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The Treaty of Versailles

Draft: Presented May 7, 1919

[Note: This is a simplified and abridged version of the treaty presented by the Allied and
Associated Powers to the German delegation on May 7, 1919. The text is adapted from the
version found in the Foreign Relations of the United States series, on pp. 335-379 of v. 3 of the
volumes on the Paris Peace Conference. In addition to a few minor omissions and some
rearrangement of material to better suit the format of this simulation, the text entirely omits the
Covenant of the League of Nations, a major issue at the Conference which we discuss little in
this class.]

I. League of Nations
A. Terms of German Membership
i. Germany will be allowed membership into the League of Nations
after a period of six years subsequent to signing this Treaty.
ii. Membership will only be granted if Germany complies will all of the
terms of military, naval and aerial disarmament and provisions of
the Treaty.
iii. The terms of Council membership does not apply to Germany for
the first five years of its membership into the League. Thereafter
Germany’s eligibility for membership into the Council will be
identical to other Members of the League.
iv. The Treaty of Versailles cannot be renegotiated under any judicial
institution including the League of Nations.
v. Nothing in this Covenant shall be deemed to affect the validity of
international engagements, such as treaties of arbitration or
regional understandings like the Monroe doctrine or the Treaty of
Versailles, for securing the maintenance of peace.
II. Boundaries and Political Clauses – Western Europe
A. Boundaries of Germany
i. With Belgium: The north-eastern boundary of the territory of Moresnet,
east of the Kreis of Eupen, west of the Kreis of Montjoie (former
frontier), north-east and east of the Kreis of Malmedy, as far as
ii. With Luxemburg: The frontier of 1914.
iii. With France: The frontier of July, 1870, from Luxemburg to Switzerland
(the customs frontier being that of the territory of the Saar Basin).
iv. With Switzerland: The present frontier.
B. Political Clauses for Western Europe
i. Belgium
1. The treaties of 1839 will be abrogated and may be replaced by
Conventions between Belgium, the Netherlands and the Allied and
Associated Powers; Germany binds herself to recognize these

2. Germany recognizes the sovereignty of Belgium over the contested
territory of Moresnet. She renounces Prussian Moresnet to the
west of the road from Liege to Aix-la-Chapelle. She cedes to
Belgium the Kreise of Eupen and Malmedy. Under the Belgian
authorities, the inhabitants will have six months within which to
express their desire to remain, wholly or in part, under German
sovereignty. Belgium will thereupon accept the decision of the
League of Nations.
ii. Luxemburg: Germany renounces the benefit of all the treaties relating to
Luxemburg, recognizes that the Grand Duchy has ceased to form part of
the German Zollverein, renounces all rights to the exploitation of the
railways, adheres to the termination of the neutrality of the Grand
Duchy, and accepts in advance all international arrangements which may
be concluded in regard to that country by the Allied and Associated
iii. The Left Bank of the Rhine: Germany will neither maintain nor
construct any fortifications either on the left bank of the Rhine or at a
distance of less than 50 kilometers from the east bank of the Rhine. In
the area thus defined, Germany will not maintain any armed force, will
undertake no military maneuvers, and will preserve no material facilities
for mobilization.
iv. Saar Basin: The section relating to the Saar Basin: (1) Fixes the
boundaries of the territory to which the stipulations of the Treaty apply;
(2) Records the cession to France of the complete and absolute
ownership, unencumbered and free from all debts or charges (with
exclusive rights of exploitation) of the coal mines of the Saar Basin, as
compensation for the destruction of the coal mines in the north of
France, and as part payment towards the total reparation due from
Germany; (3) Assures to France, as owner of the mines, all the economic
and juridical guarantees requisite for their exploitation; (4) Determines
the rights of the population and the status of workmen; (5) Fixes for a
period of 15 years the political and administrative regime of the territory
of the Saar Basin, as Germany renounces in favor of the League of
Nations the government of the said territory during that period; (6)
Determines the rules of voting, whereby, at the expiration of the period
of 15 years, the population of the territory of the Saar Basin will freely
make known under which sovereignty it desires to be placed. .
1. Boundaries
a. The territory of the Saar Basin comprises the Kreise of
Sarrelouis, Sarrebrueck, Ottweiler, Saint-Ingbert, part of
the Kreise of Mersig, of Saint-Wendel, of Homburg, and of
b. It is bounded:
i. To the south and west by the new frontier of France.
ii. To the north by the administrative boundaries of the
Kreise or cantons incorporated in the said territory

following a general line leaving the Saar at 5
kilometers to the north of Mettlach and rejoining to
the south-east of Mettnich the southern frontier of
the Principality of Birkenfeld.
iii. To the east by a line passing about 4 kilometers
north-east of Saint-Wendel, leaving Breitenbach
and Waldmohr outside the territory of the Saar,
encircling Homburg, following the line of the crest
of the east bank of the Blies and rejoining the
French frontier to the south of Hornbach.
c. This area comprises 161,000 hectares.
d. Its population is 647,000 inhabitants.
2. Cession of mines: The complete and absolute cession applies to all
deposits of coal, whether concessions have been granted for them
or not, to all their accessories and plant both on and below the
surface, especially their electric power stations, stocks, employees’
and workmen’s dwellings, etc., and in general to everything of
which those who own or exploit the mines have the possession or
3. Guarantees for Exploitation
a. These guarantees apply to railway and canal tariffs, to
transport material required for the personnel or products of
the mines, to subsidiary works on the ways of
communication or to purchases of land which France may
regard as necessary for purposes of exploitation, to
hospitals, schools of French language, etc., create by
France for the personnel of the mines and their
dependencies, to the distribution, dispatch and
determination of the sale prices of products.
b. All measures of forfeiture, forced sale, expropriation or
requisition are forbidden so far as the mines and their
dependencies are concerned. The same guarantee against
requisition is established so far as concerns the personnel.
No impediment shall be placed in the way of the
introduction of any labor which the French State may deem
necessary. France shall always be entitled to demand the
application for the purposes of exploitation the provisions
of the German mining legislation in force on November
11th, 1918.
c. The amount contributed by the mines either to the budget
of the territory or to the communal funds shall be fixed
with due regard to the ratio of the value of the mines to the
total taxable wealth of the territory.
d. Every person whom the French State may substitute for
itself in respect of the whole or part of its rights shall enjoy
the same prerogatives.

4. Guarantees for the Population
a. The workmen retain all the rights assured to them by
German legislation in force in the 11th November, 1918.
Those who are of French nationality shall have the right to
belong to French Labor Unions.
b. The French State will guarantee for the local consumption
of the territory a quantity of coal equal to the proportion
existing in 1913 between the amount consumed locally and
the total output of the Saar Basin.
5. Political and Administrative Regime
a. The Government of the territory of the Saar Basin will be
entrusted to a Commission of five members, appointed by
the Council of the League of Nations and comprising one
French member, one native German inhabitant of the Saar
Basin not a citizen of France, and three belonging to
countries other than France or Germany. The Chairman of
the Commission, selected from among these five members
by the Council of the League of Nations, is the executive
agent of the Commission. His powers, in the same way as
those of the members, run for one year, and are renewable.
b. This Commission shall possess within the territory all the
powers formerly belonging to Germany, Prussia, or
Bavaria, especially for the appointment and dismissal of
officials, the administration and operation of all public
services, including railways and canals, the protection
abroad of the interests of the inhabitants, the modification
of laws in case of need, the organization of justice, which
will be rendered in its name, the levying of taxes and dues;
also the power to decide all questions arising from the
interpretation of the Treaty.
c. The inhabitants will retain their nationality. However,
those who desire to acquire a different nationality may do
so without any loss of their rights. They will be entitled to
vote, without distinction of sex, for the local assemblies.
There will be no military service and no fortifications. A
local gendarmerie will be organized. The conditions of
labor shall only be modified after consultation with the
workmen and in accordance with the principles adopted by
the League of Nations.
d. No modification may be made in the regime for the
exploitation of the mines without the French State being
previously consulted.
e. During five years the French Government reserves to itself
the right of limiting to the annual average of the quantities
imported into Alsace-Lorraine and France during the years
1911-13, the quantities which may be sent of all articles

coming from the Basin which include raw materials or
semi-manufactured goods imported duty free from
Germany; such average shall be determined after reference
to all available official information and statistics.
f. German Gold Reichsmarks by only residents in the
territory of the Saar Basin for the term of one month
can be exchanged for moneys equal to its equivalent to
French Gold Francs without fees. Furthermore, no
prohibition or restriction shall be imposed on the
circulation of French money.
6. Plebiscite
a. At the end of fifteen years, all persons resident in the
territory at the date of the signature of the Treaty will have
the right to vote on the definite regime. There are three
alternatives: Maintenance of the regime described above;
union with France; union with Germany. The vote will be
taken by communes or districts. The League of Nations
will determine the definite regime, taking into account the
vote given by its inhabitants.
b. If a portion of the mines is situated in a district united with
Germany, the latter, except in case of a direct agreement
between herself and France, must repurchase that portion at
a price payable in gold and fixed by experts. If, within a
period of six months following the decision of the experts,
the price fixed has not been paid, France will acquire
definite sovereignty over the territory in question. If
Germany repurchases the mines in question, she is bound
thenceforward to sell to the French State or French
nationals such quantity of coal of the Saar Basin as may be
warranted by their needs at that time.
v. Alsace-Lorraine
1. Restoration
a. The High Contracting Parties recognize the moral
obligation to redress the wrong done by Germany in 1871,
both to the rights of France and to the wishes of the
population of Alsace and Lorraine, which were separated
from their country in spite of the solemn protest of their
representatives at the Assembly of Bordeaux.
b. Therefore:
i. The territories seized from France in 1871 are
restored to French sovereignty as from the 11th
November, 1918.
ii. Germany shall hand over to France all the
administrative documents, archives, etc., relating to
these territories.
2. Public Debt and State Properties

a. In consideration of the fact that Germany, in 1871, refused
either to assume a portion of the French debt or to pay for
the properties and estates of the French State, the territories
of Alsace-Lorraine shall return to France unencumbered
and free from all charges. All the properties of the Empire,
of the German States, of the Crown, and of former
sovereigns, etc., are transferred to France without
b. France will collect all taxes leviable since the 11th
November, 1918.
3. Nationality: The nationality of the inhabitants shall be settled by a
separate agreement between France and Germany on the following
general bases:
a. A distinction is made between the inhabitants who are
reinstated in French nationality as of right (Alsace-
Lorrainers who lost French nationality in 1871 and their
descendants), and those who are entitled to claim French
nationality within a year.
b. France will be solely responsible for the diplomatic and
consular protection of all persons who have formulated a
demand to this effect.
c. Germans who may remain domiciled in Alsace-Lorraine
can only acquire French nationality by naturalization on
special conditions.
4. Private Property
a. As regards private property, France reserves the right to
liquidate the property of German nationals, Germany being
liable to pay them compensation. However, the property of
German nationals who may be authorized to reside in
Alsace-Lorraine without acquiring French nationality shall
not be liquidated.
b. Germany shall reinstate Alsace-Lorrainers in possession of
all their properties and interests situated in Germany.
c. In accordance with the stipulations in the Part concerning
Reparation, Germany shall grant compensation for all
exactions imposed on the civil population in the form of
5. Pensions: The German Government undertakes to bear the expense
of civil and military pensions which had been acquired in Alsace-
Lorraine on the 11th November, 1918, and whose maintenance was
a charge on the German Empire.
6. Private Debts and Contracts: The mutual settlement of credits and
private debts, of contracts concluded between Alsace-Lorrainers
and Germans, of social insurances, of questions of literary or
artistic property, form the subject of special stipulations.
7. Judgments:

a. All civil and commercial judgments given subsequently to
the 3rd August 1914, as between Alsace-Lorrainers on the
one hand, and Germans or subjects of a power allied to
Germany on the other hand, shall only be capable of
execution after the issue of an exequatur by the
corresponding new Court of Alsace-Lorraine.
b. All judgments given against Alsace-Lorrainers for political
crimes or misdemeanors are annulled.
c. All appeals to the Imperial Court shall be suspended.
8. Ways of Communication: As regards Ways of Communication:
a. The regime for the Rhine is fixed by the Part entitled Ports,
Waterways and Railways.
b. The bridges over the Rhine become French property.
c. The Port of Kehl and the Port of Strasbourg shall be
constituted a single unit with a French manager, subject to
the supervision of the Central Rhine Commission, during a
period of seven years, which may be extended, for a further
period of three years by the aforesaid Commission.
d. All rights and railway concessions belonging to the Empire
(that is to say as regards the Alsace-Lorraine system) are
transferred to France, without payment.
9. Economic Clauses: As regards economic matters:
a. For a period of five years, the products of Alsace-Lorraine
shall be imported into Germany duty free, up to an amount
of the average quantities sent annually in the years 1911-
b. During the same period yarns, tissues, etc., which have
completed a finishing process in Alsace, shall be exported
freely from Germany, exempt from all customs, dues or
other charges, and shall be re-imported similarly.
c. The supply of electric power from the power stations on the
right bank shall continue for a period of ten years, up to the
amount of the consumption on the 11th November, 1918.
d. Germany renounces all stipulations providing for an
intervention in the trade in potash salts, and the benefit of
all agreements or laws affecting other products of Alsace-
e. France retains the right to prohibit in future all fresh
German participation, in Alsace-Lorraine, in all
exploitations or public services, in mines or quarries, and in
metallurgical establishments.
f. German Gold Reichsmarks by only residents in the
territory of the Alsace-Lorraine for the term of one
month can be exchanged for moneys equal to its
equivalent to French Gold Francs without fees.

C. Responsibilities for the War and Penalties
i. William II is publicly arraigned for a supreme offence against
international morality and the sanctity of Treaties. He will be tried by a
special tribunal composed of five judges, appointed by the Principal
Allied and Associated Powers.
ii. A request for his extradition shall be addressed to the Netherland
iii. Persons accused of acts in violation of the laws and customs of war shall
be brought before the military tribunals of the Allied and Associated
iv. Germany undertakes to hand over the persons accused.
v. In cases where the incriminating acts have been committed against the
nationals of several Powers, the military tribunals shall be composed of
members of the military tribunals of all the Powers concerned.
vi. Germany undertakes to furnish all necessary documents and
III. Boundaries and Political Clauses – Eastern Europe
A. Boundaries of Germany
i. With Austria: The frontier of 1914, up to Czecho-Slovakia.
ii. With Czecho-Slovakia: The frontier of 1914, with Bohemia and Silesia,
so far as the salient to the east of Neustadt.
iii. With Poland: From the point defined above; east of Falkenberg, the
boundary between Upper and Middle Silesia, west of Brandenburg, up
to the boundaries of Posen, defined by a boundary drawn between
at the north at the town of Glogow and at the south at the town of
Jelenia, refer to map in Appendix A for boundary and territory
iv. With Denmark: The frontier as fixed by special Articles.
v. Boundaries with East Prussia: The coast of the Baltic Sea to the north of
Proebbernau, the bend of the Elbinger Channel, the course of the Nogat,
of the Vistula, the southern boundary (of the Kris) of Marienwerder, of
Rosenberg, the boundary between West Prussia and East Prussia, the
boundary between Osterode and Neidenburg, the course of the Skottau,
of the Neide, north of Bialutten, the former Russian frontier up to the
east of Schmalleningken, the course of the Niemen, the Skierwieth arm
of the delta to the Kurische Nehrung 4 kilometers to the south-west of
B. Political Clauses for Eastern Europe
i. German Austria: Germany acknowledges and will strictly respect the
independence of Austria within the frontiers which may be fixed in a
Treaty between that State and the Principal Allied and Associated
Powers; she agrees that this independence will remain inalienable,
except with the consent of the Council of the League of Nations.
ii. Czecho-Slovak State
1. Germany recognizes the complete independence of this State,
which will include the autonomous territory of the Ruthenians to

the south of the Carpathians. She recognizes the frontiers of this
State as determined by the Allies.
2. Czecho-Slovak nationality is recognized as acquired by all German
nationals habitually resident in Czecho-Slovak territory.
3. Within a period of two years these German nationals will be
entitled to opt. The same provisions apply to Czecho-Slovaks who
are German nationals, and are habitually resident in Germany or
living abroad.
iii. Poland
1. Germany renounces in favor of Poland the territories bounded by
the Baltic, the western frontier of Poland, the former frontiers
between Austria and Germany, and Russia and Germany, as far as
the Niemen (this does not apply to East Prussia and the Free City
of Danzig), those boundaries being defined in Part II.A.iii.
2. A Commission, consisting of five members (one British, one
German, one American, one French, one Polish being
nominated by the principal Allied and Associated Powers) shall
delimit on the spot the frontier line between Poland and Germany.
3. Poland will grant to persons and to means of transport coming
from or destined for East Prussia the same rights as she gives to
her own nationals.
4. German nationals habitually resident on Polish territory will
acquire Polish nationality. A special authorization from the Polish
State will be necessary for those who became resident
subsequently to April 26th, 1886.
5. Within a period of two years these German nationals will be
entitled to opt. The same provisions apply to Poles who are
German nationals and habitually resident in Germany, or living
6. Poland consents to embody in a Treaty with the principal Powers:
a. Such provisions as those Powers may deem necessary to
protect the interests of inhabitants of Poland who differ
from the majority of the population in race, language, or
b. Provisions destined to protect freedom of transit and to
secure equitable treatment for the commerce of other
iv. East Prussia
1. In a stated area along the southern frontier the inhabitants will
indicate by a vote the state to which they wish to belong.
2. Within a period of fifteen days the German troops and authorities
will be withdrawn from this area, and will abstain from making
any requisitions therein. The said area will thereupon be placed
under the authority of a Commission of five members appointed by
the Allies. This Commission will be charged with the
administration and will arrange for the vote of the inhabitants, the

result of which will be determined by communes. Thereafter, the
Commission will propose a frontier line. The Principal Allied and
Associated Powers will fix the frontier. The German and Polish
authorities will then be entrusted with the administration of their
respective territories, and the powers of the Commission will
3. Like provisions will apply to the Kreise of Stuhm and Rosenberg,
and to the Kreise of Marienburg and Marienwerder to the east of
the Vistula.
4. The Principal Powers will fix the terms of a convention between
Poland, Germany, East Prussia, and Danzig in regard to facilities
for railway communication on the right bank of the Vistula,
between Poland and Danzig.
v. Memel: Germany renounces the territories comprised between the
Baltic, the frontier of East Prussia (defined in Part II.A.v.), and the
former Russo-German frontier.
vi. Free City of Danzig
1. Germany renounces in favor the Principal Allied and Associated
Powers the territory defined as follows: From the Baltic Sea, the
western frontier of East Prussia (as above defined) to the meeting
of the Vistula with the Nogat; downstream, the Vistula as far as a
point 6l.5 kilometers to the north of Dirschau; thence, westwards, a
point 8.5 kilometers to the north-east of Schoneck; then by the
median lines of the Lonkener See and the Pollenziner See, to a
point on the coast 1 kilometer south of Koliebken.
2. A Commission composed of three members, including a High
Commissioner appointed by the Principal Powers, one member
appointed by Germany and one member appointed by Poland, shall
be constituted within 15 days of the coming into force of the
present Treaty, for the purpose of delimiting on the spot the
3. The City of Danzig, together with the territory defined above, is
established as a Free City.
4. The constitution of the Free City shall be drawn up, in agreement
with a High Commissioner of the League of Nations, by
representatives of the City, and shall be placed under the guarantee
of the League of Nations.
5. The High Commissioner, resident in Danzig, shall deal in the first
instance with all differences arising between Poland and the Free
6. A Convention, the terms of which shall be fixed by the Principal
Powers, shall be concluded between Poland and Danzig with the
following objects:
a. To place Danzig within the limits of the Polish customs
frontiers, with a free area in the port;

b. To ensure to Poland the free use of all waterways, docks,
basins, wharves, etc., necessary for her imports and
c. To ensure to Poland the administration of the Vistula and of
the railway system of Danzig (except ways of purely local
interest) and of postal, telegraphic, and telephonic
communication between Poland and Danzig;
d. To provide against any discrimination to the detriment of
Poles within the Free City;
e. To provide that the Polish Government shall undertake the
conduct of the foreign relations of the Free City and the
protection of its citizens abroad.
7. German nationals ordinarily resident in Danzig will become
citizens of the Free City. During two years these residents will be
entitled to opt for German nationality.
8. All property belonging to the Empire or to any German State
situated within the territory of the Free City shall pass to the
Principal Powers for transfer to Danzig or to Poland according to
the decision of those Powers.
vii. Schleswig
1. The frontier between Germany and Denmark shall be fixed in
conformity with the wishes of the population.
2. A vote will be taken by the inhabitants of the territories of the
former German Empire situated to the north of the following line:
south bank of the Schlei to the south of Schleswig, the River
Reider Au as far as Hollingstedt and including it, the road leading
to Husum, which is included, and to the south of the islands of
Nordstrand, Sudfall, and Suderoog.
3. Conditions relating to the vote:
a. The withdrawal, within a period of ten days, of the German
authorities and troops, the dissolution of the Workmen’s
and Soldiers’ Councils in that area, which shall be placed
immediately under the authority of an International
Commission of five members, of whom three will be
designated by the Principal Powers. The Norwegian and
Swedish Governments will each be requested to designate a
b. In one defined section, which forms the northern part of the
above-mentioned area, the vote shall be taken within three
weeks after the German evacuation. If the vote is in favor
of the restoration of this section to Denmark, she will be
entitled to occupy it immediately.
c. In the second defined section, situated to the south of the
first one, the vote shall be taken within a period of five
weeks after the plebiscite in the first section. The result
will be determined by communes.

d. In the third section, the vote will be taken within a period
of two weeks after the plebiscite in the second section, and
in the same conditions.
4. A commission composed of seven members, five of whom shall be
nominated by the Principal Powers, one by Denmark and one by
Germany, shall fix the frontier line on the spot.
5. Pending this final delimitation, the principal Powers will fix a
frontier line according to the result of the votes and the proposals
of the International Commission. From that time, Denmark and
Germany will be entitled to occupy the territories situated to the
north and south of that frontier line respectively.
6. All the inhabitants of the territory which is returned to Denmark
thus acquire the right to Danish citizenship. An authorization from
the Danish Government will be necessary for persons who had
become habitually resident after the 1st October, 1918.
7. Within a period of two years, any person born on the territory
which is restored to Denmark, not habitually resident in that
region, and possessing German nationality, will be entitled to opt
for Denmark. Any person habitually resident in that territory will
be entitled to opt for Germany.
8. Special stipulations will determine the proportion of the
obligations of Germany which are to be assumed by Denmark.
viii. Heligoland: The fortifications, military establishments and harbors shall
be destroyed under the supervision of the Allies by the agency and at the
expense of the German Government. Germany will not be entitled to
reconstruct them.
ix. Russia and Russian States
1. Germany acknowledges and will fully respect the inalienable
independence of all the territories which were part of the former
Russian Empire.
2. Germany definitely accepts the annulment of the Treaty of Brest-
Litovsk, and of all treaties or agreements, whatever they might
have been, which Germany concluded with the Maximalist
3. The Allied and Associated Powers formally reserve all the rights of
Russia to obtain from Germany a restitution and a reparation based
on the principles of the present Treaty.
IV. German Rights and Interests Outside Germany (Colonial Questions)
A. General Matters
i. In territory outside her European frontiers, Germany renounces all rights
concerning all territories belonging to her, as well as all rights which
may have belonged to her as against the principal Allied and Associated
ii. Germany undertakes to recognize the measures which may be taken now
or in the future in order to carry the above stipulations into effect.

iii. In particular Germany declares her acceptance of the following
B. German Colonies
i. Germany renounces in favor of the principal Powers all her rights and
titles over her overseas possessions.
ii. All movable and immovable rights in those territories which belonged to
the German Empire or to a German State shall pass to the Government
exercising authority over such territories.
iii. The latter Government may make such provision as it thinks fit for the
repatriation of German nationals, and for authorizing German subjects of
European origin to reside, trade, etc., in those territories.
iv. Germany undertakes to pay, in accordance with the estimate to be
presented by the French Government and approved by the permanent
Reparation Commission, reparation for damage suffered by French
nationals in the colony of the Cameroons or the frontier zone by reason
of the acts of the German civil or military authorities and of German
private individuals during the period from the 1st January, 1900, to the
1st August, 1914.
v. Germany renounces all rights arising out of the Conventions concluded
with France on the 4th November, 1911, and the 28th September, 1912.
vi. Germany undertakes to accept and observe the agreements made or to be
made by the Allied and Associated Powers, or some of them, with any
other Power, with regard to the trade in arms and spirits, and to the
matters dealt with in the General Act of Berlin of the 26th February,
1885, and the General Act of Brussels of the 2nd July, 1890.
vii. The inhabitants of the former German overseas possessions shall be
entitled to the diplomatic protection of the Governments exercising
authority over these territories.
C. Special Provisions as Regards China
i. Germany renounces in favor of China all benefits and privileges
resulting from the Protocol of Pekin of the 7th September, 1901, as well
as all claims to indemnities accruing there under subsequent to the 14th
March, 1917.
ii. There shall be applied:
1. The arrangements of the 29th August, 1902, regarding the new
Chinese customs tariff.
2. The arrangements of the 27th September, 1905, and of the 4th [9th]
April, 1912, (Whang-Poo). China, therefore, will no longer be
bound to grant to Germany the advantages ceded, but annulled at
the time of the rupture of diplomatic relations.
iii. Germany cedes to China all the vessels, buildings, installations, arms,
munitions, and other Government property situated in the German
concessions on Chinese territory. An exception is, however, made in the
case of diplomatic and consular residences and offices.
iv. Germany will restore to China all the astronomical instruments carried
off in 1900-1901.

v. Germany agrees to the abrogation of the lease contracts relating to the
concessions at Hankow and Tientsin. China declares her intention of
opening these areas to international residence and trade. Germany
waives all claims arising out of the internment of German nationals in
China and their repatriation, out of the seizure of ships, of the disposal of
German properties or rights in China since the 14th August, 1917.
vi. Germany renounces the German State property in the British Concession
at Shameen (Canton) and the property of the German school situated in
the French Concession at Shanghai.
D. Special Provisions Relating to Siam
i. Germany recognizes that all Treaties, Conventions, and Agreements
concluded between her and Siam terminate as from the 22nd July, 1917.
ii. All goods and property in Siam belonging to the Empire or to any
German State pass as of right and without compensation to the Siamese
iii. The goods, property, and private rights of German nationals in Siam
shall be liquidated in accordance with the provisions of the general
Economic Clauses.
iv. Germany waives all claims against the Siamese Government on behalf
of herself or her nationals arising out of the seizure of vessels, the
liquidation of German property or the internment of German nationals.
E. Special Provisions Relating to Liberia: Germany renounces all rights and
privileges arising from the arrangements of 1911-12 regarding Liberia, and
particularly the right to nominate a German receiver, and regards all her treaties
and arrangements with Liberia as terminated.
F. Special Provisions Relating to Morocco
i. Germany renounces all rights, titles, and privileges conferred on her by
the Act of Algeciras of the 7th April, 1906, and by the Franco-German
Agreements, of the 9th February, 1909, and the 4th November, 1911. All
treaties and arrangements concluded by her with the Sherifian Empire
are regarded as abrogated as from the 3rd August, 1914. In no case can
Germany take advantage of these instruments, and she undertakes not to
intervene in any way in negotiations relating to Morocco which may
take place between France and the other Powers.
ii. Germany, having recognized the French Protectorate in Morocco,
hereby accepts all the consequences of its establishment, and renounces
the regime of the capitulations therein. This renunciation shall take
effect from the 3rd August, 1914.
iii. The Sherifian Government shall have complete liberty of action in
regulating the status of German nationals in Morocco and the conditions
in which they may establish themselves there. German protected
persons, German semsars, and “associes agricoles” shall be considered
as having ceased, as from the 3rd August, 1914, to enjoy the privileges
attached to their status, and shall be subject to the ordinary law.
iv. All movable and immovable rights belonging to the German State in the
Sherifian Empire pass as of right to the Maghzen without compensation.

All rights belonging to Germans shall be sold by public auction; the
proceeds of the sale shall be paid to the Sherifian Government and
credited against the sums payable by Germany for reparation of war
damages. Germany shall indemnify the German owners. Mining rights
which may be recognized as belonging to German nationals by the Court
of Arbitration set up under the Morocco Mining Regulations shall form
the subject of a valuation, which the arbitrators shall be requested to
make; these rights shall then be treated in the same way as property in
Morocco belonging to German nationals.
v. The German Government shall ensure the transfer to persons nominated
by the French Government of the shares representing Germany’s portion
of the capital of the State Bank of Morocco. The value of these shares
shall be reimbursed by Germany to the rightful owners; these sums shall
be credited against the amounts payable by Germany in reparation for
war damages.
vi. Moroccan goods entering Germany shall enjoy the terms accorded to
French goods.
G. Special Provisions Relating to Egypt
i. Germany recognizes the British Protectorate claimed on the 18th
December, 1914, and renounces the regime of the capitulations as from
the 4th August, 1914.
ii. The abrogation, as from the 4th August, 1914, of all treaties and
arrangements concluded between Germany and Egypt.
iii. Temporarily, provision shall be made for the exercise of jurisdiction
over German nationals and property by the British Consular Tribunals.
iv. The Anglo-Egyptian Government shall have the liberty of action as
regards the status of German nationals.
v. Germany consents to the abrogation, or modification, of the Decree of
the 28th November, 1904 (Commission of the Egyptian Public Debt).
vi. Germany consents to the transfer to the British Government of the
powers conferred on His Imperial Majesty the Sultan by the Convention
signed at Constantinople on the 29th October, 1888 (free navigation of
the Suez Canal).
vii. The rights of the German State and German nationals in Egypt
(provisions similar to those made in respect of Morocco).
viii. Anglo-Egyptian goods entering Germany shall enjoy the same treatment
as British goods.
H. Turkey and Bulgaria: Germany undertakes to recognize all arrangements which
the Allied and Associated Powers may make with Turkey and Bulgaria with
reference to any rights which might be claimed by Germany or her nationals in
Turkey and Bulgaria, and which are not dealt with in the provisions of the present
I. Special Provisions Relating to the Province of Shantung
i. Germany renounces, in favor of Japan, all the rights which she acquired
by her Treaty with China, of the 6th March, 1898, and other instruments

relating to the Province of Shantung, especially as regards the territory
of Kiaochow, railways, mines, and submarine cables.
ii. All German rights in the Tsingtao-Tsinanfu Railway are acquired by
Japan, as well as the German State submarine cables from Tsingtao to
Shanghai and Tsingtao to Chefoo.
iii. Movable and immovable rights owned by the German State at
Kiaochow, as well as those which Germany might claim in connection
with this territory, are acquired by Japan.
V. Military, Naval, and Aerial Clauses
A. Military Clauses
i. Section A (Military Clauses) reduces the German Army to a permanent
police force and deprives Germany of the right and the means of
reconstituting a great national army:
1. By the limitation of effectiveness, of cadres, of armament, and of
the manufacture of war material to the needs, as strictly determined
by the Allied and Associated Powers, of a police force of 100,000
men, including officers.
2. By the abolition of universal compulsory military service, by the
institution of recruitment by means of volunteer enlistments, for a
period of twelve consecutive years and the abolition of all
organizations for the preparation of war, organizations of
command, training or mobilization.
3. By a prohibition, covering the territories situated both on the left
bank of the Rhine and to the west of a line drawn 50 kilometers to
the east of the river to maintain or construct fortifications, to
preserve any permanent works, such as would facilitate a
mobilization, or to maintain troops there.
ii. Limitation of Effectives, Cadres, and Armament
1. Within two months of the coming into force of the present Treaty,
the German Army shall be demobilized and reduced to a maximum
strength of seven divisions of infantry and three divisions of
cavalry, the composition of which is fixed, forming a total of
100,000 men (including a maximum number of 4,000 officers, and
establishments of depots), with the right to create only two army
corps headquarters, the composition of which is likewise fixed.
2. The personnel of the Army administrative services, that of the
employes or officials of the German State, and that of the
gendarmerie and the local or municipal police forces, is limited
and may not be assembled for any military training.
3. The Great German General Staff and all similar organizations are
4. All war material, whether of German or foreign origin, in excess of
the amounts fixed by the Allied and Associated Powers, shall be
handed over to these Powers. The manufacture of war material
shall in future only be carried out in the factories authorized by the
five Allied and Associated Governments and within the limitations

laid down in the present Treaty. Germany is forbidden to
undertake the manufacture, export or import of any other war
material, of gas or prohibited materials, of armoured cars, tanks
and all similar constructions.
iii. Recruitment and Military Training
1. Universal compulsory military service is abolished in Germany.
2. The German Army may only be recruited by voluntary enlistments
for a period of twelve consecutive years for the rank and file, and
of twenty-five consecutive years for officers, and the latter must
under take the obligation to serve up to the age of forty-five years
at least.
3. The only military schools which are permitted are those which are
indispensable for the recruitment of the officers of the units
allowed, and the number of students in them will be in proportion
to the vacancies to be filled.
4. Educational establishments and associations of every description
are forbidden to occupy themselves with military questions or to
have any connection with any military authority.
5. All measures of mobilization or appertaining to mobilization are
iv. Prohibited Zone as Regards German Fortifications, Military
Establishments and Troops
1. Any fortifications, whatever their nature or importance, and any
permanent works such as would facilitate mobilization, are
forbidden in the German territories situated to the west of a line
drawn 50 kilometers to the east of the Rhine. The existing
fortifications shall be disarmed and dismantled, and the permanent
works referred to above shall be demolished within a period of
three months from the coming into force of the present Treaty.
2. Germany will not maintain any armed force within the zone
defined above, either permanently or temporarily; nor will she
undertake any military maneuvers therein.
3. Any violation of the foregoing provisions shall be regarded as a
hostile act against the Powers signatories of the present Treaty and
as calculated to disturb the peace of the world.
v. Occupation of the Left Bank of the Rhine and the Bridgeheads. The
right of occupation, as a guarantee for the execution of the Treaty, is
regulated as follows:
1. For a period of 15 years from signature the left bank of the Rhine
and the bridgeheads on the right bank shall be occupied by Allied
and Associated forces.
2. If Germany faithfully carries out the clauses of the Treaty, a
progressive evacuation is provided for, namely:
a. At the end of five years the bridgehead at Cologne and the
territory on the left bank to the north of a line starting from

the Dutch frontier on the river Roer and ending on the
Rhine at the mouth of the Ahr.
b. At the end of 10 years the bridgehead at Coblenz and the
territory on the left bank to the north of a line starting from
the intersection of the German, Dutch, and Belgian
frontiers, and ending on the Rhine at Bacharach.
c. At the end of 15 years the bridgeheads at Mayence and
Kehl and the rest of the territories on the left bank.
3. The Allied and Associated Powers reserve, however, the following
a. If at the end of fifteen years the guarantees against
unprovoked aggression by Germany do not seem to them
sufficient evacuation may be delayed.
b. If during or after the fifteen years Germany, in the opinion
of the Inter-Allied Commission on Reparations, is ceasing
faithfully to carry out her engagements, all or part of the
above zones may be reoccupied by the Allied and
Associated forces.
4. It is admitted, on the contrary, that if Germany carried out all her
engagements before the end of fifteen years the withdrawal of the
Allied and Associated troops would follow.
B. Naval Clauses
i. Section B (Naval Clauses) considerably reduces the navy of Germany
and deprives her of the right and means of reconstituting a great war
fleet by:
1. The restriction of the fleet to a number of surface vessels of fixed
type, and the effectiveness of her war navy, and the prohibition to
possess any submarine vessel.
2. The surrender to the five Allied and Associated Governments of all
submarines and of all warships in excess of those authorized by the
present Treaty. The breaking up of all warships at present in the
course of construction. The disarmament of all auxiliary cruisers
and fleet auxiliaries.
3. Freedom of access to the Baltic Sea for all nations.
4. The demolition of the fortifications which forbid access from the
North Sea to the Baltic and the restriction of fortifications on the
rest of the German coast to a fixed zone subject to conditions laid
down by the Allied and Associated Governments.
5. The restriction and supervision by the said Governments during a
period of three months of the great wireless telegraphy stations.
ii. Limitations of the Fleet and Effectives of the German Navy: After the
expiration of a period of two months, the German naval forces in
commission must not exceed: 3 battleships of the Deutschland or
Lothringen type, 3 light cruisers, 6 destroyers, 6 torpedo-boats, and may
not include any submarine, even a commercial submarine. The
personnel may not exceed 10,000 men, including officers, recruited by

voluntary enlistment for a period of twenty-five consecutive years for
the officers and fifteen consecutive years for the men.
iii. Surrender, Demolition or Disarmament of Warships and Fleet
Auxiliaries in Excess of the Numbers Laid Down in Paragraph ii.
1. All surface warships, all war material in excess of the number and
quantities determined by the Allied and Associated Powers, and all
submarines, submarine salvage vessels and docks, shall be handed
over to those Powers by Germany. All those in the course of
construction shall be broken up.
2. Germany is forbidden to construct or acquire any warships other
than those intended to replace the authorized units, of which the
type, period of service, and the armament are fixed by the Allied
and Associated Governments.
3. All auxiliary cruisers and fleet auxiliaries shall be disarmed and
restored to commercial uses.
iv. Freedom of Access to the Baltic: Complete freedom of access to the
Baltic shall be ensured to all nations in a fixed area by mine-sweeping
and by the demolition of the fortifications which command the maritime
routes from the North Sea to the Baltic.
v. Restriction of Fortifications on German Coast: Independently of the
demolition of the fortifications above referred to, Germany is not
entitled to strengthen the defenses of her coasts or to alter their
armament, the particulars of which she is obliged to communicate to all
the European Governments.
vi. Allied governments must maintain a presence on the German coast
of the Baltic and North Seas in order to assure the compliance with
the restrictions. Furthermore, due to Germany’s weakened defense,
the Allied and Associated Powers will also remain along the coast to
help protect against a potential invasion on German territory.
vii. Restriction and Supervision of Wireless Telegraphy: During the three
months following the coming into force of the present Treaty, the
wireless telegraphy stations at Nauen, Hanover and Berlin are only
permitted to transmit commercial telegrams, and then under the
supervision of the Allied and Associated Governments.
C. Aerial Clauses
i. Section C deprives Germany of the right of possessing any military or
naval air forces (except 100 seaplanes up till October 1st, 1919, to be
exclusively employed in searching for mines) or any dirigible, by:
1. The demobilization of her flying personnel;
2. Freedom of passage and landing and the surrender of material.
ii. The whole of the flying personnel shall be demobilized within a period
of two months (except 1,000 men to be retained up till 1st October,
iii. All Allied aircraft shall enjoy in Germany freedom of passage through
the air, freedom of landing and of transit. During the six months
following the coming into force of the present Treaty, the manufacture

and importation of aircraft, or parts of aircraft, shall be forbidden in
German territory.
iv. All military and naval aeronautical material shall be delivered to the
Allied and Associated Governments, including material of any nature
whatsoever used or designed for warlike purposes, with the exception of
the 100 seaplanes mentioned above.
D. Supervision of the Reduction of Armaments: Section D (Inter-Allied Commissions
of Control) organizes, through Inter-Allied Commissions working within
Germany, the supervision of the execution of the Clauses the purpose of which is
to disarm Germany within the time limits fixed by the Treaty.
E. General Clauses: Section E (General Clauses) grants Germany a period of three
months within which to modify her legislation in conformity with the forgoing
Clauses and to take all the administrative measures relating to their execution.
F. Rights of Investigation: The Treaty lays on Germany the obligation of giving in
future every facility for any investigation which the Council of the League of
Nations, acting if need be by a majority vote, may consider necessary.
G. Prisoners of War
i. The German prisoners of war will be repatriated as rapidly as possible
after the signature of the Treaty of Peace, and the details for carrying
into effect the repatriation shall be regulated by a Sub-Commission on
behalf of each of the Allied and Associated Powers.
ii. The German prisoners of war and civilians set free shall be transported
by the agency and at the expense of the German Government to their
domiciles, even if that be in occupied territory, and their repatriation is
in that case subject to the approval and supervision of the military
authorities of the Allied and Associated Powers.
iii. Prisoners awaiting trial or undergoing sentence for offences against
discipline shall likewise be repatriated, with the exception of those who
may be condemned for such offences subsequently to May 1st, 1919.
iv. Prisoners guilty of other offences are liable to be kept under detention.
v. Those who may refuse to be repatriated cannot be sent back. However,
the Allied and Associated Governments reserve the right to repatriate
them or to send them to a neutral country or to allow them to reside in
their own territories.
vi. Repatriation may, moreover, be made conditional on that of prisoners or
nationals of the Allied and Associated Powers who may still be in
vii. The Allied and Associated Governments, as well as the German
Government, will communicate to each other a complete list of those
who have died and information in regard to the graves of those who have
not yet been identified.
H. Special Clauses: Military Graves – The Allied and Associated Governments and
the German Government undertake to cause to be respected and maintained the
graves of soldiers and sailors buried in their respective territories, and to give all
facilities to the Commissions appointed by them for the purpose of registering,

caring for or erecting suitable memorials over the said graves and to meet requests
that the bodies of their soldiers may be transferred to their own country.
VI. Reparations and Financial Clauses
A. Reparations.
i. The Provisions of this Heading:
1. Establish the principle of reparation.
2. Define the categories of damage for which compensation is due.
3. Determine the methods of reparation which, in principle, shall
extend over a period of 30 years, with no further extensions.
ii. Principles: Germany and her allies recognize their responsibility for all
the loss and damage suffered by the Allied and Associated
Governments, in whatever place, and Germany binds herself to repair all
damage done to the civilian populations and their property, in proportion
to the intensity of her military and naval operations on each of the battle
fronts. She undertakes by means of a special issue of bearer bonds, to
repay, by 1st May 1926, at latest, to the Allied and Associated
Governments all the sums which Belgium was obliged to borrow from
them up to the 11th November, 1918, as a consequence of the violation
of the Treaty of 1839.
iii. Categories of Damage: Compensation is due for the following
categories of damage:
1. Damage caused by acts of war to civilians or their surviving
dependents by personal injury or loss of life.
2. Damage caused to civilian victims of acts of cruelty, violence, or
3. Damage caused to civilian victims of all acts of the enemy in
territories whether occupied or enemy (which has been injurious to
health, capacity to work, or honor), and to the surviving
dependents of such victims.
4. Damage caused by any kind of maltreatment to prisoners of war.
5. In respect of damage caused to the peoples of the Allied and
Associated Powers, all pensions and compensations in the nature
of pensions to the military victims (on the basis of the scales in
force in France).
6. The cost of assistance granted by the Governments of the Allied
and Associated States to prisoners of war and to their families and
dependents. It will be strictly enforced that by May 1st 1921, 25
percent of total reparations should be allocated to pensions,
which must be paid directly to civilians directly affected by
war, including military veterans.
7. Allowances granted by the Governments of the Allied and
Associated States to the families and dependents of mobilized
persons (on the basis of the scales in force in France).
8. Damage caused to civilians through being forced by the enemy to
labor without just remuneration.

9. Damage in respect of property, wherever situated, which has been
carried off, seized, injured, or destroyed by the acts of the enemy,
or damage directly in consequence of hostilities or of any
operations of war.
10. Damage in the form of levies, fines and other similar exactions
imposed by Germany on the civil population.
11. An Inter-Allied Commission called “The Reparation
Commission,” shall acquaint Germany, before the 1st May, 1921,
with the amount of the reparation being $27 billion, allocated to
Allied and Associated Powers.
12. The expenses incurred in respect of repairing and rebuilding shall
be calculated according to the cost of reconstruction at the moment
when the works are carried out.
13. The Commission, in fixing on the 1 May, 1921, the total amount
of the debt of Germany, may take account of interest due on sums
arising out of the reparation of material damage as from the 11th
November, 1918, up to the 1st May, 1921.
14. From the 1 May, 1921, onwards the debt of Germany shall bear
interest at 5 per cent. However, the Commission shall have powers
to determine at some future time whether the circumstances justify
a variation of this rate.
iv. Methods of Reparation
1. Duties of the Reparation Commission
a. The Reparation Commission, composed of one
Representative of each of the following Powers: United
States of America, British Empire, France, Italy, and of one
Representative, entitled to a seat in accordance with a
settled rotation, of Japan, of Belgium, and of Serbia, shall
from time to time consider the capacity of Germany for
paying, and shall determine the proportion and methods of
the payments to be effected by her.
b. The seat of the Commission’s permanent bureau is fixed in
c. The Commission will possess, generally speaking, the
widest powers of supervision and execution as regards the
problem of reparation. The Commission is constituted as
the exclusive representative of the Allied and Associated
Governments for the purpose of receiving, holding, and
distributing payments effected by Germany in respect of
d. The Commission shall satisfy itself:
i. That the sums due in respect of reparation shall be a
charge upon all the revenues of Germany prior to
that for the service of any domestic loan.

ii. That the burden supported by the German taxpayer
is at least as heavy as that borne by the most heavily
taxed taxpayer of any Allied or Associated country.
e. Any decisions regarding postponements for payment to be
granted to the Debtor, or questions involving the
sovereignty of the Allied and Associated Powers, must be
taken unanimously. In the event of Germany failing to
fulfill the engagements which she has undertaken the
Commission will propose to the Allied and Associated
Powers the necessary measures, which may include
economic and financial prohibitions and reprisals, such as
economic embargo or any other measures deemed
necessary. Germany undertakes not to regard such
measures as hostile acts.
2. Restitution: All animals, objects and securities, etc., carried off by
Germany and identified, as well as cash, shall be restored.
3. Installments: A sum of 20,000,000,000 gold marks
(25,000,000,000 francs) shall b e payable between the coming into
force of the Treaty and the 1st May, 1921. It shall be paid in gold,
commodities, ships, securities, or otherwise, in accordance with the
decisions of the Reparation Commission. Out of this sum, but in
accordance with the conditions defined in the paragraph below,
shall be met the expenses of occupation and the value of such
supplies of food and raw materials as may be judged by the
Governments of the principal Allied and Associated Powers to be
essential to enable Germany to meet her obligation to make
4. Payments on Account
a. Germany shall hand over forthwith, as a payment on
account to be settled against payments in respect of
i. 20,000,000,000 marks gold bearer bonds
(25,000,000,000 francs), payable not later than the
1st May, 1921, without interest. The payments
which Germany is obliged to make in respect of the
delivery of the 20,000,000,000 of gold marks
mentioned above shall be applied to the
amortization of these bonds after deduction of the
sums used for the reimbursement of the
maintenance expenses of the armies of occupation
and for the payment of food stuffs and raw
materials. Such bonds as have not been redeemed
by the 1st May, 1921, shall then be exchanged for
new bonds of the same type of those provided for

ii. 40,000,000,000 marks gold bearer bonds
(50,000,000,000 francs), bearing interest at 5
percent from 1921 to 1926, and thereafter an
additional 1 percent for amortization.
b. These bonds shall be held by the Reparation Commission
on behalf of each of the interested Powers in respect of its
share, and the Commission shall deliver nominative
certificates for them which may be transferred by
c. Any fraction of the total amount of ascertained liabilities
shall be represented, as regards any yet unpaid portion
thereof, by the issue of a bond or other title.
5. Special Methods of Payment: From now onwards the following
objects will or may serve as means of payment:
a. Merchant Shipping. – Germany recognizes the principle of
compensation, ton for ton, as regards losses of merchant
shipping and fishing boats.
i. Out of her merchant fleet, she will hand over to the
Allied and Associated Powers, in full ownership,
the following vessels, both constructed and in
course of construction:
1. All merchant ships of 1,600 tons and
2. One-half of those between 1,000 and 1,600
3. One-quarter of the steam trawlers;
4. One-quarter of the other fishing boats.
ii. The river boats (in addition to those which are to be
restored in the condition in which they were
removed) necessary to make good the “equivalent”
of the losses sustained by the Allied and Associated
Powers up to a maximum cession of 20 percent of
the German river fleet.
iii. Moreover, the Allied and Associated Powers may
cause to be constructed in the German shipping
yards during a period of five years a maximum of
200,000 tons per annum.
b. Animals, Machinery Equipment, Tools and like articles of a
commercial character for the purpose of meeting immediate
needs and as an equivalent for the animals or objects of a
similar character which have been removed or destroyed
(subject to certain restrictions and limitations).
c. Dyestuffs and chemical drugs. – The Allied and Associated
Powers have the right to an option to require the delivery of
these commodities, up to a total of 50 percent of the

existing German stocks and thereafter of 25 percent of the
annual production during a period of five years.
d. Coal and its derivatives. – Germany undertakes to make the
following deliveries:
i. To France: A fixed quantity of 7,000,000 tons per
annum for 10 years, plus a diminishing quantity
(varying between 20,000,000 and 8,000,000 tons
per annum during ten years), corresponding to the
diminution in productivity of the devastated French
ii. To Belgium: 6,000,000 tons per annum for 10
iii. To Luxemburg: A quantity equal to the pre-war
annual consumption of German coal in that country.
iv. To Italy: The exact quantity of 4,500,000 per annum
for 10 years.
v. The coal intended to replace coal from destroyed
mines shall receive priority over all other deliveries.
e. Finally, during three years Germany will deliver to France
annually at her request:
i. 35,000 tons of benzol;
ii. 50,000 tons of coal tar;
iii. 30,000 tons of sulphate of ammonia.
iv. All or part of the coal tar may be replaced by
corresponding quantities of products of distillation.
f. The prices of these deliveries are fixed by special
stipulations; an equivalent amount shall be charged to the
credit account of Reparation.
g. There shall likewise be credited to the Reparation account,
in certain circumstances, the proceeds of liquidation of
German properties abroad. (See the Financial Clauses).
h. Submarine Cables. – The submarine cables, belonging to
Germany, which connected that country with foreign
countries, are ceded to the Allied and Associated Powers;
their equivalent value, in so far as they are privately owned,
shall be credited to Germany in the Reparation account.
B. Financial Clauses
i. First Charges
1. The first charge upon all the assets and revenues of the German
Empire and its constituent states is the settlement:
a. Of the expenses connected with the maintenance of the
troops of occupation, whether during the Armistice or after
the Treaty of Peace.
b. Of the reparation resulting from the Treaty or from
subsequent Treaties.

c. Of all other charges imposed on Germany by virtue of these
2. Germany undertakes not to dispose of her gold before the 1st May,
1921, without the express authorization of the Allied and
Associated Governments.
3. Moreover, each of the Allied and Associated Powers retains the
rights to dispose of enemy assets and property within its
jurisdiction at the date of the signature of the Treaty of Peace.
ii. Renunciation of Treaties: The German Government renounces:
1. The benefit conferred by any stipulations inserted in the Treaties of
Bucharest and Brest-Litovsk, and in the Treaties concluded since
the 1st August, 1914, with Poland, Finland, and the Baltic States.
2. All rights to representation on, or participation in the control or
administration of international, financial, or economic
organizations in any of the Allied or Associated States, or in
Austria-Hungary, Bulgaria, or Turkey, or in the former Russian
iii. Transfer of German Property Abroad
1. The Reparation Commission may, within one year from the
signature of the Treaty, demand that the German Government
become possessed of and transfer to it within six months all the
rights and interests of German nationals in any public utility
undertaking or concessions in Russia, China, Austria-Hungary,
Turkey, and Bulgaria, and in the former or present dependencies of
those States. The German Government shall bear the expense of
compensating its nationals so dispossessed.
2. The German Government undertakes to transfer to the Allied and
Associate Powers:
a. Any claims which it may have for payment or repayment
by the States of Austria-Hungary, Bulgaria, or Turkey.
b. Any deposits of gold made in German banks by the States
allied with Germany, under the head of pledges for loans,
security for note issues, provision for payments to be made,
iv. Currencies Allowed for Payment
1. Any monetary obligation due by the German Government
expressed in terms of gold marks shall be payable at the option of
the creditors in pounds sterling payable in London, gold dollars of
the United States of America payable in New York, gold francs
payable in Paris, or gold lire payable in Rome.
2. The expenses of maintenance of the Armies of Occupation
representing purchases or requisitions by the Allied and Associated
Governments in the occupied territories shall alone be repaid by
the German Government in marks at the current or agreed rate of

3. All other costs of the Armies of Occupation shall be paid in gold
v. Cession of State Property
1. The States to which German territory is ceded shall enter into
possession of all property and possessions of the German Empire
or the German States and their former Sovereigns situated therein.
The value of this property, fixed by the Reparation Commission,
shall be paid to the credit of the German Government on account
of the sums due for reparation (except as regards property in
Alsace-Lorraine in respect of which, in view of the terms on which
Germany took back public property in 1871, France shall be
exempt from making any payment or credit). (On this subject see
the Clauses relative to Alsace-Lorraine, Part I.B.v.)
2. On the other hand, the Powers to which a German territory is
ceded shall, in principle, undertake to pay a portion to be fixed of
the debt of the Empire and of the debt of the German State to
which the ceded territory belonged. Such portions shall be
determined by the Reparations Commission on the total debt as it
stood on 1st August, 1914. As regards Alsace-Lorraine, however,
of which Germany in 1871 took possession “free from all debt,”
France is exempt from the obligation of assuming any portion of
the German debt.
3. Similarly, Poland shall not undertake to pay any portion of the debt
which, in the opinion of the Commission on Reparation, is
attributable to the measures taken by the German and Prussian
Governments for the German colonization of Poland.
4. In the case of the former German territories, including colonies,
administered by a Mandatory under Article 22 of the Covenant of
the League of Nations, neither the territory nor the Mandatory
Power shall be charged with any portion of the German debt.
vi. Flags of 1870: Germany shall restore the French flags taken in 1870 and

Appendix A

“Change made to Upper Silesia”