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MATHEMATICIAN: Date BAND OMETRY AND CALCULUS: A SURPRISING CONNECTION ‘CALCULUS PACKER COLLEGIATE INSTITUTE. Volume of a sphere, for a given radius: pees Vine 3G Surface area of a sphere, for a given radius: = SA(r) = 4 via AN Mr. Shah looks at these formulae. “Wait. WAIT. HECK NO. IS IT? YES? NO. WAY. IT IS.” What did Mr. Shah wn notice? Ae Gy r~ «Sf ‘5 he Hecate f) vedamt 2 np i Es it still hold for a circle? 4 fsa ta es a A Area of a circle, for a given radius: Ar)= rr? Circumference of a circle, for a given radius: cm-_ ZT (Ok. Okay. Kay. K ‘SPHERE: Let’s explore the sphere to see what's going on first. Now let's think of a dumdum. As we enjoy the dumdum, the radius changes. We're Draw a quick diagram of the dumdum at a certain point in time (pretend it’s a perfect sphere), and then after a couple minutes. Make sure your dumdum looks 3D! Draw that dashed ring like above to show this! First, let's label the diagram ae so we're all using the same variables. 4 How much of the dumdum did we eat? _3 VCrth) - Ve) Let's keep things simple and give your answer using the volume function (blah) To help with this, let's instead think of the dumdum as a made of clay and we've removed a layer from the outside. We carefully flatten the removed the layer until it looks like this. The height ofthe layeris:_ hu The approximate area of the base is (think conceptually...) Ake surface drvg SAC) So the volume of ys layer we removed is approximately: r Now we have two equations for the volume. Let's set them approximately equal to each other and see what happens... Rearrange them, with CALCULUS in mind. A Shr) x V Oren) - Vir) SAC) & Vor+n)- Vie) h As h becomes smaller 3 smallet ° by Westdawte) - v(c) , SA? V0) CIRCLE: Let’s see if you can do a similar argument with a circle! Like with did with the dumdum, imagine a disk. With the dumdum we removed an outer layer with a tiny thickness . With the disk, what should we remove? Draw a diagram. Label it with the same veriables we did above (x and h ) What is the area of the layer that we removed, written using the area formula A(blah) : A (r+h)-Alr) Let’s flatten out this layer, like we did before with the dumdum. It’s not a volume, but an area! ‘The approximate length of the layer is (think conceptually...): A i te try cum ference df The Veh CH So the area of this layer we removed is approximate ~ Ltr): ‘The height of the layer i ‘Again, similar to above, we have two equations for the area. Let’s set them approximately equal to each other and see what happens... Rearrany fe them, with CALCULUS in mind. Ci fe Aln)- AG) Ci Alrsh)-Al) A As h hon rae 3 sealer im Atreh)-Ale) yt fin, AeA At) So Clr) « A(r) Conclusions: Fora sphere: the derivative of the __Upurne— gives youthe__ Sur fece Bet a, Foracircle: the derivative of the_ A/a gives youthe__ Cr CeemnPerence. We looked just at a single layer/ring to see the algebra work out. Let's see it all it together geometrically for a circle, by looking at all the rings together. First, we'll envision the circle as a bunch of rings of small width. Dissecting a Circle Each ring has a circumference based on the radius of the ring. Each ring has a tiny width. ae oO {diagrams from www.betterexplained.com} & Disc Rings