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# Handout 4

Prepositions and Results in Italian and English: an Analysis from Event Decomposition
Folli & Ramchand (2005)

1. Introduction:

1. What do Goal of Motion and resultative constructions have in common? Where do they differ?
2. What is the difference between directed motion and located motion? Give examples.
3. Name different strategies of expressing directed motion / GM in natural languages. Is GM the
same thing as directed motion?
4. What is the aim of the article?
5. Discuss the examples below in terms of their structure and semantics:

## a. The boat floated under the bridge.

b. La barca galleggiò sotto il ponte.
c. La barca passò sotto il ponte galleggiando.
d. La palla rotolò sotto il tavolo.

2. Framework:

1. How does the authors' framework relate to the previously discussed article?
2. Describe their framework. State the event composition rules that govern their framework.
3. What form does argument structure take here?

## 1. State the difference between inner aspect and outer aspect.

2. What is the difference between *John pounded the metal in pieces. and John broke the stick in
pieces.? How is it accounted for in their framework?
3. How do prepositions classify in English according to Folli & Ramchand? What is the structure
of an accomplishment P? Consider the examples below:

## Mary walked to the park. / *Mary was to the park.

The ball rolled into the water. / *The ball was into the water.
The boat floated under the bridge. / The boat was under the bridge.
Mary ran in the park. / Mary was in the park.

## 4. How is GM derived in English?

5. Compare the two structures below. How are they different?

## John pounded the metal flat.

John broke the safe open.
4. Adding a result; Constructional Strategies in Italian

## La barca galleggiò sotto il ponte.

La barca passò sotto il ponte galleggiando.
*La barca è galleggiata sotto il ponte.

## La palla rotolò sotto il tavolo per/in due minute.

La palla è rotolata sotto il tavolo in un secondo/*per un secondo.
The ball IS rollPAST under the table in one second/*for one second.
‘The ball rolled under the table in one second/*for one second.’
La palla ha rotolato sotto il tavolo per un secondo/*in un secondo.
The ball HAS rollPAST under the table for one second/*in one second.
‘The ball rolled under the table for one second/ *in one second.’

## Gianni è corso in spiaggia in un secondo/*per un secondo.

John IS runPAST in beach in one second/*for one second.
‘John ran to the beach in a second/*for one second.’
La palla è rimbalzata dietro il tavolo in un secondo/*per un secondo.
The ball IS bouncePAST behind the table in a second/*for one second.
‘The ball bounced behind the table in a second/*for one second.’

## Gianni ha corso in spiaggia per un secondo/*in un secondo.

John HAS runPAST in beach for one second/*in one second.
‘John ran in the beach for one second/ *in one second.’
La palla ha rimbalzato dietro il tavolo per un secondo/*in un secondo.
The ball HAS bouncePAST behind the table for a second/*in one second.
‘The ball bounced behind the table for one second/* in one second.’

## 2. What is the status of prepositions in Italian?

3. Why can't we consider Italian prepositions on a par with ambiguous prepositions in English?
4. Which element licenses RP in Italian?
5. How do the authors account for cases as those below?

## La barca ha galleggiato attraverso la grotta in cinque minute.

The boat floated through the cave in five minutes.
Gianni ha camminato fino a casa in cinque minute.
Gianni walked home in five minutes.

6. What kind of resultatives does Italian allow? How are they licensed?

## Gianni ha rotto il vaso in mille pezzi.

‘John broke the vase in a thousand pieces.’
Gianni ha sciolto il cioccolato a cubetti.
‘John melted the chocolate in cubes.’

## *Gianni ha rotto il vaso aperto.

‘John broke the vase open.’
*Gianni ha sciolto il cioccolato liquido.
‘John melted the chocolate liquid.’

## a. Gianni ha martellato il metallo *piatto/ piatto piatto.

‘John hammered the metal *flat/ flat flat.’
b. Gianni ha cucito la camicia *stretta/troppo stretta.
‘John sewed the dress *tight/too tight15.’
c. Gianni ha sciolto il cioccolato *liquido/troppo liquido.
‘John melted the chocolate too liquid.’

## 8. Give a summary of the authors' conclusions.

9. In view of this article consider the examples below. In what way do they
present a problem for Folli's and Ramchand's theory?

## *John walked the dog. / *John danced Mary.

John walked the dog to the park. / John danced Mary across the room.
John walked the dog along the fence all afternoon / for hours.
John danced Mary towards the far corner of the room.

## Sue danced at the party in the bathroom.

Sue danced in the bathroom at the party.
Sue danced around the bathroom at the party.
*Sue danced at the party around the bathroom.

Sue danced at the party for hours / for hours at the party.
Sue danced around the room for hours / *for hours around the room.

## Gianni ha corso nel bosco per ore / *in un minuto.

Gianni has run in the woods for hours/*in hours.
Gianni ran in the woods for hours.
Gianni e corso nel bosco in un minuto / *per ore.
Gianni is run in the woods in a minute/*for hours. / Gianni ran into the woods in a minute.
Gianni e corso verso il bosco.
Gianni is run towards the woods. / Gianni ran towards the woods.
Gianni e scivolato in direzione della pianta.
Gianni is slid in the direction of the tree. / Gianni slid towards the tree.

## The car careened / hurtled around the corner.

*The car careened / hurtled.
He sneaked / crept along the wall / into the room.
*He sneaked / crept.