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The specific weight (also known as the unit weight) is the weight per unit volume of a material. The symbol o

specific weight is γ (the Greek letter Gamma).

A commonly used value is the specific weight of water on Earth at 5°C which is 62.43 lbf/ft3 or 9807 N/

The terms specific gravity, and less often specific weight, are also used for relative density.

Concrete yield :

----------------------------------------------

Mass of an equal volume of water

at standard temp. and pressure .

Cement content = water content

--------------------------

Water – cement ratio

Absolute sp. gr. refers to volume of solid material excluding voids

-----------------------------------------------------------------------

Weight of an equal void free volume of water at

std. temp and pressure

= kg 1

------- = --------

N 10

hrs.

------------------------------------------------------------------------

Mass of water occupying volume equal to

solids including impermeable voids and pores

-----------------------------------------------------------------

( mass of saturated surface surface dry

aggregate - mass of saturated surface dry

aggregate in water )

-------------------------------- at std. temp. and pressure .

Density of water

Density = mass

-----------

Volume

a) loose b) rodded or bulk density

Mass density of water = 1000 kg. / cum. or 1000 kg. / 1000 ltr.

--------------------------------

Apparent sp.gr.

BDssd or BDad

------------------------------------

Vsolid + Vpores

Ssd = saturated dry surface neither absorbing nor contributing water to the

Ad = air dry

sp. gr. of 3.15 for Portland cement is 0.478 cum.

( 0.0135 cum.)

Approx. one sack of cement yield o.5 cu.ft. ( 0.014 cum. )

Cum. Cu.ft. Ltr.

Absolute volume of 0.014 0.5 14

one cement sack

Loose volume of one 0.035 1.23 35

cement sack

Absolute volume = wt. of loose material

Of fillers ----------------------------------------------------------

Sp.gr. x unit wt. of water

Of liquids ----------------------------

Unit wt. of liquid

1 ft = 0.3048 m.

1 m. 3.2808 ft.

1 sq.ft. 0.86613

sq.m.

1 cu.ft. 28.317 ltrs. = 0.0283

cum.

1 lb ( pound ) 0.45359 kg.

1 MT 1016 kg. = 2240 lb.

1 kg 2.204 lb

For grouting , volume basis is commonly used and mixtures are expressed a

sack of cement having a loose volume of one cubic foot ( U.S.) having propo

volume of fluid grout actually produced is sum of absolute volume of cemen

materials , admixtures and water.

Air entrained concrete contains 5 % less solid material and hence has lower

density . ( unit = one , e.g. kg / cum = kg / one cum. )

Unit weight :

Normal wt. → Bulk sp.gr. Bulk density

of bulk unit

wt. – kg /

cum.

1 Gravel , 2.4 – 2.9 1520 – 1680

crushed stone

, natural sand

, manu. Sand

pumice ,

expanded

shale , clay

3 Heavy wt.- 2080

steel slag ,

shot , ores ,

BSG

oven dry aggregate . Stages from oven dry to moisture content aggregate .

Difference in mass and weight – mass in kg. and wt. by considering gravity 9

1 bag of cement = 1 sack and its loose volume=1 cuf. And absolute volume=

94 lb. of sack = 0.5 cft of solids. 1 cft of grout of WC ratio = 1 i.e. 1:1 = 104 lb

1 . Absolute volume = wt. of material (N)

----------------------------

Sp.gr. Unit wt.

KN/m³

KN ( of each

bag)

( density ? )

Coarse aggregate 2.8 / 2.74 15 ( density ? When dry

)

water 1 10 ( density ? When dry

)

Yield of concrete + volume of entrapped air ( less

of Concrete than 1 % in well compacted concrete and cab be

Neglected )

-----------------------

Apparent sp.gr. x unit wt. of water ( 10kN /m³ )

A. By rule of thumb :

2/3 { ( 1 x 0.035 ) + ( 2 x 0.035 ) + ( 4 x 0.035 ) = 0.163 cum. = 5.75 cu.ft.

Loose volume of one cement bag of 35 ltrs. = 1.25 cu.ft = 35 ltrs. = 0.035 m³

1. Wt. of one cement sack is 50 kg. i.e. 0.5 kN

B. Absolute volume of –

Volume of Proportion Unit wt. in

one loose w.r.t. cement kN/m³

cement sack sack

2 . Sand 0.035 x 2 X 16 =

3 . Coarse aggregate 0.035 x 4 X 15 =

4. Wt. of water by water :cement ratio = 0.6 = 60 %

= 0.60 x 0.5 kN = 0.3 N

volume = wt. volume in volume in

of material / (

sp.gr. x unit

wt. of water )

--------------

3.15 x 10

Sand 1.12 0.04

------------------

2.65 x 10

Coarse aggregate 2.1 0.07

-------------------

----

2.8 x 10

Water 0.3 0.03

------------

1 x 10

Total 0.16 5.64

material in volume in

kN / m³

( apparent

sp.gr. x unit

wt. of water

-10 kN/cum. )

= loose

volume of

material in m³

x unit wt. in

kn/m³ /

( apparent

sp.gr. x unit

wt. of water

-10 kN/cum. )

0.014 x

35.71) /

3.15 x 10 KN

Sand dry (2 x 0.035 )x 0.04 (2 x 0.035 )

16 / = volume of

sand , 0.035

= loose

volume of

one cement

2.65 x 10

bag

Aggregate dry (4 x 0.035) x 0.07

15 /

2.8 x 10

Water 60 % (0.6 x 0.5) / 0.03 0.5 = wt. of

cement in kN

, 0.6 = part

of water out

of part of

cement

1 x 10

Total 0.16

me of a material. The symbol of

d pressure .

ding voids

-------------------------

ume of water at

temp and pressure

00 ⁰ c. for 24

---------------------------

ume equal to

voids and pores

----------------------------

urface dry

ed surface dry

. and pressure .

. / ltr . –

1000 ltr.

cludes pores )

---------------------------------

id + Vpores

ributing water to the concrete mixture .

.478 cum.

--------------------------

f water

( U.S.) having proportion 6:1 to 0.6 : 1 . the

te volume of cement and absolute volume of filler

egate = difference in wt. of moist and

content aggregate .

o = 1 i.e. 1:1 = 104 lb.

air ( less

nd cab be

Weigh

t in

mix in

kN

1.12

2.1

4 x 0.035 ) = 0.163 cum. = 5.75 cu.ft.

in yellow color – proportion of mix – 1:2:4

– 1:2:4 By Absolute volumes :

Estimation of Yield of concrete for 1:2:4 mix :

Absolute

volume

cum. cu.ft.

cement 0.015873 0.56032

sand dry 0.0422642 1.49192

coarse aggregate dry 0.075 2.6475

water 0.03 1.059

Total 0.1631372 5.75874

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