The DER’s Watts can be involved in voltage control in two ways: a) Watt curtailment to increase the var capability to be used for voltage increase (the “Volt / var with var priority” function) and b) additional Watt injection to reduce the upstream voltage drop. The former was discussed in [1]. The latter is addressed in this paper.

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When to Use DER’s Watts for Voltage Support?

The DER’s Watts can be involved in voltage control in two ways: a) Watt curtailment to increase the var capability to be used for voltage increase (the “Volt / var with var priority” function) and b) additional Watt injection to reduce the upstream voltage drop. The former was discussed in [1]. The latter is addressed in this paper.

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Nokhum Markushevich

The DER’s Watts can be involved in voltage control in two ways: a) Watt curtailment to increase

the var capability to be used for voltage increase (the “Volt / var with var priority” function) and

b) additional Watt injection to reduce the upstream voltage drop. The former was discussed in

[1]. The latter is addressed below.

If the inverter of DER is capable of generating vars and the voltage needs to be increased, the

maximum use of available vars is preferred in most cases, unless the additional injections of

Watts also serve other objectives. If the maximum use of available vars is insufficient to raise

the voltage to the desired level, additional injections of Watts may help under some conditions.

These conditions include the resistance to reactance ratio (R/X ratio), the initial Watt

generation by the DER, the size of Watt addition, and the voltage levels from which and to

which the voltage should be raised.

The available vars depend on the Watt injection and on voltage at the inverter terminals

(nominal var capability). It may be further restricted by other operational limits (operational

capability). It means that by increasing the Watt injections to raise the voltage, the var

capability is reduced, which reduces the voltage. Which effect prevails defines the result.

Below are some examples of voltage change under different conditions mentioned above.

Figure 1 presents the relative voltage increase under different R/X ratios of the upstream from

the DER circuit, different Watt injections, and maximum use of the nominal var capabilities. The

initial voltage that should be increased is assumed to be 0.93 pu of the nominal voltage. The

voltage increase under R/X ratio equal 1/3 and at zero Watt injection is the reference value

(100%). As seen in the figure, the initial voltage increases (Watt=0) are different for different

R/X ratios, where the smallest increase is for the R/X=1/0.5. It is also seen in the figure that

the additional Watt injections provide some additional voltage increases up to a particular level

of Watt injections, but beyond that level, the voltage reduces with the increase of Watts,

because the loss of var capabilities reduces the voltage more than the increase due to Watt

additions.

The voltage increments due to additional Watts also depend on the initial Watt injections (see

Figure 2) and on the total increase of Watts (see Figure 2).

Figure 2 presents interval voltage increments due to Watt additions in steps of 10% from

different initial Watt injections. As seen in the figure, the increments start from positive values

under smaller initial Watt injections and become negative under larger initial injections of

Watts. The biggest positive percentage increment is for the biggest R/X ratio (underground

primary circuits). For the smaller R/X ratios, the negative increments start at small initial Watt

injections.

Figure 3 presents the cumulative voltage increase, when the Watt injections are changed from

zero to a given value. As seen in the figure, the biggest cumulative effect is achieved under R/X

= 2.

Figure 4 presents the difference in the effect of Watt injection on voltage increase for different

initial grid voltages. There is a greater nominal var capability of DERs under higher voltages,

and, therefore, the increments are slightly higher.

180%

170%

160%

150%

Voltage boost due to Q and P injections, %

140%

130%

120%

110%

100%

90%

80%

70%

60%

50%

40%

30%

20%

10%

0%

0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 110

DER's kW , %

Figure 1. Relative voltage boost due to injections of Qmax and different P injections. The initial voltage is 0.93 pu.

10%

0%

0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100

-10%

-20%

-30%

-40%

-50%

-60%

-70%

DER's kW, %

Figure 2. Interval increments of voltage due to additional kW injections (normalized to the reference Increment)

40.0%

20.0%

Cumulative increment due to additional kW, %

0.0%

0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 110

-20.0%

-40.0%

-60.0%

-80.0%

-100.0%

-120.0%

-140.0%

-160.0%

DER's kW, %

Figure 3. Cumulative increments of voltage due to additional kW injections (normalized to the reference Increment)

10.0%

0.0%

0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 110

-10.0%

-20.0%

-30.0%

-40.0%

-50.0%

-60.0%

-70.0%

DER's kW, %

Figure 4. Cumulative increments of voltage due to additional kW injections for two different initial voltages

Conclusions.

1. Available vars and Watts injections from DERs with smart inverters are interrelated

2. The effects of additional Watts from DERs on the circuit voltages depend on the resistance to

reactance ratio (R/X ratio), on the initial Watt generation by the DER, on the size of Watt

addition, and on the voltage levels from which and to which the voltage should be

raised.

3. In addition to the conditions mentioned above, other constraints of var injections

affecting the operational reactive power capabilities of DER, the value of Watts for other

objectives, and other available means of volt/var control should be taken into account

when deciding whether to use the Watt injection for voltage support.

Reference

1. Nokhum Markushevich, Vars versus Watts from Distributed Energy Resources. Available:

https://www.scribd.com/document/376740872/Vars-versus-Watts-from-Distributed-Energy-

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