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Pacific Science Review, Vol. 11, no. 1, 2009, pp.


Effect of Thermal Nonlinearity on Gaussian Beam

Profile in Fabry-Perot Resonator
A. V. Panov*

Abstract: The steady-state transmission of a gaussian beam through Fabry-Perot resonator containing liquid medium
with the negative temperature nonlinearity is investigated numerically. It is shown that depending on the optical and
geometric parameters of the resonator the system of rings, not connected with the transverse interference, can appear
and it is possible observation of multistability.

Keywords: nonlinear Fabry-Perot cavity, gaussian beam, optical thermal nonlinearity

The theoretical studies of the multistability For values of the reflectance at the boundaries of the
phenomena in Fabry-Perot resonators are as a rule Fabry-Perot cavity R ≤ 0.3 at normal incidence of the
limited to the examination of the plane wave inside the pumping beam tranverse interference weakly effect on
resonator [1–5]. However, the analysis of the influence the gaussian beam profile [9], therefore in that case it
of the temperature dependence of the refractive index of can be neglected. According to Ref. [10] the intensity of
internal medium on the light transmission requires coherent monochromatic radiation inside a nonlinear
abandon of this approximation. As a rule, the Fabry-Perot resonator I res in the absence transverse
fundamental mode of the laser light, pumping the interference can be found by using the equation
resonator takes the form of the gaussian beam, with the
dependence of the electric field amplitude E on the ⎧⎪ ⎡ n% I ⎤ ⎫⎪
distance from the center of the beam r taking the form: I in = I res 1 − R exp ⎨ ⎢ 2 res + 2 ⎥ dk0 i ⎬ , (2)
⎪⎩ ⎣ 2n0 ⎦ ⎪⎭
E (r ) = E0 exp ( −r 2 /w02 ) ,
where I in is the intensity of radiation passed into the
where E0 is the electrical field amplitude at the center interferometer, R is reflectances of the resonator
of the beam, w0 is the waist size. mirrors which are assumed equal for both the mirrors,
It was shown in Refs. [6,7] that in the nonlinear d is a distance between the mirrors, k0 is wave number
Fabry-Perot resonator with reflectance of its mirrors in vacuum, n%2 is nonlinear part of the refractive index.
close to 1 and for the large intensities and nonlinearities Then the intensity of the light transmitted through the
oscillation and the chaotic behavior of the irradiance can cavity I out = I res (1 − R ) . We can use the nonlinear term
occur. Therefore it makes sense to examine nonlinear
resonators with the small values of reflectance of the in Eq. (1) as n%2 I res providing that distortion of the beam
mirrors as possessing more stable properties. shape contributed by the thermal nonlinearity is not very
Steady-state distribution of the refractive index n , large.
caused by the gaussian beam spreading through the Assuming n%2 I res n0 << 1 and for real values of n%2
liquid medium with thermal optical nonlinearity have we can expand the right-hand side of Eq. (2) into a series
been obtained in [8]: in terms of n%2 up to third degree:
dn ⎡ ⎛ 2r 2 ⎞ ⎛ 2a 2 ⎞ r⎤
n(r ) = n0 + A ⎢ Ei ⎜ − 2 ⎟ − Ei ⎜ − 2 ⎟ − 2 ln ⎥ , (1) I in = (1 − 2 R cos ( 2dk0 ) + R 2 ) I res +
dT ⎢⎣ ⎝ w0 ⎠ ⎝ w0 ⎠ a ⎥⎦
k0 dn%2 I res R
where A is proportional to the power transferred by the 2
⎡⎣sin ( 2dk0 ) Re n0 + ( R − cos ( 2dk0 ) ) Im n0 ⎤⎦ +
beam and inversely proportional to the thermal
( k0 dn%2 )
conduction of the medium, a is distance from the 3
I res R
+ ⎡cos ( 2dk )( Re n0 )2 +
center of the beam where the temperature becomes
4 n0
4 ⎣
equal to ambient temperature, n0 is unperturbed index
2sin ( 2dk0 ) Re n0 Im n0 + ( 2 R − cos ( 2dk0 ) ) ( Im n0 ) ⎤ .
of refraction inside the cavity medium, Ei is integral ⎦
exponential function.
Institute for automation and control processes, Russia

A. V. Panov : Effect of Thermal Nonlinearity on Gaussian Beam Profile in Fabry-Perot Resonator

Fig. 1. Dependence of the transmitted radiation I out on

the distance from the center of the beam for Fig. 2. Transmitted irradiance I out as a function of the
different values of the reflectance R . distance from the center of the beam for
n2 = −1 ⋅10−14 CGS units, d = 1 mm, I max is the n2 = −1 ⋅10−13 CGS units.
radiation intensity pumping the resonator at the
center of the beam. Line I in displays the
distribution of radiation intensity, entered into
the ..cavity.

Fig. 3. Transmitted irradiance I out as a function of the Fig. 4. Transmitted irradiance I out as a function of the
distance from the center of the beam for distance from the center of the beam for
n2 = −1 ⋅10−12 CGS units. n2 = −1 ⋅10−10 CGS units. The inset displays the

Solutions of the cubic equation (3) for I res are productions I in n%2 dk0 :
excessively cumbersome to be presented in the paper,
I res = I in f ( I in n%2 k0 d ) . (4)
however, their analysis shows that the dependence of
I res on I in and n%2 appears in them in the form of It is to be noted that I res also depends on k0 d as

Pacific Science Review, Vol. 11, no. 1, 2009, pp. 1~4

Fig. 5. Transmitted irradiance I out as a function of the Fig. 6. Transmitted light intensity I out as a funtion of
distance from the center of the beam for incident irradiance I in for Fabry-Perot cavity with
n2 = −1 ⋅10−8 CGS units. the plane front of wave.

arguments of trigonometric functions (see Eq. (3)). values of I res : 0.171 and 0.244 W/cm 2 .
Numerical calculations show that the relationship (4) is We can see from the figures the temperature
correct not only for the case of the applicability of the nonlinearity of the refractive index causes a change of
expansion (3). the transmitted radiation profile. Due to
We can calculate the dependence of radiation above-mentioned limitation of light intensity “band
transmitted through the cavity on the distance from the gaps” may arise and hence set of rings in the transmitted
center of the beam substituting the refractive index from light may appear. We should emphasize that under
(1) to the Eq. (2). In so doing we must keep in mind that
certain parameters (to a greater extent for n2 > 0 ) the
the equation (2) may have several solutions for a single
I in (multistability phenomenon [10]). As this takes multistability is observed (ambiguity of the transmitted
radiation intensity for a single value of r ). The graphs
place it may be I in < I res and such non-physical show the presence of rings and different levels of
solutions should be dropped out. intensity in the case of multistability as line breaks.
The results of the calculations for the cavity filled by As can be seen from the Fig. 2 an increase in n2 or,
medium having n0 = 1.4 + 0.1i and for the intensity of more generally, I in n%2 k0 d distorts the beam shape at first
light transmitted into the resonator in the center of the
in its center as a gap. Further increase in I in n%2 k0 d leads
beam 100 W/cm 2 , w0 = 5 µ m, a = 10w0 and a
to the displacement of the region of multistability to the
wavelength of 633 nm are presented in figures 1–5 (here beam periphery (Figs. 3, 4). From Fig. 5 we notice that
dn A the beam shape again becomes close to the gaussian, but
n2 = ). In the case of multistability observation
dT I res with other values of intensity in comparison with the
only the maximum and minimum values of I out are linear resonator. This behavior can be clarified by the
example of the plot of the dependence of the output
depicted in the figures. We can illustrate the method of intensity of Fabry-Perot resonator on incident irradiance
solution selection by the following example: for the for the plane wave. At small intensities the lower branch
cavity with n2 = 1 ⋅10−12 CGS units, R = 0.3 , d = 1 of the curve in Fig. 6 is operating. With the increase of
mm at the distance r/w0 = 0.62 from the beam center I in it occurs a change-over to the upper branch of the
equations (1), (2) give three solutions for I res : 0.171, curve in plot 6. Since in the center of beam intensity is
greater than at its periphery, the switching happens here
0.194, 0.244 W/cm 2 , while I in = 0.461 W/cm 2 . The
at lower values of I in n%2 k0 d . In the monotonic portions
second of these three solutions (0.194 W/cm 2 ) is
of the function in Fig. 6 beam shape almost has not
unstable. Thus for a given value of r it can exist two

A. V. Panov : Effect of Thermal Nonlinearity on Gaussian Beam Profile in Fabry-Perot Resonator

distortions. Pure and Applied Optics: Journal of the European

Summarizing we note that the thermal nonlinearity Optical Society Part A, 2(5):515–538. 1993.
of medium contained in Fabry-Perot cavity can give rise [5] S. M. Zakharov, “Bistable transmission by a
to optical multistability as well as to the rings of Fabry-Perot interferometer filled by a medium
transmitted irradiance which are not related to characterised by active and reactive
transverse interference. nonlinearities.” Quantum Electronics, 24(1):56–58.
[6] K. Ikeda, H. Daido, and O. Akimoto, “Optical
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