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Ionic and Covalent properties lab

By: Mutaza Hussain

Purpose: The purpose of this lab is to measure and observe properties of various substances. Also, to arrange the substances
into groups based on their properties. Finally, to learn the properties of ionic and covalent substances

1- Benzoic 2-Magnesium 3-Paradichloro 4-Potassium 5-Magnesium 6-Sucrose


Acid Chloride benzene Chloride Nitrate
Physical Solid THIN Crystals Powder/crystals White Hard
appearance White WHITE/GREY Opaque White Opaque White
Crystals Granulates/ Crystals
White flakes
Needle like Opaque
Solubility in Non soluble Solubility Non soluble Solubility Solubility Solubility
water
Conductivity Non Conductivity Non- Conductivity Conductivity Non-
Conductive conductive conductive
Melting Point 185 C
o
714 °C 174 C 708 C
o
88.9 °C 186 °C

1) Determine whether each of the compound is ionic or covalent

Benzoic Acid (6H5COOH) – Covalent Sucrose C12H22O11 – Covalent


Magnesium Chloride (MgCl2) - Ionic
Paradichlorobenzene C6H4Cl2 Covalent
Potassium chloride (KCl) – Ionic
Magnesium nitrate Mg (NO3) 2 -Ionic
2) Look at the results carefully. Are there any patterns that you have observed in the property of solubility, explain?

One of the patterns I observed in the property of solubility was that all covalent compounds are not soluble in water and all ionic
compounds are soluble in water; by saying all ionic compounds are soluble in water to a certain extent, but the degree of solubility
varies. This is due to the polarity of water (water is polar). The positive hydrogen atoms of the water molecule attracts to the anion on
the surface of the solid ionic compound while the negative oxygen atoms are attracted towards the cation; forming bonds with anion
and cation. This allows the anion and cation to attract one another and dissolve and become soluble in water.

3) Similarity looks at the other properties. What can you say about each other properties; melting point and electrical conductivity
in relation to the ionic or covalent character of the compound?

Ionic Covalent
Melting Point High melting point Low melting point
Solubility Soluble - Dissolves in water Non- soluble; does not dissolve in
water
Electrical conductivity Conducts electricity Does not conduct electricity

4) Predict the following


o Solubility of sodium iodide in water
 NaL is an iconic compound since its composed of a metal and non-metal. As a result it would dissolve very well in water since
iconic compound have good water solubility.
o Melting point of sodium iodide –
 The melting point of Sodium Iodide depends on the amount of NaL we have; knowing that it won’t melt until the temperate
reaches a high point. Since we already know that Ionic Solids have a high melting point so its melting point would be close to
661 Celsius.
o Electrical conductivity of a glucose solution
 Glucose would not conduct electricity since it is a covalent compound; it would not dissociate into ions when dissolved in
water. Resulting, glucose to be considered as a nonelectrolyte without any electrical conductivity.