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There were several objectives in Air Temperature (AT922) Process Control Experiment
were achieved. First, the important components were identified from the air temperature control
system. Second, the start-up procedures were carried out systematically. Next, the values of the
parameters for a first order plus dead time transfer function model of a thermal process were
determined and lastly, the Air-Heater process was controlled using PID controller.

Figure 1: Dead time (DT) from the chart

Figure 1 above shows how dead time (DT) value can be determined. Distance was
measured manually using ruler from point 1 to 2 then substituted into the equation to get value.
Based on the graph, it shows that as the heater is ON, the heated temperature is starting to
increase slowly. The MV is first adjusted to 24.4% and then it is increased to 50%, it is shown
that there is disturbance occurred when the valve is being closed. This experiment was run at

( 𝐷𝑖𝑠𝑡𝑎𝑛𝑐𝑒 𝑖𝑛 𝑚𝑚 ) 𝑠
𝑑𝑒𝑎𝑑 𝑡𝑖𝑚𝑒, 𝜃 = ( 3600 )
500𝑚𝑚 ℎ𝑟
𝑅𝑒𝑐𝑜𝑟𝑑 𝑐ℎ𝑎𝑟𝑡 𝑠𝑝𝑒𝑒𝑑 ( )

( 4 𝑚𝑚 ) 𝑠
= ( 3600 )
500𝑚𝑚 ℎ𝑟
𝑅𝑒𝑐𝑜𝑟𝑑 𝑐ℎ𝑎𝑟𝑡 𝑠𝑝𝑒𝑒𝑑 ( )

= 28.8 𝑠
The dead time is the time after each event during which the system is not able to record
another event. After the increase, 4 seconds, there is a dead time as shown in the chart. Dead
time can arise in a control loop for a number of reasons such as the time taken for material to
travel from one point to another. In other word is time delay. Besides, sensors can take
previous time to yield their measurement result. The distance is measured and the limitation
of the measurement is the y-axis on the graph is precise only up to 1 second. This is a problem
faced because the time constants are in the order of 1 second. Hence, in calculation it is not
possible to achieve a higher precision because of the lack of measuring instrument with higher

Figure 2:Response rate (RR) from the chart

Next, as shown in figure 2, response rate value is 1.02 cm. The tangent for the increase
is calculated using Pythagoras theorem. The tangent calculated is the response rate of the

1.02 cm

0.20 cm

1.00 cm
Using, the response rate, the process gain, K and time constant of the process value, 𝜏 are
obtained and the calculation are shown by equation below:

The process gain, K

% changes in manipulated variable (MV) = 50 – 24.4 = 25.6%

max 𝑐ℎ𝑎𝑛𝑔𝑒 𝑖𝑛 𝑎𝑖𝑟 𝑡𝑒𝑚𝑝𝑒𝑟𝑎𝑡𝑢𝑟𝑒

% 𝑐ℎ𝑎𝑛𝑔𝑒 𝑖𝑛 𝑡ℎ𝑒 𝑀𝑉


= 1.64

The constant time, T

Maximum changes in the air temperature at the exit = 198⁰C – 156⁰C = 42⁰C

max 𝑐ℎ𝑎𝑛𝑔𝑒 𝑖𝑛 𝑎𝑖𝑟 𝑡𝑒𝑚𝑝𝑒𝑟𝑎𝑡𝑢𝑟𝑒


= 2.429

First order plus time delay (FOPTD) transfer function equation

𝐺(𝑠) = 𝑒 −𝜃𝑠
𝜏𝑠 + 1

So, the parameter of the FOPTD model is:

𝐺(𝑠) = 𝑒 −28.8𝑠
2.429𝑠 + 1
The air heater temperature is be controlled by the PID controller with load disturbance
and set point changes which are set point SV = 80⁰C and 90⁰C at the temperature PID
controller TIC91 (PID2 is disabled) and is still in Manual (M) mode and its MV = 0%. For the
disturbance, the MV value changes from 0 to 30%.

First trial was set up as PB1=10% , TI1=100s , TD1= 25s by accessed the PID values in
controller TIC91.

figure 4: First trial result

For the first trial PID controller, the response for the air heated temperature is fast. It
can be said that when the load disturbance is being introduced the temperature is increases
due to the rapid opening of valve for the air flow rate. At set point, SV=80⁰C, it reaches a
steady state after a few cycles. While for SV=90⁰C,and load disturbance MV=30%, it shows
the overshoot is smaller compared the previous one. To reduce the offset, the temperature for
set point and the temperature after load disturbance introduced must be stable.
Changed the set up as PB1=20% , TI1=70s , TD1= 18s for the second trial by accessed the
PID values in controller TIC91.

Figure 5 : Second trial result

For the second trial PID values, the response for the air heated temperature started to
oscillate middly as the process gain is increased. As the MV is increased to 50%, the response
become stable due to the opening of valve, then the response become little oscillatory when
MV is increased to 90%. Theoretically, the response is slower but the offset can be reduced
mush faster.
Changed the set up as PB1=20%, TI1=150s, TD1=37s for the third trial by accessed the PID
values in controller TIC91.

Figure 6: Third trial result

For the third values, the chart is becoming more stable. That is why it has very small
oscillation. When the set point is changed to 90⁰C, the response shows some oscillation and it
is undershoot as the temperature is being increased. After the response is stable, the set point
is then increased to 100% and it shows that response is overshoots due to the changes of set
point and the response is become stable again.

As a conclusion, the lag occurred when the process started was known as dead time.
Next, the control of process using PID controller. PID algorithm is used for direct field
control. This is either both of its input (PV) and output (MV) is directly connected to field or
process equipment. It is designed to cope with any electrical noise induced into its circuits by
equipment in the plant or factory. Three different PID values show different result based on
the tuning. Experiment was done on load disturbance and set point change to observe the
response, whether they are overshoot or undershoot according to change made.

The most error in this experiment is an instrumental error which detected when the actual
graph gained was very flat and impossible to determine the overshoot percent, settling time
and rise time. From the result and discussion had made was referring from the other sources
which having the same title and procedure as this experiment as the purpose to study the
behaviour of PID controller response in certain cases. Due of this matter, the setting such as
the MV, PB1, TI1 and TD1 might not be the same as in the lab manual procedure.