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Project No. – 7: Study of HVDC back-to-back coupling shemes with case study of Vindhyachal Grid
Rashmi jain, Saurabh Saxena & Vaseem Ahmad Mansuree

Project No. – 7
Submitted as a
Major Project for the
Degree of Bachelor of Engineering
Year 2005-2006

Guided by: Submitted by:

Miss Madhu Gupta Rashmi Jain
Saurabh Saxena
Vaseem Mansuree

Department of Electrical Engineering


Major Project
A Dissertation submitted to
Rajiv Gandhi Proudyogiki Vishwavidhyalaya, Bhopal
towards partial fulfillment of the
Degree of Bachelor of Engineering
Electrical Engineering
Year 2005-2006

Guided by: Submitted by:

Miss Madhu Gupta Rashmi Jain
Saurabh Saxena
Vaseem Mansuree

Department of Electrical Engineering


& ( 5 7 ,) ,& $ 7 ( 

This is to certify that Miss Rashmi Jain (0802EE033D06), Mr. Saurabh Saxena
(0802EE021050) & Mr. Vaseem Ahmad Mansuree (0802EE021054) students of Final
Year (VIII Semester), Electrical Engineering Branch, working in a group have successfully
completed the required work for this semester for the major project no. 7 titled “STUDY
VINDHYACHAL GRID”. This project work is a part of the syllabus prescribed by
R.G.P.V. under the subject “Major Project” for the academic year 2005-06.

Project Guide Head of Department

Internal Examiner External Examiner

Department of Electrical Engineering

0( 1 7 6

No great tasks can be completed successfully without suitable functional
environment and proper guidance. We are thankful to the board of education for
giving us a chance to apply our theoretical knowledge to develop practical skills
through this project.
We feel immense pleasure and deep feeling of gratitude towards Miss
Madhu Gupta (Lecturer, Department of Electrical Engineering) for encouraging us
in choosing this project and guiding us with constructive and valuable suggestions
and constant motivation, which not merely helped but enabled us to complete the
report. We express our gratitude towards Proff. R. N. Paul (HOD, Electrical
Engineering Department) for his guidance and timely advice for the preparation of
the report.
We are also thankful to Mr. M. C. Sahu (D.G.M., HVDC BTB
Vindhyachal, PGCIL), Mr. A. K. Pandey (Manager, HVDC BTB, Vindhyachal,
PGCIL), Mr. Praveen Ranjan (Dy. Manager, HVDC BTB, Vindhyachal, PGCIL)
for their guidance and providing functional environment during our visit to
Vindhyachal BTB station.
And finally heartfelt appreciation to all those persons, who were directly
and indirectly, helpful in completing this report.

Rashmi Jain
Saurabh Saxena
Vaseem Ahmad Mansuree

Page No.
1. Synopsis

1. Aim 1
2. Objectives 2
3. Introduction 3
3.1 Introduction to HVDC 3
3.2 HVDC scenario in India 4
3.3 Selection of voltage level for HVDC transmission 5
3.4 Cost structure of HVDC 7
3.5 HVDC connection schemes 8
4. EHV-AC versus HVDC 11
4.1 Technical considerations 11
4.2 Economical considerations 13
5. HVDC back to back interconnection 15
5.1 Significance 15
5.2 Overview of operation 15
6. Substation configuration 17
6.1 Converter bridge unit 18
6.2 Converter transformer 20
6.3 Smoothing reactor 23
6.4 Filters 23
6.5 Reactive power sources 24
6.6 Transmission medium 25
6.7 DC switchgear 25
6.8 Earth electrode 25
7. Future work to be done 26
8. Utility and application of the project 26
9. Conclusion 27
2. Introductions

3. Chapter 1: Converter analysis

1.1 Thyristor valve 30
1.1.1 General 30
1.1.2 Valve design consideration 30
1.1.3 Valve firing 31
1.1.4 Recent trends 32
1.2 Choice of converter configuration 32
1.2.1 Valve rating 33
1.2.2 Transformer rating 34
1.3 Analysis of Graetz circuit 34
1.3.1 General 34
1.3.2 Analysis without overlap 36
1.3.3 Analysis with overlap 40
1.3.4 Inversion 48
1.4 Steady state equivalent circuit 51

4. Chapter 2: HVDC control

2.1 Introduction 52
2.2 Principle of DC link control 52
2.2.1 Desired features of control 53
2.3 Voltage–current characteristics for HVDC converter 55
2.3.1 Individual characteristics 55
2.3.2 Combined characteristics 57
2.4 Basic control system 58
2.4.1 Firing angle control 59
2.4.2 Constant minimum ignition angle control 60
2.4.3 Constant current control 60
2.4.3 Constant extinction angle control 62
2.5 Master control 62
2.6 Higher level controllers 62
2.7 System control hierarchy 63
2.8 Reactive power control 64
2.8.1 Introduction 64
2.8.2 Steady state reactive power requirement 65
2.8.3 Sources of reactive power 70

5. Chapter 3: Harmonics and filters

3.1 Introduction 75
3.2 Generation of harmonics 77
3.2.1 Generation on AC side 77
3.2.2 Generation on DC side 77
3.3 Characteristic harmonics 78
3.3.1 Harmonics at no overlap 79
3.3.2 Harmonics with overlap 81
3.4 Non-Characteristic harmonics 83
3.4.1 Causes 83
3.4.2 Amplification 84
3.4.3 Consequences 84
3.5 Troubles caused by harmonics 84
3.6 Means of reducing harmonics 85
3.6.1 Increased pulse number 85
3.6.2 Application of filter 85
3.7 Filters 86
3.7.1 Purpose 86
3.7.2 Classification 86
3.7.3 Cost 87
3.7.4 AC filters 88
3.7.5 DC filters 89
6. Chapter 4: Converter faults and protection

4.1 Introduction 90
4.2 Converter Faults 90
4.2.1 General 90
4.2.2 Arc-back 91
4.2.3 Arc-through 92
4.2.4 Misfire 92
4.2.5 Quenching (current extinction) 92
4.2.6 Commutation failure 93
4.2.7 Short circuit in bridge 95
4.3 Protection 95
4.3.1 General 95
4.3.2 DC reactor 96
4.3.4 Voltage oscillations and valve dampers 96
4.3.5 Current oscillations and anode dampers 97

7. Chapter 5: Case study

5.1 Introduction 98
5.2 Location of Vindhyachal HVDC Back-to-Back station 98
5.3 Technical information and data 98
5.4 Nominal ratings 99
5.5 Single line diagram 100
5.6 Equipments 101
5.7.1 Converter transformer 101
5.7.2 Thyristor valve 103
5.7.3 Smoothing reactor 107
5.7.4 Filter and shunt bank 108
5.7 System control and auxiliary power 109
5.7.1 Control hierarchy 109
5.7.2 Control modes 109
5.7.3 Block control 110
7.7.4 Station level controller 111
5.8 Other auxiliaries 112
5.8.1 Valve cooling system 112
5.8.2 D.G. Set 113
5.8.3 PLCC Room 113
5.8.4 Battery Room 114
5.8.5 Battery Charging Room 114
5.8.6 Fire Fighting System 114
5.9 Operations and maintenance 115

8. Conclusions 116

9. Bibliography 117
Synopsis 1


Study and analysis of HVDC back-to-back coupling scheme &

case study of Vindhyachal HVDC back-to-back interconnection
between Western and Northern Regions.
Synopsis 2


¾ To understand the basic operation of HVDC interconnection.

¾ To study and analyze converter operation.
¾ To study the various design considerations of converter transformer
¾ To study the problem of harmonics during converter operation
¾ To analyze the operation of filters and smoothing reactor
¾ To study reactive power requirement and compensation schemes
adopted in HVDC
¾ To study and analyze the control parameters governing the
magnitude and direction of power flow.
¾ To Study the coupling scheme adopted at Vindhyachal back-to-back
interconnection between Northern region and Western region.

Synopsis 3

1. Introduction to HVDC
Early electric power distribution schemes used alternating-current
generators located near the customer's loads. As electric power use became
more widespread, the distances between loads and generating plant
increased. Since the flow of current through the distribution wires resulted in
a voltage drop, it became difficult to regulate the voltage at the extremities
of distribution circuits. A generator connected to a long ac transmission line
may become unstable and fall out of synchronization with a distant ac power
An HVDC transmission link may make it economically feasible to use
remote generation sites. HVDC transmissions make an important
contribution to controlling power transmissions, safeguarding stability and
containing disturbances.
In an HVDC transmission, electric power is taken from a three-phase
.AC network, converted to DC in a converter station, transmitted to the
receiving point by a cable or overhead line and then converted back to AC in
another converter station and injected into the receiving AC network. As the
conversion process is fully controlled, the transmitted power is not dictated
by impedances or phase angle differences, as is the case with AC.
The investment costs for HVDC converter stations are higher than for
high voltage AC substations. On the other hand, the costs of transmission
medium (overhead lines and cables), land acquisition/right-of-way costs are
lower in the HVDC case. Moreover, the operation and maintenance costs are
lower in the HVDC case. Initial loss levels are higher in the HVDC system,
but they do not vary with distance. In contrast, loss levels increase with
Synopsis 4

distance in a high voltage AC system. The following picture shows the cost
breakdown (shown with and without considering losses).

The breakeven distance depends on several factors, as transmission
medium (cable or OH line), different local aspects (permits, cost of local
labor etc.). When comparing high voltage AC with HVDC transmission, it
is important to compare a bipolar HVDC transmission to a double-circuit
high voltage AC transmission, especially when availability and reliability
is considered.
2. HVDC Scenario in India
In India, HVDC technology is new and presently only seven HVDC
links are under operation and two links are under construction. These are
Commissioned Projects
1. HVDC Back to Back station, Vindhyachal (Madhya Pradesh)
2*250 = 500 MW (Northern region and Western region)
2. HVDC Back to Back station, Sasaram (Bihar)
1*500 = 500 MW (Eastern Region and Northern Region)
3. HVDC Back to Back station, Vijag (Andhra Pradesh)
2*500 = 1000 MW (Southern region and Eastern region)
Synopsis 5

4. HVDC Back to Back station, Chandrepur (Maharashtra)
2*500 = 1000 MW (Western region and Southern region)
5. HVDC Bipolar line; Chandrapur (MH) to Padeghe (MH)
Ratings: ± 500 kV, 1500 MW, 850 km
6. HVDC bipolar line; Talser to Kollar (Karnataka)
Ratings: ± 500 kV, 2000 MW, 1700 km.
7. HVDC Bipolar Line; Rihand (UP) to Dadri (Delhi)
Ratings: ± 500 kV, 1500 MW, 800 km
Under Commissioning
8. HVDC Bipolar line : Baliya (UP) to Bhivadi
Ratings: ± 500 kV, 2000 MW, ~ 850 km
9. HVDC Bipolar line: Arunachal Pradesh to Agra (UP)
Ratings: ± 800 kV, 3500 MW, 2000 km
Synopsis 6

3. Selection of transmission voltage

Transmission voltage is selected taking into account the line cost and
converter cost. With the increase in voltage level, converter cost increases
gradually on account of increase in voltage rating while the line cost (which
is a function of many parameters) shows the characteristics as shown in
Optimum system voltage at which power can be transmitted most
economically is given by the minimum separation between the two curves.
That optimum system voltage may or may not be equal to the optimum line
voltage as shown in figure 3.

Synopsis 7

2. Cost Structure of HVDC

The cost of an HVDC transmission system depends on many factors,
such as power capacity to be transmitted, type of transmission medium,
environmental conditions and other safety, regulatory requirements etc.
Even when these are available, the options available for optimal design
(different commutation techniques, variety of filters, transformers etc.)
render it is difficult to give a cost figure for an HVDC system.
Nevertheless, a typical cost structure for the converter stations could
be as follows:

Synopsis 8


1. Monopolar Link
Monopolar HVDC system has only one conductor, usually of negative
polarity (pole) and return path is provided by permanent earth or sea. This
system is used only for low power transmission. Earth electrodes are
designed for continuous full-current operation and for overload capacity
required in the specific case.

2. Homopolar Link
Homopolar link has two or more conductors all having the same
polarity, usually negative; all operates with the ground return. In the event of
fault on one conductor, the entire converter is available for connection to the
remaining conductor or conductors, which have some overload capability,
can carry more than half of the rated, power and perhaps the whole rated
power, at the expense of increased line losses.
It has advantage of lower power loss due to corona and smaller radio
interference due to negative polarity.


Synopsis 9

3. Bipolar Link
Bipolar link has two conductors, one positive and other negative.
Each terminal has two converter of equal rated voltage. The neutral point of
one or both end is grounded. In the event of fault on one conductor, the other
conductor with ground return can carry up to the half of the rated load. The
voltage between poles is twice that of pole to earth voltage therefore its
typical rating can be expressed as 500 kV, 1500 MW.

4. HVDC Back-to-Back Coupling Scheme
HVDC coupling scheme is used for interconnection between
adjacent AC networks for the purpose of frequency conversion or for
asynchronous interconnection.

Rectifier and inverter are connected to form a DC closed loop. There
is no DC transmission line and DC smoothing reactor is connected to de
Synopsis 10

loop. Rectifier and inverter are installed in the same station. The exchange of
power can be controlled, both in direction and magnitude, without can be
controlled without transferring frequency disturbances.
5. Multi-terminal HVDC Scheme
Multi-terminal HVDC scheme is used for asynchronous
interconnection of two or more AC network. This scheme offers an effective
way of large power transfer along with improvement in system stability.

Synopsis 11


1. Technical Considerations
1.1 Stability of Transmission System
HVDC gives asynchronous tie and transient stability does not pose
any limit on power transfer. Line can be loaded up to thermal limit of the
line or valves. But in AC system to maintain its stability under transient
condition, it remains in synchronism.
1.2 Short Circuit Level
In AC transmission, when an existing AC system is interconnected
with another AC system, the fault level of both the system increases.
However, when both are interconnected by DC transmission, the short
circuit current is not increased so much as for DC line contributes no current
to an AC short circuit beyond its rated current.
1.3 Corona Losses and Radio Interference
For the same power transfer and same distance, the corona losses and
radio interference of DC system is less than that of AC system, as the
required dc insulation level is lower then corresponding ac insulation.
1.4 Line Loading
The permissible loading of an EHV-AC line is limited by transient
stability limit and line reactance to almost one third of thermal rating of
conductors, no such limit exists in case of HVDC lines.
1.5 Skin Effect
This is absent in dc current, as current density is uniformly distributed
across the cross-section of the conductor while the effective resistance in AC
conductor is increased due to skin effect.
Synopsis 12

1.6 Surge Impedance Loading

Long HVAC lines are loaded to less than 0.8 PN (Surge impedance
loading or natural loading of line). No such condition is imposed on HVDC
1.7 Voltage along the line
Long HVAC line has varying voltage along the line due to absorption
of reactive power. This line remains loaded below its thermal limit due to
the transient stability limit. Such problem does not arise in HVDC line and it
gives almost flat voltage profile.
1.8 Reactive power requirements
HVDC line does not need intermediate reactive power compensation
like in HVAC line but it requires reactive power at converter terminals. The
required reactive power varies with the transmitted power and is about 60 %
of the total active power transferred per converter station. Usually shunt
capacitors or synchronous condenser are installed for supplying reactive
1.9 Skin Effect
This is absent in DC and hence current density is uniformly
distributed across the cross section of the conductor, this leads to reduced
heating effect and optimum conductor utilization
1.10 Rapid power transfer
The control of converter valves permit rapid changes in magnitude
and direction of power flow. Limitation is imposed by power generation and
AC system. For AC line power per phase can be given as
Pac = {[ | V1 | . | V2 | ] Sin δ }/ X Watts / phase
Synopsis 13

The AC line can be loaded to transient stability limit which occurs at

δ=300 and given by,
Pac = { | V1 | . | V2 | } / 2 X Watts / phase
AC power cannot be changed easily, quickly and accurately as V1 and
V2 should kept around rated and δ can not be changed quickly, while power
flow through DC line can be given as
PDC = {Vd1 – Vd2}* Vd / R Watts / pole
By varying Vd1 and Vd2 by means of thyristor converter control and
tap changer control, PDC can be quickly, accurately and easily controlled.
Ramping rate (the rate at which magnitude of power transfer can be varied)
can be as high as 30 MW / minute.
1.11 Transmission through cables
DC transmission can be through underground or marine cables since
charging currents are taken only while energizing the DC link and are not
present continuously. In AC system, there is limit on length of cable
depending upon rated voltage. This limit is about 60 km for 145 kV, 40 km
for 245 kV and 25 km for 400 kV AC line.
2. Economical Considerations
2.1 Substation cost
Substation cost of HVDC is very high owing to costly terminal
equipments like converter, filters, converter transformer, complex control
equipments etc, while initial cost of HVDC terminal substation is very low.
2.2 Number of lines
HVAC needs at least two-three phase lines and generally more for
higher power. HVDC needs at maximum, only one bipolar line for majority
of application.
Synopsis 14

2.3 No of conductors
Bipolar HVDC transmission lines require two-pole conductors to
carry DC power. Hence HVDC transmission becomes economical over ac
transmission at long distance with the saving in overall conductor cost,
losses, towers etc.
2.4 Right of way
Right of way for DC line is low as compared to that of AC transmission
2.5 Cost of towers
More number of conductors require high tower strength to stand with
the mechanical forces and weight. This increases the cost of AC towers
while in case of DC tower has to carry only two lines and a compact
structure is sufficient.
Synopsis 15


1. Significance of HVDC back-to-back interconnection

Interconnections between grids are desirable because they not only
permit economies through the sharing of reserves, but they also make the
trading of electricity between grids possible. Interconnections allow power
consumers to benefit from generation at the site of lowest incremental cost.
On the downside, however, disturbances can easily spread from one area to

Major blackouts in recent years highlight the vulnerability of large AC

systems and have shown how relatively minor malfunctions can have
repercussions over wider areas. As one link overloads it is tripped,
increasing the strain on neighboring links, which in turn disconnect,
cascading blackouts over vast areas and causing huge productivity losses for
the economy.

HVDC back-to-back coupling scheme play a significant role in

interconnecting the power systems as it not only allows the precise and
reliable transfer of power but also prevent the frequency disturbances to
transfer from one system to another. A HVDC link can fully control
transmission but does not overload or propagate fault currents.
2. Overview of Operation
A back-to-back station is system for power transfer in which both
static inverters are in the same area, usually even in the same building and
the length of the direct current line is only a few meters. Figure 10 shows the
detailed schematic diagram of HVDC back to back coupling scheme,
main components of any such schemes are as follows:
Synopsis 16

• Converter
• Converter transformer
• Shunt compensators
• Smoothing reactor
• AC Filter

In an HVDC coupling scheme, electric power is taken from one grid
(three-phase AC network), converted to DC in a converter station, fed to the
receiving point (inverter) and then converted back to AC in another
converter station and injected into the receiving AC network. As the
conversion process is fully controlled, the transmitted power is not dictated
by impedances or phase angle difference, as is the case with AC. Earthing is
only for reference, it does not carry any direct current and there are no
problems of galvanic corrosion of substation earth and underground pipes,
structure etc.
Synopsis 17


At HVDC converter station, conversion from AC to DC (rectification)
or DC to AC (inversion) is performed. Role of rectifier and inverter can be
reversed using suitable converter control configuration.
A point to point transmission requires two converter stations. While In
a back-to-back station, both rectifier and inverter station are usually installed
in a single valve room with the converter transformer installed on either side
of valve room (Hall) and the DC bushings are taken indside the valve hall
for connection to the valves.

Figure 11 shows the typical arrangement of the converter substation.
One of the main components of a converter substation is the thyristor
converter, which is usually housed in a valve hall. As seen from figure, the
Synopsis 18

substation also essentially consists of converter transformers. These

transformers transform the ac system voltage based on the dc voltage
required by the converter. The secondary or dc side of the converter
transformers is connected to the converter bridges. The transformer is placed
outside the thyristor valve hall, and the connection has to be made through
the hall wall. This is accomplished in two ways: 1) with phase isolated bus
bars where the bus conductors are housed within insulated bus ducts with oil
or SF6 as the insulating medium, or 2) with wall bushings, and these require
care to avoid external or internal breakdown.
Filters are required on both ac and dc sides since the converters
generate harmonics. The filters are tuned based on the converter operation (6
or 12 pulse). DC reactors are included in each pole of the converter station.
These reactors assist the dc filters in filtering harmonics and mainly smooth
the dc side current ensuring continuous mode of operation. Surge arrestors
are provided across each valve in the converter bridge, across each converter
bridge, and in the dc and ac switches to protect the equipment from over
1. Converter Bridge Unit
This usually consists of two three phase converter bridges connected
in series to form a 12 pulse converter unit. The total numbers of valve in
such a unit are twelve. The valves can be packaged as single valve, double
valve or quadrivalve arrangements. Each valve is used to switch in a
segment of an AC voltage waveform. The converter is fed by converter
transformer connected in star/ star and star/delta arrangement.
Synopsis 19

The valves are cooled by air, oil, and water. Liquid cooling using
deionized water is more efficient and results in the reduction of station
losses. The ratings of valve group are limited by more permissible short
circuit current than steady state load requirement. The design of valve is
based on the modular concepts where each module contains a limited
number of series connected thyristor level.
Valve firing signals are generated in the converter control at ground
potential and are transmitted to each thyristor in the valve through a fiber
optic light guide system. The light signal received at the thyristor level is
converted to an electrical signal using gate drive amplifier with pulse
Synopsis 20

2. Converter Transformer
The HVDC converter transformer is a very important component in a
HVDC transmission system. 25 –30 % cost of the converter station is
determined by the cost of converter transformer. In addition to its normal
application to provide transfer of power between two voltage levels, it serves
a number of additional functions like galvanic separation between the AC
and DC systems. A fairly large tapping range permits optimum operation
also for a large variation in load without loss of efficiency.

The converter transformer is generally built with two valve windings

of equal power and voltage ratings. One of the windings is connected in star
and the other in delta. With this arrangement the dominant harmonics from
the converter will be cancelled out. Windings, which are directly connected
to AC system, are termed as line windings while winding connected to the
converter is called valve windings.

The HVDC converter transformer can be built as three-phase or as

single-phase units depending on voltage and power rating. When built as
three-phase transformer there is generally one unit with the valve winding
arranged for star connection and the other delta connection. In single-phase
design the two valve windings are generally built on the same transformer
Synopsis 21

2.1 Winding Connection

The generation of harmonics is an undesirable feature in the converter
equipment and in order to minimize these, 12 pulse converter is normally
used. It is usual to arrange both star and delta connected valve windings
have a common star connected primary line winding.
2.2 Insulation Design
The insulation design of HVDC converter transformer is determine by
following factors:
1. The AC voltage distribution and DC bias voltage which is a
function of dc system voltage experienced by valve winding
2. The DC voltage experience a voltage polarity reversal when the
direction of power flow is reversed
3. The behavior of insulating materials, paper, pressboard and oil,
differs greatly in its response to DC stress than it does to AC
In the case of a system subjected to a DC stress the distribution is
determined by material dimension and their resistivity and in case of
converter transformer, as combination of AC and DC stresses occur in
2.3 Harmonics Consideration
The harmonics add considerably to the stray losses in the transformer
windings, core and structural work and due allowances must be made for
their effect. Reduction is harmonics in line side is achieved by the use of
connecting filters.
Synopsis 22

2.4 Commutating Reactance and Short-Circuit Current

Fault current in the case of converter transformer is likely to contain a
very much greater DC component than is the case for normal transformer
and unlike the in the case of fault in the conventional AC circuit fro which
the DC component decays very rapidly, for converter circuit the high DC
component will continue until the protection operates. The resulting
electromagnetic forces can therefore be very significant. These forces can be
kept within the limits by either higher impedance which result in high
regulation or, the use of tap changers, which in addition to control of valve
firing angle to control the power flow will often have up to 50% grater range
than conventional transformer, so the need to limit the variation of
impedance with tap position becomes an important consideration in
determining the winding configuration.
2.5 Configuration
THE converter transformer can have different configuration (1) three
phase, two winding,(2) single phase , three winding (3) single phase two
winding. The valve side windings are connected in star and delta with
neutral point ungrounded. On the AC side, the transformers are connected in
parallel with neutral ground. The leakage reactance of the transformer is
chosen to limit the short circuit current through any valve.
In back to back links, which are designed for low DC voltage level, an
extended delta configuration can result in identical transformer being used in
twelve pulse converter units. This result in the reduction of the spare
capacity required.
Synopsis 23

3. Smoothing Reactors
The main purpose of a smoothing reactor is to reduce the rate of rise
of the direct current following disturbances on either side of the converter.
Thus the peak current during the dc line short circuits and ac commutation
failure is limited.

For satisfactory current conversion in thyristor-converters and to

eliminate pulses from DC current waveform, a large series inductance (L) is
necessary on DC side. A DC Smoothing reactor (smoothing reactor) is a
high inductance coil connected in series with the main DC pole circuit
between Converter Bridge and DC line-pole. Due to high inductance (L) the
current (Id) stores high energy (e=1/2 L*Id2) in the reactor coil. The current
in an inductance cannot change instantaneously. Hence the fluctuations and
pulses in the direct current Id are smoothened thus the function of the
smoothing reactor is to eliminate the pulses and fluctuations in DC current
waveform, i.e. to smoothen the DC current.
The reactor blocks the non- harmonic frequencies from being
transferred between two ac systems, and also reduces the harmonics in the
dc line.

4. Filters
There are three types of filter used in HVDC System
4.1 AC Filters
Filters are used to control the harmonics in the network. The filter
banks compensate the reactive power consumed by the converters at both the
ends. For example, in CCC (capacitor commutated converter) reactive power
is compensated by the series capacitors installed between the converter
transformer and the thyristor valves.
Synopsis 24

4.2 DC Filters
The harmonics created by the converter can cause disturbances in
telecommunication systems, and specially designed dc filters are used in
order to reduce the disturbances. Generally, filters are not used for
submarine or underground cable transmission, but used when HVDC has an
overhead line or if it is part of an interconnecting system. The modern filters
are active dc filters, and these filters use power electronics for measuring,
inverting and re-injecting the harmonics, thus providing effective filtering.
4.3 High frequency filter
These are connected between the converter transformer and the station
AC bus to suppress any high frequency current.
5. Reactive Power Sources
Converter station requires power supply that is dependent on the
active power loding. Fortunately, part of this reactive power requirement is
provided by AC filters. In addition, shunt capacitors, synchronous
condensers and static VAR system are used depending on the speed of
control desired. The control of various bus voltage is achieved by supplying
and absorbing the reactive power requirement of respective bus bars by
means of series or shunt compensation. Compensation of reactive power
means supplying/ absorbing reactive volt- amperes. The compensation on
AC side is provided by the following means:
• AC filter capacitors
• AC shunt capacitors
• Synchronous condensers
• Static VAr sources ( SVS )
Synopsis 25

6. Transmission Medium
Transmission medium is not required in Back to Back configuration
as it has ideally zero length and practically only few meters. HVDC cables
are generally used for submarine transmission and overheads lines are used
for bulk power transmission over the land. The most common types of
cables are solid and the oil-filled ones. The development of new power cable
technologies has accelerated in recent years, and the latest HVDC cable
available is made of extruded polyethylene
7. DC Switchgear
This is usually a modified AC equipment used to interrupt small Dc
current. Dc breaker or metallic return transfer breaker are used, if required
for interruption of rated load current.
8. Earth Electrode
Earth electrode is used for providing the return path for the direct
current. This is used in case of Bipolar, Monopolar and Homopolar
configuration but is not required in Back-to-Back system. It is usually
located 5 – 25 KM away from the station to avoid the galvanic corrosion of
substation earthing.
Synopsis 26


To make the back-to-back coupling system more familiar to people
1. As an asynchronous tie between two regional grid for precise and
reliable power transfer.
2. For interconnecting the two or more systems operating at different
3. In some cases it may be for transferring the energy generated by
windfarms to the backbone network


¾ Detailed study and analysis of converter

¾ Analysis of control schemes adopted in converter station.
¾ Study of reactive power requirement in converter operation and
compensation schemes adopted.
¾ Study of protection schemes in HVDC
¾ Study of Valve halls and switchyard
¾ Case study of Vindhyachal HVDC back-to-back interconnection
between northern and western grid.
Synopsis 27


In the present scenario of energy crisis it becomes very

important to effectively utilize the available energy. In a way to achieve
this, HVDC back to back Interconnection play very important role in
connecting the power systems by providing the asynchronous tie and
enabling the precise exchange of power along with consolidation to the
stability of the existing AC network.
In HVDC Back-to-Back coupling, the great advantage of
avoiding synchronization between AC power systems & to grid helps in
power transfer smoothly. Our study on the subject should reveal new
facts, which will be helpful in power system stability analysis.

With a lot of advantages over conventional (AC) connection

schemes, due to very high cost consideration of equipments required
and complexity of operation, the realization of scheme is restricted to
few places in our country and is scarcely used in other countries except
the developed countries except the developed countries.


While the very first practical applications of electricity were based on

direct current, this technology was quickly replaced by three-phase
alternating current because of various advantages. Still, in spite of the
principal use of alternating current in power systems, there are some
applications for which direct current is the better not only from the point of
view of technical performance but, even taking into account the economic

With today’s power systems being operated closer to their stability

limits, and particularly in view of the vulnerability of AC system to faults,
there is an increasing need to understand how the HVDC technology can
play in important role in improving the dynamic performance of the existing
AC network. The thesis is organized as follows:

First of all the thesis gives, a brief overview of HVDC technology,

various transmissions schemes and presents a technical comparison with the
existing AC system. This also gives some introduction to HVDC Back-to-
Back interconnection and typical substation configuration and shows the
significance of the project from the utility and application point of view.
Secondly, it reviews with the basic converter elements i.e thyristor valve
followed by the analysis of converter and concludes with the equivalent
electrical model of a HVDC scheme.

With the various control strategies adopted for the efficient power
transmission It also cites the necessity of reactive power requirement and
Introduction 29

various compensation techniques. The next chapter presents the harmonics

generation phenomenon in converter operations, their effects and
introduction to AC and DC filters for elimination of those harmonics. Also
brief study of faults during converter operation and protection schemes is
carried out

Case-study of Vindhyachal HVDC Back-to-Back station demonstrates

the practical implementation of the so far theoretically known operation and
control of link. And finally a conclusion has been drawn citing the
significance of the technology for the existing AC system presenting the
back to back interconnection as a solution to many challenging situation.
Converter Analysis

Chapter 1



1.1.1 General
A thyristor Valve is made up of number of devices connected in series
to provide the required voltage rating and also of devices connected in
parallel to provide the required current rating. Device ratings, transient
overvoltages and protection philosophy determine number of series and
parallel-connected thyristor.
The valves are usually placed indoor in a valve hall for the protection
purpose and are base mounted in single, double or quadric-valve
configuration. These are usually air insulated and cooled using air, water, oil
or Freon. The water flowing in ducts cools heat sinks and damping resistor.
1.1.2 Valve design consideration
The valve design must consider the voltage and current stresses that
occur during normal and abnormal operating conditions such as over voltage
(which may occur due to switching action or as a result of external cause) or
over current, which may arise from short circuit across a valve or a converter
The losses in a valve includes
i. The losses during on-state and switching losses
ii. Damper and grading circuit losses
iii. Losses due to auxiliary power requirement of cooling
Converter Analysis 31

The reduction in short circuit ratio (SCR) tends to reduce the maximum
value of fault current in a valve. The low SCR can also result in non-
sinusoidal voltage at the converter bus, which can give rise to commutation
The valve can be subjected to high stress commutation resulting from high
di/dt the discontinuous conduction can also result in high over voltages
across a valve. The control of electrostatic and electromagnetic fields
surrounding a valve is essential to avoid corona discharge and interference
with sensitive electronic circuits.
1.1.3 Valve firing
The basic valve-firing scheme is shown in Fig.1.1. The valve control
generates the firing signals. Each thyristor lever receives the signal directly
from a separate fiber-optic cable making each thyristor level independent.

Converter Analysis 32

The valve control unit also indicates many monitoring and protective
function. The return pulse system coupled with short pulse firing scheme is
used in present day valve control unit. A separate light guide is used to send
a return pulse whenever the voltage across a thyristor is sufficient and the
power supply unit is charged. If at that time, firing pulses are demanded
from the valve control, the light signals are sent to all the thyristor control
units simultaneously.
During normal operation, one set of the light pulses are generated in a
cycle for each valve. However, during operation at low direct current, many
light pulses are generated due to discontinuous current.
1.1.4 Recent Trends
The recent developments are expected to improve reliability and
reduce the cost of HVDC valves. These are mainly:
• Development in high power semiconductor devices these include
direct light triggered thyristor and metal oxide semiconductor
controlled thyristor.
• Better cooling techniques such as forced vaporization as a means of
reducing thermal resistance between the heat sink and the ambient.
• Suspension of quadri- valve assembly from ceiling to withstand
seismic forces.
The configuration for a given pulse number is selected in such a way
that both the valve and transformer utilization are maximized. The basic
commutation group defines a converter configuration and the number of
such groups connected in series and parallel.
Converter Analysis 33

If there are ‘q’ valves is a basic commutation group and r of these are
connected in parallel and s of them are connected in series, then
p = q*r*s …………1.1
1.2.1 Valve Rating
The valve voltage is specified in terms of peak inverse voltage (PIV)
it has to withstand, The ration of PIV to the average DC voltage is an index
of valve utilization. The average maximum DC voltage across the converter
is given by
Vd0 = VTŒ(PVLQ ŒT) …………1.2
Converter Analysis 34

The peak inverse voltage (PIV) across a valve can be obtained as

The valve utilization factor is given by
PIV / Vd0 = 2Œ>VTVLQ ŒT @ (for q even)
= Œ>VTVLQ ŒT @ (for q odd)
For a six-pulse Graetz circuit, valve utilization factor comes out to be
1.047, which is one of the min. VUF obtained for various combinations.
1.2.2 Transformer Rating
The current rating of a valve is given by
IV = ID /[r ¥T@
Where, ID is the DC current assumed to be constant. The transformer rating
on the valve side (in volt ampere) is given by
STV = p EM IV / ¥
The transformer utilization factor (STV/ Vd0 ID) for q = 3 is obtained as
1.481, while for Graetz circuit it is equal to 1.047. Thus it is clear from the
above discussion that both from valve and transformer utilization
consideration, Graetz circuit is best circuit for six pulse converter.
1.3.1 General
Converters used in HVDC system are of various types six pulse, twelve
pulse etc, here we are considering a six-pulse converter, whose circuit
diagram is shown in the figure 1.3 with the notation adopted. Following
assumptions are made regarding the voltage source, current nature,
frequency etc to simplify the analysis:
Converter Analysis 35

1. Power source (or sink) consisting of balanced sinusoidal EMFs of
constant voltage and frequency in series with equal lossless
2. Constant ripple free direct current
3. Valves with no forward resistance and infinite inverse resistance
4. Ignition of valve at equal interval of one-sixth cycle (600)

The instantaneous line-to-neutral EMFs are taken as:

……… 1.3
Converter Analysis 36

Corresponding line-to-line emfs are



At any instant, two valves are conducting in the bridge, one from the
upper commutation group and second from the lower commutation group.
The firing of the next valve in a particular group results in the turning off the
valve that is already conducting.
One period of AC supply voltage has six intervals corresponding to
conduction of pair of valves.

Fig 1.4 shows the typical waveforms of the converter if the ac
inductance LC is neglected. In the top graph the ac line-to-neutral voltages
are drawn in thin lines and, in heavy lines, the potentials of the positive and
negative dc terminals with respect to ac neutral. The middle graph shows the
ac line-to-line voltages and, in a heavy line, the instantaneous direct voltage
VD (or Ud). The bottom graph shows the constant dc current and, in a heavy
line, the ac line current Ia.
Converter Analysis 37

At any given instant, one valve of the upper commutation group and
one of the lower rows are conducting. Therefore, the instantaneous direct
voltage at any time equals one of the six line-to-line voltages. The instant at
which the direct voltage changes to another line-to-line voltage is controlled
via the firing angle ‘.¶

Average direct voltage Vd (or Ud)
It is assumed that the valves are fired at equal intervals. Hence, Ud
consists of six identical segments of 600 width each, and so the average
direct voltage can be found by averaging the direct voltage over any 600
interval. LCC models average direct voltage is given by
Converter Analysis 38


is the so called ideal no-load direct voltage.

DC voltage harmonics
The dc voltage waveform contains a ripple whose fundamental
frequency is six times the supply frequency. This can be analyzed in Fourier
series and contains harmonics of the order
h = np
p is the number of pulse and n is integer.
Converter Analysis 39

The rms value of hth order harmonic in DC voltage is given by

Vh = Vd0 * ¥> K2 – 1) Sin2 .@1/2 / [h2 – 1] ………………1.7
$OWKRXJK.FDQYDU\IURP-1800 , the full range cannot be utilized. In
order to ensure the firing of all the series connected thyristors, it is necessary
to provide a minimum limit of .greater than zero. Also in order to allow for
the turn-off time of a valve, it is necessary to provide an upper limit less than
1800. The delay angle .is not allowed to go beyond (1800 - ) where is
called the extinction angle (also called margin angle). The minimum value
of extinction angle is typically 100, although in normal operation as an
inverter, it is not allowed to go below 150 or 180.
AC current waveform
As it is assumed that the direct current has no ripple (or harmonics).
The AC currents flowing through the valve (secondary) and primary
windings of the converter transformer contains harmonics.

The waveform of the current in a valve winding is shown in fig.1.6
The rms value of the fundamental component of the current is given by
I1 = ¥Œ ,D …………1.8
Whereas the rms value of the current is
I = ¥  ,D … ………1.9
Converter Analysis 40

The Power Factor

The AC power supplied to the converter is given by
PAC = ¥(LL I1FRV3 ¥(LL * (¥Œ)* IDFRV3««««
FRV3 the power factor of ac side
ELL line to line voltage on AC side
I1 rms value of fundamental component
ID value of direct current on DC side
The DC power fed must match the AC power ignoring the losses in
the converter. Thus, ignoring losses we get
PDC = VD*ID = 3¥(LL*I1 cos .Œ ………... 1.11
VD value of direct voltage on DC side
Equating the above two equations we get
FRV3 FRV. …………1.12
From the above equation it is clear that the reactive power
recommended to operate the rectifier at low firing angle with suitable safety
1.3.3 ANALYSIS WITH OVERLAP General concept of overlap
Because of the AC source inductance and converter transformer
leakage reactance, transfer of current from one phase to another can’t be
instantaneous but requires finite time called commutation time or overlap
time  where  is the overlap angle. In normal operation it is less than 600:
typical full load values are 20 - 250.
Converter Analysis 41

With the increase in overlap angle, number of conducting valves at a given

time increases.

Each interval of the period can be defined by two subintervals. In the
first subintervals two valves are conducting and in the second subintervals,
three valves are conducting. As the overlap increases to 600, there is no
instant when only two valves are conducting. As the overlap angle increases
beyond 600, there is a finite period during an interval when four valves
conduct and the rest of the interval during which three valve conduct. Thus
there are three modes of the converter as follows:
1. Mode 1 – Two and three valve conduction ( < 600)
2. Mode 2 – Three valve conduction ( = 600)
3. Mode 3 – Three and four valve conduction ( > 600)
For the simplicity of analysis, we will discuss here only Mode-1 of
operation, which is most usually encountered during the operation.
Since a new commutation begins every 600 and lasts for angle the
angular interval when two valve conducts is 600 –  The sequence of
conducting valve is 12, 123, 23, 234, 34, 345, 45, 456, 56, 561, 61, 612 and
so on.
Converter Analysis 42


Consider the situation when valve 1 and 2 were conducting initially.
At &W  ., when valve 3 is ignited, the effective circuit is as shown in
fig.1.10 with valve 1, 2 and conducting.
Converter Analysis 43

During this interval direct current is transferred from valve 1 to valve 3.
Hence, at beginning (&W . 
i1 or ia = ID and i3 or ib = 0 …………1.13
At end (&W . /):
i1 = 0 and i3 = ID …………1.14 Average Direct Current
The mesh equation for the loop N31N can be given as

The emf in this loop known as commutating EMF, which is

ea – eb = ¥(PVLQ&W …………1.15
The sum of ia and ib during commutation equals direct current

and equation 1.15 becomes

¥(PVLQ&W /C dib / dt = 2LC di3 / dt
Converter Analysis 44

Integration during commutation period (from W . to W /) gives

And finally inserting the boundary conditions in the LHS of the above
equation, we get
Id = ¥&/C FRV.–FRV/ …………1.16
Equation 1.14 shows that i3, the current in the incoming valve during
commutation, consists of a constant (dc) term and a sinusoidal term which
lags the commutation voltage by 900. And has a crest value which is that of
the current in a line-to-line short circuit on the AC source.
From this equation the extinction angle d (and ultimately the overlap
angle ) can easily be determined for a given firing angle .. It also allows
the calculation of the ideal maximum firing angle .MAX for which the
commutation will succeed in a converter with ideal valves. Since

For any angle /

………… 1.17
Converter Analysis 45 Average Direct Voltage

During commutation the two impedances in the commutation loop act
as a voltage divider that sets the potential of the positive converter terminal
to the average of the two line voltages. It is only after the commutation that
the terminal potential recovers to the voltage of the on-going phase.
The consequence is that an area Aµ as shown in Fig. decreases the
voltage/angle-area A derived in Eq. 1.17. This results in a voltage drop ¨Ud
of the average direct voltage,


Comparison of equation 3.17 and 3.20 shows that voltage drop is
directly proportional to the DC current
¨8d  Œ &/C ID …………1.20
The total average direct voltage is thus given by

= Udi0 cos.– RC Id ………... 1.21

Converter Analysis 46

‘RC’ is called the equivalent commutation resistance. It accounts for
the voltage drop due to commutation. However, it is not a real ohmic
resistance and thus consumes no active power.
With Eq 1.21 the average direct voltage could also be written as

= Udi0  FRV.FRV/ …………1.22 Equivalent circuit of rectifier
From the equation 1.22, equivalent circuit of the rectifier can be
drawn as




Converter Analysis 47

Figure 1.11 shows the waveforms of the voltage across the converter
bridge VD. The valve voltage (not shown in figure) has various jumps that
occur at the firing and the turning off of the valve. This voltage jumps results
in extra losses in the damper circuit. AC Current Magnitude and Phase
Approximate analysis:
Due to the overlap the ac currents are no longer rectangular blocks.
Instead, their shape is that of a deformed trapezoidal Still, Eq.3.24 is a good
approximation for the fundamental frequency component of the ac current:
I1 = 2¥Œ ,d ……… ... 1.23
By assumption, the converter is lossless and therefore the ac active
power must equal the dc power:
3/2 Em I1FRV3§8di0 Id FRV.FRV/ «««
Where,3 denotes the angle by which fundamental component of the
line current lags the applied voltage. On simplification, equation 1.24 gives,
FRV3 § FRV.FRV/  ……… ...1.25
another expression for the power factor FRV3can be given as
FRV3 §8d / Udi0
§FRV.– Rc Id / Udio ………...1.26
shows that with increasing load the power factor decreases and
accordingly the phase shift between the fundamental ac current and the ac
voltage increases.
Reactive power on the AC side may be found from
4 3DWDQ3 ………...1.27
Where, Eq.1.26 or 1.27 gives3. Of course, there is no reactive power on the
DC side.
Converter Analysis 48

1.3.4 Inversion General
Because the valves conduct in only one direction, the current in a
converter cannot be reversed, and power reversal is obtained only by the
reversal of average direct voltage VD. The voltage then opposes the current
is called counter voltage.
Ideally the inversion occurs in the region 900  .  0, but in
practical case, there is always some overlap and the vaOXH RI . DW ZKLFK
inversion begins is given as:
. Œ–/ >Œ-@ …………1.28
Which is always less than 900.
Moreover, /ought to be less than Œby at least an angle corresponding
to the time required for the de-ionization of the arc, which is 1 – 80.
Synchronous machines connected to AC side furnish the commutation
voltage for the HVDC inverter. If the AC system receiving power from DC
link has no generators, a synchronous condenser is used.

Notations for Ignition and Extinction Angle

In inverter theory, commoner practice is to define LJQLWLRQ DQJOH 
and H[WLQFWLRQDQJOH by their advance with respect to the instant when the
commutation voltage is zero and decreasing. Referring to figure 1.12 this
parameters can be described.
Converter Analysis 49

The relations among the several inverter angles are as follows:
 Œ– . ………..1.29(a)
 Œ–/ ………..1.29(b)
 /– . – ………..1.29(c) Equivalent Circuit

Equations for Average Direct Current and Voltage
General equations 1.16 and 1.17can be changed to inverter equations
by changing the sign of VD and putting
FRV. –FRV and FRV/ –FRV,
with these results
ID = IS2 FRV-FRV  …………1.30
VD = VD0 [cos .FRV@ …………1.31
For constant ignition advance angle , equation 1.31 becomes
Because the inverters are commonly controlled so as to operate at
constant current advanced angle  it is useful to have relations between ID
and VD for this condition.
Converter Analysis 50

Under this condition, the equivalent commutation resistance is – RC

and is negative. This is the reason why inverter is said to posses a negative
commutation resistance. The equivalent circuit of the inverter is shown in
the figure 1.14

Converter Analysis 51


From the ongoing discussion, equivalent circuit of the for the steady
state operation of two terminal DC link can be drawn as shown in fig 1.15.

The effect of leakage reactance in producing drop of direct voltage is
accounted for by the equivalent commutating resistance and subscripts ‘r’
and ‘i’ signifying rectifier and inverter.
HVDC Control

Chapter 2


A well known technical advantage of HVDC is it s inherent ability for
control of transmitted power. The voltage across valve-bridge can be
changed nearly instantaneously. The speed of response of the control is
limited only by the maximum voltage available, the dynamics of the DC side
circuit and the sped of change of power which the connected AC networks
can stand
The fact that the reactive power consumed by the HVCD converter is
dependent on the values of the control angles means also that reactive power
of the converter station and the AC network can be controlled and the AC
voltage can be stabilized.
This chapter covers the control fundamentals for the HVDC converter.
Starting with the general discussion of control characteristics of the
converter, the report deals with the different stages in control hierarchy.
By incorporating the equivalent circuit of the converter shown in
figure 1.15, the direct current ID in the DC line can be given as

From the above equation it is clear that
ID ∝ Voltage drop
∝ 1 / (total resistance)
HVDC Control 53

Direct voltage and thus current ID can be controlled by control of

internal voltage which then can be controlled by
1. Grid Controlling
Grid control, delaying the ignition angle . (time &.), reduces the
internal voltage from the ideal no-load voltage VD0 by the factor FRV..
2. Control of alternating voltage
The alternating voltage is usually controlled be tap changing on the
converter transformer.
Grid control is rapid (1 to 10 ms), but tap changing is slow (5 to 6
seconds per step). Both these means of voltage control are applied
cooperatively at each terminal. Grid control is used initially for rapid action
and is followed by tap changing for restoring certain quantities (ignition
angle in the rectifier or voltage in the inverter) to their normal values.
2.2.1 Desired features of control
The following features are desirable:
• Limitation of the maximum current so as to avoid damage to
valves and other current carrying devices.
• Limitation of the fluctuation of current due to the fluctuation of
alternating voltage.
• Keeping the power factor as high as possible.
• Prevention of commutation failures of the inverter.
• Prevention of arc back of the rectifier valves.
• In multi-anode valves, providing a sufficient anode voltage before
ignition occurs.
• Controlling the power delivered or the frequency at one end.
• Provided better voltage regulation.
HVDC Control 54

There are four reasons for keeping the power factor high, two
concerning the convertor itself and the other two concerning the ac system to
which it is connected. The first reason is to keep the rated power of the
converter as high as possible for given current and voltage rating of valves
and transformer. The second reason is to reduce the stresses on the valves
and damping circuits. The third reason is to minimize the required current
rating and copper losses in the ac lines to the converter. The fourth reason is
to minimize voltage drops at the ac terminal of the converter as its loading
increases. The last two reasons apply to any large ac loads.
The p.f. can be raised by adding shunt capacitor, if this is done , the
disadvantages becomes the cost of the capacitors and switching them as the
load on the converter varies. The p.f. of the converter itself is
FRV3 § FRV.FRV .  …………2.2
for rectifier and
FRV3 § FRVFRV   …………2.3
for an inverter.
In a rectifier, we can make .= 0 for which FRV. = 1. In an inverter it
is more difficult. In order to avoid a commutation failure, commutation must
be completed before the commutating voltage reverses at   , hence y
must be greater than zero by some margin. Because of some inaccuracy in
the computation of  and a possibility of changes indirect current and
alternating voltage even after commutation has began, sufficient
commutation margin above the minimum angle required for de-ionization of
the mercury arc must be allowed. The easy and safe way would be to choose
a larger value of . This way lowers the power factor and raises the stresses
on the valves.
HVDC Control 55


2.3.1 Individual characteristics of Rectifier and Inverter
These are plotted in rectangular coordinates of direct current Id and
direct voltage Vd. If the rectifier be equipped with constant-current regulator,
ideal characteristics will be a vertical line AB, but in practice it has a high
negative slope which can be shifted horizontally by adjusting current
If the inverter be equipped with C.E.A. regulator, then inverter
characteristics is a line with slightly negative slope (under the assumption
that commutating resistance RC2 is somewhat higher than line resistance RL)
given by
VD = VD02FRV 5l – RC2) * ID …………2.4
Operating point of the system is the point of intersection of rectifier
and inverter characteristics.
It may be said with fair accuracy that rectifier direct current and
inverter controls direct voltage. But control of one parameter at one end
affects both the current and voltage settings due to non ideal characteristics.
HVDC Control 56


HVDC Control 57

If the inverter voltage changes, rectifier voltage must be change by

equal amount in order to keep current constant which can be done quickly by
current regulator till . Rectifier voltage can be increased further only by
taps on the rectifier transformer.
2.3.2 Combined Characteristics of Rectifier and Inverter
In many dc transmission links each converter must function
sometimes as a rectifier and other times as an inverter therefore each
converter is given a combined characteristics consisting of three linear
portions: C.I.A., C.C. and C.E.A.

HVDC Control 58

With the characteristics shown by solid lines, power is transmitted

from converter-1 to converter-2 and with the characteristics shown by
broken lines, direction of transmission is reversed by reversal of direct
voltage with direction of current being the same.
Usually the current setting of constant current characteristics of the
two converter are separated by û,d called current margin to account to
maintain positive margin in spite of errors in the current measurement and
regulation as the operation of the two steep CC characteristics, with both
current regulators would be highly unstable.
There can be three modes of operation of the link (for the same
direction of power flow) depending on the point of intersection of the two
1. CC at rectifier and CEA at the inverter (normal mode of operation)
2. With the slight dip in the AC voltage, the point of intersection drift
which implies minimum .at rectifier and minimum  at inverter.
3. With the lower AC voltage at the rectifier, the mode of operation
again shifts which implies CC at the inverter with minimum . at the


As the current order to the inverter is lower by the current margin that
in the rectifier, current delivered by the rectifier is higher than demanded by
the inverter, latter tries to counteract that by increasing and the counter emf
determined by the minimum commutation margin and the CFC will operate
in another mode, the commutation margin control (CMC).
HVDC Control 59

The next step in our study of the control of a converter is to examine in
more detail how each of the three straight-line segments of the combined
characteristics can be obtained
1. Constant minimum ignition angle
2. Constant current characteristics
3. Constant extinction angle
2.4.1 Firing Angle Control
The objective of convertor firing control (CFC) system is to generate
control pulses to all valves within the convertor in correct phase position and
inside the interval. = . MIN to . = . MAX., The latter being determined by a
minimum commutation margin limit. The output form the CFC is issued to a
control pulse generator (CPG), which forms individual gate control pulse
signals for all the valves within the convertor.
HVDC Control 60

Types of firing control systems

The firing angle control systems can be broadly referred into two categories:
• Individual Phase Control
In this, phase positions of gate control signals are determined
network is unbalanced.
This scheme generates higher amount of harmonics.
• Equidistance Pulse Control
.-order in current control can be turned into a gate pulse signal in
correct phase position by using a phase-controlled oscillator. Firing
pulses are generated in steady state at equal interval of 1/pf through a
ring counter. This removes the risk of harmonics. This is the control
principle used in all modern HVDC systems.
2.4.2 Constant Minimum Ignition Angle Control
Normally rectifier is operated at ‘Constant minimum ignition angle’
to minimize the reactive power requirement as it varies in direct proportion
to ignition angle at rectifier side. To maintain a minimum delay angle say .0
following method is used.
Voltage across each valve is measured, if it is found less than a pre-
specified voltage say ¥9M Sin .0 the constant current control is prevented
form igniting the valve. In practice, secondary voltage of control transformer
is used rather than the voltage across the valve by any suitable arrangement.
2.4.3 Constant Current Control
Under normal operation system is made to operate at constant current
control setting of the rectifier end. In this mode short-circuit current are
ideally limited to the value of the load current and in practice to about twice
rated current
HVDC Control 61

Constant-current control involves the following:

1. Measurement of direct current.
2. Comparison of direct current Id with the set (or reference) value IdS.
3. Amplification of difference IdS - Id called error.
4. Application of output signal of the amplifier to a phase-shift circuit
that alters the ignition angle . in proper direction for reducing error.

If the measured current in a rectifier is less than the set current, .must
be decreased in order to increase FRV. and thus raise the internal voltages of
the rectifier VDO FRV . The difference between the internal voltages of
rectifier and the inverter is thereby increased, and the direct current is
increased proportionally. A decrease in . increases the algebraic internal
voltage VDO FRV.This means that a same constant current controller can be
used on a given converter without change of connections during both
rectification and inversion.
In practice, however, the same current setting is transmitted to both
terminals of a DC line, and the current margin is subtracted from the current
setting of the inverter; that is, the error signal for the inverter’s current
regulator is
0 = IDS – ¨,D – ID
HVDC Control 62

The current regulator is a simple kind of feedback amplifier

characterized by gain and time constant. Its differential equation is

V = instantaneous voltage
T = R2C = time constant
K = gain of amplifier and phase shift circuit
2.4.4 Constant Extinction-Angle Control
Each inverter must be ignited at such a time that extinction occurs at a
later time, which, how ever must be earlier by an adequate margin than the
time when commutation voltage reverses. The easy and safe way is to
rises the stresses on the valve. The better way is to compute the firing angle
using a analog computer obtaining input from the AC side of inverter and
current in the DC link.
Master control generates the current order to be issued to the current
control systems of both converter stations, from instance the power order set
by the operator, and it includes control functions for modulation of the
transmitted power when the HVDC link is used for stabilization of
connected AC network.
The HVDC transmission can be used for stabilization of AC system
by modulating the power flow in accordance with the variations in some AC
HVDC Control 63

system quantities, usually frequency. The link can also be used to directly
control the frequency of an AC network connected to one of the substation.
The control functions required for the HVDC link are performed using
the hierarchical control structure shown in Fig. 2.5. The master controller for
a bipole is located at one of the terminals and is provided with the power
order (PREF) from the system controller (from energy control center). It also
has other information such as AC voltage at the converter bus, DC voltage,
etc. the master controller transmit the current order (IREF) to the pole control
units, which in turn provide a firing angle order to the individual valve
groups (converters). The valve group or converter control also oversees
valve monitoring and firing logic through the optical interface; it also
includes bypass pair selection logic, commutation failure protection, tap
changer control, converter start/stop sequences, margin switching and valve
protection circuits.

HVDC Control 64


2.8.1 Introduction
The converter in HVDC stations are line commutated, which implies
that the current initiation in the valve can only be delayed with reference to
the zero crossing of the converter bus AC voltage. This result in lagging
power factor operation of the converters, requiring reactive power sources
connected at the converter bus for better voltage control. Figure 2.6 shows
the typical phase displacement of the line side current waveform phase with
that of AC voltage with the firing angle as a parameter.

HVDC Control 65

Figure 2.6 illustrates that fundamental line current lags the line to
neutral source by an angle equal to its firing angle. Hence it is advised to
keep the ignition angle low. Statistical data shows that at each converter
station, reactive power requirement is around 60% of the active power
2.8.2 Reactive Power Requirement in Steady State Conventional Control Strategies
Under normal operation, a DC link is operated with current control at
the rectifier side and minimum extinction angle control at the inverter. This
method of control leads to minimum reactive power requirement at both
The equation for the reactive power as a function of the active power
is conveniently expressed in terms of per unit quantities. Average bridge
voltage across the converter bridge is given by
VD = 9FRV.– RC*ID (for rectifier) …………2.6(a)
VD = 9FRV– RC*ID (for inverter) …………2.6(b)
VD = voltage on DC side (in per unit value)
ID = current on DC side (in per unit value)
The power factor is given by
&RV3 § VD / 9  FRV. – (RC*ID/V) …………2.7
The power and reactive power in per unit are given by the following
PD = V*IDFRV3 …………2.8(a)
QD = V*IDVLQ3 …………2.8(b)
Also, the power factor of the converter can be given by equation
FRV3 >FRV.FRV . @ ...………2.9
HVDC Control 66

Thus, from the above equations, variation of reactive power demand

with the active power demand as a function of firing angle can be shown as
in figure 2.7

' '

From the figure, it is clear that

• Under normal operation (.”0), reactive power at any station is
around 0.6 times the rated active power.
• Increase in firing angle .leads to sharp increase in reactive power
demand with the increase in active power supplied, hence it is
recommended to maintain low firing angles in steady state.
However, too low values of .can result increased frequency of mode
shifts and too low values of  can result in increased incidence of the
commutation failure.
The reactive power is also affected by the magnitude of AC voltage.
The reduction in V leads to increase in QD, however on-load tap changer can
control V within limits.
HVDC Control 67 Alternate Control Strategies

The region of operation of a converter bridge is bounded by the limits
on the DC current and firing angle. Neglecting minimum current limit, the
operating region of a bridge in PD – QD plane is shown in fig. 2.8

' '

Which is drawn for a constant (rated) AC voltage. This region is

bounded by three regions:
i. minimum . characteristics
ii. minimum  characteristics
iii. constant rated DC current
In general the locus for a constant DC current in part of a circle in the
3'4'  plane and the constant DC voltage characteristic is a straight line
passing through the origin.
The operation at constant DC voltage implies constant power factor
characteristics at the converter bus. At the rectifier, the characteristic is that
of a load with lagging power factor, while at the inverter, this can be viewed
as a generator with leading power factor operation.
HVDC Control 68


This is shown from the analysis of a simplified system shown if
Figure 4.10 In Fig 2.9 (a), the rectifier is shown as a constant (lagging)
power factor load while Fig. 2.9 (b) is applicable to the inverter operation.
The phasor diagram for both the cases are shown in Fig 2.10.


It can be shown by the phasor diagram that
9 (FRV /3 FRV3 …………2.10
Where, 3 is the power factor angle.
The power expression is given by
P = VEBVLQ/ …………2.11
Substituting Eq. 2.10 into Eq. 2.11, we get
P = E2%FRV /3  VLQ/FRV3 …………2.12
From the above equation, it can be shown that maximum power transfer is
obtained when,
/ –3
HVDC Control 69

The maximum power (for 3 0) is given by

Pmax = 0.2887 E2 B …………2.13
This is much less than what can be obtained in the case with 3 -30 or V = E.
To modify the power rating, the provision of a shunt capacitor (having
succeptance, BC) at the converter bus results in the modification of the
maximum power expression from equation 2.10 to 2.13
Pmax = 0.2887 E2 B / (1 – BC/B) …………2.14
The above analysis shows that there is a need to modify the reactive
power characteristics of the converter station by either
i. choice of reactive power sources
ii. adjustment in the converter control characteristics
When the DC link involves long distance transmission, the
minimization of power losses in the line dictates operation at constant DC
voltage and flexibility of converter operation is not feasible. However, with
back-to-back links, the operation at constant voltage is not critical and
alternate converter control strategies, as shown in Fig. 4.12 can be adopted.
These are
1. Constant reactive power characteristics
2. Constant leading power factor characteristics

HVDC Control 70

It is to be noted that by providing a constant reactive power source of

QN at the converter bus, the characteristics ab or a’b results in unity power
operation of the converter. Similarly, by providing reactive source of 2QN,
the power factor angle is changed from 3to -3
The reactive power requirement of the converter are met by one or
more of the following sources:
• AC system
• AC filters
• Shunt Capacitors
• Synchronous Condenser
• Static VAR system
These are shown schematically in Fig. 2.12

The voltage regulation at the converter bus is desirable not only from
the voltage control viewpoint but also from the minimization of loss and
HVDC Control 71

stability considerations. This requires adjustable reactive power source,

which can provide variable reactive power as demanded. AC System
Figure 2.13 shows the reactive power drawn by AC system at the
inverter bus, as a function of PD. At low values of delivered power, reactive
power supplied by AC system is positive while with the increase in PD it
goes negative.

This value is more negative when the short circuit ratio (SCR) is
lower for the same amount of power transfer PD. AC Filters
AC filters, that are provided at the converter bus for filtering out AC
current harmonics, appears as a capacitors at the fundamental frequency and
thus provide reactive power. These filters are mechanically switched and
suffer from the inability of continuous control. Also they can cause low
order resonance with the network impedance, resulting in harmonic
HVDC Control 72 Shunt Capacitor

For slow variation in load, switched capacitors or filters can provide
some control, which may cause voltage flicker owing to discrete control,
unless the size of unit, which is switched is made sufficiently small. Synchronous Condenser
Synchronous condenser provides continuous control of reactive power
and can follow fast load changes. It has following advantages
1. The availability of voltage source for commutation at the inverter
even if the connection to the AC system is temporarily interrupted.
2. Increase in SCR as the fault level is increased.
3. Better voltage regulation during a transient due to the maintenance
of flux linkages in the rotor windings.
But still there are some disadvantages to its part such as – (i) high
maintenance and cost & (ii) possibility of instability due to machine going
out of synchronism. Static VAR Systems (SVS)
In HVDC converter station, the provision for SVS mainly helps to
have fast control of reactive power flow, thereby controlling voltage
fluctuations and also to overcome the problem of voltage instability. There
are basically three types of SVS schemes:
i) Variable impedance type SVS
ii) Current source type SVS
iii) Voltage source typr SVS
The variable impedance type is most common in power system
applications and will be described next.
HVDC Control 73

Thyristor Controlled Reactor (TCR)

Single phase TCR is shown in Fig. 2.14 By controlling firing angle of
the back-to-back connected thyristor, the current in the reactor can be
controlled. A TCR is usually operated with fixed capacitor (FC) to provide
the variation of reactive power consumption form inductive to capacitive.
The schematic FC-TCR is shown in Fig. 2.15.

HVDC Control 74

Thyristor Switched Capacitor

Thyristor switching is faster than mechanical switching. A reactor is
usually connected in series with the capacitor to reduce the rate of change of
the inrush current.

Harmonics and Filters

Chapter 3


HVDC converter introduces AC and DC harmonics that are injected
into AC system and DC line side respectively. A converter of pulse number
p generates harmonics principally of the order of
h = p*q (on the DC side) …………3.1
h = p*q ± 1 (on the AC side) …………3.2
Where, q is an integer.
Most of the HVDC converters have pulse number 6 or 12 and thus
produce the harmonics of the order given in table 3.1
Table 3.1 Orders of the Characteristics Harmonics

The amplitude of the harmonics decrease with increasing order: the

AC harmonic current of order h is less than I1/h where I1 is the amplitude of
the fundamental current.
There are several problems associated with the injection of harmonics
and these are listed below:
Harmonics and Filters 76

• Telephone interference
• Extra power losses and consequent heating in machines and
capacitance connected in the system.
• Over voltage due to resonance.
• Instability of converter control, primarily with individual phase
control scheme of firing pulse generation.
• Interference with ripple control system used in load management.
AC filters are invariably used to filter out AC current harmonics
which are critical. These filters are of band pass or high pass type and also
supply reactive power. DC smoothing reactor along with DC filter perform
the function of filtering DC harmonics.
In addition to the harmonics, which cause telephone interference, the
harmonics at the carrier and radio frequencies are also generated by the
converter and may require suitable filters.
Principal means of diminishing the harmonic output of converter are
1. Increase the pulse number
2. Installation of filters
In general, converters with pulse number greater than 12 are not used
as the complexity of operation and control overshadows the significant
advantages of higher pulse number. It is also found that for HVDC converter
use of filter is more economical than the use of higher pulse number (greater
than 12). AC filters serves the dual purpose of diminishing the AC
harmonics and supply reactive power at the fundamental frequency.
Harmonics and Filters 77


3.2.1 Generation of Harmonics in AC Side
The line current and phase voltage waveforms under the condition of
no overlap are as shown in figure 3.1

Line current waveform under the condition of no-overlap is the series
of equally spaced rectangular pulses with alternately positive and negative
3.2.2 Generation of DC Harmonics on DC Side
DC voltage waveforms contains ripple whose fundamental frequency
is six times the supply frequency.

This voltage is analyzed in Fourier series and contains harmonics of the
order of h
h = n*p
Where, p is the number of pulse and n is an integer.
The rms value of the hth order harmonic can be given as
Vh = Vd0 * ¥> K2 – 1) Sin2.@1/2 / [h2 – 1] …………3.3
Harmonics and Filters 78

Normally, a DC reactor of large inductance is used in the DC side so

that the DC current is almost constant and can be considered free from
ripples hence it can be said that on DC side there are voltage harmonics
predominately while on AC side, current harmonics predominates.
Besides these, some harmonics also occur owing to imbalance in the
AC supply waveform, difference in firing angle etc. These harmonics can be
categorized namely Characteristics Harmonics and Non- characteristics
Characteristics harmonics are those which can e predicted by
mathematical analysis and are generally predominate. These are present
even under ideal operating conditions like balanced AC voltage,
symmetrical three-phase network and equidistant pulses. Characteristics
harmonics are those of orders given by equations 3.1 & 3.2.
The following assumptions are made as bases for deriving the orders,
magnitude and phases of the characteristics harmonics of a six-pulse
• The alternating voltage are three phase, sinusoidal, balanced, and of
positive sequence.
• The direct current is absolutely constant that is without ripple. Such
current would be the consequence of having a dc reactor of infinite
• The valves are ignited at equal times interval of one-sixth cycle that
is, at constant delay angle measured from the zeros of the respective
commutating voltage. By assumption 1, these zeros are equally spaced
in time.
Harmonics and Filters 79

• The commutation inductances are equal in the three phases.

3.3.1 Harmonics at No Overlap
The wave shape of alternating voltage and currents confronting with
the assumptions made above are equidistant rectangular pulses assuming that
direct current has no harmonics, current waveforms for the primary side of
converter transformer are drawn for an ignition delay of .without overlap
( = 0). For six-pulse Converter
The line current waveforms at no overlap are a series of equally space
rectangular pulses, alternately negative and positive. Fourier analysis of such
wave shape, for finding the characteristics harmonics can be carried out
under the following steps:
Consider the pulse of unit height and width w radian that is of
duration w/& seconds.
π) Id>FRV&t – (1/5) cos 5&t + (1/7) cos 7&t
iA = (2¥π
– (1/11) cos 11&t + (1/13) cos&t -….] …………3.4
The rms value of the hth order harmonic in DC voltage is given by
equation 3.3. For 12-pulse Converter
A 12-pulse group in a HVDC converter is composed of two 6-pulse
group fed from sets of valve side transformer winding having a phase shift
of 300 between fundamental voltages. Since . is same for both 6-pulse
group, the fundamental valve side currents have the same phase difference
as the voltages, and fundamental network-side currents are in phase with one
another. The schematic diagram for a 12-pulse converter unit is shown in
figure 3.3
Harmonics and Filters 80

Neglecting overlap, the current in the primary side of star-star
connected transformer (assuming turns ratio of 1:1) is given by the equation
3.5. Similarly, assuming that the delta-star connected transformer has turns
ratio of ¥IA2 can be given as
π) Id>FRV&t + (1/5) cos 5&t - (1/7) cos 7&t –
iA2 = (2¥π
(1/11) cos 11&t + (1/13) cos&t -.…] …………3.5
The current IA can be given by the summation of IA1 and IA2 or,
IA = IA1 + IA2
π) Id>FRV&t – (1/11) cos 11&t + (1/13)
IA = (4¥π
cos&t – (1/23) cos 23 &W  FRV&W«] …………3.6
From the above expression, it can be observed that
I10 = (2¥Œ ,D
Iho = I10 / h
Where I10 and Ih0 are rms values of the fundamental component and
harmonic of the order of ‘h’. The second subscript shows that the overlap
angle  is considered zero.
Harmonics and Filters 81

The magnitude of the characteristics harmonics is also a function of the load

current. This is shown in the Fig. 3.4

3.3.2 AC and DC Harmonics with Overlap
Because of overlap (owing to inductive nature of transformer winding
and inductance of AC network seen through the converter) valve current in
valve winding is distorted.

Thus, expressions for the fundamental component of the AC current
derived for the case with no overlap is not valid. The actual expression for
the current can be derived from Fourier analysis and is given by
I1 = [I112 + I122] ½ …………3.7
Harmonics and Filters 82

I11 = I1FRV3 ¥Œ,d>FRV.FRV . /@ …………3.8
I12 = I1 VLQ3 ¥Œ,d> VLQ.–VLQ/  FRV.–FRV/ @
Where, 3 is the power factor and / .
From the above expression, the power factor angle can be obtained as
WDQ3  VLQ.–VLQ/  FRV.–FRV/ …………3.10
The harmonic components in the AC current are also altered. These
are reduced from the value calculated with no overlap. The expression can
be given as
Ih = Ih0 [A2 + B2 –$%FRV . @ 1/2>FRV.–FRV/@«««.11
$ VLQ^ K ` >K@ …………3.12(a)
B = sin {(h – ` >K– 1] …………3.12(b)
/ .
The above expression is valid for  ” 0. For higher values of the
overlap angle, the expression given by equation 3.10 can still be used if .
and/are replaced by .¶¶ and/¶where,
 .– 300¶ 0 and/¶ /0
Also, from the Fourier Analysis of DC voltage waveform, we can
Vh = Vh0 [C2 + D2 –&'FRV . @ 1/2/ ¥2 …………3.13
& FRV^ K ` >K@ …………3.14(a)
D = cos {(h – ` >K– 1] …………3.14(b)
Harmonics and Filters 83


The conditions postulated in the foregoing analysis of characteristics
harmonics of a converter are never fulfilled in practice. Consequently, not
only are the harmonics of characteristic order slightly changed from their
theoretical magnitude and phases, but also – and more important –
harmonics of non-characteristic order are also produced.
Harmonics of low non-characteristic order are normally much smaller
than those of adjacent characteristic harmonics in the converter itself. Filters
are usually provided for low characteristic order. For high order, the
magnitude of both characteristics and non- characteristic order are small and
approximately the same.
3.4.1 Causes
1. Unbalanced three phase alternating voltage
The time delay angle of a rectifier is usually measured from a zero of
the commutating voltage. If the three phase AC voltages are
unbalanced, their zeros are not equally spaced, and, consequently,
valves are not fired at equal time intervals.
2. Jitter in the electronic circuitry of the current regulator
Even with the balanced voltage, this may sometime cause variation
in firing angles from their normal by 10 or 20.
3. High gain and short time constant in current regulator
Combination of high gain and short time constant in current
regulator may cause alternate early and late ignitions.
4. Inverters normally operate on CEA control, and unbalanced three-
phase voltage can again lead to unequal timed firing.
Harmonics and Filters 84

5. Interaction of harmonics with fundamental currents

Interaction of characteristics harmonics with fundamental currents in
non-linear elements of the power system, which produces sum and
difference frequency harmonics is also suggested to be the cause of
production of non-characteristics harmonics.
3.4.2 Amplification of non-characteristics harmonics
The addition of harmonics to the fundamental three-phase voltage
wave shifts the times of voltage from zeros from the zeros of the
fundamental waves alone. These shift cause unequally spaced firings of the
valves, which, in turn generates uncharacteristic AC harmonics.
If any of these current harmonics meets a high impedance, significant
voltage harmonics of like order and are produced. This particular harmonic
is amplified by positive feedback. If the loop gain is high enough, a
harmonic oscillation of increasing amplitude is produced: this is instability.
3.4.3 Consequences
Uncharacteristic harmonics
1. Increase telephone interference, because it is not feasible to
provide adequate filtering of each order of them, and
2. In some cases, causes instability of CC control.
Troubles in the Converter and on the AC power System
1. Extra loss and heating in machine and capacitors
2. Overvoltage due to resonance
3. Interference with the ripple control unit
4. Instability of the constant current control of converters
Troubles in the Telecommunication system
1. Noise on voice-frequency telephone lines
Harmonics and Filters 85


3.6.1 Increased Pulse Number
In low voltage high current rectifier, high pulse number have been
used sometimes used, ranging from 24 to 108. This means of reducing
harmonics is very effective as long as all valves are in service, but it requires
complicated transformer connection. In HV high current converter for dc
transmission, problems of insulation of the converter transformer to
withstand high alternating voltage in combination with high direct voltage
dictate simple transformer connection. A pulse number of 12 is easily
obtained with simple connection of two six pulse valve groups, as we have
seen and 24 pulse can be obtained with four six pulse groups by use of a
phase shifting transformer bank in conjunction with two 12 pulse converter.
The required phase shift is 15°.
The effectiveness of 12 or 24-pulse converter in reducing harmonics is
somewhat decreased when one valve group is out of service. The 12-pulse
converter has some advantages over the six pulses converter even when one
bridges is out of service though less than when all are in service.
3.6.2 Filters
Any necessary reduction in harmonics outputs of the converter
beyond that accomplished by increase of pulses number must be done by
harmonics filter.
Filters are almost always needed on the AC side of the converter and
on the DC side also. The ac filters serves two purposes simultaneously:
supplying reactive power of fundamental frequency in addition to reducing
harmonics. The filter capacitors are required for supply of reactive power.
Thus we are led to concept of the minimum filter, which is required for
harmonics reduction only in installation where the reactive power required
Harmonics and Filters 86

by the converter can be supplied by the ac system without reinforcing the

later. A filter costing more than the minimum filter not only supplies
additional reactive power but also generally gives better filtering.
3.7.1 Purpose
The AC harmonics filters serves two purposes: (1) to reduce the
harmonics voltage and current in the ac power network to acceptable levels
and (2) to provide all or part of the reactive power consumed by the
converter, the remaining being supplied by shunt capacitor banks, by
synchronous condensers, or by the ac power system. The dc harmonics
filters serve only to reduce harmonics on the dc line.
3.7.2 Classification
The filters at a convertor station may be classified by their location,
their manner of connection to the main circuit, their sharpness of tuning, the
number and frequency of their resonance. Location
Filters are located on both ac and dc sides of convertor. Filter on the
ac side may be connected either on the primary side of the convertor
transformer or on the tertiary winding if one is provided for this purposes.
Filters are never connected to the secondary winding. Series or Shunt
Harmonics may be
A. impeded in passing from the convertor to the power network or
line by a high series impedance or
B. diverted by a low shunt impedance or
C. Both.
Harmonics and Filters 87

The series filter must carry the full current of the main circuit and
must be insulated throughout for full voltage to ground. The shunt filter can
be grounded at one end and carries only the harmonics current for which it is
tuned plus a fundamental current much smaller than that of the main circuit.
Hence, a shunt filter is much cheaper than a series filter of equal
Shunt filter are used exclusively on the ac side. On the dc side, the dc
reactor, which is obviously a series element, constitutes all part of the dc
filter. It serves several additional functions however, that require series
connection. The remainder of the dc filter consists of shunt branches. Sharpness of Tuning
Two kinds are used (a) the tuned filter which is sharply tuned to one
or two of the lower harmonics frequencies ,such as the fifth and seventh and
(b) the damped filter which if shunt connected , offers a low impedance over
a broad band of frequencies embracing.
3.7.3 Cost of Filters
The capital cost of ac filter is in the range of 5 to 15% of the cost of
the terminal equipment .A minimum filter is one that adequately suppress
harmonics at the least cost and supplies some reactive power but perhaps not
all that is required. A minimum cost filter may not gives adequate filtering.
About 60% of the capital cost of the filter is that of the capacitor Hence,
substantial saving are possible by judicious choice of kind of capacitor.
Harmonics and Filters 88

3.7.4 AC Filters Types
On the basis of tuning and resonance frequency (ies) the AC filter can
be classifies as
Table 5.2 Filter configuration and impedance characteristics
Harmonics and Filters 89 Criteria for the Adequacy of AC Filter

Ideally, the criterion should be the absence of all detrimental effects
from harmonics, including telephone interference, which is the most difficult
effect to eliminate entirely. This criterion is impractical from both technical
and economics standpoints. From the technical standpoint of filter design,
the distribution of harmonics throughout the ac network is too difficult to
determine in advance. From the economic standpoint, the reduction of
telephone interference can generally be accomplished more economical by
taking some of the measures in the telephone system and others in the power
3.7.5 DC Filters
The harmonics in the DC voltage across the converter contain both
characteristic and non-characteristics order. The harmonic current generated
in the line can be computed from the knweledge of harmonic voltage sources
ar the converters, smoothing reactor, DC filter and line parameters. The
effectiveness of DC filter is judged by following criteria Criteria for Effectiveness of DC Filter
1. Maximum voltage TIF (Telephone interference factor) on DC high
voltage bus.
2. Maximum induced noise voltage (INV) in milli volts / Km in a parallel
test line one kilometer away from the HVDC line.
Converter faults and Protections

Chapter 4


As in AC system, the faults are caused by malfunctioning of the
equipments and controller failure of insulation caused by external source.
The faults have to be detected and the system has to be protected by
switching and control action such that the disruption in the power
transmission is minimized
Apart from disrupting the normal operation, the various faults that can
occur also cause the stressing of the equipment due to overcurrent and
overvoltages. In a converter station, the valves are the most critical
equipment, which need to be protected against damage caused by the rise in
the junction temperature of thyristor, which is caused by excessive losses in
the device and sensitivity to overvoltage.
4.2.1 General
There are three basic types of fault occurring in a converter station can
be categorized as:
• Faults due to malfunctions of valves and controllers
• Arc backs (of back fire) in mercury arc valve
• Arc through (fire through)
• Misfire
• Quenching or current extinction
• Commutation failure in inverter
• Short circuit in a converter station
Converter faults and Protections 91

4.2.2 Arc Backs

The arc back is the failure of the valve to block in the reverse
direction and results in the temporary destruction of the rectifying property
of the valve due to conduction in the reverse direction. This is a major fault
in mercury arc valves and is of random nature. This is a non self clearing
fault and result in severe stresses on transformer windings as the incidence
on arc backs is common.
Thyristor do not suffer from arc-backs, which has led to the exclusion of
mercury arc valve from modern converter stations.
Among the factors that tend to increase the occurrence of the arc-
backs are the following:
• High peak inverse voltage
• High voltage jumps
• High rate of change of current at the end of conduction
• High rate of increase of inverse voltage
Arc-back results in line-to-line short circuits, which subject the
transformer and valve to much greater current than does the normal
When an arc-back is detected, the main bridge valve should be
blocked, and the bypass valve should be unblocked as soon as possible. The
bridge should remain bypassed until the faulty valve is capable of
withstanding normal inverse voltage.
Converter faults and Protections 92

4.2.3 Arcthrough
Arcthrough is conduction in forward direction during blocking period.
It can be caused by the failure of the negative grid bias, by a defect in
the grid circuit, by the too early occurrence of a positive grid pulse, or by a
sufficiently great positive transient overvoltage on the grid or anode.
Arcthrough in Rectifier & Inverter
This arcthrough merely reduces the ignition delay angle from its
normal valve to a smaller valve or zero. Its effect on the waveshapes of
current voltage is small, while arcthrough in a inverter produces similar
effect to those produced by commutation failure
4.2.4 Misfire
Misfire occurs when incoming gate pulse is missing and valve is
unable to fire i.e. failure of valve to ignite.
It may be caused by failure of grid pulse or by low or reversed net
cathode current
In an inverter persistent misfire leads to average bridge voltage going
to zero while AC voltage is injected into the link. This results in large
current voltage oscillations in the DC link.
4.2.5 Quenching or Current Extinction
Quenching is the extinction of current which can occur in a valve
when current through it falls below holding current. The current extinction
can result in overvoltage occurs across the valve due to current chopping in
an oscillatory circuit formed by the smoothing reactor and the DC line
Converter faults and Protections 93

Occurrence of transient at low value of bridge current in mercury arc
valves it may occur as a result of insufficient ionization.
Quenching of the arc soon after conduction starts has almost the same
effects as failure to begin conduction (misfire). These include a short circuit
of the DC terminals of the bridge for a short while, with the consequent
collapse of direct voltage and interruption of the alternating current.
Quenching may give a high voltage across the break, that is, across the
valve, as well as across lumped inductances.
• The tank temperature is automatically controlled to the right value.
• Protection against current chopping is employed against quenching.
4.2.6 Commutation Failure
Because of the turn-off time requirements of thyristor, there is need to
maintain a minimum value of the extinction angle defined by
 0 –.–
The overlap angle  is a function of the commutation voltage and the
DC current. The reduction in the voltage or increase in the current or both
can result in an increase in the overlap angle which can result in MIN.
This gives rise to commutation failure. The current in the incoming valve
will diminish to zero and the outgoing valve will be left carrying the full link
Because of
• the increased direct current
• low alternating voltage (may be caused by short circuit)
Converter faults and Protections 94

• or a combination of 1 and 2,
Commutation is not completed before the alternating commutation
EMF reverses. Thereafter direct current is shifted back from the incoming
valve to the valve that was expected to go out.
Single and Double Commutation Failure
If the causes which lead to commutation failure in outgoing valve in
first instance have disappeared, bridge operation returns to normal state.
Thus if single commutation occurs, it is self-clearing. Double Commutation
Failure is the failure of two successive commutations in the same cycle.
This occurs when the conditions caused by first commutation failure persist.
The following are the effects of a single commutation failure.
1. The bridge voltage remains zero for a period exceeding 1/3 of a cycle,
during which the DC current tends to increase.
2. There is no AC current for the period in which the two valves in an
arm are left conducting.
3. The commutation failure in a bridge can lead to consequential
commutation failures in the series connected bridge unless the rate of
rise of current is sufficiently limited by the series connected
smoothing reactor.
1. After the occurrence of the commutation failure, the succeeding
commutation is initiated earlier by the C.E.A. control system.
2. If the failure is caused by low alternating voltage, the reappearance of
normal alternating voltage helps prevent further failures.
3. In the event of persistent commutation failure, the bridge in which
they appear should be blocked and bypassed.
Converter faults and Protections 95

4.2.7 Short Circuit in a Bridge

This fault has very low probability as the valves are kept in valve hall
with air conditioning. However, bushing flashover can lead to a short circuit
across the bridge and produce large current peaks in the valve that are
conducting. Short circuit current is significant only in rectifier bridges.
The worst case is when the short circuit occurs at the instant of firing
a valve at .  0. the peak current are of the order of 10 – 12 times rated
current and the thyristor valves must have surge current ratings above this
It is similar to arcback in many cases, and the protection against it is
the same as that against an arcback, that is,
1. Blocking the pulses when the fault current goes to zero, the valve
assumes blocking state provided the voltage across it is not too high.
2. If the valve is unable to block the forward voltage, additional loops of
overcurrents results and this can be avoided only by tripping the AC
circuit breaker.
4.3.1 General
Protection of HVDC System can be divided into following three
1. DC Reactor
2. Overvoltage protection
3. Overcurrent protection
Converter faults and Protections 96

4.3.2 DC Reactor
These reactors, usually having inductance of 0.4 to 1.0 H, are
connected in series with each pole of each converter station. They serve
following purposes:
1. Prevent consequent commutation failure by limiting the rate of
increase of direct current.
2. Decrease the harmonic voltage and current in the DC line.
3. To smooth the ripple in the direct current sufficiently to prevent the
current from becoming discontinuous.
4.3.3 Voltage Oscillations and Valve Dampers

This is a damper circuit used to limit the rate of rise of inverse voltage
and the peak inverse voltage. Such circuits are required also across thyristor
for avoiding their breaking down on inverse voltage exceeding their rated
value. Typical arrangement for valve dampers is shown in Figure 4.1
Converter faults and Protections 97

4.3.4 Current Oscillations and Anode Dampers

If ignition of valve is delayed, a positive voltage builds up across it
which collapses when the valve is ignited. Any stray capacitance across the
valve is charged to this voltage and discharges through the valve as soon as
the latter ignites. Because of inductance (either lumped or stray) and low
resistance, in the discharge circuit, the discharge is oscillatory and lightly
damped. These current oscillations have detrimental effects like radio
interference. To damp out these oscillations, Anode reactor and resistor are
added as shown in Figure 4.2

Case Study

Chapter 5


Vindhyachal HVDC back-to-back station is the first commercial
HVDC project in India, which has been established for the asynchronous
connection between western and northern regions. On the northern side it is
connected to SSTPS via a 400 KV transmission line and on the Western side
to VSTPS via 400 KV bus extensions. Since June 1989, the station is in
commercial operation, benefiting both the regions through power exchange
as and when called for by system conditions, Built at a capital cost of
Rs. 176 Crore it constitute and important asset of Power Grid Corporation of
India Limited (PGCIL).
Vindhyachal HVDC Back to Back Station is located in the Sidhi
district of east Madhya Pradesh, bordering the state of Uttar Pradesh, about
200 KM south of Varanasi. It is situated inside the NTPC/VSTPP Plant area.
The total station occupies an area of 1.88 Lakhs Sq. Meter. There are
two identical blocks of 250 MW capacity each. The 12-pulse rectifier and
inverter (converters) are located inside the valve halls of the station building.
Twenty four thyristors constitute one valve and there are such 48 valves in
the two blocks. The valves are water cooled using demineralised water,
which is produced is a separate treatment unit in the valve cooling system.
Heat exchangers and cooling towers also form part of cooling system.
Case Study 99

Associated 400 KV Switchyard has total 25 bays – four converter

bays, fourteen filter bays, two shunt reactor bays, two northern connection
bays, one tie bay and two western connection bays.
Capita Cost : 176 Crore (1986)
Capacity : 2*250 MW
2 hr overload : 2*275 MW
Min. power per block : 25 MW
Rated DC Voltage : 70 KV
Rated DC Current : 3600 A
Converter Transformer : 400/30.5, 156 MVA
Valve Type : OCTUPLE, 3 No. per Block
Thyristor : YST 60, 192 per Valve
Filters : 11/13, 4*60 MVAr (2 each NR and WR)
: 5/24, 4*40 MVAr (2 each NR and WR)
: 3/27, 4*60 MVAr (2 each NR and WR)
Capacitor Block : 2*40 MVAr Connected to WR
Shunt Reactor : 2*93.2 MVAr (NR and WR)
Commissioning Date : Block-1; Block-2 17th & 22th April, 89

Case Study 101

5.6.1 Converter Transformer
Converter transformer used in Vindhyachal HVDC BTB has
extended delta configuration. 12-pulse converter is obtained by the
combination of two extended delta connections. This lead to the
requirement of only one spare transformer which would have been two if
star-star and star-delta transformer would have been used to obtain a 12-
pulse converter. Phasor diargram of extended delta connection is shown in
the figure 5.3

Type : TCA 55
Line Side ABC : 400+16-12 *1.25% KV 156 MVA
Valve Side abc : 30.5 KV 156 MVA
Temperature Rise : Oil 500 C
Winding 550 C
Case Study 102

Winding Bushing
ABC 1300 1080 1800 1300
abc 325 270 450 375
N 170 --- 250 ---
Impedance 400/30.5 KV 18.6% 156 MVA
480/30.5 KV 19.5% 156 MVA
340/30.5 KV 19.0% 156 MVA
Connection and Phasor Diagram

Case Study 103

5.6.2 Thyristor Valve

Figure 5.5 shows the arrangement of thyristor valve in valve hall.
There are total 592 thyristors in one block. One module contains 24
thyristors in series and there are such eight layers per phase (hanging unit)
with three hanging sections (one for each phase) per block, total number of
thyristors there are, 3*8*24 = 576 thyristors.

Case Study 104 Rating of thyristor:

Non-repetitive reverse voltage Vrsm : 5350V
Non –repetitive forward voltage Vdsm : 4850V
Repetation voltage Wrsm,Vdrm : 3950V
Octuple valve section without hanging section
Height : 6400mm
Width : 2700mm
Length : 4250mm
Mass : 4000Kg
Thyristor module:
Length : 1200mm
Width : 900mm
Mass : 155Kg
Length : 550mm
Width : 930mm
Mass : 100Kg Technical data of 6-pulse bridge converter
Rated DC voltage : 35 KV
Normal ideal no-load voltage : 41.2 KV
Maximum ideal no-load voltage : 46.6 KV
Nominal delay angle : 150 electrical
Nominal margin of commutation angle : 200 electrical
Minimum power flow per blocks is decided by the holding current
value and minimum limit is 25 MW per block.
Number of thyristor module/ octuple valve : 32
Number of thyristor module / single valve :8
Case Study 105 Single thyristor module

Figure 5.5 Showing the arrangement of 24 thyristors in series in a single
thyristor module.

Case Study 106 Octuple valve

Figure 5.6 shows the arrangement of octuple valve at Vindhyachal
Grid where each thyristor shaped symbol represents 24 actual thyristors in
series as shown in figure 5.5
Case Study 107

5.6.3 Smoothing Reactor

Type : XMZ 40/3600 0.04 Henry
Rated direct voltage : 70 KV
Maximum direct voltage : 71kv
Cooling : OFAF
Temperature rise at 3600 A.
Winding : 55 K
Top oil : 50 K
Impulse level:
HV winding : 450 BIL
HV bushing : 450 BIL
Core and coil : 52800Kg
Tank and fittings : 1600Kg
Oil : 13500Kg
Total : 82300Kg
In tank : 14500L
In coolers : 610L
Pressure : 0.43Kg /cm2
Case Study 108

5.6.4 Filters


Table 7.1 Values of filter parameters

Type Æ Base Filter Base Filter
Branch (harmonic 5/24 11/13 3/27
Fundamental Reactive 41.60 60 60
Power (MVAr)
Resonance 250/1200 538/650 150/1350
Frequency (Hz)
Reactor Quality 200 200 200
C (µF) C1 C2 C1 C2 C1 C2
1.19 32.1 1.19 32.1 1.19 32.1
L (mH) L1 L2 L1 L2 L1 L2
26.6 37.0 60.6 2.25 12.9 114.2
R (Ÿ R1 R2 R R1 R2
400 2308 66.9 329 2666

Filters employed in Vindhyachal HVDC Back to Back Station are

double tuned. These can be Base filters, or auxiliary filters. Base filters are
those which are very much essential for elimination of predominated
harmonics without which the efficient operation of the unit would not have
Case Study 109

been possible. Total 8 base filters (4 for each WR and NR) are connected
to the main bus. Besides these filters, auxiliary filter are also employed
which mainly improves the efficiency of operation.


5.7.1 Control hierarchy
Control of the DC link is obtained in two steps
Step I : Valve Control
Step II : Block Control
. Valve control
Valve control unit convert the controls pulses to firing pulses. It
operates in loop in loop out (LILO) system. It sends a status check pulse to
each thyristor, and if state is favorable for firing a return pulse is obtained
which lead to generation of firing pulse. Block control
A block control controls the performance of one block such as
start/stop order, power order etc. In case of communication failure, a
backup control is also provided
5.7.2 Control modes
There are basically two modes of operation of whole Back-to-Back
station namely:
1. Block control mode
2. Joint control mode
Under block control mode, power transfer through each block is
monitored separately and each block operates independent of each other.
While in case of joint control mode basically control operation of both
block is same but power order issued by RLDC is divided equally among
Case Study 110

two blocks and each block is set for half of the total power to be
Joint control mode is said to be the highest control mode of
operation as in case of failure of one block power flow can be continuous
and reliability is maintained. Here it will be sufficient to understand only
one mode ie Block control mode as control procedure for each block is
5.7.3 Block control
The block control, two redundant for each of the two 250 MW
converter mainly contains sequence for start/stop, power control, converter
firing control and converter protection. The units for the power stepping
are located in the block control. There are back-up control panels for each
block, located in the block control cubicles. The block controls for each
block are duplicated (redundant). Converter sequence for start up and shunt down
This unit is automatically administrating start up and shut down. It
keeps track of breaker status, currents and voltages. It de-blocks and blocks
the valve in right order and set the correct initial firing angle. Block power control
The block power control mainly contains the units that converts and
i/p power order to and O/p power order by dividing with a voltage that is a
function of power order and power direction. When two blocks are
controlled separately, the power order is taken from the block part of the
control desk via a data link. When two blocks are controlled together, the
power order is taken from the power order distribution unit in the station
Case Study 111 Tap changer control

Tap changer control senses the voltage on AC side of the converter
transformer and changes the transformer taps accordingly to maintain the
required power transfer. Tap changer control is usually slow than grid
control. Converter firing control
Converter firing control controls the firing order of the rectifier and
inverter side thyristors. Usually the frequency at which the two grids (WR
and NR) operates is different so same firing order frequency can not be
provided to the two units. On rectifier side, firing order is calculated by
measuring the frequency of line side of converter transformer and this
frequency is send as the reference for firing pulse generation of that side
only. Similar operation is repeated for inverter side hence continuous
monitoring of the frequency of the two sides is mandatory for the
converter firing control. Valve control
Valve control is same as explained in section

5.7.4 STATION LEVEL CONTROLLER Reactive power controller
It can be set for automatically switching in/out AC harmonic filters,
shunt capacitors and shunt reactors to compensate for reactive power
consumption of the converters and to control reactive power exchange
within ± 10 MVAR with Western Grid and ± 25 with Northern Grid Damping controller
Vindhyachal STPP is connected to Western Grid by 400 KV long
transmission lines. Damping controller provides positive damping to
Case Study 112

electro-mechanical oscillations between VSTPS machines and rest of the

system disturbances, provided power flow is from North to West. Frequency controller
Prevents tripping of VSTPP generators in case of islanded condition
at VSTPS by controlling DC power through HVDC.


5.8.1 Valve Cooling System
Efficient heat dissipation is one of the most important aspect for
reliable operation of the whole unit. It is found that 8% decrease in
ambient temperature (temp. at which valve operates) increases the capacity
of valve by 20%. Valve cooling system is employed for the dissipation of
heat generated in thyristor and snubber-circuit. Mainly it consists of two
Fine water Circuit: It is a closed loop circuit with very low electrical
continuously filtered through deionizer and deoxidizer tank so as to reduce
its electrical conductivity and corrosive action on metallic pipes. This is
passed through two chambers:
1. C/A (Cation/Anion) Chamber : used for deionization
2. Deoxidizer Chamber
Raw Water Circuit: This water circuit is used for the extracting the heat of
fine water through heat exchanger. This is an open loop circuit and make
up water is continuously maintained by external reservoir.
5.8.2 D G Set
Diesel Generator of 250 KVA mounted in DG Room is used in case
of tripping of all feeders. It is automatically (and manually) operated and
Case Study 113

used to supply the power to auxiliaries requiring 415 volts 3 phase AC and
220 Volts AC supply.
Make : NGEF in collaboration with AEG Telefunction
Type : SGBD 312 Z 4/4
250KVA, 200KW, 3 phase, 50Hz, Y- 415V, 348 A
Insulation class :F
Speed : 1500rpm
Duty cycle : S1
Exciter ratings : 44V, 2.3A
5.8.3 Battery Room
In the battery room, three types of voltage levels are obtained
• 24 V, 500 Ah: 4 banks are arranged, 2 for each block. This usually
supplies power to various relays, controlled cords etc
• 48 V, 200 Ah: Two banks, one for each block. This provide
operating voltage for PLCC purpose
• 220 V, 200 Ah: This voltage level is used for controlling outdoor
equipments, CB, grounding equipments etc.
Normally, battery voltage is utilized for the desired purpose only if its
terminal voltage is within 90 % of its limit.
5.8.4 Battery Charging Room
It has two charging mode
1. Float : voltage control mode
2. Boost : Current control mode
Case Study 114

Boost mode is under operation when it is required to charge the

batteries while float mode is normal operating mode. Normal charging
current is of the order of 500 mA.
5.8.5 Fire Fighting System
This comprises two sections namely VESDO and HALON Room.
Very Early Smoke Detecting Operator: It is especially used for
Valve Halls where high protection against fire is required. It detects even a
small trace of smoke in very early stage. Detectors are mounted near each
thyristor module and high safety zones. These smoke detector send signals
to HALON room and initiates the respective fire extinguisher.
In HALON Room, fire extinguishers are mounted for each section
of the whole system including Valve Halls, PLCC room, Battery room, and
all important equipments including transformer, Smoothing reactor etc.
5.8.6 PLCC Room
Power Line Carrier Communication plays very vital role in efficient
control and operation of the whole system. Frequency range over which
information is transmitted is allowed by telecom department.
There are three sections in PLCC Room.
Speech section just enables the transfer of speech signals at carrier
frequency (in the range of KHz.)
Main 1 Main 1 operated tripping circuits
Main 2In case of mal-operation or failure of Main 1, Main 2 section comes
into picture instantaneously. This ensures the reliability of operation.
Case Study 115


Vindhyachal HVDC Back to Back station is in commercial
operation since june1989. The annual station availability figure remains
above the guaranteed valve of 97%. The average station utilization figure
is about 20%.
The utilization of the station has always been need based and the
factor is likely to go up in the future with improved inter regional
According to reactive power requirement of northern and western
systems at the local level, the back-to-back station also supplies up to
100 MVAR using the available reactive power elements.
The preventive and breakdown maintenance of valve hall, control
system and bay equipment is carried out by the Operation and Maintenance
staff that constantly upgrades their skill through on the job experience. The
significant contribution of the Operation and Maintenance team include
modification in frequency controller and overhauling of 400KV SF6


With the advent of power semiconductor converter application in

power system, the existing power transmission technology has undergone
rigorous changes. HVDC Back to Back interconnection is the recent
development in this area which not only improve the reliability and
technical performance of the existing system but incentives to
geographically interconnect areas with significant differentials in power
supply costs can improve the economy of system operation.

Although operation of converter generates current and voltage

harmonics which spreads along the AC and DC side, additional cost of
harmonics filters is overshadowed by associated advantages. Lagging
power factor operation of line commutated converters also requires
additional reactive power supply which is compensated by reactive power
sources. The performance can be improved by using IGBT and HVDC
Light (which is a scope of further development) which gives independent
control of active power and reactive power at both stations. Further, with
use of IGBT as converter elements (still to be analyzed), compact design
and high switching performance may be possible.

Advanced microprocessor based control and protection schemes

have reduced the probability of occurance and severity of faults in
operation to much extent and precise and reliable exchange of power have
been made possible. Hence, in terms of functionality of the new systems
and the resulting application opportunities this is a very attractive solution
to many challenging situations.

• EDWARD WILSON KIMBARK, Direct Current Transmission (Volume I),
John Wiley & Sons Publication
• C. L. WADHWA, Electrical Power System (Third Edition), New Age
International (P) Limited, Publishers (INDIA)
• MARTIN J. HEATHCOTE, J & P Transformer Book (Twelfth Edition), Newnes
• S. RAO, EHVAC, HVDC Transmission & Distribution Engineering (Third Edition),
Khanna Publishers, New Delhi (INDIA)
• K. R. PADIYAR, HVDC Transmission, Wiley Eastern Limited (First Edition,
Second Reprint 1993), New Delhi (INDIA)

India Limited (INDIA)
• HVDC CONTROL, Asea Transmission (SWEDEN)


Corporation (INDIA) & ABB (SWEDEN)

• Power System Interconnections using HVDC Links, (IX SYMPOSIUM OF
#$$ $TC\KN  ,CP

• HVDC Technologies – The Right Fit for the Application (2002 ABB
Bibliography 118

• High Voltage Direct Current (HVDC) Transmission Systems

Technology Review Paper, (ENERGY WEEK 2000, WASHINGTON, D.C,
USA,) G.J. Roberto Rudervall (ABB Sweden), Raghuveer Sharma (ABB
Sweden), J.P. Charpentier (World Bank ,US)

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