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Yield of concrete Estimation:

The specific weight (also known as the unit weight) is the weight per unit volume of a material. The symbol o
specific weight is γ (the Greek letter Gamma).

A commonly used value is the specific weight of water on Earth at 5°C which is 62.43 lbf/ft3 or 9807 N/

The terms specific gravity, and less often specific weight, are also used for relative density.

Concrete yield :

Specific gravity = mass of solid in a given volume

----------------------------------------------
Mass of an equal volume of water
at standard temp. and pressure .
Cement content = water content
--------------------------
Water – cement ratio
Absolute sp. gr. refers to volume of solid material excluding voids

Absolute sp. gr. = mass of solid

-----------------------------------------------------------------------
Weight of an equal void free volume of water at
std. temp and pressure
= kg 1
------- = --------
N 10

Apparent sp. gr. = mass of aggregate dried in oven at 100 ⁰ c. for 24

hrs.
------------------------------------------------------------------------
Mass of water occupying volume equal to
solids including impermeable voids and pores

Sp. gr. as per IS code : mass of over dry aggregate in air

-----------------------------------------------------------------
( mass of saturated surface surface dry
aggregate - mass of saturated surface dry
aggregate in water )

sp. gr. = density of material

-------------------------------- at std. temp. and pressure .
Density of water

Density = mass
-----------
Volume

Bulk density = mass of material in a given volume in kg. / ltr . –

a) loose b) rodded or bulk density

Mass density of water = 1000 kg. / cum. or 1000 kg. / 1000 ltr.

Void ratio = 1 - bulk density

--------------------------------
Apparent sp.gr.

Bulk density can either be = weight ( includes pores )

------------------------------------
Vsolid + Vpores
Ssd = saturated dry surface neither absorbing nor contributing water to the

Absolute volume of 94 lb ( pound ) ( 42.63 kg. ) sack of an cement using an

sp. gr. of 3.15 for Portland cement is 0.478 cum.

( 0.0135 cum.)
Approx. one sack of cement yield o.5 cu.ft. ( 0.014 cum. )
Cum. Cu.ft. Ltr.
Absolute volume of 0.014 0.5 14
one cement sack
Loose volume of one 0.035 1.23 35
cement sack
Absolute volume = wt. of loose material
Of fillers ----------------------------------------------------------
Sp.gr. x unit wt. of water

Absolute volume = wt. of liquid

Of liquids ----------------------------
Unit wt. of liquid

1 ft = 0.3048 m.
1 m. 3.2808 ft.
1 sq.ft. 0.86613
sq.m.
1 cu.ft. 28.317 ltrs. = 0.0283
cum.
1 lb ( pound ) 0.45359 kg.
1 MT 1016 kg. = 2240 lb.
1 kg 2.204 lb

For grouting , volume basis is commonly used and mixtures are expressed a
sack of cement having a loose volume of one cubic foot ( U.S.) having propo
volume of fluid grout actually produced is sum of absolute volume of cemen

Unit weight = wt. of freshly mixed grout per unit volume .

Air entrained concrete contains 5 % less solid material and hence has lower
density . ( unit = one , e.g. kg / cum = kg / one cum. )

Unit weight :
Normal wt. → Bulk sp.gr. Bulk density
of bulk unit
wt. – kg /
cum.
1 Gravel , 2.4 – 2.9 1520 – 1680
crushed stone
, natural sand
, manu. Sand

2 Light wt. – Less than

pumice ,
expanded
shale , clay
3 Heavy wt.- 2080
steel slag ,
shot , ores ,
BSG

Total moisture ( TM ) or moisture content ( MC ) in aggregate = difference in

oven dry aggregate . Stages from oven dry to moisture content aggregate .

Oven dry → Air dry → saturated surface dry → moist

Difference in mass and weight – mass in kg. and wt. by considering gravity 9

1 bag of cement = 1 sack and its loose volume=1 cuf. And absolute volume=
94 lb. of sack = 0.5 cft of solids. 1 cft of grout of WC ratio = 1 i.e. 1:1 = 104 lb
1 . Absolute volume = wt. of material (N)
----------------------------
Sp.gr. Unit wt.
KN/m³

KN ( of each
bag)

Sand 2.65 / 2.74 16

( density ? )
Coarse aggregate 2.8 / 2.74 15 ( density ? When dry
)
water 1 10 ( density ? When dry
)

Accurate Absolute volumes of various components

Yield of concrete + volume of entrapped air ( less
of Concrete than 1 % in well compacted concrete and cab be
Neglected )

Absolute volume = wt. of material ( kN )

-----------------------
Apparent sp.gr. x unit wt. of water ( 10kN /m³ )

Yield of concrete per bag cement for 1:2:4 mix →

A. By rule of thumb :
2/3 { ( 1 x 0.035 ) + ( 2 x 0.035 ) + ( 4 x 0.035 ) = 0.163 cum. = 5.75 cu.ft.
Loose volume of one cement bag of 35 ltrs. = 1.25 cu.ft = 35 ltrs. = 0.035 m³
1. Wt. of one cement sack is 50 kg. i.e. 0.5 kN

B. Absolute volume of –
Volume of Proportion Unit wt. in
one loose w.r.t. cement kN/m³
cement sack sack

2 . Sand 0.035 x 2 X 16 =
3 . Coarse aggregate 0.035 x 4 X 15 =
4. Wt. of water by water :cement ratio = 0.6 = 60 %
= 0.60 x 0.5 kN = 0.3 N

Absolute Absolute Absolute

volume = wt. volume in volume in
of material / (
sp.gr. x unit
wt. of water )

Cement 0.5 0.02

--------------
3.15 x 10
Sand 1.12 0.04
------------------
2.65 x 10
Coarse aggregate 2.1 0.07
-------------------
----
2.8 x 10
Water 0.3 0.03
------------
1 x 10
Total 0.16 5.64

Absolute volume = Wt. of Absolute Remark

material in volume in
kN / m³
( apparent
sp.gr. x unit
wt. of water
-10 kN/cum. )
= loose
volume of
material in m³
x unit wt. in
kn/m³ /
( apparent
sp.gr. x unit
wt. of water
-10 kN/cum. )

Cement 0.5 KN ( 1 x 0.02

0.014 x
35.71) /
3.15 x 10 KN
Sand dry (2 x 0.035 )x 0.04 (2 x 0.035 )
16 / = volume of
sand , 0.035
= loose
volume of
one cement
2.65 x 10
bag
Aggregate dry (4 x 0.035) x 0.07
15 /
2.8 x 10
Water 60 % (0.6 x 0.5) / 0.03 0.5 = wt. of
cement in kN
, 0.6 = part
of water out
of part of
cement
1 x 10
Total 0.16
me of a material. The symbol of

used for relative density.

d pressure .

ding voids

-------------------------
ume of water at
temp and pressure

00 ⁰ c. for 24

---------------------------
ume equal to
voids and pores

----------------------------
urface dry
ed surface dry

. and pressure .

. / ltr . –

1000 ltr.

cludes pores )

---------------------------------
id + Vpores
ributing water to the concrete mixture .

an cement using an average

.478 cum.
--------------------------
f water

ures are expressed as ratio of wt. of water to one

( U.S.) having proportion 6:1 to 0.6 : 1 . the
te volume of cement and absolute volume of filler

nd hence has lower

egate = difference in wt. of moist and
content aggregate .

nd absolute volume=0.5 cu.ft.(0.478)=94 lb.

o = 1 i.e. 1:1 = 104 lb.
air ( less
nd cab be

2/3 { ( 1 x 0.035 ) + ( 2 x 0.035 ) + ( 4 x 0.035 ) = 0

Weigh
t in
mix in
kN
1.12
2.1
4 x 0.035 ) = 0.163 cum. = 5.75 cu.ft.
in yellow color – proportion of mix – 1:2:4
– 1:2:4 By Absolute volumes :
Estimation of Yield of concrete for 1:2:4 mix :

Absolute
volume
cum. cu.ft.
cement 0.015873 0.56032
sand dry 0.0422642 1.49192
coarse aggregate dry 0.075 2.6475
water 0.03 1.059
Total 0.1631372 5.75874