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CHURCH ARCHITECTURE  VIGAN CHURCH, Ilocos Sur

Instructor: Architect Eva Maria Villanueva  finished in 1800


 located within the grid iron planned streets
CHURCH ARCHITECTURE of a colonial town
 simple, patterned after early Christian types; either  baroque elements include protruding
rectangular or cruciform with simple naves and aisles columns and solid frames; three arched
 thick walls reinforced with heavy buttresses for earthquakes doorways leading to three naves at the first
protection level, guarded by ionic pillars with chinese
 immense sizes because of colonial policy which dictated that fu dogs
a church should be built for every 5000 baptized  urn-like finial at pediment
 materials used include: volcanic tuff (adobe), hardened lava,
volcanic ejecta, sandstone, river boulders, clay, corals,
limestone, oyster shells, eggs

SIGNIFICANT EXAMPLES
 PAOAY CHURCH, Ilocos Norte
 built in 1694 by Antonio Estavillo, completed
1702-1710
 façade: rectangular, with arched doorway, four
continuous pilasters alternating with niches
 finials and crenellations at pediment niche at the
apex
 huge volutes with low relief lines tracing the contour  SANTA MARIA CHURCH, Ilocos Sur
to disguise the large buttresses  constructed late 18th century, 85 steps
leading to the church was built by
Augustinian Benigno Fernandez
 massive brick church perched on a hill
 façade has circular buttresses, three
openings and a blind niche, semi-circular
pediment
 TUMAUINI CHURCH, Isabela  BARASOAIN CHURCH, Bulacan
 begun 1783-1788 by Dominican Domingo Forto  1871-1878 : stone church was constructed
and town mayor Pablo Sason; 1803-1808 – circular to replace wooden structure; 1880 –
belltower was completed earthquake ruined the church
 pampango artisans carved the hardwood molds  1885 : Augustinian Juan Giron
for the clay insets that decorate the church commissioned a builder named Magpayo to
 ultra-baroque : unique for its extensive use of rebuild the church
baked clay both for wall finishes and ornamentation  variation on the circle motif
 ornamental details : serpentine reliefs, spiral  flutings on pilasters with ends blunted into
curves, flowers, foliage, sunfaces, cherubs and semicircles detract from the NeoClassical
saints  belltower has a cubic base, three layes
 circular belltower with white limestone finish, accented by blind and open windows, top
decorated with bright red clay rosettes and festoons has crenellations and six-sided cone

 ANGAT CHURCH, Bulacan


 begun 1756-1773 by Augustinian Gregorio Giner;
completed in 1802 by Fray Joaquin Calvo
 baroque style : coupled Corinthian and Doric
columns divide façade into levels or segments,
statues ringed with wreath-like ornaments flank
niches, windows with bas-relief “curtains”
 plain three-storey belltower with balustered top
 SAN SEBASTIAN CHURCH, Manila adding to the height of the towers; these
 a church built for all times after previous churches towers were damaged in the 1863
were damaged by earthquakes in 1863 and 1880 earthquake and were never rebuilt
 designed in the Gothic style (without flying  plaza adorned with Fu dogs represents
buttresses) by Genaro Palacios in Revivalist colonial urban planning
architecture  High Renaissance : superpositioned Tuscan
 made entirely of steel; plans were sent to Belgium orders at first level, Corinthian capitals at
where the parts were made in sections then second level; circular windows at plain
transported to Manila pediment; heavily carved, two-paneled main
 interiors were painted to resemble faux marble; door with images of St. Augustine and St.
adorned with sculpture by Eusebio Garcia and Monica amidst Philippine flora
painting by Lorenzo Rocha  nave is flanked by 12 collateral chapels each
housing a Baroque or NeoClassic retablo
 Baroque elements include trompe l’oeil :
sculpture by Italian artists Cesare Dibella
and Giovanni Alberoni on the ceiling and
pilasters
 cloisters built around an atrium with a
garden planted by Augustinian botaninst
Manuel Blanco

 SAN AUGUSTIN CHURCH, Manila


 oldest church in the Philippines; built 1587-1607
by Juan Macias according to the plans approved by
the Royal Audencia de Mexico and by a Royal Cedula
 1854 : Don Luciano Oliver (Municipal Architect of
Manila) directed the renovation of the façade by
 TAAL CHURCH, Batangas
 1858 : Fray Marcos Anton, with the help of the
architect Don Luciano Oliver, started construction;
the church was completed in 1878
 built on top of a hill and may be reached through
flagstone steps, unobstructed by other buildings
 façade : arched windows alternate with Ionic
columns at first level, Corinthian at upper level;
projected cornices and mouldings; three pediments
 interior is cavernous bur drab with stout piers and
semi-circular apse : mathematical exactness rather
than ornamentation

 MIAGAO CHURCH, Iloilo


 present church was built 1786-1797 under
the supervision of fray Francisco Gonzales
Maximo; a storey was added to the left
belfry in 1830
 also served as fortress against Muslim
pirates, simple and massive structure mixed
with ornate details
 local botanical motifs at façade reliefs
reminiscent of cookie cutouts (de gajeta),
used to describe 16th century Mexican
architectural reliefs

 DARAGA CHURCH, Albay


 established by people who fled the eruption of Mt.
Mayon form Cagsawa
 the Franciscan wanted a church with the best
features of Romanesque and Gothic, but it was
executed by the carvers in Baroque
 façade : a whole tablet without columns and
cornices, only symmetrically positioned
fenestrations, apertures and niches; whorls, twisted
columns, foliage, medallions, statues and reliefs
 SANTO NINO DE CEBU BASILICA, Cebu
 built by Fray Juan de Albarran about 400 years
ago, on the site where a soldier found an image of
the Sto. Nino in a settlement that the Spanish
soldiers have burned down
 the Convent was founded in 1565, making it the first
to be built in the country
 constructed with stones from Panay and Capiz
 façade : blending of Moorish, Romanesque and
NeoClassical elements; trefoils on the doorways; two
levels divided into three segments and topped by
pediment; retablo at the center
 belltower has four-sided balustraded dome
 interior : pierced screen with floral motifs, pineapple
decors at the choirloft, corn cobs at the capital