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Design of Energy Storage for PV

PV-BESS design

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L. Palma*

* Department of Electrical Engineering, Universidad de Concepción, Edmundo Larenas 219 Concepción, (Chile)

Abstract— Power generation in a PV system is defined by which have a large starting current, and requires supplying

its V-I, and V-P characteristics. These curves are function of up to eight times their nominal current for a few seconds.

instantaneous solar irradiation and cell temperature; and Similarly, for on-grid systems, grid codes may require

outline the maximum power that the system can supply at any

certain level of power contribution during system faults,

given moment. As a consequence of this PV systems lack

overload capacity, which is common in traditional rotating which typically last in the order of 5-10 cycles.

generators; and therefore, PV systems cannot supply short One possible approach to enable a PV system to have

term or transient load demands. To solve this issue two overload capability is to constantly operate 4-5% below its

approaches can be taken; one is to constantly operate the PV maximum power point; however, this has the drawback of

system below its maximum power level, which has the underutilizing the system and reducing overall energy

drawback of non-optimal energy harvesting. The other is

harvesting. Alternatively, the use of energy storage

integration of energy storage elements to the power

conditioning system, which allows optimizing power elements appears as a better solution, thus allowing energy

generation, while adding overload capacity. In addition, this harvesting optimization while introducing overload

approach also allows smoothing out short term irradiation capability to the system.

variations allowing the system to improve energy harvesting. Among the possible energy storage elements available

Focusing on the second approach analysis of short term today, the use of supercapacitors (or ultracapacitors) for

energy storage requirements in PV systems is performed in

this application appears as a good option, since they offer

this paper. As a result, sizing guidelines and a design

procedure for a supercapacitor based energy storage system better performance than batteries in terms of cycle life and

are developed. In addition, effectiveness of the proposed power density, and therefore making them a better choice

method on improving PV generator performance is tested for short term energy storage [7-11].

and verified through computer simulations. Consequently; this paper focuses on the development of

a sizing procedure for the required energy storage system

Index Terms-- Energy Storage, Photovoltaics, using supercapacitors, and on the selection of the most

Supercapacitors, Short term Transients.

appropriate converter to integrate the resulting

I. INTRODUCTION supercapacitor bank to the PV power conditioning unit. As

a result, a set of design guidelines are given which allow

Research and development on renewable energy

constructing a cost effective short term energy storage

sources and their integration with the loads or electric grid

system for this application.

has been driven by the ever-increasing energy demand and

augmented environmental concerns [1-2]. Among the II. SHORT TERM ENERGY STORAGE REQUIREMENTS

renewable energy sources wind and solar resources are

Given the operation characteristics of PV systems,

gaining wide acceptance and are expected to be an

where power generated is variable in terms of solar

important component in future energy systems. In

irradiation and temperature. To constantly supply the loads

particular, Photovoltaic (PV) generation should play a

an energy buffer that can absorb and supply energy in

major role, mainly due to their modularity, ease of

order to meet demand is required. In this sense energy

installation, and low maintenance costs [3-4].

storage can be divided into two types: long term and short

On the other hand, PV generation is characterized by its

term.

dependency on solar irradiation levels and panel

Long term energy storage is capable of sinking PV

temperature, thus power produced is not constant

power or supplying load demands for long periods of time,

throughout the day and can also be affected by short term

lasting typically from few minutes to several hours. The

disturbances such as passing birds or clouds. In addition,

main application of long term energy storage in PV

power generated by a PV system is restricted to the bounds

systems is to store energy during the day and supply the

set by their characteristic curves (V-I and V-P), and

load during the night (time shifting). Thus, for this kind of

therefore they lack the overload capability found in

application typically energy storage devices such as

traditional rotating generators which is associated with

batteries are required due to their relatively large energy

their inertia [5-6]. This characteristic is problematic in both

density, which for example in the case of Li-ion batteries

off and on grid systems. For example; an off-grid system

is in the range of 200 Wh/kg.

should have enough power reserve to supply motor loads,

On the other hand, short term energy storage is intended the nominal power of the load and 't motor starting time.

for sinking or delivering power for periods of time ranging Starting time can be further divided into 't1 and 't2, which

from few seconds to several minutes. In this case the power correspond to an initial instant where the motor demands

required may be high; up to 8 times nominal power of the up to 8 times nominal power to break its mechanical

PV system but only for a short span of time. In this case, inertia, and a secondary time interval in which power is

high power density energy storage devices such as gradually reduced as the machine accelerates to its steady

supercapacitors, which have a power density around 6 state.

kW/kg, are a good alternative. PLoad

In the particular case of short term energy requirements 8Pnom

associated to PV systems there are three relevant situations

that can be considered. Two of them are associated with

on-grid systems, and one associated with both off-grid and

on-grid systems. In the case of on-grid PV systems there is

a requirement to emulate the effect of inertia found in 't1 't2

t

rotating generators. This allows the PV system to provide

't

support to the electrical system emulating the behavior of

a synchronous machine against the rate of change in Figure 1. Typical power demand for motor starting

frequency. This is done by supplying active power to the

Based on the power demand profile of fig. 1, the

grid in case of a sudden mismatch between generation and

required energy reserve can be calculated and results in

load. In this respect, it was shown in [12] that the energy

(3).

storage requirement associated with inertia emulation is

given by:

߱௧ ݃݊݅ݐݎܽݐݏൌ ͺܲ οݐଵ

(3)

ο݂ Ͷܲ οݐଶ ሾܬሿ

ʹ߬௧ ܲ

߱௧௨௧ ൌ ο ݐሾܬሿ (1) Then, from (3) and considering that each time interval in

݂ this profile is defined by οݐଵ ൌ ͲǤʹο ݐand οݐଶ ൌ ͲǤͺοݐ,

where: τinertia is the inertial time constant, Pnominal the the energy requirement for this transient is given by:

generator nominal power, fnominal the system nominal

frequency, and ∆f/∆t the rate of change of system ߱௧௦௧௧ ൌ ͶǤͺܲ οݐሾܬሿ (4)

frequency. Typical values for τinertia range from 2 to 10

seconds, thus considering the maximum frequency Further, since motor starting times can last between 1-

deviation allowed (which usually is between +4% and - 15 seconds, from (4) it can be obtained that to

6%) it can be calculated that the maximum energy appropriately supply this transient a total of 72 seconds of

requirement is of 1.2 seconds of nominal power. nominal power are required. For this calculation, the worst

On the other hand, according to the analysis shown in case starting time of 15 seconds is considered which results

[12] the energy required to contribute to primary frequency in some bank oversizing, however this has the advantage

control in electrical grids is given by (2); of improving supercapacitor bank lifetime.

Of these three situations, clearly the most energy

߱௬௨௬݈ܿݎݐ݊ intensive transient is due to motor staring. Therefore, as

(2) the worst case from energy reserve stand point, it can be

ൌ ͲǤͲͷܲ οݐሾܬሿ

used to properly size the energy storage element required

where; Pnominal is the nameplate power of the PV system, for the PV system.

and ∆t corresponds to the time interval defined by grid

standards for primary frequency control. Whereas III. INTEGRATION OF ENERGY STORAGE TO THE POWER

typically regulations in this respect define that the CONDITIONER

generator must have sufficient energy reserves to meet the Power conditioning systems for PV may be classified as

primary frequency control for a minimum period of 15 single or dual stage (fig 2) depending on their architecture.

minutes. Thus, it can be calculated that the energy reserve Single stage systems (fig 2a) are constructed using only a

associated with this function is of 45 seconds of nominal voltage source inverter with the PV array connected

power. Similarly, in the case of PV systems isolated from directly across its DC input terminals. For this type of

the grid or connected to relative weak grids such as system, a high voltage PV array consisting of many panels

microgrids; enough power reserves must be available to connected in series is required. In addition, due to its

supply transient loads such as motor starting, or other high construction, energy storage such as supercapacitors can

inrush current loads. These transients are of short duration, only be integrated in parallel with the PV array, which

usually ranging between 0.5-15 seconds, and of large main drawback is not allowing control over its charge and

magnitude (6-8 times the rated power). discharge. Therefore, poor utilization of the sorted energy

Moreover, typical load demand of these loads is is achieved since energy absorption or release is only

characterized by the profile shown in fig 1, where P nom is function of PV panel voltage variation.

461

ܸ

a b c ݊݅ܽܩ ۓ՜

a) ͲǤͷܸ௦

ܩିǡௌ (5)

ܸ

݊݅ܽܩ ۔՜

ە ܸ௦

PV

Array

As can be seen from (5) the auxiliary converter should

have a variable voltage gain, which must double as the

Single Stage supercapacitor gets discharged. Moreover, since

Power

Conditioner supercapacitors are an energy storage element of relatively

b)

a b c low operating voltage, the auxiliary converter should be of

the buck-boost type to interface with the higher voltage in

DC/DC DC/AC

Converter Inverter the power converter DC-link.

Further, to determine the voltage gain that the auxiliary

converter has to supply, first the nominal voltage level of

the supercapacitor bank has to be determined. This value

Dual Stage

Power can be calculated in terms of the energy that needs to be

Conditioner

stored, the capacitance and nominal voltage of the

Figure 2 PV Power conditioner architectures a) single stage b)

dual stage

supercapacitor cells that will be used to construct the bank.

Taking this into consideration and using the well-known

equation for energy stored in a capacitor, (6) is obtained,

On the other hand, dual stage power conditioning

systems are constructed using a DC-DC converter ͺ߱݀݁ݎ݅ݑݍ݁ݎ

cascaded with an inverter (fig 2b). This allows integrating ܸௌ ൌ (6)

the energy storage through the DC link established ͵ܥ ܸ

between stages. It was shown in [16] that for this power ,where ωrequired is the energy storage requirement, Ccell the

conditioning architecture the most convenient approach cell capacitance, and Vcell is the cell voltage which for

for supercapacitor energy storage integration is the use of current supercapacitors ranges from 2,5 to 3V. Similarly,

an auxiliary power converter; which allows for better the number of supercapacitor cells that need to be

usage of the energy stored, and ensures good dynamic connected in series to achieve the voltage calculated in (6)

performance against load changes (fig 3). can be determined by:

PV a b c ͺ߱௨ௗ

Panel DC/DC DC/AC ݊௦௦௦ ൌ ଶ (7)

Converter Inverter

͵ܥ ܸ

Furthermore, by combining (5) and (6), the maximum

voltage gain of the auxiliary converter can be calculated in

terms of the energy storage requirements and capacitor

DC/DC

Super

Capacitor

Converter cells to be used to implement the supercapacitor bank;

which results in (8);

Figure 3 Energy storage integration in a dual stage power ܩ௫ ൌ

conditioner Ͷ߱௨ௗ

the supercapacitor, the auxiliary converter used has to be IV. DESIGN EXAMPLE

bi-directional. Further, if supercapacitors are used as Based on the results obtained in the previous sections, a

energy storage elements, the converter should supply design example of a supercapacitor bank for a PV system

enough voltage gain to properly interface with the power is performed. For this, a 5 kW PV plant connected to a

conditioner DC link. Calculation of the required voltage three phase 380 V, 50 Hz microgrid through a two-stage

gain can be done considering that to utilize 75% of the power conditioning system is considered (fig 3). Given the

energy stored in the supercapacitor a voltage drop of 50% grid voltage the DC link should be of 640 V, and thus from

should be allowed, which results in (5); where V DC link is (1), and (2) it is obtained that the energy storage

the voltage in the power conditioner DC link, and VSC is requirements for inertia emulation and primary frequency

the supercapacitor nominal voltage. control for this system are:

462

$10000,0 18

On the other hand, considering that a 5 hp induction $9000,0 Supercapacitor Bank Cost

16

6

Converter voltage Gain

motor with a staring time of 15 seconds is connected to the $8000,0 14

4

$7000,0

microgrid, the energy storage associated with its staring $6000,0

12

2

10

0

transient is calculated by (4) and results in: $5000,0

8

$4000,0

6

$3000,0

߱௧ ݃݊݅ݎܽݐݏൌ ͶǤͺ ͵ כ͵Ͳ ͳ כͷ ൌ ʹͺ݇ܬ (11) $2000,0 4

$1000,0 2

150 310 350 650 1200 1500 2000 3000 3400

0

required to supply the motor starting transient is the Cell Capacitance [F]

highest, thus using this value to design the required Figure 4 Supercapacitor bank cost and required converter voltage

gain comparison

supercapacitor bank covers the energy storage

requirements of the other two conditions.

This since the resulting bank in both cases has a volume

Commercial supercapacitors have capacitances ranging

of around 14,5 liters, which is larger than if 3000 or 3400

from 5 to 3400 F, and operating voltages from 2.7 to 3 V.

F cells are used, but have the advantage of requiring an

Therefore, banks with several possible capacitor cell

auxiliary converter of lesser voltage gain. Also, the cost of

configurations can meet the energy storage requirements

these two solutions is among the lowest. Moreover, from

of this system. Consequently, the possible design solutions

voltage gain point of view, the use of the 350 F cells

need to be compared in order to select the best alternative.

implies that a non-isolated buck-boost type converter can

Thus, considering a range of different cells, and using the

be used for implementing the auxiliary converter since a

DC link voltage and required energy storage calculated in

Gmax of 1.64 is easily achievable. On the other hand, the

(11) the number of cells and voltage gain of the auxiliary

use of the 2000 F cell requires a Gmax of 9.37 which

converter for each case can be calculated using (7) and (8).

requires the use of an isolated buck boost converter making

The resulting values are shown in Table I along with

the solution costlier. For this reason, it appears that the

volume and cost for each configuration.

most convenient option for implementing the

TABLE I

supercapacitor bank is the use of 280 series connected 350

NUMBER OF SERIES CONNECTED CELLS TO MEET F cells.

ENERGY REQUIREMENT

Bank Bank

Ccell Vcell nseries

Gmax Volume Cost V. SIMULATION RESULTS

[F] [V] cells

[L] [U$]

150 2.5 654 0.7 16 9.261

To verify the effectiveness of the energy storage system

310 2.7 316 1.45 16.8 3.460

designed computer simulations were carried out. For this,

350 2.7 280 1.64 14.7 2.944

a three-phase power conditioning system connected to a 5

650 2.7 151 3.05 22.5 5.490 kW PV array composed of 20 x 250 W panels and

1200 2.7 82 5.62 17.5 3.425 supplying power to a three phase 380 V, 50 Hz, microgrid

1500 2.7 65 7.03 16.1 2.761 is modeled in PSIM. In this model, the PV array is

2000 2.7 49 9.37 14.5 2.311 composed by two strings of 10 series connected panels

3000 3.0 26 15.62 10.6 1.474 which produce a maximum power voltage of 311 V and a

3400 2.85 26 16.81 10.3 1.638 maximum power current of 16.1 A. This PV array is

connected to a two-stage power conditioning system

As can be observed, for the same amount of stored composed by a boost converter which follows the

energy the use of larger capacitance cells appears to be a maximum power point of the system using a P&O

better choice, this since a lesser number of individual algorithm, and elevates its voltage to produce a 640 V DC

capacitors is required to implement the bank. However, link. The second stage of the power conditioner consists of

this has the drawback of requiring an auxiliary converter a three-phase voltage source inverter which interfaces with

of larger voltage gain, which can be problematic since the the microgrid. The supercapacitor bank designed in the

use of a high frequency transformer with a large turns ratio previous section is interfaced to the power conditioning

may be required. In addition, cost and volume of the system through an auxiliary converter consisting in a bi-

supercapacitor bank increases considerably if small cells directional buck boost.

are used, this since many cells are required. From Simulation results for system response against a

inspection of the data shown in Table I and fig 4 it appears transient generated by the start of a 5 hp three phase

that there exist two particular bank configurations that induction motor are shown in fig 5. As can be observed

result in good choice in terms of cost, volume, and from fig 5a, prior to the transient the PV power conditioner

converter voltage gain; which are the use of 350 F or 2000 system supplies 8.4 A per phase to the microgrid. At t =

F cells. 0.5 seconds the motor starts, and the current drawn by it

reaches a peak of 45 A (fig 5b), which is supplied by action

of the PV power conditioner to maintain microgrid voltage

constant. As the motor accelerates, current drawn is

463

Ipv a)

reduced until steady state is reached at t = 2 seconds where 20

10

current injected to the microgrid is also adjusted and kept 5

400

300

Ia Ib Ic 200

100

40 0

0.5 1 1.5 2 2

0 Time (s)

-40 Isc b)

20

0

I(SS3) I(SS4) I(SS5) b) -20

-40

40 -60

-80

0

Vsc

-40 390

380

370

Iamg Ibmg Icmg c) 360

350

10 340

0 0.5 1 1.5 2 2.

-10 Time (s)

0 0.5 1 1.5 2 2.5

Time (s) the transient, b) supercapacitor current and voltage during the

Figure 5 Simulation results a) three phase currents supplied by the transient

power conditioning system, b) current drawn by the motor load, c)

microgrid current In this paper analysis of short term energy storage

requirements for PV power conditioning systems

Voltage and current supplied by the PV array during the connected to microgrids is performed. As a result, it is

transient are shown in fig 6a. As can be observed, the input shown that the most stringent energy demand corresponds

stage of the power conditioner keeps following the MPP of to the transient generated by motor loads starting. To cope

the array, and thus PV current and voltage are maintained with this issue, design equations are developed to properly

at its maximum power voltage of 311 V and at a current of size the required energy storage element. In addition, a

15 A during the duration of the transient. On the other design criteria to adequately specify a supercapacitor bank

hand, to meet the power demand set by the starting of the meeting the energy requirement is presented and

motor load, power is drawn from the supercapacitor bank. evaluated.

As consequence at t = 0.5 sec. the supercapacitor is The effectiveness of the proposed energy storage sizing

discharged reaching a peak current of -44 A, which is method and supercapacitor bank design criteria is

gradually reduced as the motor accelerates (fig 6b). It can evaluated through computer simulations showing good

be observed that motor starting ends at t = 2 seconds, and results, allowing the system to ride through short term

therefore motor starting time in this simulation is of 1.5 transient disturbances.

seconds. During this time supercapacitor bank voltage

drops from the initial 374 V to 356 V, and thus energy

supplied to the load during the transient is of 14.78 kJ. That REFERENCES

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