You are on page 1of 11

Face Recognition Technology

Posted by 24 April, 2009


A face recognition technology is used to automatically identify a person trough
a digital image. It is mainly used in security systems. The face recognition wil
l directly capture information about the shapes of faces. The main advantage of
facial recognition is it identifies each individual s skin tone of a human face s su
rface, like the curves of the eye hole, nose, and chin, etc. this technology may
also be used in very dark condition. It can view the face in different angles t
o identify.
It is mainly used in airports were it ill recognize the face and we can avoid so
me unwanted terrorist. When compared with other biometrics systems using fingerp
rint and iris, face recognition has different advantages because it is without t
ouching the person. Trough Face images we can capture the person identification
from a distance without touching or interacting with them. And also face recogni
tion is used for crime restriction purpose because face images that have been re
corded and archived, so that it ill help us to identify a person later.
-------------------------------------------------------
Facial recognition system
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jump to: navigation, search
"Face recognition" redirects here. For the human cognitive process, see Face per
ception.
It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with face detectio
n and three-dimensional face recognition. (Discuss)
This article needs attention from an expert on the subject. See the talk page f
or details. WikiProject Robotics or the Robotics Portal may be able to help recr
uit an expert. (June 2008)
Swiss European surveillance: facial recognition and vehicle make, model, color a
nd license plate reader.
Side View.
Close-up of the Infrared Illuminator. This light is invisible to the human eye b
ut it creates a day-like environment for the surveillance cameras.A facial recog
nition system is a computer application for automatically identifying or verifyi
ng a person from a digital image or a video frame from a video source. One of th
e ways to do this is by comparing selected facial features from the image and a
facial database.
It is typically used in security systems and can be compared to other biometrics
such as fingerprint or eye iris recognition systems.[1]

[edit] Techniques
[edit] Traditional
Some facial recognition algorithms identify faces by extracting landmarks, or fe
atures, from an image of the subject's face. For example, an algorithm may analy
ze the relative position, size, and/or shape of the eyes, nose, cheekbones, and
jaw. These features are then used to search for other images with matching featu
res.[2] Other algorithms normalize a gallery of face images and then compress th
e face data, only saving the data in the image that is useful for face detection
. A probe image is then compared with the face data.[3] One of the earliest, suc
cessful systems[4] is based on template matching techniques[5] applied to a set
of salient facial features, providing a sort of compressed face representation.
Recognition algorithms can be divided into two main approaches, geometric, which
looks at distinguishing features or photometric, which is a statistical approac
h that distill an image into values and comparing the values with templates to e
liminate variances.
Popular recognition algorithms include Principal Component Analysis which eigenf
ace, Linear Discriminate Analysis, Elastic Bunch Graph Matching fisherface, the
Hidden Markov model, and the neuronal motivated dynamic link matching.
[edit] 3-D
A newly emerging trend, claimed to achieve previously unseen accuracies, is thre
e-dimensional face recognition. This technique uses 3-D sensors to capture infor
mation about the shape of a face. This information is then used to identify dist
inctive features on the surface of a face, such as the contour of the eye socket
s, nose, and chin.[6]
One advantage of 3-D facial recognition is that it is not affected by changes in
lighting like other techniques. It can also identify a face from a range of vie
wing angles, including a profile view.[2][6]
Even a perfect 3D matching technique could be sensitive to expressions. For that
goal a group at the Technion applied tools from metric geometry to treat expres
sions as isometries[7]
[edit] Skin texture analysis
Another emerging trend uses the visual details of the skin, as captured in stand
ard digital or scanned images. This technique, called skin texture analysis, tur
ns the unique lines, patterns, and spots apparent in a person s skin into a mathem
atical space.[2]
Tests have shown that with the addition of skin texture analysis, performance in
recognizing faces can increase 20 to 25 percent.[2][6]
[edit] Software
Google's Picasa digital image organizer has a built in face recognition system s
tarting from version 3.5 onwards. It can associate faces with persons, so that q
ueries can be run on pictures to return all pictures with a specific group of pe
ople together. Picasaweb.com has also been providing a similar feature to its us
ers.
Apple iPhoto, photo organizer distributed with iLife suite of applications inclu
des a system using which people can tag recognized people on photos. Then they c
an be searched using Spotlight.
Sony's Picture Motion Browser (PMB) analyses photo, associates photos with ident
ical faces so that they can be tagged accordingly, and differentiates between ph
otos with one person, many persons and nobody.
[edit] Notable users and deployments
The London Borough of Newham, in the UK, previously trialled a facial recognitio
n system built into their borough-wide CCTV system.
The German Federal Police use a facial recognition system to allow voluntary sub
scribers to pass fully automated border controls at Frankfurt Rhein-Main interna
tional airport. Subscribers need to be European Union or Swiss citizens.[citatio
n needed] Since 2005 the German Federal Criminal Police Office offers centralize
d facial recognition on mugshot images for all German police agencies. Recogniti
on systems are also used by casinos to catch card counters and other blacklisted
individuals.
The Australian Customs Service has an automated border processing system called
SmartGate that uses facial recognition. The system compares the face of the indi
vidual with the image in the e-passport microchip, certifying that the holder of
the passport is the rightful owner.
Pennsylvania Justice Network searches crime scene photographs and CCTV footage i
n the mugshot database of previous arrests. A number of cold cases have been res
olved since the system became operational in 2005. Other law enforcement agencie
s in the USA and abroad use arrest mugshot databases in their forensic investiga
tive work.
U.S. Department of State operates one of the largest face recognition systems in
the world with over 75 million photographs that is actively used for visa proce
ssing.
Spaceship Earth in Epcot uses this for the touch screen part of the ride.
[edit] Additional uses
In addition to being used for security systems, authorities have found a number
of other applications for facial recognition systems. While earlier post 9/11 de
ployments were well publicized trials, more recent deployments are rarely writte
n about due to their covert nature.
At Super Bowl XXXV in January 2001, police in Tampa Bay, Florida, used Identix fa
cial recognition software, FaceIt, to search for potential criminals and terrori
sts in attendance at the event.[2] (it found 19 people with pending arrest warra
nts)[8]
In the 2000 presidential election, the Mexican government employed facial recogn
ition software to prevent voter fraud. Some individuals had been registering to
vote under several different names, in an attempt to place multiple votes. By co
mparing new facial images to those already in the voter database, authorities we
re able to reduce duplicate registrations.[9] Similar technologies are being use
d in the United States to prevent people from obtaining fake identification card
s and driver s licenses.[10][11]
There are also a number of potential uses for facial recognition that are curren
tly being developed. For example, the technology could be used as a security mea
sure at ATM s; instead of using a bank card or personal identification number, the
ATM would capture an image of your face, and compare it to your photo in the ba
nk database to confirm your identity. This same concept could also be applied to
computers; by using a webcam to capture a digital image of yourself, your face
could replace your password as a means to log-in.[2]
As part of the investigation of the disappearance of Madeleine McCann the Britis
h police are calling on visitors to the Ocean Club Resort, Praia da Luz in Portu
gal or the surrounding areas in the two weeks leading up to the child's disappea
rance on Thursday 3 May 2007 to provide copies of any photographs of people take
n during their stay, in an attempt to identify the abductor using a biometric fa
cial recognition application.[12][13]
Also, in addition to biometric usages, modern digital cameras often incorporate
a facial detection system that allows the camera to focus and measure exposure o
n the face of the subject, thus guaranteeing a focused portrait of the person be
ing photographed; some cameras, in addition, incorporate a smile shutter, or tak
e automatically a second picture if someone closed the eyes during exposure.
[edit] Comparative study
Among the different biometric techniques, facial recognition may not be the most
reliable and efficient. However, one key advantage is that it does not require
aid (or consent) from the test subject. Properly designed systems installed in a
irports, multiplexes, and other public places can identify individuals among the
crowd. Other biometrics like fingerprints, iris scans, and speech recognition c
annot perform this kind of mass identification. However, questions have been rai
sed on the effectiveness of facial recognition software in cases of railway and
airport security.
[edit] Criticisms
[edit] Weaknesses
Face recognition is not perfect and struggles to perform under certain condition
s. Ralph Gross, a researcher at the Carnegie Mellon Robotics Institute, describe
s one obstacle related to the viewing angle of the face: "Face recognition has b
een getting pretty good at full frontal faces and 20 degrees off, but as soon as
you go towards profile, there've been problems."[6]
Other conditions where face recognition does not work well include poor lighting
, sunglasses, long hair, or other objects partially covering the subject s face, a
nd low resolution images.[2]
Another serious disadvantage is that many systems are less effective if facial e
xpressions vary. Even a big smile can render in the system less effective. For i
nstance: Canada now allows only neutral facial expressions in passport photos.[1
4]
This section requires expansion.
[edit] Effectiveness
Critics of the technology complain that the London Borough of Newham scheme has,
as of 2004[update], never recognized a single criminal, despite several crimina
ls in the system's database living in the Borough and the system having been run
ning for several years. "Not once, as far as the police know, has Newham's autom
atic facial recognition system spotted a live target."[15][16] This information
seems to conflict with claims that the system was credited with a 34% reduction
in crime - which better explains why the system was then rolled out to Birmingha
m also.[17]
An experiment by the local police department in Tampa, Florida, had similarly di
sappointing results.[18]
"Camera technology designed to spot potential terrorists by their facial charact
eristics at airports failed its first major test at Boston's Logan Airport"[19]
Safehouse International Limited, an Australian company, patented a software incl
uding iMotion and iCount systems. The company claimed this systems were able to
track moving people and calculate the number of people in a crowd. After 9/11, t
he software was considered commercially attractive by the US administration[20]. I
t was later revealed by David Mapley, a US shareholder of Safehouse Internationa
l Limited) that the software actually never worked[20].
[edit] Privacy concerns
Many citizens are concerned that their privacy will be invaded. Some fear that i
t could lead to a total surveillance society, with the government and other author
ities having the ability to know where you are, and what you are doing, at all t
imes. This is not to be an underestimated concept as history has shown that stat
es have typically abused such access before.[21]
[edit] Recent Improvements
In 2006, the performance of the latest face recognition algorithms were evaluate
d in the Face Recognition Grand Challenge (FRGC). High-resolution face images, 3
-D face scans, and iris images were used in the tests. The results indicated tha
t the new algorithms are 10 times more accurate than the face recognition algori
thms of 2002 and 100 times more accurate than those of 1995. Some of the algorit
hms were able to outperform human participants in recognizing faces and could un
iquely identify identical twins.[6]
Low-resolution images of faces can be enhanced using face hallucination. Further
improvements in high resolution, megapixel cameras in the last few years have h
elped to resolve the issue of insufficient resolution.
[edit] Early development
Pioneers of Automated Facial Recognition include: Woody Bledsoe, Helen Chan Wolf
, and Charles Bisson.
During 1964 and 1965, Bledsoe, along with Helen Chan and Charles Bisson, worked
on using the computer to recognize human faces (Bledsoe 1966a, 1966b; Bledsoe an
d Chan 1965). He was proud of this work, but because the funding was provided by
an unnamed intelligence agency that did not allow much publicity, little of the
work was published. Given a large database of images (in effect, a book of mug
shots) and a photograph, the problem was to select from the database a small set
of records such that one of the image records matched the photograph. The succe
ss of the method could be measured in terms of the ratio of the answer list to t
he number of records in the database. Bledsoe (1966a) described the following di
fficulties:
This recognition problem is made difficult by the great variability in head rota
tion and tilt, lighting intensity and angle, facial expression, aging, etc. Some
other attempts at facial recognition by machine have allowed for little or no v
ariability in these quantities. Yet the method of correlation (or pattern matchi
ng) of unprocessed optical data, which is often used by some researchers, is cer
tain to fail in cases where the variability is great. In particular, the correla
tion is very low between two pictures of the same person with two different head
rotations.
Woody Bledsoe, 1966

This project was labeled man-machine because the human extracted the coordinates
of a set of features from the photographs, which were then used by the computer
for recognition. Using a graphics tablet (GRAFACON or RAND TABLET), the operato
r would extract the coordinates of features such as the center of pupils, the in
side corner of eyes, the outside corner of eyes, point of widows peak, and so on
. From these coordinates, a list of 20 distances, such as width of mouth and wid
th of eyes, pupil to pupil, were computed. These operators could process about 4
0 pictures an hour. When building the database, the name of the person in the ph
otograph was associated with the list of computed distances and stored in the co
mputer. In the recognition phase, the set of distances was compared with the cor
responding distance for each photograph, yielding a distance between the photogr
aph and the database record. The closest records are returned.
This brief description is an oversimplification that fails in general because it
is unlikely that any two pictures would match in head rotation, lean, tilt, and
scale (distance from the camera). Thus, each set of distances is normalized to
represent the face in a frontal orientation. To accomplish this normalization, t
he program first tries to determine the tilt, the lean, and the rotation. Then,
using these angles, the computer undoes the effect of these transformations on t
he computed distances. To compute these angles, the computer must know the three
-dimensional geometry of the head. Because the actual heads were unavailable, Bl
edsoe (1964) used a standard head derived from measurements on seven heads.
After Bledsoe left PRI in 1966, this work was continued at the Stanford Research
Institute, primarily by Peter Hart. In experiments performed on a database of o
ver 2000 photographs, the computer consistently outperformed humans when present
ed with the same recognition tasks (Bledsoe 1968). Peter Hart (1996) enthusiasti
cally recalled the project with the exclamation, "It really worked!"
By about 1997, the system developed by Christoph von der Malsburg and graduate s
tudents of the University of Bochum in Germany and the University of Southern Ca
lifornia in the United States outperformed most systems with those of Massachuse
tts Institute of Technology and the University of Maryland rated next. The Bochu
m system was developed through funding by the United States Army Research Labora
tory. The software was sold as ZN-Face and used by customers such as Deutsche Ba
nk and operators of airports and other busy locations. The software was "robust
enough to make identifications from less-than-perfect face views. It can also of
ten see through such impediments to identification as mustaches, beards, changed
hair styles and glasses even sunglasses".[22]
In about January 2007, image searches were "based on the text surrounding a phot
o," for example, if text nearby mentions the image content. Polar Rose technolog
y can guess from a photograph, in about 1.5 seconds, what any individual may loo
k like in three dimensions, and thought they "will ask users to input the names
of people they recognize in photos online" to help build a database.[citation ne
eded]
[edit] See also
Automatic number plate recognition
Biometric technology in access control
Eigenface
Computer vision
Face perception
Face detection
MALINTENT
Mass surveillance
Pattern recognition, analogy and case-based reasoning
Template matching
Three-dimensional face recognition

------------------------------------------------------
Definition
Humans are very good at recognizing faces and if computers complex patterns. Eve
n a passage of time doesn't affect this capability and therefore it would help b
ecome as robust as humans in face recognition. Machine recognition of human face
s from still or video images has attracted a great deal of attention in the psyc
hology, image processing, pattern recognition, neural science, computer security
, and computer vision communities. Face recognition is probably one of the most
non-intrusive and user-friendly biometric authentication methods currently avail
able; a screensaver equipped with face recognition technology can automatically
unlock the screen whenever the authorized user approaches the computer.

Face is an important part of who we are and how people identify us. It is arguab
ly a person's most unique physical characteristic. While humans have had the inn
ate ability to recognize and distinguish different faces for millions of years,
computers are just now catching up.
Visionics, a company based in New Jersey, is one of many developers of facial re
cognition technology. The twist to its particular software, FaceIt, is that it c
an pick someone's face out of a crowd, extract that face from the rest of the sc
ene and compare it to a database full of stored images. In order for this softwa
re to work, it has to know what a basic face looks like. Facial recognition soft
ware is designed to pinpoint a face and measure its features. Each face has cert
ain distinguishable landmarks, which make up the different facial features. Thes
e landmarks are referred to as nodal points. There are about 80 nodal points on
a human face. Here are a few of the nodal points that are measured by the softwa
re:

Distance between eyes


" Width of nose
" Depth of eye sockets
" Cheekbones
" Jaw line
" Chin
These nodal points are measured to create a numerical code, a string of numbers
that represents the face in a database. This code is called a faceprint. Only 14
to 22 nodal points are needed for the FaceIt software to complete the recogniti
on process.

Software
Facial recognition software falls into a larger group of technologies known as b
iometrics. Biometrics uses biological information to verify identity. The basic
idea behind biometrics is that our bodies contain unique properties that can be
used to distinguish us from others. Besides facial recognition, biometric authen
tication methods also include:

" Fingerprint scan


" Retina scan
" Voice identification

Facial recognition methods generally involve a series of steps that serve to cap
ture, analyze and compare a face to a database of stored images. The basic proce
sses used by the FaceIt system to capture and compare images are:
Detection - When the system is attached to a video surveillance system, the reco
gnition software searches the field of view of a video camera for faces. If ther
e is a face in the view, it is detected within a fraction of a second. A multi-s
cale algorithm is used to search for faces in low resolution. The system switche
s to a high-resolution search only after a head-like shape is detected.
2. Alignment - Once a face is detected, the system determines the head's positio
n, size and pose. A face needs to be turned at least 35 degrees toward the camer
a for the system to register it.
3. Normalization -The image of the head is scaled and rotated so that it can be
registered and mapped into an appropriate size and pose. Normalization is perfor
med regardless of the head's location and distance from the camera. Light does n
ot impact the normalization process.
4. Representation - The system translates the facial data into a unique code. Th
is coding process allows for easier comparison of the newly acquired facial data
to stored facial data.
5. Matching - The newly acquired facial data is compared to the stored data and
(ideally) linked to at least one stored facial representation.

In 2001, the Tampa Police Department installed police cameras equipped with faci
al recognition technology in their Ybor City nightlife district in an attempt to
cut down on crime in the area. The system failed to do the job, and it was scra
pped in 2003 due to ineffectiveness. People in the area were seen wearing masks
and making obscene gestures, prohibiting the cameras from getting a clear enough
shot to identify anyone.
Boston's Logan Airport also ran two separate tests of facial recognition systems
at its security checkpoints using volunteers. Over a three month period, the re
sults were disappointing. According to the Electronic Privacy Information Center
, the system only had a 61.4 percent accuracy rate, leading airport officials to
pursue other security options.
Humans have always had the innate ability to recognize and distinguish between f
aces, yet computers only recently have shown the same ability. In the mid 1960s,
scientists began work on using the computer to recognize human faces. Since the
n, facial recognition software has come a long way.
----------------------------------------------------
Facial Recognition Technology
Photo © Identix Inc.
FaceIt software compares the faceprint with other images in the database. Identix®,
a company based in Minnesota, is one of many developers of facial recognition t
echnology. Its software, FaceIt®, can pick someone's face out of a crowd, extract
the face from the rest of the scene and compare it to a database of stored image
s. In order for this software to work, it has to know how to differentiate betwe
en a basic face and the rest of the background. Facial recognition software is b
ased on the ability to recognize a face and then measure the various features of
the face.
Every face has numerous, distinguishable landmarks, the different peaks and vall
eys that make up facial features. FaceIt defines these landmarks as nodal points
. Each human face has approximately 80 nodal points. Some of these measured by t
he software are:
Distance between the eyes
Width of the nose
Depth of the eye sockets
The shape of the cheekbones
The length of the jaw line
These nodal points are measured creating a numerical code, called a faceprint, r
epresenting the face in the database.
In the past, facial recognition software has relied on a 2D image to compare or
identify another 2D image from the database. To be effective and accurate, the i
mage captured needed to be of a face that was looking almost directly at the cam
era, with little variance of light or facial expression from the image in the da
tabase. This created quite a problem.
In most instances the images were not taken in a controlled environment. Even th
e smallest changes in light or orientation could reduce the effectiveness of the
system, so they couldn't be matched to any face in the database, leading to a h
igh rate of failure. In the next section, we will look at ways to correct the pr
oblem.
----------------------------------
Biometric Facial Recognition
The image may not always be verified or identified in facial recognition alone.
Identix® has created a new product to help with precision. The development of Face
It®Argus uses skin biometrics, the uniqueness of skin texture, to yield even more
accurate results.

The surface texture analysis (STA) algorithm operates on the top percentage of r
esults as determined by the local feature analysis. STA creates a skinprint and
performs either a 1:1 or 1:N match depending on whether you're looking for verif
ication or identification.
The process, called Surface Texture Analysis, works much the same way facial rec
ognition does. A picture is taken of a patch of skin, called a skinprint. That p
atch is then broken up into smaller blocks. Using algorithms to turn the patch i
nto a mathematical, measurable space, the system will then distinguish any lines
, pores and the actual skin texture. It can identify differences between identic
al twins, which is not yet possible using facial recognition software alone. Acc
ording to Identix, by combining facial recognition with surface texture analysis
, accurate identification can increase by 20 to 25 percent.
FaceIt currently uses three different templates to confirm or identify the subje
ct: vector, local feature analysis and surface texture analysis.
The vector template is very small and is used for rapid searching over the entir
e database primarily for one-to-many searching.
The local feature analysis (LFA) template performs a secondary search of ordered
matches following the vector template.
The surface texture analysis (STA) is the largest of the three. It performs a fi
nal pass after the LFA template search, relying on the skin features in the imag
e, which contains the most detailed information.
By combining all three templates, FaceIt® has an advantage over other systems. It
is relatively insensitive to changes in expression, including blinking, frowning
or smiling and has the ability to compensate for mustache or beard growth and t
he appearance of eyeglasses. The system is also uniform with respect to race and
gender.

Photo © Identix Inc.


Poor lighting can make it more difficult for facial recognition software to veri
fy or identify someone.

However, it is not a perfect system. There are some factors that could get in th
e way of recognition, including:
Significant glare on eyeglasses or wearing sunglasses
Long hair obscuring the central part of the face
Poor lighting that would cause the face to be over- or under-exposed
Lack of resolution (image was taken too far away)
Identix isn't the only company with facial recognition systems available. While
most work the same way FaceIt does, there are some variations. For example, a co
mpany called Animetrix, Inc. has a product called FACEngine ID® SetLight that can
correct lighting conditions that cannot normally be used, reducing the risk of f
alse matches. Sensible Vision, Inc. has a product that can secure a computer usi
ng facial recognition. The computer will only power on and stay accessible as lo
ng as the correct user is in front of the screen. Once the user moves out of the
line of sight, the computer is automatically secured from other users.
Due to these strides in technology, facial and skin recognition systems are more
widely used than just a few years ago. In the next section, we'll look at where
and how they are being used and what's in store for the future.
-------------------------------------------
3D Facial Recognition
Photo © A4Vision, Inc.
The Vision 3D + 2D ICAO camera is used to perform enrollment, verification and i
dentification of 3D and 2D face images.
A newly-emerging trend in facial recognition software uses a 3D model, which cla
ims to provide more accuracy. Capturing a real-time 3D image of a person's facia
l surface, 3D facial recognition uses distinctive features of the face -- where
rigid tissue and bone is most apparent, such as the curves of the eye socket, no
se and chin -- to identify the subject. These areas are all unique and don't cha
nge over time.
Using depth and an axis of measurement that is not affected by lighting, 3D faci
al recognition can even be used in darkness and has the ability to recognize a s
ubject at different view angles with the potential to recognize up to 90 degrees
(a face in profile).
Using the 3D software, the system goes through a series of steps to verify the i
dentity of an individual.
Detection
Acquiring an image can be accomplished by digitally scanning an existing photogr
aph (2D) or by using a video image to acquire a live picture of a subject (3D).
Alignment
Once it detects a face, the system determines the head's position, size and pose
. As stated earlier, the subject has the potential to be recognized up to 90 deg
rees, while with 2D, the head must be turned at least 35 degrees toward the came
ra.
Measurement
The system then measures the curves of the face on a sub-millimeter (or microwav
e) scale and creates a template.

Representation
The system translates the template into a unique code. This coding gives each te
mplate a set of numbers to represent the features on a subject's face.
Matching
If the image is 3D and the database contains 3D images, then matching will take
place without any changes being made to the image. However, there is a challenge
currently facing databases that are still in 2D images. 3D provides a live, mov
ing variable subject being compared to a flat, stable image. New technology is a
ddressing this challenge. When a 3D image is taken, different points (usually th
ree) are identified. For example, the outside of the eye, the inside of the eye
and the tip of the nose will be pulled out and measured. Once those measurements
are in place, an algorithm (a step-by-step procedure) will be applied to the im
age to convert it to a 2D image. After conversion, the software will then compar
e the image with the 2D images in the database to find a potential match.
Verification or Identification
In verification, an image is matched to only one image in the database (1:1). Fo
r example, an image taken of a subject may be matched to an image in the Departm
ent of Motor Vehicles database to verify the subject is who he says he is. If id
entification is the goal, then the image is compared to all images in the databa
se resulting in a score for each potential match (1:N). In this instance, you ma
y take an image and compare it to a database of mug shots to identify who the su
bject is.
Next, we'll look at how skin biometrics can help verify matches.
----------------------
Facial Recognition Systems Uses
In the past, the primary users of facial recognition software have been law enfo
rcement agencies, who used the system to capture random faces in crowds. Some go
vernment agencies have also been using the systems for security and to eliminate
voter fraud. The U.S. government has recently begun a program called US-VISIT (
United States Visitor and Immigrant Status Indicator Technology), aimed at forei
gn travelers gaining entry to the United States. When a foreign traveler receive
s his visa, he will submit fingerprints and have his photograph taken. The finge
rprints and photograph are checked against a database of known criminals and sus
pected terrorists. When the traveler arrives in the United States at the port of
entry, those same fingerprints and photographs will be used to verify that the
person who received the visa is the same person attempting to gain entry.
However, there are now many more situations where the software is becoming popul
ar. As the systems become less expensive, making their use more widespread. They
are now compatible with cameras and computers that are already in use by banks
and airports. The TSA is currently working on and testing out its Registered Tra
veler program. The program will provide speedy security screening for passengers
who volunteer information and complete a security threat assessment. At the air
port there will be specific lines for the Registered Traveler to go through that
will move more quickly, verifying the traveler by their facial features.