environmental Health Officers and licensing officials;
• T h e Fire Service;
• T h e Garda Síochána;
• T h e Coroner or the courts;
• E m p l o y e r s ’ and workers’ representatives;
• C o n t r a c t o r s , architects, and design consultants;
• E q u i pme n t suppliers;
• I n s u r a n c e companies;
• C l i e n t s , customers, and the public;
• Ge n e r a l medical practitioners and occupational health physicians;
• Oc c u p a t i o n a l health specialists and services;
• T h e media.
They should be trained to communicate effectively with these groups.
External Specialist Safety and Health Support
From time to time, an organisation may require further specialist safety and health support. Areas where
specialist support may be needed, where in-house expertise and/or resources may be insufficient to meet
the organisation’s needs or where they may wish to have an independent view, include:
• I n i t i a l safety and health management system review;
• Gu i d a n c e in following and interpreting statutory requirements;
• H a z a r d identification and risk assessment;
• D e s i g n of new facilities, equipment and processes;
• S a f e t y and health investigations;
• P e r s o n a l monitoring of exposure to hazardous agents;
• H e a l t h surveillance;
• c o n t r o l strategies for eliminating or reducing risk, i.e. engineering controls or PPE;
• A c c i d e n t or incident investigation and specifying remedial actions;
• S p e c i a l i s t safety and health training;
• c a r r y i n g out safety and health management system measurements, reviews and audits.
The 2005 Act requires that preference should be given to appointing internal expertise to carry out this
work, where the expertise is available. It should also be noted that the definition of ‘director’ in the 2005
Act does not include a person who gives advice in a professional capacity.
13. What is Risk assessment? (2M)
Risk assessment means the process of evaluating and ranking the risks to safety and health at
work arising from the identification of hazards at the workplace. It involves estimating the
magnitude of risk and deciding whether the risk is acceptable or whether more precautions need
to be taken to prevent harm.
14. Explain risk control and their control measures? (8M)
Risk Control:
When risks have been analysed and assessed, risk assessors can make decisions about workplace
precautions.
All final decisions about risk-control methods must take the relevant legal requirements into
account, as they establish minimum levels of risk prevention or control. Some of the duties
imposed by the 2005 Act and the relevant statutory provisions are absolute. However, the general
duties of care in section 8 of the 2005 Act is qualified by the words ‘so far as is reasonably
practicable’. This means that In assessing risk, employers and those who control workplaces to
any extent must put in place appropriate preventive or control measures to protect the safety and
health of employees and others unless these measures are wholly disproportionate to the
elimination of the actual risk involved. In short, if the risk is high, a lot must be done to eliminate
or control it. To comply with this requirement, employers should adopt the following hierarchy of
risk control measures:
• E l imi n a t i o n or substitution which is a permanent solution that eliminates the hazard
altogether or substitutes one that presents a lower risk. This could involve the elimination of a
hazardous process or substance or the substitution of a toxic substance with a less toxic one;
• E n g i n e e r i n g controls or safety measures to reduce the risk. These can include using machine
guards, isolation or enclosure of hazards, local exhaust ventilation, mechanical handling methods,
or protective barriers;
• A dmi n i s t r a t i v e controls which reduce or eliminate exposure to a hazard by adherence to
procedures or instructions. These may include supervision, permit-to-work systems, and job
rotation;
• P e r s o n a l protective equipment (PPE). Appropriate training in the use and selection of
PPE is an essential element of risk control.
Further information on risk assessment and control is given in Appendix C.
Controlling Health Risks
Occupational safety and health legislation requires employers to ensure the health as well as the
safety of their employees. The principles for controlling health through risk assessment are the
same as those for safety.
However, the nature of health risks can make the link between work activities and employee ill-
health less apparent than in the case of injury from an accident. Unlike safety risks, which can lead
to immediate injury, the results of daily exposure to health risks may not become apparent for
months, years or, in some cases, decades.
Health may be irreversibly damaged before the risk is apparent. It is therefore essential to develop
a preventive strategy to identify and Control risks before anyone is exposed to them. Failure to do
so can lead to workers’ disability and loss of livelihood. It can also mean financial losses for the
organisation through absence, lost production, compensation, and increased insurance premiums.
Risks to health from work activities may include: • S k i n contact with irritant substances, leading
to dermatitis etc.
• I n h a l a t i o n of respiratory sensitizers, triggering immune responses such as asthma;
• B a d l y designed workstations requiring awkward body postures or repetitive movements,
resulting in upper limb disorders, repetitive strain injury, or other musculoskeletal conditions;
• N o i s e levels that are too high, causing deafness and conditions such as tinnitus;
• E x c e s s i v e vibration, e.g. from hand-held tools, leading to hand-arm vibration syndrome and
circulatory problems;
• E x p o s u r e to ionising and non-ionising radiation, including ultraviolet from the sun’s rays,
causing burns, sickness, or skin cancer;
• I n f e c t i o n s ranging from minor sickness to life-threatening conditions caused by inhaling or
being contaminated by microbiological organisms;
• s t r e s s causing mental or physical illness.
Some illnesses or conditions such as asthma and back pain have both occupational and non-
occupational causes, and it may be difficult to establish a definite link with a work activity or
exposure to particular agents or substances. However, if there is information that shows the illness
or condition is prevalent among the occupational group to which the sufferer belongs or among
workers exposed to similar agents or substances, it is likely that work is at least a contributory
factor.
Some aspects of managing risks to health may need input from specialist or professional advisers
such as technical staff or occupational health hygienists, nurses and occupational physicians. Much
can be done to prevent or control risks to health by
Taking straightforward measures such as:
• c o n s u l t i n g the workforce on the design of workstations;
• t a l k i n g to suppliers of substances, plant and equipment about minimising exposure;
• e n c l o s i n g machinery to cut down noise or fumes;
• r e s e a r c h i n g the use of less hazardous materials;
• e n s u r i n g that employees are trained in the safe handling of all the substances and materials
with which they come into contact.
15. Define an Organization? (2M)
Organization means a company, corporation, firm, enterprise, or institution, or part or
combination of any of these, whether incorporated or not, public or private, that has its own
functions and administration. For organizations with more than one operating unit, a single
operating unit may be defined as an organization.
16. Explain the different types of Safety Plans? (8M)
TYPES OF SAFETY PLANS
Site Safety Plan - A site safety plan will come in handy for when you are planning a large outdoor
event, like a concert or fair. It combines a description of all the potential hazards of the site,
structural safety calculations and drawings, as well as a detailed description of site safety rules,
any site crew managers and safety coordinators.
Crowd Management Plan - The key to a good crowd management plan is to first understand the
characteristics of the people that will be in attendance. Map out your plans for event admittance
and denials in advance and make sure to coordinate a chain of command. Always make sure to
remain communicative with your staff and with your guests.
Transport Management Plan - Figure out how guests will be arriving and departing. Ask
yourself, what you need to provide your attendees so that this process can go as smoothly as
possible. If your event is serving alcohol make sure you have on hand lists of ways your guests
can make it home. Detail all parking arrangements and any that have to be made with the local
traffic authorities in case of road closures
Plan - Always, always have a contingency plan. It's all better to hope for the best but plan for the
worst. Get together a plan detailing how you and your staff will deal with a major
Incident or disaster: How will you make announcements? How will people exit the premises? If
exiting is not possible, what resources do you have to keep people calm?
First-Aid Plan - Accidents happen and people fall ill. Always make sure you have the basic
services for first aid provided at any sized event. Be prepared with the numbers of all important
emergency services that you can distribute to your staff. Depending on whether you have a large
number of people in attendance you will need to find first aid provisions suitable enough, like
having a medical officer on staff.
17. What is Risk control? (2M)
Risk control: Risk control is the basis for ensuring that adequate workplace precautions are
provided and maintained. At the input stage, the aim is to minimize hazards and risks entering the
organization. At the process stage, the focus is on containing risks associated with the process. At
the output stage, risk control should prevent the export of risks off-site, or in the products and
services generated by the business. The nature and relative importance of risk control will vary
according to the nature and hazard profile of the business and workplace precautions.
Organizations need risk controls appropriate to the hazards arising from their activities and
sufficient to cover all hazards. The design, reliability and complexity of each risk- control method
should be proportion to the hazards and risks involved.
18. Define Safety and health Management? (2M)
Safety and health means occupational health, safety, and welfare in the context of preventing
accidents and ill-health to employees while at work.
Safety and health management system means the part of the overall management system that
includes the organizational structure, planning activities, responsibilities, practices, procedures
and resources for developing, implementing, achieving, reviewing and maintaining the
occupational safety and health policy.