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## A TEXT BOOK OF CLASSICAL ALGEBRA AND

CALCULUS
Contents lesson
UNIT I: 1. Binomial theorems
2. Exponential series
3. Logarithmic series
4. Convergence and divergence of series
5. Conditionally convergent series
UNIT 2 6. Raabe’s test
7. Theory of Equations
8. Transformation of Equations
9. Reciprocal Equations
UNIT 3 10. Multiple Roots
11. Rolle’s Theorem
12. Newton’s method of approximation to a root
13. Horner’s Method
15. Radius of curvature in polar form
16. Total differentiation
UNIT 4 17. Integration
18. Integration by parts
19. Reduction formulas
20. Double Integrals and Triple Integrals
21. Areas and Volumes
UNIT-5 22. Improper Integrals
23. Convergence of Improper Integrals
24. Approximate Integration
25. Change of order of Integration
26. Jacobians
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UNIT 1
Lesson – 1
BINOMIAL THEOREMS
Contents
1.0 AIMS AND OBJECTIVES
1.1 BINOMIAL THEOREM
1.1.1. VANDERMONDE’S THEOREM
1.1.2. BINOMIAL THEOREM FOR A RATIONAL INDEX
1.1.3. APPLICATIONS OF BINOMIAL SERIES
1.2 EXAMPLES
1.3 LET US SUM UP
1.4. CHECK YOU PROGRESS
1.5 LESSON END ACTIVITIES
1.6. POINTS FOR DISCUSSION
1.7 REFERENCES

## 1.0 AIMS AND OBJECTIVES

Our Aim is to learn about the expansion of a Binomial Theorem for a
rational index using vandermonde’s theorem. Further we aim at learning
problems to be solved using the different types in Binomial series.

## 1.1 BINOMIAL THEOREM

1.1.1 Vandermonde’s theorem
If n is a positive integer, then (p+q)n=pn+nc1pnq1+nc2 pn-2q2+nc3pn-3q3
+-------+ qr for all values of p and q.
Proof.
If p and q are positive integers, we have
p p p
(1+x)p = 1 + . 1 x. + .2 . +2x. . +. x. n +.n . ¥. . …… (1)
1 ! 2 ! n!
q q q
(1+x)q = 1 + . 1 x. + 2. . +2x. . +. x .n +.n . ¥. . …… (2)
1 ! 2 ! n!

## Where pr = p(p-1)(p-2)…. ( p - r -1)

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qr = q(q-1)(q-2)…. ( q - r -1)

## The coefficient of xn in the product of two series 1 and 2 is

pn pq pq pq nq
= + -2 n 1 + -2n2
+ . . .1n. -+.1 . . . +
n! (1 - ! )n 1 (! 2-n) ! 2 n! - 1 ( ! n1) ! !

1é n ! n! nù !
= ê pn + p n -1+q 1 p n+
- 2 qú 2 +p q +n . . . q. . . . .
n ! ë 1 ( ! -n )1 ! 2 -n( ! )2 ! n-û 3 (! n- 3 3) !
3

1 é ( 1 n ) -! n ( 1 n- ) ( n 2- ) n ! (-n 1 ù) n (- 2n ) -( n 3 ) !
ê pn + p -1 n + q 1 p -n+2 qú 2 +
n - p3 3q +
n . q. . . . . . .
n ! ë 1 ( -! ) n 1 ! 2(- n ! ) 2 ! -n û3 !( 3 ) !

1 é ( n 1 n) (n- 1 n -) n (ù -n2 )
= ê pn + p-1 n q1+ - 2p n + 2 q
ú - 3n +
p 3 q n+. . . . q. . . . .
n! ë 1 ! 2 ! 3 û !

## = Co efficient of xn in the expansion of (1+x)p+q

( p + q) n
=
n!

\ (p+q)n=pn+nc1pn-1q1+nc2pn-2q2+…..+qn

Book Work 2

## 1.1.2 Binomial Theorem for a rational Index

Statement
If n is a rational number and -1 < x < 1 (i.e) x < 1, the sum of the series
n( -1 n ) 2 ( -
n 1 )n 2-
( 2n ) -(n 1 n)- ( n2 -) n. . -r( 1 )r
1+nx+ x + + x . +. . . x+ . . .¥ . . is the
2 ! 3 ! ! r
real positive value of (1+x)n
n n n
Pf: Let f(n) = 1 + 1. x+. 2 .+x2 . + . xr .+r . ¥.
1 ! 2 ! r!

Where nr=n(n-1)(n-2)…. (n - 1r - )
We denote this series by u1+u2+u3+……….. ¥
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nr r
x
ur +1 r!
=
ur nr -1 r -1
x
(r -1 ) !

nr (r -1 ) n ! r
= \ n!=n(n-1)!
r ! n -1r xr -1

nr 1
= . x.
nr -1 r

n - r +1 nr
= .x \ = n - r +1
r nr -1

ur +1 n - r +1
\ = = .x
ur r

ur +1 n- r1 + n +
1 r
\ = = x - x
ur r r r

n +1
= -1 n
n r

u n +1
\ lx® i ¥r +m
1
= l i -m 1x
ur x ® ¥ r

1
= -1 x®
Qr ¥0 ®
r
= x
u +r 1
\r a
® x=
u r

## \ The series u1 + 2 u+ . . +u. . r . +. . .¥. .is convergent if |x| <1

ie. the series u1+u2+u3+……+u4+………. is absolutely convergent.
similarly the series
p p 2 p33 p n n
f( =) p 1+1 x.+2 . +x . + . x +. +
x. .+ .¥
1 ! 2 ! 3 ! n!
q q q q
f( =) q +11 x.+2 . 2+x . 33+ .x +. x+.n n
.+ .¥
1 ! 2 ! 3 ! n!
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( p + )q +
p( q) ( p + )q +
p( q) n
f( + ) p = 1 +q1 . + 2 .x + 2. x +. 3 3 +.x .+ x . + n

1 ! 2 ! 3 ! !n

are also absolutely convergent if |x|<1 \ f(p) +f(q) can be multiplied term
by term and the resulting series is also absolutely convergent

## \ The coefficient of xn in the product of f(p) and f(q) is

pn p
-1 n q1 p2- qn2 3p- n 3 q q
+ + + + +n . . . .
n ! ( 1- ) n! 1 !- ( n2 ) - ! 2n ! ( 3 )n ! 3 ! !
1
= [ pn +n 1 c -n1+p 1 q 2- nn+2 c2 p+.n . q. . .q]
n!

( p + q) n
By vandermonde’s theorem this expression is and this is the
n!
coefficient of f(p+q)
\ The coefficient of any power of x in f(p+q)
= The coefficient of the same power of x in the product f(b)xf(q)

## \f(p)+(q)=f(p+q) for all values of p and q, provides |x|<1.

\ f(p)f(q)f(r)=f(p+q+r)

## case (1): n is a positive fraction

u
Let n = where u and v are positive integers.
v

## f(u) = (1+x)n since u is a positive integer

f(0)=1 f(1)=1+x

æu öu æu ö u æ ö
f ç f v+ f ÷a c. = t. ço. r. + s. f÷. v. +f . aç. c. t . o÷ r s
èv øv è v ø v è ø
v
é æ u ùö uæ ö
ê f ç v ú÷ f= ç v x ÷ v
ë è ûø è ø
= f(u)
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v
é æ u ùö v
ê f ç v ú÷ =x(1 + )
ë è ûø

æu ö u v
fç ÷= (x +1 )
èv ø

\f(x)=(1+x)u
This is the proof for when is a positive fraction.
Case(ii) let n be a negative rational number
Let n=-u where u is a +ve rational number \n+u=0
f ( n ) f (u= )f +n( u)

1
= f( \
0f ) n(= )
f ( u)

1
=1
( +1x u )

= (1+x)n
f(x) = (1+x)n
\ The theorem for any negative index
Important Formulas
1. (1-x)-1=1+x+x2+x3+…………..¥
2. (1+x)-1=1-x+x2-x3+…………..¥
3. (1-x)-2=1+2x+3x2+4x3+……....¥
4. (1+x)-2=1-2x+3x2 -4x3+………..¥
1.1.3. Applications of Binomial series
More Formulas
(1) If n is a rational member, and -1<x<1 ie |x|<1, then
n( -1n ) 2 n(- 1n ) -3n( 2 )
( + x1 n )= n1 +. x . + . x. + . x. + . .¥ .
1 . 2 1 . 2 . 3
n( -1n ) n(- 1n ) -n( 2 )
2. ( - x1 n )= n1 -. x . +2 . x. - . 3 x. + . .¥ .
1 . 2 1 . 2 . 3
n( +1n ) n(+ 1n ) +n( 2 )
3. ( + x1 - n )= n1 -. x . +2. x. - . 3 x. + . .¥ .
1 . 2 1 . 2 . 3
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## n( +1n ) n(+ 1n ) +n( 2 )

4. ( - x1 - n )= n1 +. x . +2 . x. + . 3 x. + . .¥ .
1 . 2 1 . 2 . 3
p p p( +q) p( + p) q( + p2 q )
5. ( - x1 - p )q 1=x ( / q +) ( x/ + ) (2q / + ) x . 3 .+ .q . .¥ . .
1 ! 2 ! 3 !
p p p( +q) p( + p) q( + p2 q)
- x1 - p )q 1=x (
6. ((1+x) / q -) ( x/ + ) 2(q / + ) x . 3 .+ .q . .¥ . .
1 ! 2 ! 3 !
Model 1
1.2. Examples

## 1. Find the sum to infinity of the series

1 1 . 4 1 . 4 . 7
1 + . . +. . . + . . +. . . ¥. .
66.126.12.18
1 1 . 4 1 . 4 . 7
s = 1 .+ . .+ . .+ . .+ . .¥ .
66.126.12.18
1 1 . 4 1 . 4 . 7
=1 . + . . + . .+ . .+ . .¥ .
61.6.2.61.6.2.3.6
1 1 . 4 1 1 . 4 . 7 1
=1 . + . . + . .+ . .+ . .¥ .
6 1 . 2 1f 2 . 2 . f3 3
2 3
1 1 . 4æ 1 1ö . 4 æ . 7 ö 1
= 1 .+ . +.ç . +÷ . .+ç . ÷+. .¥.
6 2 !è 6 ø 3 è ! 6ø
2 3
1 æ 1 1 ö . 4 æ 1 1 ö . 4 æ . 7 ö1
= 1 .ç+ . ÷ +. ç. + .÷ .+ ç . +÷. .¥.
1 è ! 6ø 2 è ! 6ø 3 è ! ø6

## Which is of the form

2 3
p æ x p ö( p+ ) q æ (x + p)ö p ( +q æ 2 p q) ö x
= 1
=1+ ç .- ÷ . + ç . ÷+. ç. + ÷. ¥ .
1 èq ! ø 2 èq! 3ø ! qè ø
x 1
\ p=1 p+q=4 =
q 6

x 1
1+q=4 =
3 6
3 1
q=3 x= =
6 2
-1 / 3
-p/q -1/3 æ1 ö
\ s= (1-x) =(1-1/2 ) =ç ÷
è2 ø
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1
= -1 / 3
= 21 / 3

=3 2
2. Sum the series
2 2 . 5 2 . 5 . 8
+ + + . . . .¥
.......
66.126.12.18
2 2 . 5 2 . 5 . 8
s= + + +. . . . . . . ¥
........
66.126.12.18
2 2 . 5 2 . 5 . 8
= + + + . . . . . .¥
.........
61.6.2.61.6.2.6.3.6
2 3
2 2 . 5æ 1 2ö . 5æ . 8 ö1
= +ç ÷ + ç ÷+ . . . . . .¥. . . . . . . . .
6 1 . 2è 6 1ø . 2è . 3 ø6
2 3
2 2 . 5æ 1 2ö . 5æ . 8 ö1
= +ç ÷ + ç ÷+ . . . . . .¥. . . . . . . . .
6 2 è! 6ø 3 è ! 6ø
2 3
2 æ1 2 ö . 5 æ1 2 ö . 5 æ . 8 ö1
= ç ÷+ ç +÷ ç +÷ . . . . .¥. . . . . . . . . .
1 è ! 6ø 2 è ! 6ø 3 è ! 6ø

2 3
2 1 2 ö . 5 æ1 2 ö . 5 æ . 8 ö1
1+s = 1 . æç .+ . ÷ . +ç. . ÷. +. ç . .÷+ . . .¥ . .
1 è! 6ø 2 è ! 6ø 3 è ! 6ø

x 1
\p=2 p+q=5 =
q 6

x 1
1+q=5 =
3 6
3 1
q=3 x= =
6 2

\ 1+s = (1-x)-p/q
= (1- ½)-2/3=(1/2)-2/3=22/3
\ 1+s = 2 2/3 \s=22/3-1
3. Sum the series
3.513.5.71
3 + . . .+ . . +.2 . . . a .
1.231.2.33
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3.513.5.71
s = 3 . + . . +. . .+ . . . a.
1 . 2 3 1 . 2 . 32 3
2
3 . æ5 1 ö3 . 5æ . 7 ö1
=3 . +ç. . ÷ +. ç. . +÷ . . . a.
2 !è 3 1ø . 2è . 3 ø3

## Multiply both sides by 1/3

2 3
1 1 3 . 5 1æ 3 ö. 5 æ. 7 ö1
s = 3 . +. ç . ÷+. .ç .+÷ . . a.
3 3 2 !è 3 ø3 è! 3ø
x 1
\ p=3 p+q=5 =
q 3

x 1
q=2 =
2 3
2
x=
3
1
\ 1+ s = (1-x)-p/q
3
-3 / 2
1
= (1- 2/3) -3/2
= æç ö÷ =3 3
è3 ø
1
\ 1+ s = 3 3-1
3

\ s = 3[ 3 -1]
4. Sum the series to infinity
3 3 . 4 3 . 5 . 7
+ + + . . . .¥. . . . . .
2.42.4.62.4.6.8
3 3 . 4 3 . 4 . 5
let S = + + . . .¥. . . . . . .
2.42.4.62.4.6.8
3 3 . 4 3 . 4 . 5
= + + ¥. . . . . . . . . .
1.2.2.21.2.2.2.3.21.2.2.2.3.2.4.2
2 3 4
3 æ1 3 ö . 4 æ1 3 ö . 4 æ . 5 ö 1
s= ç ÷+ ç ÷+ ç ÷ ¥. . . . . . . . . .
1 . è2 2 1ø . 2 .è3 2 1ø . 2 è. 3 . 4ø 2

## Inserting the missing factors in the numerator

Multiply both sides by 2 [3,4,5 …. are in Ap
the proceeding term is 2]
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2 3 4
2 . æ3 1 2ö . 3 .æ 4 1 2ö . 3 æ. 4 . 5ö 1
2 s = . ç . +÷. .ç + . ÷ . ç +. ÷ . ¥. .
2 è ! 2ø 3 è ! 2ø 4 è ! ø2

2æ 1ö
Add ç ÷ to both sides
1 è! 2ø
3 3
21 æ 1 2ö 1 æ2 . ö3 1 æ 2 .ö 3 æ. 4 ö1
ç +÷2 s ç =. ÷ .+ ç . ÷+ . ç + .÷ ¥.
1 è ! 2ø 1 è ! 2ø 2 è ! 2ø 3 è ! ø2

## Add 1 to both sides

3
2æ1 2ö . æ 3 1ö2
21 + 1 2+
s 1 =. ç . +.÷ . ç+. .÷ +. . ¥
. .
1 è! 2ø 2 è ! 2ø
- p/ q
\ 2 + 2s =( 1 x- )
x 1
\ p=2 p+q=3 =
q 2
x 1
q=1 =
2 2
1
x=
2
1
= (1- )-2
2
-2
1
= æç ö÷ = 22
è2 ø

2+2s = 4
2s = 2
s =1
Model -2
Examples based on the formula (6)
- p/ q 2 p ( p+ )q
(1 + x )1 = p/ 1-x ( ! +q) . x. .( q .) .a
2 !
(1) Sum the series
1 1 . 3 1 . 3 . 5
1 - . .+ . -. . + . . a.
66.126.12.18
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1 1 . 3 1 . 3 . 5
s =1 -. . + . .- . +. . a.
66.126.12.18
1 1 . 3 1 . 3 . 5
=1 .- . +. . - . +. . a
.
61.6.2.61.6.2.6.3.6
2 3
1 1 . 3æ 1 1ö . 3 æ . 5 ö 1
=1 . - . ç +. ÷ . - ç. .+÷ . .a
6 1 . 6 . 2 .è6 6 1 .ø 6 . 2 .è 6 . 3 .ø 6 6
2 3
1 æ1 1 ö . 3 æ1 1 ö . 3 æ. 5 ö1
=1 ç. - .÷ +.ç .÷ - . ç .+÷ . .a
1 è ! 6ø 2 è ! 6ø 3 è ! 6ø

p p p( + q 2
=1 -.( x .)+ q . x. ( .q ) . .a
1 ! 2 !
x 1
\ p=1 p+q=3 =
q 6
x 1
q=2 =
2 6
2
x=
6
1
x=
3
- p/ q
\ s =(1 x+ )
-1 / 2
æ 1ö / 32 1 / 2
= ç1 ( ÷+4 / 3= ) -(1 =
3 / 4 =)
è 3ø 4

= 3 /2
(2) Prove that
1 1 . 3 1 . 3 . 5
- + . . . . .a. . .
2424.3224.32.40
1
= éë1 -7 9 8ùû 0 5
3
Solution
1 1 . 3 1 . 3 . 5
l e t=s - + . . . . .a
....
2424.3224.32.40
1 1 . 3 1 . 3 . 5
= - + . . . . .a
....
3.83.8.4.83.8.4.8.5.8
2 3
1 æ 1 1 ö . 3 æ 1 1ö . 3 æ . 5 ö1
s = ç -÷ ç + ÷ ç ÷ ..a
...
3 è 8 3ø . 4 è 8 3ø . 4 è . 5 ø8

1
Multiply both sides by
2
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2 3
1 1 1 æ 1 . ö 3 1æ 1 ö. 3 æ. 5 ö1
s= ç -÷ ç+ ÷ ç ÷ ..a
...
2 2 . 3 8è 2 . ø3 . 4è 8 2 ø. 3 . è4 . 5ø 8
2 3
1 1 1 æ 1 . ö 3 1æ 1 ö. 3 æ. 5 ö1
s = ç -÷ ç+ ÷ ç ÷ ..a
...
2 3 !è 8 ø 4 è! 8ø 5 è ! 8ø

2
1
Multiply both sides by æç ö÷
è8 ø
3 4 5
1 1 1 1 æ 1 . ö 3 1æ 1 ö. 3 æ. 5 ö1
s = ç -÷ ç + ÷ ç ÷ ..a
...
2 6 4 3è ! ø8 4è ! ø8 5è ! ø8

## Multiply both sides by negative sign in order to suit formula(1+x)-p/q

3 4 5
s 1 æ 1 ö 1 æ 1ö 1æ 1ö
\ = ç - ÷ +ç ÷ - ç + ÷ . . . . .a
....
1 2 8 3è ! ø8 4è ! 8ø 5 è ! 8ø

Nr. 1,3,5,….is an AP
common different = 2 the proceeding factor of 1=1-2=-1
proceeding factor of -1=-1-2= -3
\ Multiply both sides by (-1)
3 4
s (-1 ) æ1 1-ö( 1 ) æ1 . 3ö 1
\ = = -ç +÷ ç ÷ . . . . .a
....
1 2 8 3 è ! 8ø 4 è ! ø8

## Multiply both sides by -3

3 4
-3 ( 3 -) ( 1 -) 1 æ1 -( 3 ö) (- 1 æ) 1 . ö3 1
s= - ç + ÷ ç ÷ . . . . .a
....
1 2 8 3 è! 8ø 4 è ! 8ø

## Inserting the missing terms

2
(-3 ) -( 1æ ) 1ö
Add ç ÷ on both sides
2 !è 8ø
2 2 3 4
-3 ( 3 -) ( 1 )-æ 1 ( 3-ö) ( 1 -)æ 1 ( 3-ö) ( 1-)æ 1 1 -(ö 3 ) (- æ1 ) 1 .ö 3 1
s+ ç = ÷ ç- ÷ +ç ÷ ç ÷ . . . . .a
....
1 2 8 3è ! ø 8 2è ! ø 8 3 è ! ø8 4 è ! ø8

2 3
3 3 1 ( 3 ) 1 ( -3 )æ ( -1 ö ) 1- æ1 ( -3ö ) ( -æ1 ) 1ö 1
- s+ + 1 + 1 =ç. -. ÷ . +ç . +÷ . .ç . ÷ . .a
1 2 8 1 2 8 8 è 1 !ø 8 è2 ! ø 8 3è ! ø 8
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## -3 3 +4 8 p+1 p2 p8+ q ( p )2+ p ( q )3

s+ x = 1q ( -. )x . + q .( ) .-x . q (+ . ) . a
1 2 8 1 2 8 1 ! 2 ! 2 !
-3 1 3+ 1 4 8
s+ = x (+ 1 -)p q

1 2 8 1 2 8
-3 1 7 9
s + = ( 1+ 1 / 4+3 )/ 2 p=-3; p+q=-1 x/q = 1/8
1 2 8 1 2 8
3
= 5 ( 4) 2
-3+q=-1 x/2 = 1/8
5 5 5 5
= = q=2 x = 2/8 =
( 32 2 ) 8

1/4
-3 5 5 1 7 9
s= -
1 2 8 8 1 2 8

-3 8 0 -5 1 7 9
s=
1 2 8 1 2 8

3S 1= 7 9- 8 0 5
1
s=
3
(1 -7 9 8 0 5)
1.3 Let us sum up
We have seen the expansions of (1+x)-n, (1-x)-n, (1+x)n, (1-x)n, (1-x)-
p/q
, (1+x)-p/q and the sum to infinity of a given Binominal series in any one of
the above form.
1.4. Check you progress
(1) Write down the expansions of the following
(1) (2x-y)1/2 (2) (1-2y)-3/2 (3) (1+5x)7/2
1.5 Lesson End Activities
Binominal Series
Exercise
Find the sum of the infinite series.
3 1 . 3 32 1 . 3 . 5 33
1) 1 + 3 + + + . . . a. . . ( A 2n s )
2 1 . 2 2 6 1 . 2 . 32 2
4 4 . 5 4 . 5 . 6 æ 1ö 9
2) 1 + . + . .+ . + . a
. ç A n ÷s
66.96.9.12 è 8ø
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-3 2
3 3 . 5 3 . 5 . 7 3
3) 1 - . +. . - . +. . a. Ans æç ö÷
44.84.8.12 è2 ø
11.41.4.71.4.7.10
4) 1 + . + . + . +. +.
44.84.8.124.8.12.16
.a ( 4)
3

5 5 . 8 5 . 8 . 1 1
5) 1 + .+ . + . + . a (4x21/3-2)
88.128.12.16
1.6. Points for discussion
6) Prove that
1 1 . 3 1 . 3 . 5
1+ . +. . +. . + . . a.
44.84.8.12
11.31.3.5 1 1 . 3 1 . 3 . 5
= æç1 + . + . + .ö÷ +. a. x æç1 - . + . - .ö÷ +. .a
è 3 3 . 6 3 .ø6 . 9 è 4 4 . 8 4 . 8ø . 1 2

7) Prove that
2
2n ( n 1 + n) æ 2n ö
1+ n . +. . ç + .÷ . a
1 + n1 . +2 nè 1 ø
2
2n ( n 1 - n) æ 2n ö
= 1+ n . +. .ç + .÷ .a
1 - n1 . -2 nè 1 ø

## 8) Prove that , if n is a positive integer

1 + (x 1 )- n ( 1n +2 )x ( - 1n ) (-n 2 ) n+( 1 x 3 )
1- n x
. + . - . . . a0
1- n 2 ! n ( + 1 x2 ) 3 n+! 3 ( x 1 )

## 9) If x> -½, Prove that

2 3 4
x x 1 æ 1 x.ö 3 æ1 x . ö3 . xæ 5 ö
= ç+ ÷ + ç ÷+ ç +÷ . a. .
1 + x 1 + x2 1 è 2 + .xø 4 1 è +2x . ø 4 .+èx6 1 ø

## 10) Prove that

1.31.3.51.3.5.7
+ + + . .=a . . 0 .a 4p (p )
3.63.6.93.6.9.12
1.7. References
A Text Book of Algebra by T.K. Manickavasagam Pillai
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Lesson - 2
EXPONENTIAL SERIES
Contents

## 2.0. Aims and Objectives

2.1. The Exponential Theorem or Exponential series for all real values of x
2.2. Example
2.3. Let us sum up
2.5. Lesson End Activities
2.6. Points for discussion
2.7. References

## 2.0. Aims and Objectives

Our aim is to study use expansions of ex, e-x, and problems to find the sum to
infinity of a given series.

Exponential Series
2.1. The Exponential Theorem or Exponential series for all real values
of x
x x2 3 x x n
e = 1 x.+ . . +. . +. . .+. . +. . .+ . .a . . ( 1 )
2 ! 3 ! n!
proof: If n is a +ve integer,
n 2 3
æ x öx n æ (n -1 x)ö (-n 1 æn) -( n 2 ö )x
ç1 + 1÷ = n . ç + . ÷ + . ç +. ÷. + . to (n+1) terms.
è n ø nè 2 ø! n 3 è ! n ø

x2 3
x x n
= 1 x+ . + p1 +. 2 p + . +p 1n -
2 ! 3 ! n!
where pr= (1-1/n)(1-2/n)……(1-r/n)
n -1
Now pr<1 since 1/n, 2/n, 3/n, ….. n-1/n are +ve numbers less that unity,
n
for the values of 2,3,… (n-1) of r, we have
1 ( 1 r ) r+
pr>1- (1 + 2 + 3 + . +.r ) .= 1-
n n 2
r ( r+1 )
\ 0 < 1 -pr <
2n
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## Let Sn denote the sum to n terms of the series

2
x x 3 x x n
e x = 1 +. .+ . +. .+ . +. .+ . a .
1 ! 2 ! 3 !n !
and let |x| =x1
n
æ xö x2 3
x x n
\ sn +1 -ç1 +(÷ p1£1 1 ) -( 1+1pn -2) - . .+1 . p+
1 . (- 1 )
è nø 2 ! n3 ! !

x12 é1 . 2 2 . 3 32 ù. 4 n( -2 1 n ) n-
< n ê+ +n1 + x1 ú.+. . . 1x
2 ë 2 3 4û !n

x12 æ x12 3
2x
ö
< +
ç 1 x.
1+ . + . ÷ .+ . a.
2n è 2 ! 3 ø !

x12 x 2 x3
< E ( 1x ) where E(x) = 1+x+ + + . .a. .
2x 2 ! 3 !
Now E(x1)is finite for all values of x1
\ n ®l a isn +m=1 l i
x m+
na® ( 1n / =n )e n

l i m
but s
n ®a n + 1 = E(x)
ex = E(x)
This result is called Exponential Theorem
More Formulas
x x2 3x
1) e x = 1 + . + . +. +. a.
1 ! 2 ! 3 !

-x x x2 3x
2) e = 1 - . + . -. +. a.
1 ! 2 ! 3 !

e x + x-e x 2 x4
3) =1 +
. . +
. . +
. . . a
. .
2 2 ! 4 !

e x + x-e x 3 x5
4) = x + + +. . . . . a
....
2 3 ! 5 !
1 1 1
5) e = 1 + . +. .+ . + . a.
1 ! 2 ! 3 !
1 1 1
6) e-1 = 1 - . +. .- . + . a.
1 ! 2 ! 3 !
e + e-1 1 1
7) = 1 +. .+ . +. . a .
2 2 ! 4 !
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e - e-1 1 1 1
8) = + + +. . . a. . .
2 1 ! 3 ! 5 !

2.2 Example
Model 1:
1) Show
1 1
2 1 + . .+ . +
. . .a .
e +1 2 4
=
e 2 - 1 1 + 1 + 1 +. . . .a. . .
1 3 5

1 1
1 + . .+ . +
. . .a .
2 4
R H =S
1 1 1
+ + +. . . .a. . .
1 3 5

e + e-1
= 2 -1
e- e
2
1
-1 e+
e+ e e+2 e 1
= = =2 = L H S
e - -1 e e - 1- e 1
e
(2) Show that
1 1 1
l o g -2 ( l o g 2 2)+( l o g3 2 ) .=. . . a. . . (Nov 1992 Bharathiar Univ.)
2 ! 3 ! 2
1 1
l el ot =sg 2 ( l -o g 2 )+(2 l o g 23 ) . . . . .a. .
2 ! 3 !
Put log2=x
x 2 x3
s = x - + . . . .a. . .
2 ! 3 !

æ x 2 x3 ö
= ç- x- + - ÷ +. . . a. . .
è 2 ! 3ø !

æ x x2 x3 ö
= ç1- .- . + . -.÷ .+ a. - 1
è 2 ! 2 ! 3ø !

= (e-- x 1- )
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## = 1 -e - x =1 e-- l o1=g 2e --l o g 2 1

æ1 ö
l oç g ÷
è2 ø
= 1 -e

= 1 1- / 2= 1 / 2

\s=½

3) Show that
é m ù m2 æ 1 é ö1 1æ ù1ö
êë1 + 1. û !.+ ú 2. è +.! ê .1ø +.ç!m 1è÷2+ . úç .2+÷ .
mû! ø
.
ë

1 2) m
é (m + 1 + ( 4 ù1 ) 1
= e -2 ê1 + . .+ . +. 2 .a (April 1986 Bharathiar Univ.)
ë 1 m! 2úû m

Solution :
æ m m2 ö æ 1 æ 1 ö 1 æ ö 1 ö2
L H =S ç 1 +. . ÷+ . a +.ç 1 +ç . ÷ +.aç ÷ . +
÷ . .
è 1 ! ø 2 ! çè 1 è! m ø2 m è! ÷ø ø

## = e m . 1e.m= /. me1. + m./ ( 1 )

2
æ 1 ( m +1 2) 1 æ+ö(2 1 ö )
m
-2
R H =S eç1 + . + . +ç.÷ ÷. + . a
ç 1 !m 2 !mè ÷ø ø
è
( m +1 2)
-2 m
=e .e
( m +1 2)
-2 m
=e
-2 m +( m1+ 2)
m
=e
-2m + m2 + 2m +1 2 )
m
=e
m2 +1
m
=e
1
m+
m
=e .....(2)

## from (1) and (2)

LHS = RHS

Model 2
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## 1) Find the sum to infinity:

3.44.55.6
+ + + . .a. . (April 1986 Bharathiar)
2 3 4

Numerator
Consider the first factors 3,4,5,6,….
This is an Arithmetic Progression
a=3, d=1,
nth term = a+(n-1)d
= 3+(n-1)
= n+2
Consider the second factors 4,5,6,7,…..
This is an AP with a=4, d=1
nth term = 4+(n-1)=n+3
Denominator
Consider 2,3,4,5,………..
This is an AP with a=2, d=1
nth term = 0+n-1=n+1
Let tn denote the nth term of the given series
(n +
2 )n +( 3 )
\ tn =
(n +
1 ) !

n 2 + 5n + 6
=
(n +
1 ) !

Let n2+5n+6=A+B(n+1)+c(n+1),n
To find A,B,C

## Put n=-1 in ….(1)

(-1)2+5(-1)+6=A
A=2

Put n = 0 in (1)
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6 = A+B
6 = 2+B
\ B=4
Compare the coefficient of n2
1=c \ C = 1
A + B( + 1n )+C ( +n1 n)
\ tn =
(n +
1 ) !

2 + 4 n(+ 1 +n) ( + 1n )
tn =
(n +
1 ) !

1 ( 1 n +) (n + 1 n )
=2 . +4 . +
(n +
1 ) ! n(+ 1 ) n! + ( 1 ) !

1 (n +1 ) (n +1 n)
=2 .+ 4 . +
(n +
1 ) ! (n +1 ()n ! ) (n +1 n) (n -
1 ) !

1 1 1
tn = 2 .+ 4 + .
(n +1 ) n! ! + n( 1 ) !

1 1 1
t1 = 2 .+ 4 +.
2 ! 1 ! 0 !
1 1 1
t2 = 2 .+ 4 .+
3 ! 2 ! 1 !
1 1 1
t3 = 2 .+ 4 .+
4 ! 3 ! 2 !
1 1 1ö
t1+t2+t3+……a = 2 æç + . +. ÷.+ a
.
è2 ! 3 ! 4ø !

æ1 1 1ö
+4 ç +. +. ÷.+ a
.
è1 ! 2 ! 3ø !

æ1 1 1ö
+ç + + ÷+. .a. .
è0 ! 1 ø2

æ 1 1 ö 1 1 æ1 1 ö
s = 2 ç +1 +. .+ . +÷ . -1 -
4 1+ ç . + . +. .÷+ . - 1
è 1 2 ø 3 1 è1 2 ø

= 2 (e-1-1)+4(e-1)+e
= 2(e-2)+4e-4+e
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= 2e-4+4e-4+e
S = 7e-8
2) Sum the series
1 + 3 +1 3+ 23 + 1 2 +3 33+ 3
1+ . +. .+ . +. .a (Bharatiar April 2005)
2 ! 3 ! 4 !
1 1 + 3 +1 3+ 23 + 1 2 +3 33+ 3
s= + + + + . . . .a. . .
1 ! 2 ! 3 ! 4 !

## Let tn denote the nth term of the given series

1 + 3 +32 +. .+1 n3-
\ tn =
n!
1+3+32+…+3n-1 is a Geometric series with a=1, r=3>1
1 (n -3 1 )
tn =
3- 1
1 n3- 1
=
2 n!

1 é n3 ù1
tn = -
2 êë n ! núû !

1é 3 ù1
t1 = -
2 êë1 ! úû1 !

1 é 23 ù1
t2 = -
2 êë 2 ! ú2 !
û

1 é 33 ù1
t3 = -
2 êë 3 ! ú3 !
û
1 é 3 23 33ù 1 1 1
S= ê + + ú+ . .a. .- æç + + ö÷ . .a. .
2 ë1 ! 2 ! 3û ! è 1 ! 2 ! ø3 !

é n n2 3n ù
=ê + + ú +. a. - . ( e.- )1
ë1 ! 2 ! 3û !
1 1
=
2
é-
ë ( e n -1) ùûe+ 1n = e éë-1
2
-e 1ùû +

1 3 1
= éëe - eùû =e2 ( e- 1 )
2 2
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5 7 9 1 1 5e 3
3) Show that + + + +. .a. =. -
1 3 5 7 2 2e

Solution : Numerator
Consider the numbers 5,7,9,11,……
This is an AP with a=5, d=2
nth term = a+(n-1)d
= 5+(n-1)2
= 5+2n-2
= 2n+3
Denominator
Consider the numbers 1,3,5,…..
This is an AP with a=1, d=2
nth tern = a+(n-1)d
= 1+(n-1)2
= 1+2n-2
= 2n-1
Let tn denote the nth term of the given series
( n2+ 3 )
\ tn =
( n2 -1 ) !

Let 2n+3=A+B(2n-1)
put n=1; 5=A+B
Put n=1/2, 4=A
\ B=1
A=4, B=1
A + B( 2-n 1 )
\ tn =
( n2 -1 ) !

4 + ( n2- 1 )
=
( n2 -1 ) !
1 1
=4 . +
( 2n -1 ) ! (- 2 1 ) !
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1 ( n2- 1 )
=4 . +
( n2 -1 ) ! ( n2- 1 ( ) n2 -2 ) !

1 1
tn = 4 . +
( 2n -1 ) !n -
( 2 2 ) !

1 1
t1 = 4 .+
1 ! 0 !
1 1
t2 = 4 .+
3 ! 2 !
1 1
t3 = 4 .+
5 ! 4 !
S = t1+t2+t3+……….
é1 1 ù1 1 æ 1 1 ö
= 4 ê +. . + ú. +. .ç+ . +. .÷+ . .
ë1 ! 3 !û 5 ! 0 è! 2 ! 4 ø !

æ e - -eö1 +e -1 e
= 4ç +÷
è 2 ø 2

1
= éë 4-e 4e+-1 eùû +-1 e
2
1
= é5e- 3eùû-1

= 5 - 3 3ù
2ë ûe

5e 3
= -
2 2e

## 4) Find the sum of the series

¥
n2 + 3 x n

å (n +2
n =1
x
n) !

n 2 + 3x n
tn = x
(n +2 n) !

(n 23+ ) n (+ 1 ) n
= x
(n +
2 )n + ( 2n ) !

(n +1 )n 2+( 3 )n
tn = x
(n +2 ) !
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## let (n+1) (n2+3)=A+B(n+2)+C(n+2)(n+1)+D(n+2)(n+1)n---(1)

Put n = -2 in (1), A=-7
Put n =-1in(1)
0 = A+B
0 = -7+B
\B=7
Put n = 0 in (1)
3 = A+2B+2C
C = -2
Compare the coefficient of n3 on both side of (1)
1=D
A=-7; B=7; C=-2; D=1
Step 2
A + B( +
2 n) (+C 2 )n+ ( n1 + ) D( +2n ) +n( 1 n)
\ tn =
(n +2 ) !
A B ( +n2 ) C( +2 n ) (+n 1 )D +( 2n ) +n( 1 n )
tn = + + +
(n +2 ) ! n(+ 2 ) !n +( 2 ) n!+ ( 2 ) !

1 ( 2 )n +( 2 n )+ ( 1n +) ( n 2+ ) n( +1 )n ( )
= 7 - 7 + 2 - +
(n 2+ ) !n ( +2 )n ( 1+ )n ! ( 2+
n ) ( n1 +) ( n! )+ ( n2 ) +
( n1 ) ( -
n) ( 1 ) !

1 1 1 1
tn = 7 - 7+ -2 +
(n +2 ) n! ( +1 n) ! !-n ( 1 ) !

1 1 1 1
t1 = 7 - 7+ -2 +
3 ! 2 ! 1 ! 0 !
1 1 1 1
t2 = 7 - 7+ 2- +
4 ! 3 ! 2 ! 1 !
1 1 1 1
t3 = 7 - 7+ - 2 +
5 ! 4 ! 3 ! 2 !
S=t1+t2+t3+……a
æ1 1 ö 1 1 æ 1 1 ö
= 7 ç- . +. .+÷ . +a. +7 ç +. . +a . ÷+ . .
è 3 ! 4 !ø 5 ! 2 è! 3 ! 4 ø !
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æ1 1 ö 1 1 æ 1 1 ö
-2 ç +. .+ .÷ + . a+. ç.+ . + a. +÷ . .
è 1 ! 2 !ø 3 ! 0 è! 1 ! 2 ø!

æ ö1
= 7-ç e 1 - 7÷- 1e + (1 - ) e-2) -( 1-e )+
è ø2
1 1 1
\ e =1 +. .+ . + . +. . a.
1 ! 2 ! 3 !
=-e-3/2

## 2.3. Let us sum up

We have studied so far the series ex and hence e-x. Also the results
related to ex and e-x we have also studied about the sum to infinity of a given
series in this lesson.
1 1
(1) What is the value of 1 + . +. . +. . a .
3 ! 5 !
3 33 53
(2) Write down the value of the series + + . . . a. . .
1 ! 3 ! 3 !
Exponential Series
2.5. Lesson End Activities
1) Prove that
1 + 2 + 1 + 2 +3 +1 +2 3 4 3e
1+ . + . + . +. . =a
2 ! 3 ! 4 ! 2
2) Prove that
2 4 6 8 1
+ + + +. .a. =.
3 ! 5 ! 7 ! 9 ! e
3) Prove that
x 2 x4 1
1 + . .+ . +. a. = ( e x+ ex- )
2 ! 4 ! 2
4) Prove that
2 4 6
+ + +. .a. =. e -1
3 ! 5 ! 7 !
5) Prove that
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12 22 23
+ + +. . a. =. . e 2
1 ! 2 ! 3 !
6) Prove that
( +1 2 + ) ( + 1 2+ 3 +) ( +1 2 3 4 ) e3
1+ . + . + . +. .= a
2 ! 3 ! 4 ! 2

## 2.6. Points for discussion

7) Prove that
23 33 34
13 + . +. +. .+ a1 = 5e
1 ! 2 ! 3 !
8) Prove that
3 ( 2+
1 22 +)2 ( 2+
1 22 +3 2 ) +2( 12 +2 2 3 4 ) 4 e7
1 + +. + . + . = a
1 ! 2 ! 3 ! 6
9) Prove that
1 ( 1 + 2 )2+ ( 1 +23 22 ) 2
x+ x+ x+ =e . .a. . -e x x

1 ! 2 ! 3 !

## 10) Prove that

13 x 3 2 3x 33 x3 43 x 4
+ + + + . a.= .x x. +e (2 x3 +x1 )
1 ! 2 ! 3 ! 4 !
11) Prove that
2.33.54.75.9
+ + + + . . .a=. . .e-2 7
3 ! 4 ! 5 ! 6 ! 2

## 12) Prove that

12 22 22 32 33 44
+ + + . .a=. . 2 e7
1 ! 2 ! 3 !
13) Prove that
13 13 + 32 +31 3
+2 3
3+ 3 1 +3 2 3 + 33 4 2 7
+ + + + .= . a
... e
1 ! 2 ! 3 ! 4 ! 4
14) Prove that
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( n 5+ 1e ) 2
å( = +
n2 +1 ) !e 2

## 15) Prove that

( n42 + 2n +1 )
å ( n2 ) ! = 2e - 1
2.7. References
A Text Book of Algebra by T.K. Manickavasagam Pillai
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Lesson-3
LOGARITHMIC SERIES
Contents
3.0 Aims and Objectives
3.1. Logarithmic Theorem or logarithmic series
3.2. Examples
3.3. Let us sum up
3.5. Lesson End Activities
3.6. Points for Discussion
3.7. References
3.0 Aims and Objectives

## Our Aim is to study the series of log(1+x), log(1-x) etc

Logarithmic Series
3.1. Logarithmic Theorem or logarithmic series
If -1<x<1, then
x 2 x3 4x
log (1+x) x - + + + . . . .a. . .
2 3 4
from the exponential theorem we have
y2 y3 3
a y = 1 yl oa+eg l o(+age 2 ) l +o ea g( . +. ) . . . a
. .
2 ! 3 !
put a =1+x
y2 2
\ ( 1 x+)y 1 l= oy g+e ( 1 +x) le o+[ g x(+ 1 )] +. . a. .
2 !
But, sine |x|<1, we have by Binomial theorem
y ( -1y ) 2 y(- 1 y ) -3y( 2 )
( + x y1 = )y +1 x . + x. + . x .+ . a
2 ! 3 !

é x 2 1 . 23 1 ù. 24 . 3
= 1 y+ê . -x . +x . - x. + .
ë 2 ! 3 ! úû4 !

y2
\1 l yo( +g ( x1 )+) l oe[ g +( 1x ) 2
+] . . . a. .
2 !
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æ x2 3 öx4
= 1 y+.ç x. - . x+. . ÷- . +. .+ . .
2 3 4
è ø
Compare the coefficient of y we get
x 2 x3 4
log = 1 +x . x= . - . +3 .x- 4 .+ .a
2
This is known as logarithmic series
FORMULAS
1) When -1<x<1,
x2 x.+3 4
x . +.
loge ( + x1 = x) -. 3
.-
4
a.
2
2) When -1<-x<1
x2 x.-3 4
x . -.
loge ( - x1 = x) -. 3
.-
4
a.
2

1+ x x 3 x5
3) l eo g = x. +. .+ . + . a.
1- x 3 5
1 1 1
4) log 2 = 1 -. +. . + . +. . a .
2 3 4
3.2. Examples
Model-1
3 5
n + 1 ö 2n æ 1 nö2 1æ n 2 ö
1) Prove that l æç o ÷= g2 ç +. 2 ÷ . + 2ç . +
÷. . a
è n -1 ø n1 + è 3 n ø+ 1 nè5 + 1ø

Proof
2n
put 2
=y
n +1
1 1
\ R =A S+ y 3 +y 5 y+ . . a
...
3 5
1 1+ y
= l o g (formula (3) is used)
2 1- y

é 2nù
1 ê1 + n 2 +ú 1
= l o êg
2 2nú
ê1 - 2 ú
ë n +û 1
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é ù
ê 2
1 ( n1 + 2n + 2 ú
) n| +1 |
= l o êg 2 ú
2 ê n 1e- ú2n
ëê n 2 + 1ûú

1 ( n +1 2 ) n +1é 1ù \ n l omg
= l o =g l o g
( n -1 2 ) n -2êë 1úû
e
2 = l o mgn

æ (n +1 ö )
= l o çg ÷
è n - 1ø
= LHS
2) If -1<x<1/3 prove that
2 3
æ x3 x5 ö 2n 1 æ n2 ö 1 æn 2 ö
2 ç x .+ . + . ÷+ . a. = - ç +÷ ç ÷ . .a. .
è 3 5ø 1 - n 2 è -1 n ø 3 -èn1 ø

æ x3 x5 ö
Pf : LHS = 2 ç x + + +÷ . . . . .a. . .
è 3 5 ø

1+ x
= l oe g (by formula(3)……(1)
1- x
2
RHS put -y
1- n
1 1
\ R =H S- y 2+ y 3
y. .a. .
2 3
= log (1+y)
é 2nù
= l o êg+ 1 ú
ë 1 -ûn

é1 - n +2ù n
= l o êg
ë 1 - núû

æ 1 + nö
= l o ç g . ÷. . ( 2 )
è 1 - nø
From (1) and (2) LHS = RHS
3) Prove that
3 é 1 1 3 1ù 32 2

1 ê 0 e 2 27 1 2 4 ú 3 2 e 21. + . .a =l o g
l o +
g 1 +
0 . .+ .
ë û

solution
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3 é 1 1 3 1ù 32
LHS = êl0 oe 2 g+ 271 +102 .4 ú +.2 . 1 +. . a .
1 ë û3 2

1 é 3 1 3 ù1 32
= ê 0 e 2 27 12 4ú 3 2 2+
3 +l o +
g 1 0+ . . .1 . . a .
1 ë û
3
1 é 3 3 æ 1öù
2
1 æ3 ö
= êl +o g 17+ 0ç 7 0+÷ú 0 7 ç . + ÷. . a.
1 ê 0 2 2 è2 øú 3 è 2 ø
ë û
1 é 1 1 ù2 3
= 3
êël + o0 g +1x2 0 +0xúû30 x+. . .a. where x =
1 27

1
= [ l o -g 1 0 0 0-l o gx( ]1 )
1 0
x 2 x3
\ l -o gx= ( -x1 -) .- . . a .
2 3
1
=
1 ëê0 (
é l o -g 1 0 0 0-l ùo g 13
ûú 27 )
1 é 1 2ù 5
= êël o g-1 0 0 0ú l o g7
1 0 û2

1 1 0 0 x0 72
= l oe g
1 0 1 2 5
1
= l o eg( 23 . 7 )2
1 0

1 1
= l o e =g1 2 . 10 e 0 l 2 o g
1 0 1 0
=loge2 =RHS
4) Prove that
1 1 1 1 1
l o = g 3+ 21 +. 4 . +. 6 . +. . a.
3 . 2 5 2 7 2
1 1 1 1 1 1
RHS = 1 + . .2 + . 4. + . 6 . + . . a.
3 2 5 2 7 2

é 1 1 æ 1 3ö 1 æ 51 ùö 1 æ7 1 ö
= 2 ê +. ç . + ÷ .ç +ú÷. ç . ÷ .a
êë 2 3 è 2 ø 5 è 2 úûø 7 è 2 ø

é 1 1 ù
= 2 ê x + . x3+. x5ú.+ .a where x=1/2
ë 3 5 û
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æ 1 + nö
= l o çg ÷
è 1 - nø
æ 1+ 1 ö
= l o çg 2÷
ç 1- 1 ÷
è 2ø

æ3 ö
= l o çg 2 ÷
ç1 ÷
è 2ø

æ3 2ö
= l oç g ÷.
è2 1ø

= log 3
= LHS

5) Prove that
æ1 1ö 1 æ 1 1ö 1 æ 1 1ö 1
l e o =g ç+1 ÷+2 1ç+ .+÷ . +ç . +÷ . +.
2
.a
è2 3ø 4 è 4 5ø 4 è 6 37ø 4

æ 1 1ö 1 æ 1 1ö 1 æ 1 1ö 1
R H =S1 ç+ . ÷+ . ç+ +.÷ 2
+ç. +÷ . + . a
è 2 3ø 4 è 4 5ø 4 è 6 37ø 4

1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1
=1 +. . + . + . +. . + . + . +. .a
2 4 3 4 4 2 4 5 2 4 63 4 73 4

é 1 1 1 1ù1 1 é1 1 1 1 ù1 1
= ê1 +. . + . 2 +.ú 3 . + . a. + ê . + . . 2+ . . + . a.
ë 3 4 5 4 û7 4 ë2 4 4 4 6úû 3 4

é 1 æ 12ö 1 æ 41 ö ù 1 æ6 1 ö 1 é 1 æ1
2 3
ö 1 æ 1öù æ1 ö
= ê1 +ç . ÷ . + ç . ÷ +
ú . ç +.÷ .a + ê + ç +÷ ç +÷ú ç +÷ . . a
...
êë 3 è 2 ø 5 è 2 ø úû 7 è 2 ø 2 êë 4 è 2 ø 4 è 3øúû è4 ø

é 1 1æ 13ö 1 æ 51 öù 1 æ7 1 ö 1æ 1 1 ö
= 2 ê + ç. ÷+ .ç + ÷ú . ç +÷ . a + ç y+ y 2+ y3÷ + . a. . where y=1/4
êë 2 3è 2ø 5è 2 øúû 7 è 2 ø 2è 2 3 ø

é 1 1 ù1 1 1
= 2 ê x + .x3 + x5 .+ú 7x +. a + ( -l o g- (y 1) ) ; where x =
ë 3 5 û7 2 2

1+ n 1
= l o g- . l o -g ( y1 )
1- n 2

æ 1+ 1 ö 1
= l oç g - 2÷. l o - g 1 1
ç 1- 1 ÷ 2 4 ( )
è 2ø
1
= l o3-g l o3 g
4 2 4
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= l o 3-
g l o3 g
4 4

3 4
= l o g= l o g3
3 3
4

= l o g =1 2L H S

Model 2
Problems using the formula
1 1 1
l o =g 2- 1 + . -. . +. .a .
2 3 4

1)Prove that
æ4 ö 1 1 1
l ço ÷=g .- . + . . a.
èe ø 1.22.33.4
1 1 1
R H =S - + . .a. .
1.22.33.4
(- 1 n +)1
The nth term is tn=
n( n+1 )
1
splitting into partial fractions
n( n+1 )

1 A( B 1 A n+) B+ n
= + =
n( +n1 n) + n1 n( + 1n )

\1 =A
( +
1n +
)B n

## put = -1, B=-1

put n=1 \1=A
\A=1, B=-1
1 1 1
\ = -
n( +n 1 n )+ n 1

æ1 1ö
\ tn =
ç - ÷ (- 1 n +)1
èn n+ø 1

(- 1 n +1) -( n +11 )
= -
n n +1
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( - 12 ) 1
t1 = -
1 2
1 1
t2 = - -
2 3
1 1
t2 = - -
2 3
1 1
t3 = - -
3 4
1 1
t4 = - -
4 5

S = t1+t2+t3+….¥
æ 1 ö1 1 æ 1 1ö
= ç1 - . + ÷. - . + a
. ç+ . - . +÷. .
è 2 ø3 4 è 2 3ø

(
= l o+ g 2- 11 .+1 . . - . 1
2 3 )
= log 2+log2-1
= log2+log2-1
= 2log2-logee
S = log(4/e)
2) Prove that
1 1 1 1
+ + + . . .=. . . l o-g 2
1 . 2 . 3 3 . 4 . 5 5 . 6 . 7 2
let tn denote the nth term of the given series
1
tn =
( 2n -1 ) n( 2 +)n ( 2 1 )

## splitting into partial fractions

1 A B C
= + +
( n2- 1 )n ( 2+ n) ( 2n -1 )n 2 1+ n2 2 1

## 1 ( 2 ) ( A2 1 n ) (+n 2 1B+ ) (n -2 n1 +) C( 2+n) ( n-2 1 )

=
( n2 - 1 ) (n 2 )+ (n 2 1 ) n(- 2 1 n) ( 2+ )n ( 2 1 )

## \ 1 = A( 2 n) ( +2n 1 )B+( 2 n1- ) n( 2+ 1C ) (+n2 ) n(- 2 1 )

by putting n=0, n=1/2; n=-1/2
we get A=1/2, B=-1, C=1/2
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1 1 1 1 1
\t n = . - .-
2 n2 - 1 n2 2+ n 2 1
1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1
= . - . - . + .
2 2n - 1 2n 2 2n + 2 2n 2 1
1é 1 ù1 1 é 1 1ù
tn = - ú - -
2 ë n2 - 1 ûn 2 2në+ 2 n 2 úû 1
ê ê

1 é 1 ù 1 é1 1ù
t1 = 1- - -
2 êë 2 úû 2 êë2 3úû

1 é 1 ù1 1 é 1 ù1
t2 = - - -
2 êë 3 úû4 2 êë 4 úû5

S = t1+t2+t3+….¥
1é 1 1 ù1 1é 1 1 1ù
= -1 .+ . - úû4. + . .- ê- - +. . . -
..
2 êë 2 3 2ë 2 3 4úû

1 1 1æ 1 1ö
= l + o - gç +2 .- .÷ + . .
2 2 2è 3 4ø

1 1
= l o +g 2 (l o- g 2) 1
2 2
S = log2-1/2
3.3. Let us sum up
1+ x
So far we have studied the expansion of log(1+x), log(1-x), l o g ,
1- x
log2 and problems solved related to these series.
1 1 1 1 1
(1) Find the sum of the series - - + . . . . .a. .
4 2 42 3 3 4
1 1 1 1
(2) Find the sum of the series - - - + . . . a. . .
2 3 4 5
3.5. Lesson End Activities

## Logarithmic series : Exercise

1) Prove that, if m and n are positive, show that
é m - n 1 æ m- ön13 ù -m
æ
5

2ê + .ç ÷+ . úç + ÷. a =log (m/n)
ëê m + n3 è + 1mø 5ûú +
mè 1ø
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## 2) If a and \$ are the roots of the equation x2-bx+c=0, show that

2
3 x 3
l ( + bo +x 2
) (
g
c= a 2
x + ) (
b
1 x -2
a . + b) 2+. a( 3+ b. )x 3
.

## 3) If n>1, prove that

1 1 1 1
+ +2 + . .a. .
n + 1 2 n(+ 1 ) n3+ (3 1 )

1 1 1 1
= - 2 + 3 -4 +..a
...
n 2 n 3 n 4n

4) Show that
1 1 1 1
+ 2
+ 3 + 4 + . . . a. . .
3 2 . 3 3 . 3 4 . 3
1 1 1 1
= - 2 + 3 - 4 + . .a. .
2 2 . 2 3 . 2 4 . 2
5) For positive values of x
é 1 1 ù1
2ê .+ . +3 .ú +
. .
ë 2 x 1+ 3 ( x2+ 1 ) 5ûx +( 52 1 )

n +1 é 1 1 1ù
6) Show that l æç o ö÷ =g ê 2 + . +. 3 ú . 5 + . .a
è n ø ë n2 1+ 3 (n 2+ 1 ) n5û+( 2 1 )
7) If x<1, show that
2
é 2 x 1 æ x2 ö 3 1 ù xæ 25 ö 1 é1 + xù
2 ê 2
+ ç 2 ÷+ ú ç2 + ÷ ¥ . . . = l o g
êë1 - xúû
êë1 + x 3 è +1 x ø 5 +
úû èx1 ø 2

## 8) Show that when n > 1

3 5
n +1 2n 1 æ n2 ö 1 næ 2 ö
log = 2
+ ç2 +÷ ç+ ÷ ¥. . . . .
n -1 n1 + 3è n + 1ø 2n5è+ 1 ø

## 9) If -1 < x < 1/3 prove that

2 3
é x3 5 ù x 2x 1 æ x 2 ö 1 xæ 2 ö
2 êx + + ú . + . ¥ . =. ç .- ÷ . +ç . -÷ . ¥.
ë 3 5û 1 -2 x 1è - x 3ø -è1x ø

## 10) If x is positive, show that

x -1 x 2- 1 x3 - 1
+ + ¥ . .=. . . l oxg
x + 1 2 ( x +1 )2 x3+( 3 1 )
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2 3
1 1 æ1 ö1 æ 1 ö 1 æ 1 ö 1æ 1ö
11. Show that 1+ 1 + æç . ö÷+ ç. +÷ . ç+ .÷ +ç l ÷ + oç +÷ g a= 1 2
è2 ø3 è4 ø4 è 5 ø 4è 6 ø 7è 4ø
12. Show that
1 1 1
+ + . . .a. . l o g 2
1.23.45.6
13. Prove the result
l o1 ge 0-l 1 o 0 ge 0 l + e
1o 0 g 0 . 0. =
.a. l o g 120

1 1 1 1
14. PT - + - +. a
. . 2= l o -g 2 1
1.22.33.44.5
3.6. Points for Discussion
15. Sum to infinity, the series
5 7 9
+ + + . . .a.=. . 3 l -o g 2 1
1.2.33.4.55.6.7
16. Prove that
1 1 1
+ + + . . .a=. . . l o-g 21
1.2.33.4.55.6.7 2

## 17. Prove that

1 1 1
+ + + . . =a. . .3 -. l o g 2
2.3.44.5.66.7.8 4

## 18. Prove that

7 1 3 1 9
+ + + . . .a=. . . l o+ g 2 1
1.2.33.4.55.6.7
3.7. References
A Text Book of Algebra by T.K. Manickavasagam Pillai
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Lesson-4
CONVERGENCE AND DIVERGENCE OF SERIES

Contents
4.0. Aims and Objectives
4.1. Convergence and divergence of series
4.2. Example
4.3. Comparison test
4.4. D’ Alemberts Ratio test
4.5. Examples on Comparison Test
4.6. Problems on D’Alemert & Ratio test
4.7. Cauchy’s Root test
4.8. Examples on Cauchy’s Root Test
4.9. Let us sum up
4.11. Lesson End Activities
4.12. Points for discussion
4.13. References

## The Aim is to learn a new concept known as convergency and

divergency of series in Algebra. Also we are going to learn about oscillating
series finitely and infinitely. Comparison test is a test to know whether the
given series is convergent or divergent. Also Candey’s Root test,
D’Alembert’s ratio test also helps us in finding a series whether Convergent
or divergent.

## 4.1 Convergence and divergence of series

Definition 1: Sequence : If to the integers 1,2,3,….n there correspond
definite number u1,u2,u3….un then the set u1,u2…un is called a sequence and
is denoted by un.
Definition 2: Limit of a sequence
A sequence un is said to tend towards a finite limit if the successive
terms of the sequence approach a definite number l in a way that the
difference |un -l| becomes less than any positive quantity.
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## Definition 3: A sequence which tends to a finite limit is said to converge

and is called a convergent sequence.
Eg: (1) Consider the sequence (un) where
n -1 1
un = un; l=i m
2n + 3n ®a 2
This sequence is convergent
Note : A sequence [un] cannot converge to two distinct limits l and l1.
Definition 4: A sequence which converges to zero is called a null sequence
Definition 5: Series : An expression of the form u1+u2+u3+….+un+… where
for every positive integral value of n, there is a definite value for un is called
a series.
Definition 6: If each term of the series is followed by another, it is called an
infinite series.
Definition 7: If the series terminates after a finite number of terms, it is
called a finite series.
Definition 8: u1+u2+u3+…+un is called the sum to n terms of the series. This
is denoted by sn.
Definition 9: If sn tends to a finite limit ‘&’ as n tends to a then the series is
said to be a convergent series.
l i m
Definition 10: If s = ± ¥then the series is said to be a divergent series.
n ®a n

Definition 11: If a series does not converge to any finite limit nor diverge to
plus infinite or minus infinity, then the series is said to oscilate.

4.2. Example
Convergent Series
Consider the series
1 1 1
1 + . + .2 + .3 +. a.
2 2 2
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1
1-
2=n 2
sn = 2-
1-
1 2n -1
2
1
As n à a , ®0
2n-1

\ln ®
i m
a ns = 2

## \ The series is convergent

Divergent
a
Consider the series åu n where un=n
n =1

s n = 1+2+3+…+n
n( n+1 )
=
2

l i m l i m n( n+1 )
s =
n ®a n ®na = a
n
3. Oscillating series
(a) Oscillating finitely series
a
n +1
Consider the series å (- 1 )
1

Sn = 1-1-+1-1+1-1+…..n terms
s n=1 if n is odd
= 0 if n is even
\ å (- 1 n+)1 oscillates finitely

## (b) Oscillating infinitely series

a
n +1
Consider the series å (- 1 ) .n
1

s n=1-2+3-4+5-6+…. n terms
s n=-1/2 n if n is even
s n=1/2(n+1) if n is odd
Asn à a, snà-a if n is even and
s nà a if n is odd
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## \ å (- 1 n +)1 n oscillates infinitely

Elementary Results
The Geometric series
1+x+x2+….+xn-1+….. is convergent if |x|<1 and diverges if x <-1/
The Geometric series
1+x+x2+x3+…..+xn+……a
1 - xn
sn = x ¹: 1
1- n

## If |x| <1, then xnào, as nàa

l i m 1
n ®a n s =
1- n

If n ³ 1, snàa
If x=-1, the series is
1-1+1-1+1-1+……
sn= 1 if n is odd
=0, if n is even
¥

åx n
oscillates finitely when x=-1.
n =0

## where <-1, snà¥ or a according as n is odd or even

¥

åx n
oscillates infinitely
n =0

¥
The series åx n
converges if |x|<1, diversion of x ³ 1, n=0 oscillates finitely
n =0

## if x = -1 and oscillates infinitely if x<-1

(2) If u1+u2+u3+….+un+…. is convergent and has the sum s, then
um+1+um+2+….+…. is convergent and has the sum s -(u1+u2+…..+un) where
m Î n.
(3) The u1+u2+….+un+….. is convergent and has the sums, there
ku1+ku2+ku3+…..+kun+…… converge to ks
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## (4) If un converges to s, S vn converges to l, then S (un+vn) converges to s+l

(5) A series of positive terms cannot oscillate. It is either convergent or
divergent
l i m
(6) The series S un is convergent, then s =0
n ®a n

## The converse is not true.

1
Consider the series ån
1 1 1
S n = 1 +. .+ . + . +.
2 3 n

## Snà¥ as nà¥ \ SUn is divergent

\ when lx®i ¥msn = 0 does not imply

SUn is convergent.

## 4.3 Comparison test

Form I: Let S an be a series of positive terms. Let an £ R bn for all n.
Then the series S an is convergent if S bn is convergent.
(ii) Let an ³ kbn , V n vn, then the series S a n is divergent if S a n is
divergent.
Proof: Given an £ k bn

a1 £ k b1

a2 £ k b2

a3 £ k b3

…………….

……………..

an £ k bn

\ a1+a2+…+an £ k (b1+b2+…+bn)
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£ k B

\ Sn £ where x is a constant

## \ Sn is bounded and å an is convergent if å bn is convergent

Step 2: Given an ³ k bn

\ a1 ³ k b1

a2 ³ k b2

a3 ³ k b3

…………………

an ³ k bn

\ a1+a2+…..+an ³ (b1+b2+….+bn)

Sn ³ N where n ³ m

³ m where m is a constant

\ å an is divergent.
an
FIRM II If Numbers L and M exists such that L £ bn £ M for all n,
then
å an and å bn both converge or diverge together.

an
Proof £ M
bn

an £ Mbn
å an is convergent if å bn is convergent.

an
L £
bn
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Lbn £ an

\å an is divergent if å bn is divergent.

FORM III

If
U n
l i m = k, a finite number then
x® ¥ V n
(i) å un is convergent if å Vn is convergent

Proof:
u
l i mn =
x® ¥ v
n

## \ for all n ³ N, un - k < Î

vn
un
where Î is any positive number however small. < k+ Î
vn
un 1
\ tn ³n, <R where R1
vn
Some finite positive number \ un is convergent if un is divergent
we have

u n
ii) - k <t , Vn ³ Î
v n
u
\ n> k- Î
vn
As k >0, Î can be so chosen that k- Î >k1>0 where k1 is a finite number.
\ un is divergent if un is divergent

## let an be a series of positive terms

a
i) If n +1 < k <1 , for all n, an is convergent
an
a
ii) If n +1 ³ 1 , for all n, an is divergent.
an
a
Proof : By data n +1 < k <1 , V n an +1
an
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a2
\ <k
a1
\ a2 <k 1 a
a3
< k \a3 <a2 k
a2
a3<k2a1
a4<k2a1

an+1<kna1
ie. an<kn-1a1
\an<kn-1a1
But kn-1=a1(1+k+k2+…+kn-1)
This is a Geometric series with common Ratio=k<1
\ By Comparison test, an is convergent.

a +n 1
(ii) ³1, V n
a n
\ an+1 ³ an

\ a2 ³ a1

a3 ³ a2 ³ a1

a4 ³ a3 ³ a2 ³ a1

\ an+1 ³ a1

## \ a1+a2+a3+….+ an+1 ³ n-a1

i.e., a1+a2+a3+….+…. ³ N if n ³ m

\ an is divergent.

an +1
Hence if lx®i ¥m = k , then an is convergent of k < 1 and is
an

divergent if k > 1.
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1
Theorem : The series is convergent if p > 1 and is divergent if p
np
£ 1

1 1 1 1 1
Proof : p
= p + p+ +p . +. p . +. . ¥
. .
n 1 2 3 n

## Choose Vn such that

1
V1 =
1p

1
V2 = V3 =
2p

1
V4 = V5 = V6 = V7 = p
4

1 æ1 1ö æ1 1 1ö 1
\ Vn = r
+ ç r + r ÷ + ç +r r+ r÷ + r + . .¥
....
1 è2 2ø è4 4 4ø 4

1 1 1
= r
+ r -1+ r -1 + . ¥
. . .
1 2 4

## The terms of un are equal to or less than those of vn

2
1 1 æ1 ö
Vn = + + ç +÷ ¥
. . . .
1r 2 r-1 è r2- 1ø
1
This is a Geometric series with common ratio = 2 p-1

Now r >1

r -1
\ 2 1 >

1
\ r -1
<1
2

1
\ is convergent
2 r -1
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\ i.e Vn is convergent

## Case (ii) p=1

1 1 1 1
un = 1+ + + + +. . . .
2 3 4 5

## Form Vn such that

V1 = 1

1
V2 =
2

1
V3=V4=
4

1
V5=V6=V7=V8=
8

…………..

…………..

1 æ1 1 ö 1 1æ 1 ö 1
+ç + + ÷ + ç + +÷ + . . ¥. .
2 è4 4 ø 8 8è 8 ø 8
Vn = 1+
1 1 1
= 1 + . + . + .+ .¥
2 2 2

1
\ Sn = 1+(n-1)x
2

n
Sn+1 = 1+ > N if n ³ m
2

## \ By comparison test, un is divergent.

Case 3 If p < 1
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1 1 1
un = 1p + 2p + p3 + . . .¥. . . ………(1)

## We shall assume for this series, p = 1

1 1 1
\ Vn = 1+ + + +. . . . . . ..……..(2)
2 3 4

## Comparing (1) and (2)

We see that except the first term all other terms are > Vn

## But (2) is divergent

\ By comparison test,

un is divergent.

## 4.5 Examples on Comparison Test

a
1
1. Test the convergence of å 1+
1 3n 4

1
un =
1 + 3n 4

1
Choose Vn =
n4

n4 n4
\ un = =
1 + 3n 4 n 4 ( 1 3+ )
n4
1
=
1
+3
n4

1
un =
l i m ¹0
n ®a 3

1 1
But Vn = which is of the form ,p=4 >1, which is convergent.
n4 np

## \ By comparison test, Un is convergent.

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a
2. å éë
1
n 4 + n ù2- n
û

un = n 4 + n 2- n

n 4 + n 2+ n
= n 4 +n 2-n x
n 4 + n 2+ n

n 4 + n 4- n
=
n 4 + n 2+ n

n
=
n + n 2+ n
4

1
Choose Vn =
n

u n n n
= x
v n n 4 + n 2+ n 1

n2
=
n 4 + n 2+ n

n2
=
é 1ù
n 2 ê 1 + 3 ú+
1
ë n û

1
=
1
1+ 3 +
1
n

u n 1 1
l i =m l= i ¹
m 0
n® v¥ n n® ¥ 1 2
1+ 3 +
1
n

1
But Vn = is divergent
n

## \ By comparison test, un is divergent

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## 3. Test the convergence of the series.

a
n + 1 -n 1-
å 1 nr

n + 1 -n 1-
un =
nr

n + 1 -n 1- n + 1 +n 1-
= p
x
n n + 1 +n 1-

n + 1 -n 1+
= r
n éë n+ 1 +nùû 1-

2
=
n r éë n+ 1 +nùû 1-

1
Choose Vn = 1
r+
2
n

1
r+
u n 2
\ n= r
vn n é n+ 1 +nù 1-
ë û

1
r+
2
n
=
é 1 ù 1
n r n ê 1 + +1 ú -
ë n û n

1
=
1 1
1+ +1 -
n n

un 1
l i =m ¹ 0
n® ¥ vn 2

1 1 1
But åv n =å 1
which is convergent if p+ > 1 \p >
p+
2
2 2
n

1 1 1
åv = å n 1
is divergent if p + £1 i.e., p £
p+
2
2 2
n
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\ By comparison test,

1
åu n is convergent if p >
2

1
and is divergent if p £
2

## 4. Test the convergence of the series

a
1 æ1 ö
åns 1
i çn ÷
èn ø

1 æ1 ö
un = s i çn ÷
n èn ø

1
Choose un =
n2

un 1 æ1 ö
= s iç n÷ n/2
vn n èn ø

n2 æ1 ö
= s i çn ÷
n èn ø

1 ö
= n sin æç ÷
èn ø

æ1 ö
s i çn ÷
= èn ø
æ1 ö
ç ÷
èn ø

1
Put =y
n
un s i yn
=
vn y

u s yi n 1
l i n =m l ® i A m¥ s { n ®0i e. ®y. 0 un
n® vn¥ y ® 0 y n
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s i qn
= 1 (formula lq ®0i qm =1 }
¹0

1
But åv n = which is convergent
n2

\ By comparison test

åu n is convergent.

22.32.3.42.3.4.5
+ + + + .¥....
33.53.5.73.5.7.9

Solution:

## Consider 3, 5, 7, 9,…… nth term = 2n+1

2 . 3 . 4 . 5 . .n. +...(1)
un =
3 . 5 . 7 . . . .n. +. ( 2 1 )

2 . 3 . 4 . 5 . .n. +. . . n. (+1 ) ( 2 )
un+1 =
3 . 5 . 7 . . . . .n.+. . ( 2n 1+ ) ( 2 3 )

un n+2
=
u n+1 2n + 3

un n+2
l i m =l i m
n ® u¥ n ®
n+1 n2 +3
¥

æ 2ö
n ç1 + ÷
= ln®i ¥m è nø
æ 3ö
nç2 + ÷
è nø
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1
= <1
2

## 2. Examine the convergence of the series

n n2 n3
+ + + . .¥. .
1.22.33.4

nn
un =
n( n+1 )

n n +1
un+1 =
(n +
1 )n +( 2 )

un n
\ = .n
un +1 n + 2

u n
l i nm = l i m n .
n® un +1
¥ n ® n +2
¥

n
= ln®i ¥m n
æ 2ö
n ç1 + ÷
è nø

un
\ l i m =n
n® ¥ u n+1

Step 2 :

## If n = 1, the test fails

n1
\ un =
n( n+1 )

1
Choose Vn =
n2
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un n2
\ =
v n n ( n+1 )

un 1
l i m= 1¹ 0But åv = å n n 2
is convergent.
n ® ¥v
n

## 4.7 Cauchy’s Root test

Statement :
1
If ln® ¥iun n m= l ,the åu n is convergent if l < 1, and divergent if l >1.

1
un n = l
l i m
n® ¥
Pf: 1 where Î is any +ve number, however small.
n
Þ un- l< nÎ, ³m

1
i.e., l – Î < un < l + Î n

Case 1

## Then Î be chosen that l + Î < k<l

1
\ un n < k

Þ un <k n , n³ m

n
But åk is convergent if k < 1

\ åu n is convergent.
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Case 2

## If l > 1, Î be chosen so that

l–Î>1
1
\ un n > 1

\ un > 1, n ³ m

\ ln® i¥un m¹ 0

\ åU nis divergent

¥
1
å
1
3
n2
æ 1ö
ç1 + ÷
è nø

1
an = 3
n2
æ 1ö
ç1 + ÷
è nø

1
é ù n

1
ê 13 ú
an n
=ê n ú 2
êæ 1ö ú
ê ç1 + n÷ ú
ëè ø û

1 1 1
= 3 = = n
< 1
n2 /n æ 1ö e
æ 1ö ç1 + ÷
ç1 + ÷ è nø
è nø

## \ åU nis convergent, by Canchy’s Root Test.

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{ FORMULA USED :

1
l i m+ ( n 1= e) }
n® ¥ n

¥
1
2. Test the convergence of å n2
1 æ 1ö
ç1 + ÷
è nø

1
Solution : an = n2
( 1+ 1
n )
1
n
é ù
1 ê 1 ú
\ a nn= ê ún 2
ê 1+ 1 ú
ë nû ( )
1
= n2

(1 + 1n ) n

1
= n
(1 + 1n )
lim
1 1
\ n®l ai ma =nn n

n ®a
(1 + 1n )
= 1 <1
e

## \ By Cauchy’s root test

an is convergent.

1
3) Test the convergence of å( l o g ) n

1
Solution an =
( l o ng )
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1
1
n
é 1 ù n
an =ê nú
ë ( l o ûg )
1
= n
( l o gn )
1
=
l on g
l i m
1 1
\ n ®l ai man =n
n ®a l o ng

= 0<1

## \ By Cauchy’s root test

an is convergent.

xn
4) Test the convergence of the series å nn
solution
xn
an =
nn
1
1 æ xn ö n x
\ an n =ç n ÷ =
èn ø n
1 lim lim
\ n®l ai man =n xx= 1
n ®a n n®a n
=0<1
\ By Cauchy’s root test,

an is convergent.

## test, Cauchy’s root test.

1
(1) Test the convergence of ån 2
+1
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1
(2) Test the convergence of å (n +1 )n +( 2 )

## 1.Examine the convergence of the series

¥
(n1+ ) (n 2+ ) n( 3+ )n . .+ .n. ( )
ån =1 nn

¥ n

2. å(
n =1
n
n -1 ) (Convergent)

n!
3. (Convergent)
nn

2n (n ! )
4. (Convergent)
nn

## I. Examine the convergency or divergency of the following series.

1 1 1
a) + + + . . . .a. . . (convergent)
1.32.53.7

1 2 3
b) + + + . . .¥. . . (divergent)
22 32 24

n2 + 3
c) å n3 + 2 (divergent)

2n 2 +3
d) å 5n 3 + 7
(divergent)

¥
n +1
e) å (divergent)
1 n+2

¥
n + 3 -n
f) å (Convergent if p > ½ and divergent if
1 np
p £ ½)
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¥
g) å éë n 3
+ 3 n3- ùû 3- (convergent)
3

## Problems on Ratio test

Examine the convergency and divergency of the following series.

44.74.7.10
a) + + + . .¥. . . (divergent)
55.85.8.11

3 1 3 . 5 1 3 . 5 . 7 1
b) . + . . + . +. . ¥. (convergent)
5 2 5 . 6 22 5 . 63 . 7 2

¥
nn
c) å (Convergent if n £ 1 and divergent if n > 1)
0 ( n +1 (n )+ 2)

5n5 1+ n41 n
d) å 1 2 .n (Convergent if n 1 and divergent if n > 1)
6n 1+ 4

e)
( n + 2 ) n(+
3 )n
(Convergent if n < 1 and divergent if n ³ 1)
å n( n+1 )
.n

4.13 References

## A Text Book of Algebra by T.K. Manickavasagam Pillai

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Lesson - 5

Contents

## 5.0. Aims and Objectives

5.1. Definition
5.2. Examples discuss the convergent of the following:
5.2.1 Absolute Convergence
5.3. Examples
5.4. Let us sum up
5.6. Lesson and activities
5.7. Points for discussion
5.8. References

## Our Aim is to learn on Absolute convergence Alternating series

and conditionally convergent.
5.1. Definition

## Alternating series is a series in which the terms are alternatively

positive and negative.

## Theorem: An alternating series a1-a2+a3-a4+…… converges if each term is

numerically less than the proceeding term and the nth term tends to zero as
n® ¥
Proof Let the series be u1-u2+u3-u4+…… where u1,u2,…. are all >0 and

u1>u2>u3>….un>un+1>……….

## As u1> u2> u3>……. un> un+1…. We have \ s2n >0

S2n+2=s2n+(u2n+1-u2n+2)>s2n

## \ S2n is a monotonic increasing sequence …(1)

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## Also s2n=u1-(u2-u3)-(u4 -u5)…-(u2n-2-u2n-1)-u2n

As u2>u3, u4>u5,…-u2n-2>u2n-1

## \ As n à , S2nà a finite limit l(say)

\l i m
s2=n l
n ®a

s 2n+1=s2n+u2n+1

\ l i s2mn =
+ l 1 is nm+2 l+ i2un m 1
n ®a n ®a n ®a

=l+0=l

\l i m
s2=n l
n ®a

## 5.2 Examples Discuss the convergent of the following:

a) 1-1/2+1/3-1/4+1/5……….

## Solution: The series is of the form

u1-u2+u3-u4+…. Positive

un>un+1

## Step 3: \ ln®ia umnn=®la i nm= 1 / 0

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## \ The given series is convergent

a
1
(b) Discuss the convergence of å (- 1 n
)
1 n+8

## Solution The series is

-1 +1 -1 1+ . . .¥
.....
9 1 0 1 1 1 2

-u1+u2-u3+u4……..…

## The terms are alternatively positive and negative.

u1 = 1 ,u2 = , 1 u3, = 1. 4u . = 1. . .
9 1 0 1 1 1 2

un>un+1

1
un =
n+8

l i m 1
u =l
n ®a n i =m 0
n® ¥n + 8

\ un is convergent

Note : If any one of the three conditions is not true, then the alternating

## 2. If åu n is divergent and un is convergent then un is conditionally

convergent.

Example :
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1 1 1
1- + - +. . . .
2 3 4

## This series is convergent.

1 1 1
And the 1+ + + +. . . .is. divergent.
2 3 4

## 2. Consider the series

1 1 1 1
1- + - + . .¥. . .
22 32 42 25

1 1 1
This series is absolutely convergent, since åu n = 1 + . + . +. . + .
2 2 3 2 4 2
.is

convergent.

Exercise

## Discuss the convergence of the following:-

1 1 1
1) 1- + - +. . .¥. .
5 9 1 3

1 1 1
2) 1- 2 + 3 4- . .+ . .¥ .
2 3 4

¥
n -1 1
3) å ( -1) .
1 n+ n

¥
n +1 1
4) å ( -1)
n=2 n -1

Theorem

## An absolutely convergent series is convergent.

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## Now un + |un| = 2un if un is +ve

= 0, if un is –ve.

## \ every term of the series å ( u + | u |)³

n n 0 and is less than or equal to the

## corresponding term of the convergence series å2 un| |

\ å [u + | u ]| is convergent.
n n

## But we know that åu n is convergent

\ un is also convergent.

Note: (1) When we say that un is absolutely convergent, we assert that the

## (2) The series åu n is absolutely convergent if after a certain stage

un + 1
< R, where kunE may, vao day coi co con nho nay ngon lam
un

http://www.freewebtown.com/nhatquanglan/index.html

## is a fixed number < 1. (Ratio test)

1
(3) The series un is absolutely convergent if after a certain stage un n
<k ,

## where k is a fixed number < 1 (Root test)

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(4) If two series are absolutely convergent they can be multiplied by term

5.3 Examples

## Test for convergency the series

n2 3
n 4 n nn-1
n
n- + - +. . . +. ( 1- ) . .¥ . .
2 3 4 n

Solution:

nn
un = (- 1 n -)1
n

n n +1
un+1= (- 1 n )
n +1

un +1 n n +1 n
= ( - n1 ) . n -1 n
un n +n1 (- 1 ) .

n. n
=-
n +1

n. n
=-
n 1+ 1
n

-n
=
1+ 1
n

un +1 -n
\ =
un 1+ 1
n

n
=
1+ 1
n
un +1
l i m = n| |
n® ¥ u
n

## By ratio test un is absolutely convergent if |n|<1.

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\ un is convergent if |n|<1.

these series.

## (1) If an converges absolutely, then what can you say about an

1 1 1
(2) Check whether the series 1 - + - is conditionally
22 32 24
convergent

## Discuss the convergence of the following series:-

2 n
n n n
1) 1- + . . n( 1+ ) . . ¥. . .
+. . . -
1 + a 1 a+ 2 n +1 a

(Convergent if |n|<1)

1 n13 . n5 3
2) n+ . .+ . +. . ¥ .
2 3 2 . 4 5

## 5.7 Points for discussion

2 1 n-
1 n n n
3) - + + . . . -. (n -11 +) .n . ¥. . .
1+ n 1 +2 n 3
1+ n 1+ n

(Ans: Convergent)

5.8. References
A Text Book of Algebra by T.K. Manickavasagam Pillai
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UNIT II

LESSON 6

RAABE’S TEST

Contents
6.0. Aims and Objectives
6.1. Raabe’s test
6.2. Cauchy’s Condensation Test
6.3. Let us sum up
6.5. Lesson and activities
6.6. Points for discussion
6.7. References

## 6.1 Raabe’s test

éu ù
Let un be a series of positive terms. Let ln® ¥ni ê mn -ú1l =
ë un +1 û

## Proof: Consider the series

1
åv = å n
n r

éu ù é (n +1 r)ù
l in ê mn -ú. n 1 =l ê i r-m ú 1

ë¥un +1n ®û ¥ n
ë û

é p 1p ù
ê n ( +1 ú)
= ln® ¥n êi n
m ú -1
ê np ú
ë û
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é ù 1
= l i nm
ê +( 1pú-) 1
n® ¥
ë n û

n
æ 1ö p
ç1 + ÷ - 1
è nø
= ln®i ¥m
æ 1ö
ç1 + ÷ -1
è nø

=p.1p-1=p

æ u ö
\ n ç- n -p÷1 < Î
n " m³ 1
è un +1 ø

## Where Î is any positive number, however small.

æ u ö
i.e., p- Î <n ç n -÷1 < p+ Î
è un +1 ø

similarly

æ un ö
l- Î <n ç -÷1 < l+ În " m³ 2
è un +1 ø

## If l>1, choose p such that l>p>1

As t can be chosen that l- Î >p+ Î , we can find a number m & Î for all

n ³m

æ u ö væ ö
n ç n l -÷ nn> ç - ÷1
è un +1 ø vn +1 è ø

un vn u v
i.e., > , n<+1 n +1
un +1 vn+1 un nv

1
But as p>1, åv = å n
n p
is convergent.

\ un is convergent.

## If Î <1, choose p & t l<p<1

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## As t can be so chosen that l+ Î <p-t we can find a number m & Î form n ³ m,

æ u ö væ ö
n ç n -÷1n n< ç 1 - ÷
è un +1 ø vn +1 è ø

un v
<n
un +1 vn +1

un +1 vn +1
i.e., >
un vn

1
But as p<1, åv = å n
n p
is divergent.

\ un is divergent.

## 6.2 Cauchy’s Condensation Test

If f(n)>0 and f(n+1) £ f(n) for all positive integral names of n and a is
n
a positive integer >1, the series å f( n and
) åa f( n a ) are both convergent or

both divergent.

## Proof: The terms of the series å f( n are

) grouped as follows

n= )

## éë f ( 21+a ) (+f 22 )+a.ùû . +.f3 . +(a ) +. . .+ . éë f ( n1-1 a+) ( -+

f22 n ) +
a. ùû . . +fn. ( +a) . +. . . .

## The number of terms in the groups are a, a2-a, a3-a2, ….an-an-1,….

Then å f( n =u
) 1+u2+u3+….+un+…….

= un

Where un = f ( n -1
a+ 1) +f-22(n +.a +.) f n .+ a( )
Given f(n+1) £ f(n)
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\ f ( n³) f ( +n1 )

-1
\ f ( n³)a ( +f1-1n )³a ( -1 +f2n ) a³ . .fn³ . a( )

\ ( a n -a -1n) f ³
( an -)1 ³u n
n
a( --1 na f) n (a )
æ 1ö
a n -1 ( a- 1) -1fn ( ³ a ) 1unn
³ aç- n
f÷ (a )
è aø

## Taking un £ a n -1 (a- 1 fn -1) a ( )

n
If åa f( n a )is convergent, then un is convergent.

1
Taking: un ³ æç1 - ö÷ a( n f n )a
a è ø

n
If åa f( n a )is divergent, then un is divergent.

\ å f ( n aå

## We have so far studied the theories in Raabe’s test and condensation

test.

1) When will you say Raabe’s test needs to test the convergence of e

series.

## 1) Examine the convergence of the series

12 12 32 12 23 25
+ . + . .+ . +. .¥.
22 22 42 22 24 26

## 6.6 Points for discussion

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## 1) Examine the convergence of

¥
1 . 3 . 5 . n. .-( 2 1n )
å
1 2 . 4 . 6 . .n. 2
n

¥
r
ån nn
1

6.7 References

## A Text Book of Algebra by T.K. Manickavasagam Pillai

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Theory of Equations

Lesson – 7

THEORY OF EQUATIONS

Contents
7.0. Aims and Objectives
7.1. Relation between
7.2. Examples
7.3. Let us sum up
7.5. Lesson end activities
7.6. Points for discussion
7.7. References

## Consider the equation of nth degree in n as

a0 n
n+ 1 an -+1 n2 n -2
+a 3 nn -+3 a +.n . a.=n . 0

## There are n nots (viz) a1 , a2, . an.

a1
S1= a1 + 2a+ 3 +a . +. a. n= -
a0

a2
S2= å a1 a2 =
a0

a
S3= å a1 a2 a=
3 -3
a0

……………….

n n a
Sn= a1 a2 3a. . a=
n . ( -1 )
a0
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7.2 Examples

Model 1

Solution: Step 1

## The given equation is n3-12n2+39n-28 = 0 \ a0 = 1, a1 = -12;

a2 = 39, a3 = -28

a - d =a1
Since the roots are in AP, let the roots be a-d, a, a+d a = a2
a + d =a 3

- a1
S 1 = a1 + a2 + a3 =
a0

a - d +a +a +d 1= 2

3a = 12

a=4

Step 2

- a3
S3 = a1 a2 a3 =
a0

(a-d)a(a+d)=-28

4(16-d2)=-28

16-d2=-7

d2=9

d= ± 3 \ d=3, d=-3

## \ When a=4, d=3, the roots are 1, 4, 7

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Model 2

Solution: Step 1

## The given equation is

3n3-26n2+52n-24=0

## This is of the form

aon3+a1n2+a2n+n3=0

## \ a0=3; a1=-26; a2=52; a3=-24

a1 = a
r
Since the roots are in GP, let the roots be a/r , a, ar a2 = a
a3 = a r

- a3
S3= a1 a2 a3 =
a0

a 2 4
a. a =r
r 3

a3=8

\ a=2

Step 2

-a1
S1=a/r+a+ar=
a0

2 2 6
+ 2 + 2r =
r 3
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æ1 ö2 6
2 ç +1 ÷+r =
èr ø 3

1 + r +1 r2 3
=
r 3

2 b 2 -a4 c
3+3r+3r =13r r= -b ±
2a

1 0± 1 0-0 3 6
r=
6

1
r=3,
3

Step 3

## When a=2, r=3, the roots are 2 3 , 2 , 6

1 2
When a=2, r= , the roots are 6, 2,
3 3

3. Model 3 HP

Proof : Step 1

The equation is

6n3-11n2+6n-1=0

## This is of the form

a0n3+a1n2+a2n+a3=0
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a0 = 6; a1 = -11; a2 = 6; a3 = -1

## Since the roots are in HP

2a r
b=
a +r

a +b r b= 2 ar ……..(1)

- a1 1 1
s 1= a + b +r = = ……(2)
a0 6

a2
s 2 = a +b ra+ br = =1
a0

2a r + a r1 = , using (1)

3a r =1
1 ……….(3)
ar =
3

- a3 1
s 3= a rb = =
a0 6

1
But a r =
3

1 1
\ .b =
3 6
1
b=
2

Step 2

1
Put b = in ……(2)
2

1 1 1
a +r + =
2 6
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1 1 1 8 4
a +r = - = = ……..(4)
6 2 6 3

## Solve (3) and (4) for a , r

4
From (4) r = -a
3

Using in (3)

æ4 ö 1
a ç -a ÷ =
è3 ø 3

4a 1
-a 2 =
3 3

\ 4a - 3a 2 = 1

3a 2 -4 a +1 =0

3a 2 -3a - a1+ =0

3a ( -1a ) -(a1 - ) 0=

(a - 1)(a-3 1)= 0

a = 1 a ,= 1
3

Step 3

4 4 1
a = 1 r= a -, = 1- =
3 3 3

1 1
\a =1 b ,= ,r =
2 3

Step 4

1 4 4 1
When a = ; =r a - = 1- =
3 3 3 3

1 1
\a =b, = , r= 1
3 2
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1 1
\ The roots are , , 1
3 2

4. Model 4

## Let the roots be a-3d, a-d, a+d, a+3d

-a1
S1=a-3d+a-d+a+d+a+3d=
a0

4a = 12

a = 3

a4
s 4=(a-3d)(a-d)(a+d)(a+3d)=
a0

(a2-9d2)(a2-d2)=-135

(9-9d2)(9-d2)=-135

9(1-d2)(9-d2)=-135

(1-d2)(9-d2)=-15

Put –d2=y

\ (1-y)(9-y)=-15

y2-10y+24=0

y=6, y=4
2
\d =6, d2=4

d= 6 , d= ±2

## Step 2 : a=3, d=2

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-3, 1, 5, 9

## The four roots are

9, 5, 1, -3

Model 5

5. Solve

4n4-85n3+357n2-340n+64=0

a a
, ,a r , a3 r
r3 r

## a0=4, a1=-85, a2=357, a3=-340, a4=64

a a a
s 4= 3
. a. r . a3 =r 4
r r a 0

a4=64/4=16

a=2

Step 2

a a
S1= + +a r+ a 3 r= 8 5
r 3
r 4

1 1 ö 3
a æç 3
+ +r÷ +r =8 5
4
èr r ø

é 1 ù1
2 êæç r + ö÷ +r æçú3 + 3ö÷ = 8 45
ëè rø èû r ø
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3
æ 1ö æ 1 ö æ1 ö 8 5
ç r + ÷ + rç + ÷ -r 3 ç + ÷ = 8
è rø è r ø èr ø

{Q a 3
+b 3
a=( b3 +) a 3-b (a+ b)}

3
æ 3 1ö æ 1 ö 8 5
ç r + ÷ -r 2ç + ÷ - 0 8=
è rø è r ø

1
Put r+ =a
r

a3-2a- 8 85 = 0

8a3-16a-85=0

5
a= is a root
2

1 5 1
\r + = r Þ = , 2
r 2 2

1
When r=2, a=2, the roots are , 1,4,16
4

1 1
When r= , a=2, the roots are 16,4,1, ,
2 4

Model 6

## Given a + b=0 i; a.=e . , -b

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- a1
S1= a + b+ r +d =
a0

r+ d = 2 ………………….(1)

a2
s 2= a +b ra+ a +dr b+ br+d d=
a0

a +b ( r+a ) +d r ( b+ d)r+ d = 4

Put r+ d = 2

\a +b2 +
a 2b+ r d=4

a +b r d= 4 ……………(2) {Qa + b = 0}

- a3
s 3= a br +a b +r d b +dr a =d
a0

## a (br + d) +r d (+a =b) -6

Put r+ d = 2 , a + b = 0

\ 2a = b 6-

a b= 3- ………….(3)

But a + b = 0

\ b = a-
a ( - a2 =
) -3
using in (3) : a2 = 3
a = ±3

a = 3b= , - 3

Step 2 : r+ d = 2

a4
S4= a br d=
a0
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d = 2- 1
-3r
rd = 7

But d = 2 n-

\ r ( 2- n ) =7

2r-r2=7

n 2 - 2n + 7 = 0

2 ± 4 -2 8
n=
2

2± 2- 4
=
2

2 ± 2 + 12
=
2

2 ± 6 x4 x21
=
2

2± 2 6i
=
2

r=1 ±i 6

\ r =1 +i6 d=, i 1- 6

± 3 ±, i1 6

## 7.3 Let us sum up

We have studied so for how to solve equations whose roots are in AP,

## GP, HP or a relation between any of its two roots is given.

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1
åa

b

## 7.6 Points for discussion

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(Ap.2003, BU)

## Progression (Ap. 2003, BU)

4. Solve the equation n4 -2n3+4n2+6n-21=0 given that two of its roots are

7.7 References

## A Text Book of Algebra by T.K. Manickavasagam Pillai

Lesson – 8
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TRANSFORMATION OF EQUATIONS

Contents
8.0. Aims and Objectives
8.1. Transformation of Equations
8.2. Examples
8.3. Let us sum up
8.5. Lesson end activities
8.6. Points for discussion
8.7. References

## 8.0 Aims and Objectives

Our aim is to learn about getting the equations whose roots are
decreased or increased by a given quantity. Further we also study on how to
remove the second term from the given equations.

## 1. Find the equation whose roots are the roots of n4-5n3+7n2-17n+11=0

each diminished by 2
Solution : Let the roots be
a , b,r ,d
We shall form the equation whose roots are a - 2 ,b- 2 r-, d 2 -, 2
By synthetic division

n=2 1 -5 7 -17 11
2 -6 2 -30
1 -3 1 -15 -19 = A4
n=2 2 -2 -2
1 -1 -1 -17 = A3
n=2 2 2
n=2 1 1 1 = A2
2
1 3 = A1
A0

## \ The required equation is

A0n4+A1n3+A2 n2+A3n+A4=0
n4+3n3+n2-17n-19=0
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Model 2

2. Find the equation whose roots are the roots of 4n5-2n2+7n-3=0, each
increased by 2
Solution : Let the roots be a , b,r ,d t,

## To form the equation whose roots are a + 2 ,b+ 2 r+, d2 +, t 2 +, 2

Increase the roots by 2 means that diminish the roots by -2
By synthetic division

n=-2 4 0 0 -2 7 -3

0 -8 16 -32 68 -150

0 -8 32 -96 260

## 4 -16 48 -130 335 A4

n=-2 0 -8 48 -192

4 -24 96 -322 A3

n=-2 0 -8 64

4 -32 160 A2

n=-2 0 -8

4 -40

A0 A1

## The transformed equation is

A0n5+A1n4+A2 n3+A3n2+A4n+A5=0

4n5-40n4+160n3-322n2+335n-153=0

Model 3
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## 3. If a , b , nare the roots of n3+2n2-3n-5=0, form the equation whose roots

a -1 b -1 n -1
are , ,
a +2 b +2 n +2

Solution :

n -1
Let y= Imp: replace a by n
n +1

y(n+1)=n-1

yn+y=n-1

y+1=n-yn

y+1=n(1-y)

y +1
=n
1- y

1+ y
\n =
1- y

## using this in the given equation

3 2
æ 1 + yö 1æ+ y ö 1 + æy ö
ç ÷ + 2ç -÷3 ç- 5 ÷ = 0
è 1 - yø 1è- y ø 1 - èy ø

On Simplification

y3-6y2-27y+5=0

4. If a , b , nbe the roots of n3-pn2+qn-r=0 form the equation whose roots are

1 1 1
b r + a ,r +a , b+
a b r

Solution:

1 a b1 +n
b n+ = ……………(1)
a a
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## The given equation is

n3-pn2+qn+r=0 ………………(1)

a + b + r = p;
a +b ra+ rb = q

a b =
n +
r …………….(2)

## using (2) in (1)

1 + r1 +
b n+ =
a a

1 a r1b+ r +
1
ra + = =
b b b

1 a b1 +n r1+
a b+ = =
r n r

r +1
\y =
n

r +1
n=
y

using in (1)
3 2
æ r + 1ö ræ+ 1 ö r +æ1 ö
ç ÷ - pç +÷ q ç- r÷ = 0
è y ø èy ø yè ø

On simplification

ry3-q(r+1)y2+p(r+1)2y-(r+1)2=0

a rb
5. If be the roots of n3-pn2+qn-r=0 form the equation whose roots are
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a b r
, ,
b + ra - ar + b - a + b -n

## Solution : Let a , br, be the roots of

n3-pn2+qn-r=0 ……………(1)

a +b ra+ rb = q ……………(2)

a + b+r = p …………..(1)

a b =
n +
r. . . . . . . . . . ( 3 )

a a
=
b + r a- a+ r +b - 2a
a
=
p - 2a

b b b
= =
r + a 2- b r + a 2 + b p - b2 - a

r r
IIIrly =
2 + b -r 2 p- r

n
\y =
p - 2n

y(p-2n)=n

yp-2yn=n

yp=2yn+n

=n(2y+1)

y p
n=
2y +1

Using in (1)
3 2
æ y ö p æy pö yæ p ö
ç ÷ - pç +÷ q ç- r÷ = 0
è 2 y + ø1 èy2 + 1ø y +2è 1ø
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On simplification

y3(4pq-8r-p3)+y2(4pq-12r-p3)+y(pq-br)-r=0

6. If a , br, be the roots of n3+qn+r=0, form the equation whose roots are

b + ra -
2 a +, rb -2 a +, rb -2

## Solution: The given equation is

n3+qn+r=0 ………………(1)

## \ a0=1, a1=0, a2=q, a3=r

a
a + b +r = 1 =0
a0

b +r -
a2 = a+3r +b 0- a= 3- a = 3 a
-

IIIrly r + a - 2 b= 3-b

2+ b - 2r= 3-r

\ y=-3n

\ n= - y
3

3
-y -y
Using in (1), æç ö÷ + qæç + ö÷ r = 0
è 3 ø 3è ø

y3+9qy-27r=0

## 1. Consider the nth degree equation in n as

a0xn+a1xn+1+a2xn-2+…+an-1xn-1+an=0
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## We shall remove the second term by diminishing (decreasing) the roots of

a1
this equation by h= -
n 0a

## Pf.: a0=1, n=5, a1=5

- a1 5
h= = - = 1-
n 0a 5

\ n=-1 1 5 3 1 1 1
0 -1 -4 1 -2 1
1 4 -1 2 -1 2=A5
n=-1 0 -1 -3 4 -6
1 3 -4 6 -7=A4
n=-1 -1 -2 6
1 2 -6 12=A3
n=-1 -1 -1
1 1 -7=A2
n=-1 -1
1 0
A0 A1
The transformed equation is

n5-7n3+12n2-7n+2=0

We notice that the second term (viz.,) the term containing n4 is removed.

8.3.Let us sum up

## decreased or increased by a given quantity.

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åa b

## 2. Diminish the roots of x4-5x3+7x2-17x+11=0 each diminished by 2

(Ans x4+3x3+x2-17x-19=0

## 8.5 Lesson end activities

1. If a , br, are the roots of the equation n3+an2+bn+c=0, form the equation
whose roots are a b, rb and ra (Nov. 2006, BU)

2. If a , br, are the roots of n3+pn2+qn+r=0 form the equation whose roots
are b + r a-2 r +a, -2b and a + b -2r (Ap. 1999)
3. If a , br, are the roots of n3+pn2+qn+r=0 form the equation whose roots
1 1 1
are a - b, - , -r (Ap.1997)
br a r a b

## 4. Diminish the roots by 1 of the equation n4-3n3+4n2-2n+1=0 and hence

solve the same. (Nov.1997, BU)
8.6 Points for discussion
5. If a , br, are the roots of n3+pn2+qn+r=0 form the equation whose roots
are a ( +b r ) , b (r+ a, )r a+( b ) (Nov.2005)

## 6. Diminish by 2 the roots of the equation n4-5n3+7n2-17n+11=0

(Ans. y4+3y3+y2-17y-19=0)
8.7 References
A Text Book of Algebra by T.K. Manickavasagam Pillai.
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Lesson-9
RECIPROCAL EQUATIONS
Contents
9.0. Aims and Objectives
9.1. Reciprocal Equations
9.2. Examples
9.3. Character and Position of roots – Descarte’s rule to signs
9.4. Examples
9.5. Symmetric Function of roots
9.6. Examples
9.7. Let us sum up
9.9 Lesson End Activities
9.10. Points for discussion
9.11. References

## We shall study the completely a reciprocal equation and how to solve

the same and study the nature of roots of a given equation.

## 9.1 Reciprocal Equations

Definition : An equation in which the reciprocal of every root is also a root,
is called a Reciprocal equation
Eg: Consider the equation
x5+x4+x3+x2+x+1=0….(1)
1
Replace x å y ,
n
1 1 1 1 1
+ + + + + +1 =0
x 5 x4 x3 2x x
ie 1+x+x2+x3+x4+x5=0
Which is the original equation
\ If x=a is a root of (1) then
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1
x= is also a root
a
Note : The following rules are to be observed before we solve a reciprocal
equation.
Rule 1: In a reciprocal equation if the coefficients have all like signs, then -1
is a root of it.
Eg : Consider the equation
x+4x4+3x3+3x2+4x+1=0
Here coefficient of x5=const term=1
Coeff. of x4 = Coeff. of x =4
coeff fx3=coeff fx2=3
All the coefficients have like
signs ie, some sign
Hence By rule 1,
x=-1 is a root of it
Rule If the coefficients of the terms equidistant from the first and last term
have opposite signs, then x=1 is a root
Eg : Consider
6x5-x4-43x3+43x3+43x2+x-6=0
Coefficient of x5=6, constant term = -6
Coefficient of x4=-1, coefficient of x=1
Coefficient of x3=-43, Coefficient of x=-43
\ The coefficients of the first and last term have opposite signs
\x = 1 is a root/
9.2 Examples
(1) Solve x4+3x3-3x-1=0
Solution
This is a reciprocal equation of even degree with unlike signs
\ x=1 is a root
\ By synthetic division.
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1 3 0 -3 -1
x=1
1 4 4 1

1 4 4 1 0

## The other roots are given by

x3+4x2+4x+1=0
This is a reciprocal equation of odd degree with like signs \x = -1 is a root
\By synthetic division
1 4 4 1
x=1
-1 -3 -1

1 3 1 0

## The other roots are given by x2+3x+1=0

-3 ± 9 - 4
x=
2

-3 ± 5
=
2

-3 ± 5
Ans : The roots are 1, -1, =
2
2) Solve 6x5+11x4-33x3-33x2+11x+6=0
This is a reciprocal equation of odd degree with like signs
\ x=-1 is a root \ By synthetic division

6 11 -33 -33 11 6
x=-1
0 -6 -5 +38 -5 -6

+6 5 -38 5 6 0

## The other roots are given by

6x4+5x3-38x2+5x+6=0
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## There is a middle term

\ ¸ by x2
6x2+5x-38+5/x+6/x2=0
æ 1ö æ1 ö
6 ç x + ÷25 + x ç +3 ÷- 0=
è xø èx ø

éæ 1 öù æ1 ö
6 êç x +2 2 ÷ú- 5 x +ç 3 + ÷ 8- =0
ëè x øû èx ø
2
æ 1ö æ1 ö
6 ç x +1 ÷ -2 x +ç5 +3÷ - 8 = 0
è xø èx ø
2
æ 1ö æ1 ö
6 ç x + 5÷ + x 5ç + ÷0- =0
è xø èx ø
1
put x + =y
x

\ 6y2+5y-50=0
-b ±b 2 -a4 c
y=
2a
a=6
b=5
c = -50
-5 2± 5 1+ 2 0 0
y=
1 2

-5 ±
1 2 2 5
=
1 2

-5 ±3 5
=
1 2
+3 0- 4 0
= ,
1 2 1 2
+5 -1 0
y= ,
2 3
1 5 1 1- 0
\x + = x+ =
x 2 x 3

x2 + 1 5 x 2 + 1 -1 0
= =
x 2 x 3
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## 2x2 +2=5x 3x2 +3=-10x

2x2 -5x+2=0 3x2 +10x3=-10

5 ± 2 5- 1 6 -1 0 ±1 0 -0 3 6
x= x=
4 6

5± 9 -1 0± 6 4
x= =
4 6
5± 3 1 -1 0± 8
= = 2 , =
4 2 6
-2 -1 8
x= ,
6 6
1
= - , -3
3

## \ The roots are

-1 1
-1 , ,- 3 , 2 ,
3 2
3) Solve
6x6-25x5-13x4-31x2+25x-6=0
Solve
This is a reciprocal equation of even degree of under signs.
\ x=1 is a root of
By synthetic division
x=1 6 -25 31 0 -31 25 -6
0 6 -19 +12 12 -19 6

## The other roots are given by

6x5-19x4+12x3+12x2-19+6=0
This is a reciprocal equation of odd degree with like signs \ x=-1 is a
root of it.
\By synthetic division
x=1 6 -19 12 +12 -19 6
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6 -25 37 -25 6 0

## \ The other roots are given

6x4-25x3+37x2 -25x+6=0
These is a middle term
Divide by x2
6x4-25x3+37x2 -25/x+6/x=0
6 2 5
6 x 2 +2 2 -x5 - 3 + 7 = 0
x x
6 2 5
6 x 2 +2 2 -x5 - 3 + 7 = 0
x x

æ ö1 æ 1 ö
6 ç x 2 +2 ÷2 -5x ç +3 ÷ +7 =0
è xø è x ø
2
éæ 1 öù æ1 ö
6 êç x +2 ÷ú-2 x-5ç +3 ÷ +7 =0
êëè x øúû èx ø

put x+1/x=y
\ 6[y2-2]-25y+37=0
6y2-12-25y+37=0
6y2-25y+25=0
2 5± 6 2 -5 6 0 0
y=
1 2

2 ±5 2 5
=
1 2
2 ±5 5
=
1 2
3 0 2 0
y= ,
1 2 1 2
5 5
y= ,
2 3
1 5 1 5
\x + = \x + =
x 2 x 3
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x2 + 1 5 x2 + 1 5
= =
x 2 x 3

2x2+2-5x=0
2x2-5x+2=0
5 ± 2 5- 1 6 5 ± 2 5- 8 6
x= x=
4 6

5± 9 5± 1- 1
= =
4 6
5± 3
=
4
=2, ½
\The solution is
ìï 1 5ï± i 1 1ü
í-1 , 1 , 2 ,ý ,
ïî 2 2 þï

## 9.3 Character and Position of roots – Descarte’s rule to signs

If f(x) is a polynomial with real coefficients with the terms arranged in
descending power of x, the number of real positive roots of the equation
f(x)=0 does not exceed the number of changes in the sign of the coefficients
of f(x) written in a row in the order in which they occur.
Also the number of real negative roots of f(x)=0 does not exceed the
number of changes in the sign of the coefficients of f(-x) considered in a
similar manner.
9.4 Examples
Ex-1. Show that the equation
x6-x5+3x4+4x-1=0 has atleast two imaginary roots
pf: f(x) = x6-x5+3x4+4x-1
The series of changes in sign are
+ -+ +-1
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The equation cannot have more than three +ve real roots.
Step-2 In f(x)
f(-x) = (-x)6-(-x)5+3(-x)4+4(-x)-1
= x6+x5+3x4-4x-1

+ + + à
- -
This is only one charge of sign
\ f(x) cannot have more than one negative real not.
But the given equation has other two imaginary roots.
2) Find the number of imaginary roots and the number and position of the
real roots of x5-x4-4x-1=0
Charges of sign
+ à
- - -
There is only are change of sign.
\ The no of +ve real roots is £1
Step 2 : f(-x)=(-x)5 -(-x)4-4(-x)-1
=-x5-x4+4x-1
Arranges of sign - - + -
\The number of negative real roots is £2
The number of real roots is £3
But the equation is of degree 5 mix
\ There can be minimum two imaginary roots.
Position:
f(x)=x5-x4 -4x-1
x 2 1 0 -1 -2
f(x) + - - + -
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\The positive real root is between 2 and 1. These are two negative real
roots is one root between 0 and -1 and -1 and -2.
9.5 Symmetric Function of roots
By symmetric function of the roots, we mean a function consists of all
the roots and which remains unaltered if any two roots are interchanged.
If a 1, a 2, a 3 are the roots of the equation
a0x3+a1x2+a2x+a3=0, then
a 1+ a 2+ a 3 , a 12+ a 22+ a 32 , a 13+ a 23+ a 33
…….are all symmetric functions of eth roots.

Result-1
Let a 1+ a2+ a3 ,…. a 4 be the roots of the equation xn+p1n-1+ p2n-2+ pn-
x+pn=0
1 let s r denote a 12+ a 22+ a 32 +…. a nn

## then (i) if r£n,

s r+sr-1p1+sr-2p2+……+s1pr-1+rpr=0
9.6. Examples 1.
If a 1, a 2, a 3, a 4 be the roots of the equation x4+px3+1x2+rx+s=0, find the
value of
1 1 1
(i) åa (ii) å (iii) å
1 a1 a2 a 12

## Solution : The equation is

x4+px3+qx2+rx+s=0
a0=1, a1=p; a2=q; c3=r; c4=s
a
åa 1 = - 1 = -p
a0

åa 1 a2 a=
3 q

åa 1 a2 a=
3 r-

åa 1 a2 a=
3 s
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1 1 1 1 1
(i) åa = + + +
1 a1 a2 a3 a
4

## a 2 a3 a4+ a1 a3 a+4 a1 a2 +a4 a

1 a+ 3a
2
=
a1 a2 a3 a 4

=
åa 1 a2 a
3

a1 a2 a3 a
4

-r
=
s
1 1 1 1 1 1 1
(ii) åa = + + + + + +
1 a2 a1 a2 a1 a3 a1 a4 a2 a3 a 2 a
4 1a 4a

a 3 a4+ a2 a+
4 a2 a +3 a1 +a4 a
1 +a
3 2a
=
a1 a2 a3 a4

=
åa 1 a2
a1 a2 a3 a
4

q
=
s
1 1 1 1 1
(iii) åa 2
= 2
+ 2 + 2 + 2
1 a1 a2 a3 a
4

2
æ 1ö 1
= ç å ÷2- å2
1
è a1ø a a2

r 2 q2 2 r 2-q s
= - =2
s2 s s

Example 2: Find the sum of the fourth powers of the roots of the
equation
Solution
x4-5x3+x-1=0
This is of the form
x4+p1x3+p2x3x+p4=0
p1=-5, p2=0, p3=+1: p4=-1
Let a b n dbe the roots of the given equation
To find a 4 + b4 + n4 + d4
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## ie. To find s4 which is of the find sr

r=4
n=4
\ r=4
Formula
Sr + S p+
-1 r 1 S -+2r p 2. S+-r 1. p +1. r .p= 0
2

## Put r=1 s1+p1=0

s1-5=0
s1=5 ….(1)
r=2
S2+S1p1+2p2=0
S2+5(-5)+0=0
S2=25
put r=3
S3+S2p1+S1p2+2p2=0
S3+25x(-5)+0+3(1)=0
S3-125+3=0
S3-122=0
S3=122
Put r=4
S4+S3p1+S2p2+ S1p3+4p4=0
S4+122x(-5)+0+5x1+4(-1)=0
S4-610+5-4=0
S4-609=0
S4=609
Example-3
Find the sum of the sixth powers of the roots of the equation
x4-x3-7x2+x+6=0
Solve
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## p1=-1, p2=-7, p3=1, p4=6

let a b n be
d the roots of the given equation.

n=4, r=6
\ r>n
To find a 6 + b6 + n6 + d6

## Formula where r>n

Sr + S p+
-1 r 1 S -+2r p 2. S+-r 1. p +1. r .p= 0
2

## (2) when r ³ n, Sr + S -1 pr+ 1 S -+2r p 2. S+-r 1. p +1. r 2.p= 0

Put r=1 s1+p1=0
s1- p1=0
s2+1(-1)+2(-7)=0
S2-15=0
S2=15
S3+S2p1+S1p2+3p3=0
S3+15x(-1)+1x(-7)+3(1)=0
S3-15-7+3=0
S3-19=0
S3=19

S4+S3p1+S2p2+ S1p3+4p4=0
S4+19x(-1)+15x(-7)+-1x(+1)+4x6=0
S4-10-105+1+24=0
S4-99=0
S4=99
Step 2
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Put r = 5 in (1)
S5+S4p1+S3p2+ S2p3+S1p4=0
S5+99(-1)+19x(-7)15x(+1)+1x6=0
S5-99-133+15+6=0
S5-21=0
\ S5=21

S6+S5p1+S4p2+ S3p3+S2p4=0
S6+211(-1)+99(-7)+19x1+15x6=0
S6+217-693+19+90=0
S6-904+109=0
S6-795=0
S6+795
9.7. Let us sum up
We have so far learnt about solving reciprocal equations, finding the
nature of the roots of a given equation.
(1) Find the nature of the roots of x3-2x2-3x-4=0
(2) Check whether x5+x4+x3+x2+x+1=0 a reciprocal equation
(3) Can x=-1 be a root of the equation 6x6-25x3+31x4 -31x2+25x-6=0

## (1) Solve 6x6 -25x3+31x4-31x2+25x-6=0 (Ap 97) Bharathiar

(Ap 2005) Bharathiar
(2) Show that the sum of 20th powers of the roots of the equation
x4+ax+b=0 is 50a4b2-4b5(Ap 97)
(3) Solve
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6x6-35x5+56x4 -56x2+35x-6=0
(4) Prove that the equation
x6+3x2-5x+1=0 has atleast four imaginary roots. (Qp 2005)
9.10. Points for discussion
(1) Show that all the roots of the equation
2x3-3x2-12x+1=0 are real and district
(2) If a , b , gbe the roots of x3+px2+qx+r=0
find the values of

(a) åa 3
(b) å (a + b -) g 3
(
(c) å b g + g b )
9.11. References

## A Text Book of Algebra by T.K. Manickavasagam Pillai

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UNIT III
Lesson - 10
MULTIPLE ROOTS

Contents
10.0. Aims and Objectives
10.1. Rules for finding the multiple roots of an equation f(x)=0
10.2. Example
10.3. Let us sum up
10.5. Lesson End Activities
10.6. Points for discussion
10.7. References

## We shall study how to solve an equation whose roots are multiple

roots.
Multiple roots
10.1.Rules for finding the multiple roots of an equation f(x)=0
(1) find f1(x) (2) Find the HCF of f(x) and f1(x)
(3) Find the roots of HCF
10.2 Example
Find the multiple root of the equation
x4-9x2+4x+12=0
f(x)=x4-9x2+4x+12
f1(x)=4x3-18x+4
The HCF of f(x) and f1(x) and f1(x) are x-2
\ (x-2)2 is a factor of f(x)
(x-2)2=x2-4x+4

)
x2-4x+4 x4-9x24x+12 x2 -4x+3 (
x4-4x3+4x2
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4x3-13x2+4x
4x3-16x+16x
3x2-12x+12
3x2-12x+12
0
The other roots of f(x)=0 are given by
x2+4x+3=0
(x+3)(x+1)=0
x=-3, -1
roots of f(x)=0 are 2,2,-1,-3
10.3 Let us sum up
We have studied so far in spring an equation whose multiple roots are
given.
(1) Solve x3-x2-8x+12=0 has a double root
10.5. Lesson End Activities
(1) Solve
6x6-25x3+31x4 -31x2+25x-6=0 (Apr 97, Apr 2005)
Bharathiar University
(2) Show that the sum of the 20th powers of the roots of the equation
Examples
(1) Solve 2x4 -12x3+19x2-6x+9=0 given that it has two equal roots
i
Ans : 3,3, ±
2

## (2) Solve x5-x4-4x2+7x-3=0 given that it has multiple roots.

Ans : 1,1,1,-1 ±i 2

## (3) Search for multiple roots and hence solve

x4-6x3+13x2-24x+36=0
Ans : 3,3, 2 -1 ,- 2 - 1
10.6. Points for discussion
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(4) If the equation x4+ax3+bx2+x+36=0 has three equal roots show that each
6c - a b
of them is equal to
3a 2 - b
10.7. References

## A book of Calculus by T.K. Manickavasagam Pillai

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Lesson – 11
ROLLE’S THEOREM
Contents
11.0 Aims and Objectives
11.1. Examples
11.2 Let us sum up
11.4. Lesson End Activities
11.5. Points for discussion
11.6. References

## 11.0 Aims and Objectives

Our aim is to study on Rolle’s Theorem.
Rolle’s Theorem
Between two consecutive real roots a1 and a2 of the equation f(x)=0
where f(x) is a polynomial, there lies atleast one real root of the equation
f1(x)=0
Results :
(1) If all the roots of f(x)=0 are real, then all the roots of f1(x)=0 are
also real.
(2) If f(x)=0 is a polynomial of degree n, f1(x)=0 is a polynomial of
degree (n-1) and each root of f1(x)=0 lies in each of the (n-1) intervals
between the n roots of f(x)=0
(3) If all the roots of f(x)=0 are real, then the roots of f1(x)=0, f11(x)=0
f111(x)=0 are also real
(4) At most only real root of f(x)=0 can lie between two consecutive roots
of f1(x)=0
(5) If f1(x)=0 has k real roots, then f(x)=0 cannot have more than (k+1) roots
(6) f(x)=0 has at least as many imaginary roots as f1(x)=0
Position of real roots of f(x)=0
11.1. Examples
Find the nature of the roots of the equation 4x3-21x2+18x+20=0
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## Solution : f(x) = 4x3-21x2+18x+20=0

f1(x) = 12x2-42x+18
= 6[2x2-7x+3]
= 6[2x2-6x-x+3]
= 6[2x-(x-3)-1(x-3)]
= 6[(2x-1)(x-3)]
f1(x)=0è 2x-1=0, x-3=0
x=1/2, x=3

## \ The roots of f1(x) are x=1/2, 3.

-a 1/2 3 +a
\ The roots of f(x)=0 if any, will be with internals (-a, 1/2), (1/2, 3) and (3,
a)
In (-a, ½) In (1/2,3) In (3, a)
f(-a) = - f(1/2)=+ f(3)=-
f(1/2) = + f(3) = - f(a)=+
\ f(x) has three real roots
Eg.2 Show that the equation 3x4 -8x3 -6x2+24x-7=0 has one positive, one
negative and two imaginary roots.
Solution f(x) = 3x4-8x3-6x2+24x-7
f1(x) = 12x3-24x2 -12x+24
= 12[x3-2x2 -x+2]
= 12[x2(x-2)-1(x-2)]
= 12[(x-2)(x2-1)]
f1(x)=0è x-=0, x2-1=0
x=2 x= ± 1
\ The intervals are
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-a -1 1 2 +a
(-a,-1) (-1,1) (1,2) (2, a)
In (-a, -1) In (-1,1) In (1,2)
f(-a) = + f(-1)=- f(1)=-
f(-1) = - f(1) = + f(2)=+
In (2,a) \x : -a -1 1 2 +a
f(2) = + f(x) : + - + + +
f(a) = +
f(x)=0 has a real root lying in (-a,-1) and (-1,1). The given equation is
th
of 4 degree. \ The equation has two imaginary roots.

## Step 2 f(x) = 3x4-8x3 -6x2+2+x-7

0

-1 +1
f(0) = -7
f(1) = +
\ There is a positive real root in (-1,1).
Step 3
In (-a,-1)
There is a negative real root.
11.2 Let us sum up
We have studied so far how to find the roots using Rolle’s Theorem.
(1) Show that all the roots of x3-7x+5=0 are real
11.4. Lesson End Activities
(1) Show that the equation
x6-x5+3x4+4x-1=0 has atleast two imaginary roots.
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## 11.5. Points for discussion

(2) Find the number of imaginary roots and the number of real roots
of the equation
x6-x4-4x-1=0 (Answer positive real roots £ 1 no of real roots £ 3.
Atleast two imaginary roots)
11.6. References
A Text Book of Algebra by T.K. Manickavasagam Pillai
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Lesson – 12
NEWTON’S METHOD OF APPROXIMATION TO A ROOT
Contents

## 12.0 Aims and Objectives

12.1. Newton’s method of approximation to a root
12.2 Examples 1:
12.3 Let us sum up
12.5. Lesson End Activities
12.6 Points for discussion
12.7. References

## 12.0 Aims and Objectives

We shall find a root by Newton’s method.
12.1. Newton’s method of approximation to a root
Consider the equation f(x)=0 let x=a be a real unrepeated root of
f(x)=0.
Let a+h be a the actual root, where h is small
By Taylor’s Theorem
2
f(a+h)-f(a)+hf1(a)+ h +f11(a)+………
2 !

## \ x=a+h is a root of f(x)=0, we have f(a+h)=0

2
\ f(a)+hf1(a)+ h +f11(a)+……=0
2 !
2
Q h is small, neglect h and higher powers of h
f (a)+hf1(a)=0
- f (a )
h=
f 1 (a )

f (a )
\a +h a= -
f 1 (a )

= a 1(say) is a closer
approximation than a
Repeating the process
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f (a1 )
a 2 = a1 - which is a closer approximation than a 1
f 1 (a1 )

continuing this process, the root can be obtained to any desired degree of
accuracy.

12.2 Examples 1:
Find the positive real not of x3+ 2x2+5x-220=0 correct to two places of
decimals
Solution
f(x) = x3+ 2x2+5x-220
f1(x) = 3x2+4x+5
f(1) = -ve; f(2)=-ve: f(3)=-ve:f(4)=-ve
f(5) = -vef(6)=+ve
There is a root lies between 5 and 6. Take 5 as the appointment value of the
root.
a=5
f(a)=f(5)=-20
f1(a)=f1(5)=100
The second approximation is
f (a ) ( 2 - 0 )
a1 = a - 1 = 5 - 5 =. 2
f (a ) 1 0 0

f (a ) f( 5 . 2 )
a 2 = a1 - 1 1 = 5 . -2 5 = . 1 9 3 5
f (a1 ) ( f 15 . 2 )

f(5.1935)
a 3 = 5 . 1 -9 13 5 =
5 . 1 9 4 2
f (5.1935)

## Coeff. to two places of decimal, the required root = 5.19

12.3 Let us sum up
So far we have studied how to approximate a root of the given
equation by Newton’s method.
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## (1) Find the first approximation of the roots x3+x2+x-100=0 by

Newton’s Method.
(2) Find the second approximation of the roots of 5x3+10x2-86=0 by
Newton’s method.
12.5. Lesson End Activities
(1) By Newton’s method of approximation, find to two decimal
places, the root of x3+x2+x-100=0 which is approximately equal to 4.
(2) By Newton’s method, find the real root of 5x3+10x2-86=0 correct
to three places of decimal (Ans : 2.059)
(3) By Newton’s method, find the negative root of 4x3+x2+6x+45=0 correct
to three decimal places (-2.096)
12.6 Points for discussion
(4) Find to two places of decimal the positive root of x3-3x-4=0 (Ans 2.20)
(5) Find the positive root of x4-8x2+5x-8=0 correct to two places of
decimals.
12.7. References
A Text Book of Algebra by T.K. Manickavasagam Pillai
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Lesson – 13
HORNER’S METHOD
Contents
13.0. Aims and Objectives
13.1. Horner’s Method
13.2. Examples
13.3 Let us sum up
13.5 Lesson End Activities
13.6. Points for discussion
13.7. References

## We shall study the solving of an equation by Horner’s Method.

13.1 Horner’s Method
We shall consider the method of finding an approximate value of a
real root of the equation f(x)=0 bying between two positive integers when
there is only one root between those integers.
13.2. Examples
Find the positive root of the equation x3+x2-7x-3=0 correct to two
decimal places by Horner’s method.
Step – 1 f(x) = x3+x2-7x-3
f(2) = -ve
f(3) = +ve
There is a positive root bying between 2 and 3
By synthetic division
1 1 -7 -3
x=2 0 2 6 -2

1 3 -1 -5
x=2 0 2 10

1 5 9
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x=2 0 2

1 7

## \ The transformed equations

x3+7x2+9x-5=0
Equation (2) has a not lies between 0 and 1 to find first decimal
multiply the roots of (2) by 10
x3+70x2+900x-500x=0
Hint In Equation (2) Coeff fx x10, Coeff fx2x100, Constant termx1000
x3+70x2+900x-5000=0
f1(x) = x3+70x2+900x-5000
f1(4) = -ve
f1(5) = +ve
\ A root of f1(x)=0 lies between 4 and 5
step 2 Diminish the roots of f1(x)=0 by 4

1 70 900 -5000
x=4 4 296 4784

1 74 1196 -216
x=4 0 4 312

14 78 1508
x=4 0 4

1 82

## \ The transformed equation

x3+82x2+1508x-216=0 ---(3)
There is a root bying between 0 and 1 to find second decimal
Multiply the roots by 10
x3+820x2+150800x-216000=0---(4)
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f2(x) = x3+820x2+150800x-216000
f2(1) = -ve
f2(2) = +ve
The root lies between 1 and 2
\ The required root in 2.41

## 13.3 Let us sum up

So far we have studied the concept of solving an equation using
Horner’s method.
(1) Find a positive root of the equation x3+x2-7x-3=0
(2) Find a positive root of the equation x3-5x-11=0
13.5 Lesson End Activities
(1) Using Horner’s method, find a positive root of the equation x3-3x+1=0
correct to three places of decimals. (Apr 1984, Apr 2003,
Nov2005, Nov 2004)
(Ans : 1.532)
(2) Find the positive root of the equation x3-2x2-3x-4=0 correct to three
places of decimals (Ans 3.284) (Nov 2006
Bharathiar)

(3) Show that the equation x3-6x-13=0 has one real root between 3 and 4 and
find it to two places of decimals. (Ans: 3.18)

(4) Find by Horner’s method the root of the equation x3+x2-2x-1=0 that lies
between 1 and 2 (Apr 2005)
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(5) Find the positive root of the equation x3-2x2-3x-4=0 correct to three
places of decimals using Horner’s method (Apr 2005, Apr 2004, Apr
1983, Nov 2000, Bharathiar)

## 13.6 Points for discussion

(1) Using Horner’s method find the root of x3+9x2-18=0 which his between
1 and 2 correct to two decimal places (Apr 2005, Bharathiar)

(2) Find by Horner’s method, the positive root of the equation x3-4x2+5=0
correct to two significant places of decimals (Nov 2003, Bharathiar)

13.7 References
A Text Book of Algebra by T.K. Manickavasagam Pillai
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Lesson-14
Contents
14.0 Aims and Objectives
14.1 Curvature in Cartesians form
14.2. Radius of Curates in Cartesian
14.3. Examples
14.4 Let us sum up
14.6. Lesson End Activities
14.7. Points for discussion
14.8. References

## Our Aim is to learn the concept of finding the radius of Curvature in

Cartesian Coordinates.
14.1 Curvature in Cartesians form
y

A P
Oy
O x

Let A be a fixed point on the curve y=f(x) let s denote the are along AP
measured from A in the curve y=f(x) where P is a any point on y=f(x) let the
tangent at P make an angle y with the x axis. Then, as P moves along the
curve, s and y vary and the rate of which y increases relative to s is called
the curvature of the curve as r i.e. in symbols dy /ds is called the curvature
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of the curve at r . In other words the curvature is the rate of change of the
direction of the tangent at P. Also curvature of a circle is the reciprocal of its

y

4
O x

## Consider the curve y=f(x)

Let P and Q be two points on this curve. Let the tangents at P and Q make
angles y and y +dy respectively with x axis let the normals at r and Q
intersect C as let A be a fixed point on the curve. Let are AP=s
Arc AQ = &+D& PQ = rs
d s
As Q tends to P, limit of PC is
dy

d s d s
\ P =C \ P C
dy dy

1 d s
\ =
P C y d
d s
P C= is called the radius of curvature at p.
dy

The circle with the centre at C and radius=PC has the same tangent
and the same curvature as the curve y=f(x) has at P.

## 14.2. Radius of Curates in Cartesian

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Consider the curve y=f(x). Let A be a fixed point on it. Let P be any
point on it.
Let the tangent at p make an angle y with the x axis
then dy/dx=tany
differentiating with resper to x
d2 y d y
2
= s e2 yc
d x d x
dy d s
= s e2 y c . .
d s d x
d x
But = c oys
d s
d2 y d y 1
\ 2
= s 2ey c . .
d x d x c oys

dy
= s e3 yc
d s

d s s e3 yc
= 2
dy d y
d 2x
3

rp =
( s e )c
3 2

## where rp = d s, the radius of curvature.

2
d y dy
d 2x
3
( +1 t 2ay n 2)
=
d2 y
d 2x
3
é æ d ùyö2 2

ê1 + ç ú÷
ê è d ûúøx

d2 y
d 2x
d y
2
3
2
y1 =
( + 1y ) d x
\p = 1
where
y2 d2 y
y2 = 2
d x
14.3. Examples
(1) Find the radius of curvature of the curve xy=30 at (3,10)
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## Solution xy=30 ----(1)

diff 10.r.t.x
d y
x +y . =1 0….(2)
d x
d y y
= -
d x x

d öy 1 0
÷ (3,10)= 3
d øx

2 0
=
9
1 0 2 0
y1 = y-
2 , =
3 9

3 æ 1 ö0 03
(1 + y =) 2 2 ç1 + ÷ 2
1 è 9ø
r=
y2 2 0
9
3

=
(1 0 ) 92
x
9
2 7 2 0
3

r=
(1 0 ) 92
6 0

## (2) Find r at the point where x = p 2 to the curve

y = 4 sinx-sin2x
y = 4 sinx-sin2x
put x = p 2

y = 4sin p 2 -sin 2 x p 2

d y
= 4 x 1 -s i pn s ip =n 0
d x

u=4 s pi n= 1
2

\ The point is p 2 , 4 ( )
d y
y1 = =4x c o-s 2 xc o s 2
d x
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d2 y
y2 = = x 4- s i n+ 4x s i n 2
d 2x

(
2 2 )
y1 ) p , 4 =4 cp ox-s 2 c po s 2
2

= 2- ( -1 ) cosB = -1
=2

2( 2 )
y2 ) p , 4 =4 sp -ix n 4+ s pi n 2
2

= -4
\ y1 = 2 y 2 = 4-
3 3

r=
(1 + y )= (1 + =4)
1
2 2 2
-5
3
2

y2 -4 4
3
52
In magnitude r =
4
5
5
=
4
(3) Find the radius of curvature of the curve at x=a cos q , y=b sin q at
æ a bö
ç , ÷
è 2 ø2

If: Step 1
x=a cos q y=b sin q
d x d y
= a- s i qn = b c oq s
d v d v
d y bc oq s
= -
d x as i qn
d2 y d o b
= +b c oe sc 2qu = - c oq s
d 2
x a d x a
b
= - 2 c oe s2qc
a
a
x= a\ c o=q s a\ q = p
2 p 4

b
y= a\ s i=qn a\ q =p
2 p 4
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b b
\ A =t p v =, 1y c - o = qs -. 1= -b
4 a a c

b 3 ùp
3
y2 = e-( c =cqo s - )eb c2 qé o c s
a2 a ë û 4

b 3 b
= -2 x
a
( 2) = 2- 2 2
a
3
é b 2ù 2

ê1 + a 2ú
3

r=
(1 + y =)
1
2 2
ë û
y2 b
- 2´ 2 2
a
3
-a 2 ( a + b )
2 2 2
1
= .
b a 3 2 2
1 3
r= - ( a+2 b2 ) 2

2 2a b

1 3
\ In magnitude r = +( a 2 b2 ) 2

2 2a b

(4) Prove that the radius of curvature at a point (a cos3v, a sin3v) on the
curve x2/3+y2/3=a2/3 is 3 a sinv cosv
Proof x=acos3v, y=asin3v is the parametric equation of the curve
x2/3+y2/3=a2/3.
Solution
x=a cos3v
d x
= 3-ac o 2vs s iv n
d v
y=a sin 3v
d y
= 3as i 2nv c ov s
d v
d y
d y d v
=
d x d x
d v
3as i 2nv c ov s
=
-3ac o 2vs s iv n
d y
= t- av\ n 1 =y0t -a vn
d x
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d2 y d v
2
= -s i 2 nv
d x d x

æ 1ö
= s -i 2 nv ç- 2 ÷
è 3ac o vsø s iv n
1
y2 = v s i3 n
3as i nv c ov s
3 3

p=
(1 + y1=)
1
2 2
t + ( a2 v 2
n )
2
y2 s i nv
3a s i vn
3

=
(s i 2 nv ). 2 3as i nv c ov s
s i 3 nv
p=3a sinv cosv
14.4 Let us sum up
We have studied the concept of finding the radius of curvature
whenever the equation of a curve is given in the form y=f(x) or in a
parametric form i.e. x=f(t); y=p(t).
(1) Find the radius of curvature of y2=4ax at (1,1)
(2) find the radius of curvature of y=ex at (0,1)
14.6. Lesson End Activities
(1) Find the radius of curvatures for the following
Ans
(a) y=ex at (0,1) ; ( 2 2)
l o xg æ2 2ö
(b) y = a t=x 1 çç ÷÷
x è 3 ø
(c) y3=x(x+2y)at(1,-1); (1/2)

æ 1 2aö5
(d) 4ay2=(2a-x)3 at (a,a/2); ç ÷
è 4 ø
(2) Find the radius of curvature for the curve x=a (cost+sint) ; y=a(cost-sint)
(3) Find the radius of curvature of the curve y2=4ax at (at2,2at)
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## 14.7. Points for discussion

(1) Prove that the radius of curvature of the curve x=a(q+sinq); y=a(1-cos q )
is 4acos q /2
(2) Find the radius of curvature of the curve x=f( q ) and y= f (v)

14.8. References
A book of Calculus by T.K. Manickavasagam Pillai
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Lesson-15
RADIUS OF CURVATURE IN POLAR FORM
Contents
15.0 Aims and Objectives
15.2. Example
15.3. Evolutes and Involutes
15.4. Examples
15.5. Pedal Equation
15.6. Examples 1:
15.7. Let us sum up
15.9. Lesson End Activities
15.10. Points for discussion
15.11. References

## Our Aim is to learn the method of finding the radius curvature of a

curve given in polar form, the p-r equation of a curve, evolutes and involutes
of a given curve.

## Radius of curvature in polar forms Bookwork find the radius of

curvature of the curve r=f(q).
Q

rq
Oq q +r q
O A
Let r=f( q ) be the equation of the curve let r be any point on it.
Let OP=r. Let OP make an angle o with the initial line OA.
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## Let the tangent at P make an angle y with the initial line

Let Q be a neighboring point of P. on the curve such that AôQ= q + qD
POQ= Dq ; let Oq =r+ Dr
from figure, 4=q+y = q + f
dy df
= 1 +. . . ( 1 )
dq dq
We have
df
tan f =r
dq
1
= r.
æ d ör
ç ÷
è dq ø
r
t a fn=
d r
dq
differentiating w.r.t. q
d r d r d2 r
. - .r
dq dq dq dq 2
s e22fr
sec = 2
dq æ d ör
ç ÷
è dq ø
2 2
æ d ör d r
ç ÷ - r. 2
2 dq è dq ø dq
ssece fr = 2
dq æ d ör
ç ÷
è dq ø
2 2
æ d ör d r
d4 1 ç ÷ -r 2
è dq ø dq
= . 2
dq s e 2r4 æ d ör
ç ÷
è dq ø
2 2
æ d ör d r
1 ç ÷ -r 2
è dq ø dq
= . 2
1 +t a 2 nf æ d ör
ç ÷
è dq ø
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2 2
æ d ör d r
1 ç ÷ -r 2
è dq ø dq
= 2
. 2
æ ö æ d ör
ç 1 ÷ ç ÷
1+ ç ÷r è dq ø
d
ç ÷
è dq ø
2 2
æ d ör d r
- r
d r çè dq ÷ø dq 2
= 2
dq æ d ör
r2 + ç ÷
è dq ø
using in (1)
2 2
æ d ör d r
ç ÷ -r
d4 è dq ø dq 2
=1 + 2
dq æ d ör 2
ç ÷ +r
è d q ø
2 2
æ d ör
2 d r
r + 2 ç r-÷ 2
d4 è dq ø dq
= 2
dq æd ör
r2 + ç ÷
è dq ø
But we know that
2
d s 2 dæ r ö
= r+ ç ÷
dq dq è ø
d s d s
\p = = (incomplete)
dq dq
2 2
2æ d 2ör é dæ rùö
r + ç x ÷ +rê ç ú÷
è dq ø ëê dèq ûúø
l= 2 2
æ d ör d r
r 2 + 2 ç r-÷ 2
è dq ø dq
3
é 2 æ d ù ör2 2

êr + ç ú ÷
ëê è dqûú ø
l= 2 2
2 æ d ör d r
r + 2 ç . r-÷ 2
è dq ø dq
15.1. Example
(1) Find the radius of curvature of the curve r2=a2 sec22
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Solution
r2=a2 sec22
logr2=loga2+logsec22
2 log r = log a2+log sec 2 2
1 d r1
\ 2 . s =e c 2 . t qa n q2 . 2
r dq s eq c 2
1d r
= t a nq 2
r qd
d r
= r t a nq 2
dq
d2 r d r
2
= 2r s e2+cq2 t aqn 2 .
dq dq

## = 2rs e 2c+ 2q t ar nq2 . t aq n 2

= 2r s e2+cqr2 t a qn 2

d2 r
\r = 2r s e2 +cqr 22 t 2av n 2
dq 2
r4
= 2r 2 . 4( +r2 s e 2 c- q2 1 )
a

2r 6 22æ
4
ö
= 4
+ r 4ç
- 1÷
a aè ø

2r 6 r6 3 2 6r
= 4+ - r =4 r2-
a a4 a
2
æ d ör
r + ç 2r =÷
2 2
+r 2
t a nq2
è dq ø

=r2(1+tan222)
= r2.sec222
q 4 q6
= r 2 . 4= 4
a a
2 3
é æ dù ö r æ r ö r
6 2 9
\ ê r 2 ç+ ú ÷ = ç 4 ÷= 6
êë è dqúû ø aè ø a
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&r & 3r 62
r 2 + 2 & r2 -2 tr2= a r2+n q2r
2- +r
a4
3r 6
= r2 2+ ( 2s r-e cq 22 -1 )r 42+
a

2é r 4 ù r6 3
2
= 2r + r2 ê- 4 1 ú - 4
ëa û a

r6 2 r6 3
= 2r 2 + 2 -r 2 -4
a4 a
r6
= -4
a
r 9 æ r6 ö r9 4
a
\ p = 6 ç- 4 =÷ 6 - .6
a è a ø a r

r3
= -2
a
r 2r
= -2
a
a 2 s e2 qc
= r-
a2
=-4sec22
\ In magnitude, p=rsec22
r = a2
r& = a
&r =&0
3
éë r 2 + &r2ùû 2
p= 2 2
r +r2 & - r & r&
3
éë a 2q 2+aùû 2 2
= 2 2 2
a q + a2 - 0
3 / 2
é a 2 ( + 21qùû )
=ë 2
a ( +22q )

a 3 ( 2+ 1q3 / ) 2
p=
a 2 ( +22q )

a ( + 1q 2 3)/ 2
=
( +2q 2 )
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## 15.2. Evolutes and Involutes

Definition1 : The coordinates of the centre of curvature of the curve
y=f(x) at any point p(x,y) is given by
2
y1 ( + 1y1 )
x= x-
y2

1+ y 2
y = y + 21
y

## Definition2 : The locus of the centre of curvature of a curve is called the

evolute of the curve.
Definition3 : If the evolutes of a curve is itself, then it is called an involute.
15.3. Examples:
(1) Find the evolutes of the curve y2=4ax at (at2, 2at)
Solution
x=at2 ; y=2at
d x d y
= 2a t ; = 2a
d t d t
d y
d y d t 2a
y1 = = =
d x d x 2a t
d t
1
=
t
d2 y d t 1 1
y2 = =2 t - -2 2 = -.
d x d x t a2 t
1
= - 3
2a t
2
y1 ( + 1y1 )
x= x-
y2

1é 1 ù
1+
2 t êë t 2úû
=a -t
1
-
2a 3 t

1 æ t 2 +1 ö
= a 2 t+ 2a3 t xç 2 ÷
tè t ø
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= a 2 +t 2 a2(+ 1t )

= a 2 +t 2 a+2 2a t
x = 3a 2+t 2 a….(1)

step-2
1 + y12
y= y+ 2
y

1
1+
= 2a +t t2
-1 a 3t
2

= 2a -t2 a 3 (t t 2
+ 1)
t2
=2at-2at(1+t2)
=2at-2at-2at3
=-2at3…(2)
Eliminate t between (1) and (2)
from (1) x-2a=3at2
x - 2a 2
=t
3a
3
æ x - 2 aö
\ç ÷= t6
è 3a ø

( x -2 a 3) 6
= t …..(3)
2a 3
from (2) y=-2at3
y
= t-3
2a
2
æ y ö 6
\ç ÷= t
è 2a ø

y2
= t 6 ….(4)
4a 2
from (3) and (4)
( x -2 a 3) y2
=
2 a 3 7 a24
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\ 4(x-2a)3=27ay2
\ The locus of (x,y) is
x 2 y2
Which is the evolute of the ellipse 2 + 2 = 1
a b
Solution: Step-1: Any point on the ellipse
x 2 y2
+ = 1 is (a cos2, b sin2)
a 2 b2

## \ x=acos2 y=b sin2

d x d x
= a- s i qn = b c oq s
dq dq
d y
d y b c oq s
y1 = = dq =
d dx x -a s i qn
dq
b
= - c on s
a
b d q
y2 = + c oq s q2 .
a d x
b
= - 2 c oq s q3
a
step-2
2
y ( + y1
2 )
X= x - 1 1
2
2
-b c oq ét +1b cq où 2 t
a ê a2 ú
= a c oq
-s ë û
-b
c oe s3qc
a2

é a 2 + b2 c ù2o qt
ê a 2 úû
b a 2 ë
=a c qo - s qc ox t .
a b e c oc s3q

## a c qo. t s3 i éq n2 c22 oqù s

=a c oq s- + êa 2 b ú
a2 ë s ûi nq

1 c q o s ésaq2 i 2n b+c2 ùq o 2 s
=a c qo - s s qi n3 ê
a s qi n ë s q i n2 úû
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1
=a c oq -s c o q séë-a 2( 1 2qc+bo 2sùû cq2o s
a
1
X= éë a 2 c oq 2-as c 2 éëqo -as 2 cùû qo+ b2 s ùû c 2qo s
a
ax= a 2 c oq 2-as c 2 qo +as 3 c qo-b2 s c 3qo s
= ( a 2 - b2 ) c 3o qs
a x
2 2
= c o3 qs
a -b
a x
\ c o3 q=
s …………..(1)
a - b2
2

1 + y12
Step 3 Y=y+
y2

é b2 ù 2
ê1 + ac 2 oú tq
= b s i qn+ ë û
b
- 2 c oe s3qc
a

a 2 3 2éb 2
c ùo qs
=b s q
i -n s qi +nê 1 2 úi2 nq
b ëa s û

## a 2 s i3q naé 2 s iq2 bn+2 cù qo2 s

=b s i qn- ê a 2 s i2 únq
b ë û
1
= éëb 2 s iq -n2ùû as i q(n2 + s bi q2n -( 1 2 sq i n ) )
b
1
Y= éëb 2 s iq 2-na s 2iq +nb 2( ùû sq-i2b n s2q i n )
b
bY= b 2 s iq 2-na s 3 qi -bn 2 s qi+2bn s 3qi n
= (b 2 )- as2 i 3 nq
b Y
= s i 3 qn
b - a2
2

-b Y
\ s i 3 qn= ………………(2)
a 2 - b2
Step 4
a x
We have 2 2
= c o3 qs
a -b
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b Y
2 2
= s i 3 qn
a -b
But c o2 q s+ 2s qi = n 1
2 2
\(c 3
oq ) +3s ( sq i=) n
3 3
1
2 2
æ a ö x 3 bæ - Y
3
ö
ç 2 ÷2 + 2ç 2 ÷
= 1
è a - øb a-è bø

2 2
æ a ö x 3 bæ y3 ö
ç 2 ÷ 2 +2ç 2 ÷
= 1
è a - øb a-è bø
2 2
( a ) 3x +
b (3 y) = 1
2 2
(a 2
- b2) 3
a2-( 32
b )
2 2 2 / 3
\( a ) +3x ( b3 )= y ( a-
2
b2 )
\ The locus of (x,y) is
(ax)2/3+(by)2/3=(a2 -b2)2/3
x 2 b2
Which is the evolute of the ethpse + =1
a2 ar
15.4. Pedal Equation
Find the pedal equation of the curve (p-r equation) r=f(v)
proof r

Y r

O A
let the equation of the curve be v=f(v)
let o A be the initial line
let O be the pole
let p be any pt in the curve
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## Join op let op=r Draw AY the tangent at r .

Let f be the angle between the radius vector o r and the tangent at the
point r .
in V o r y
o Y
s i n ( 01- 8f 0= )
or

o Y
s i fn=
r

\ oy=r sin f
\ r =rsin f
1 1
=
r r s fi n

1 1 1
2
= 2 = 2
2
c oe s2fc
r r sf i n r
1 1
2
= 2 (1+ c o es 2.fc.) . ( 1 )
p r

1d r
But tan f =
r qd
1d r
cot=
r d v
using no…(1)
2
1 1 æ æ d öör
= ç1+ ç ÷÷
r 2 r2 çè q dè ÷øø

2
1 1 1 æ d ör
2
= 2 +4 ç ÷ ...(2)
r r rq è d ø
1 d 1r d r
let r = \ = -
u dr u 2rd

\ using in (2)
2
1 1 æ ö dæ rö
2
= u 2 + 4u4 ç ÷ ç ÷
r èqu ø dè ø
2
1 æd ör
2
= u2 +ç ÷
r qè d ø
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15.5 Examples 1:
Find the ρ-r equation of the cardiod r=a(1-cos2)

Solution
r=a(1-cos2)
d r
The p-request ion is = a s i fn
dq
2
1 1 1 æ d ör
2
= 2 +4 ç ÷
r r rq è d ø

1 1 2 2
= + .a s i nq
r 2 r4
r 2 + a2 s 2i nq
=
r4

## 1 ( a12 c- 2o qas +2) s 2qi n

=
r2 4
r
2
a 2 é(1 - c oq2)+s ùs iq n
= ë û
4
r
2
a 2 é(1 -c oq2s)+ s i qùn- 2 cq o s
= ë û
4
r

a 2 [ 2 -2 c oq s]
=
r4
2a 2 r 2 a
= x=
r4 a 3 r
1 2a
\ =
p 2 r3

r3
r2 =
2a

## Which is the required p-r equation of the curve r=a(1-cos2)

(2) Find the ρ-r equation of the
r sin2+a=0
r sin2=-a
r=-a cos2
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d r
= a-[ -c oqs] c oq s
dq

= a cos 2 cot2
we know
2
1 1 1 æ d ör
2
= 2 +4 ç ÷
r r rq è d ø

1 1 2
= 2
+ 4 .a c o 2sq c 2 oq t
r r
1 1 1 2
2
= 2 4
.a+c o 2sq ( -2c qo s 1 )
r r r

1 1 é r 2 - a2ù
= +
r 2 r2 êë a2 úû

1 1 r2 1
= + . -. 1
r 2 r2 a2 2r
1 1
2
=2
r a

\ ρ2=a2
(2) l/r =1+ecos2..(1)
l
\r =
1 + c o qs

=l(1+ecos2)-1
d y
= l éë -1 e( +1 ceùû o -s2 e) s i qn
d x

=+l(1+ecos2)-2esin2
l se i qn
=
1 c oq s2 )
( +
2 2 2 2
æ d ör l e s i nq
ç ÷ = 2
è dq ø (e +1q c o s )

l 2 e2s i2 nq
= , using …(1)
l 2 / r2

= e2r2sin22
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we know
2
1 1 1 æ d ör
2
= 2 +4 ç ÷
r r rq è d ø

1 1 2 2 2
= + .e s r i nq
r 2 r4
1 1 2 2
= + .e s i nq
r 2 r4
1
2 (
= 1+ se 2i nr2 . .2 q. ). . . ( 2 )
r
l
But = 1 +ce o qs
r
l
- 1 =ce o qs
r
2
æl ö 2 2
ç - 1÷ =c e o sq
è r ø

=e2(1-sin22)
2
æl ö 2 2
ç - 1÷ = se -ie n2 q
èr ø
2
2 2 2 æl ö
e s qei = n- ç -1 ÷
èr ø
using in (2)
2
1 1 é æ lù ö
2
= 2 ê+1 e 2 - ç 1ú- ÷
r r êë r è úû ø

1 é 2 æ l2 ù l ö
= ê+1 e 2- ç2 - ú 1÷+
r2 ë r è û 2ø

1 é 2 l2 ù l
= ê 1 + e - +ú2 - 1
r2 ë r2 û r
2
1 1 é 2l 2 ùl
= ê2 + r e -2 úr
p2 r ë û
(3) Prove that for the curve r=f(v),
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d r
r =r
dr

f y

O A

Let OA be the initial line. Let /o be the pole and ρ be any point on it.
let the tangent at ρ make an angle ψ with the initial line on let AOP=0. Draw
ON the tanget at ρ. let ON= ρ
let Oρ =r
Also we know
dq d r
s iy =n r; c o= qs
d s d s
dq
t a yn= r
d r

p=r sin 2
d p d q
= s i qn+ 1r cqo s
d r d r
dq d s
=s q
i + nr cq o s .
d s d r
dq dq
=r +r
d s d s
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d
=r (+
q 4 )
d s
d r dy
=r
d r d s
1 d s d r
=
r yd dr

d s d r
=r
dy d r

d r
\l = r
dr

Note : For some curvest = f(v), sometimes it is not easy to find radius of
d r
curvature, in this case, we should use l = r
dr

## (4) Show that in the cardio

Proof = r= a (1+cos2)
d r
= a ( -s i q n )
dq
d r
= a- s i qn
dq
2
æd ör 2 2
ç ÷ = a s i nq
è dq ø
we know
2
1 1 1 æ d ör
2
= 2 +4 ç ÷
r r rq è d ø

r 2 + a2 s 2i nq
=
r4

## r 2 . ( 21+a c 2oq +sa2 ) s q2i n

=
r4
2
a 2 é(1 + c oq2)+s ùs iq n
= ë û
4
r

a 2 ( 2 +2 c oq s)
=
r4
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a 2 2 ( +1 c qo s )
=
r4

2a 2 2 2a
= x =
r 4 a r3
1 2a
=
p 2 r3

r3
p2 = ...(1)
2a
dr 1 2
2p = . = r 3
d r2 a
dr 1r 32
= .
d r 2 a 2r

3r 2
=
4ar

d r 4 ar
\ =
d r 3r 2

d r 4 ar
r = r2 .
dr 3r

4a r
\r =
3r
1 a62 r 2
2
r =
9r 2

1 a62 r 3
r2 = x , using (1)
9r 2 2a
2a r
r2 =
9
r 2 8a
= = a constant
r 9

## 15.6. Let us sum up

So far we have studied the method of finding the radius of curvature
in polar form, involutes, evolutes and finings the p-r equation of a curve.
2
(1) Show that in the cordiod r=a(1+cos2), l r is a constant
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## (2) Show that the evolutes of the cycloid x=a(2-xsin2), y=a(1-cos) is

another cycloid
15.8. Lesson End Activities
2a
(1) For the polar equation of the parabola, = 1 -c o v s show
, that p2=ar
r
r3
(2) Prove that the p-r equation of the curve r2=a2sin2v is p = Hence show
a2
a2
that l =
3r
(3) Prove that the radius of curvature of the curve rcos2(v/1)=a is 2asec3(v/2)
a2
(4) Show that the radius curvature of the curve r2=a2 cos 2v is
3r
15.9. Points for discussion
(1) Prove that the p-r equation of the curve r=a vcot a is
(2) Find the p-r equation of the curve s2+y2=ax and deduce its radius of
æ 1 1 ö1 r2
curvature ç A n s2 = + ÷ -
è p a2 b2ø a2 2b

(7) For the curve r=asinv, show that the p-r equation is ap=r2
15.10. References
A book of Calculus by T.K. Manickavasagam Pillai
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Lesson-16
TOTAL DIFFERENTIATION
Contents
16.0 Aims and Objectives
16.1. Definition
16.2 Example
16.3 Euler’s Theorem on homogeneous functions
16.4. Examples (1) verify Euler’s theorem for
16.5. Let us sum up
16.7. Lesson End Activities
16.8. Points for discussion
16.9 References

## 16.0 Aims and Objectives

Our aim is to learn the total differentiation of a function with respect
to a veritable using partial derivatives.
16.1. Definition(1) : Let u be a function of namely where x and y are
functions of some other variable ‘t’.
d x ¶u d x¶ u d y
Then = + is called total differentiation.
d t ¶x d t¶ y d t

¶u ¶x
Also d =u d + x d yis called total differential of n.
¶t ¶y

## Definition(2) : Let u be a function of x and y where x are y are functions of t

d x ¶n d x¶ u d y
then = +
d t ¶x d ¶t y d t

we replace t by x
d u ¶u n¶ d y
\ = +
d x ¶x y¶ d x
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Definition 3
Implicit functions
Let the relation between x and y be with form f(x,y)=c where c is a
constant then the total differential coefficient with respect to x is zero.
¶f f¶ d y
\o = +
¶x y¶ d x

f
d y ¶ o x - fx
\ = =
d ¶ f
x f y
o y

16.2 Example
d u
Find if u = xyz where x=e-t ; y=e-tsin2t; z=sint
d t
Solution : u=xy2
¶u
=y z
¶x
¶u
=x z
¶y

¶u
=x y
¶z
x=e-t y=e-tsin2 t
d x -t d y -t
= e- = e x 2 s ti n tc+ o t s2- s e i -n t ( )
d t d t

=e t2 s i tn -c ot s s2 ti n ]
[-
Z=sint
d z
= c ot s
d t
d u ¶u d x¶ u d ¶y u d z
= + +
d t ¶x d t¶ y d ¶t z d t

## = e -2 [ s-t i n3 2t +s i 2 nt c-o t3s s +it n2 s it n c to s ]

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= e -2t [ 3 st i-2 n c t o 3s 2 ts i n ]

é c ot sù
= e -2t s 3 t i ê-n 3 ú 2
ë s i t nû
d u -2t
= e s i tn 3- [ 3t c o t 2 ]
d t
d u
(2) Find if u=x2+y2+a2; x3+y3=a3
d x
solution
d u ¶u u¶ d y
= + .......(1)
d x ¶x y¶ d x

u=x2+y2+a2
¶u ¶u
= 2 x := y2
¶x ¶y

x3+y3=a3
diff. both sides w.r.t.x
d y
3x2+3y2 =0
d x
d y
3y2 = 3-x 2
d x
d y-3 x2
=
d x 3 y2

using in ….(1)
d u æ x- 2 ö
= 2x + 2 y ç 2 ÷
d x èy ø

2x2
= 2x -
y

1
= ( x-2 y 2 2x )
y

2x
= ( y- x)
y

d y
(3) Find if x and y are related as
d x
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y2=4ax
f(x,y)=y2-4ax
¶f
= 4-a
¶x
¶f
= 2y
¶y

d y- f -x 4 a
= = -
d x f y2 y

2a
=
y

d y
(4) Find if ax2+2bxy+by2+2gu+2gy+c=0
d x
Solution
f=ax2+2bxy+by2+2gx+2fy+c
¶f
= 2a +x2 b + 2g g
¶x
¶f
= 2b +x2 b+ 2y f
¶y

¶f
d y ¶x
= -
d x ¶f
¶y
2a +x2 b + 2y g
= -
2b +x2 b +y g

(a +x h )+y g
= -
2h +x2 b+ 2y f

## 16.3 Euler’s Theorem on homogeneous functions

Definition1: Let u be a function of x and y. If u(tx,ty)=t×u(x,y) then u(x,y)
is called a homogeneous function of degree n in x and y.
Eg: u(x,y) = ax2+2hxy+by2
u (t x, ty) = at2x2+2ht2xy+bt2y2
= t2(ax2+2hxy+by2)
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=t2u(x,y)
u (x,y) is a homogeneous function of 2nd degree in x and y
Eule’s theorem on homogenous function
If u be a homogeneous function of nth degree in x and y then
¶u ¶u
x +y n= u
¶x ¶y

## This is called Endle’s theorem on homogeneous functions.

Proof:
Let u(x,y) = aox2+a1xn-1y+a2xn-2y2+a3xn-3 y3+….+anyn
é y y2 ù3 y y n
= x n ê +0 a 1+ a 2 +2a 3 ú+
3
a . +.a . n n
ë x x û x x

é y æy2 ö y3æù ö n
= x n ê 0+ a 1 + a 2ç +2 a÷3
ë x èx ø
+ a ÷ +. a. . n y
3çú
xèû ø ( )
x

u = xnf(y/x)
¶u æ yö
¶x è x ø
( )
= x n1 ( f /y xx) ç - 2 ÷ + f y x n nx-1
x

= y -x ( fy +)n x y f(
n-2 1 n- 1
)
x x

¶u
\x x= yn -1 - f ( y n+) x y f (
1 n
)
¶x x x

=xn-1f1(y/x)
¶n
\y
¶y
=x n -1
y f y
1
( x)
¶u ¶u
\x y+ x
¶x ¶y
= yn -1 ( )
f -y n1n
x ( )
+ x- y1 nf + x1 y f
x x ( )
= n nx (f y/ x)

=nu
16.4. Examples (1) verify Euler’s theorem for
u=x3+y3+z3+3xy2
Solution
¶u
= 3 x 2 + x3 y
¶x
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¶u
= 3 y 2 + z3 x
¶y

¶u
= 3 z 2 + x3 y
¶z
¶u ¶u ¶u
\x +y z + x = y 3 z+3 3x +3 y3 +z3 3 y+ 33 x + 3y z
¶x ¶y ¶z

=3x3+3y3+3z3+9xyz
= 3(x3+y3+z3+3xyz)
= 3u
¶u ¶u ¶u
\x + y + z = x3
¶x ¶y ¶z

## \ Euler’s theorem is verified

x2 +
-1 æ y2ö
(2) If u= sin ç ÷ , show that
è x+ yø

¶u ¶u
x + y = t xa n
¶x ¶y

Solution
æ x 2 + y2ö
given u=sin-1 ç ÷
è x + yø

x 2 + y2
\ sin u =
x+ y

let f = sinx
x 2 + y2
\f=
x+ y

t 2 x2+ t2 2y
f (t x, t =
y)
x+ y

t 2 ( x2 + 2y )
=
x+ y

f (tx,ty)=t2f(x,y)
\ f is a homogeneous function of 2nd degree in x and y.
\ By Euler’s
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¶f ¶f
x + y = 2f
¶x ¶y

¶ ¶
x ( s iy) +n s i( n= )2 s i n
¶x ¶y
¶u ¶u
x c o sy+ c o s= 2 s i n
¶x ¶y

é ¶u ¶ù u
c êox ¶xs +y 2ú¶y =
s i n
ë û
¶u ¶u
c ox s x+
; 2 =
yt a xn
¶x ¶y

## 16.5. Let us sum up

Solve have learnt on finding the total differentiation and Euler’s
Theorem on homogeneous function.
d u
(1) Find if u=xyz ; where x=t, y=t2, z=t3
d t
¶u ¶u ¶u
(2) Find x +y + z if u=x+y+z
¶x ¶y ¶z

## 16.7. Lesson End Activities

Exercise
Verify Euler’s theorem on homogeneous functions
x1 / +4 y1 / 4
1) (a) (b) u=ax2+2hxy+by2
x1 / +3 y1 / 3

x 2 ( x2 - 2 y) 3
(c)u=x3-3x2y+3x2 y+y3 (d) u =
( x 2 + 2y) 3

-1
æ x + yö
2) If u = s ççi n ÷ , prove that
÷
è x + øy
¶u ¶u 1
x + y = tn a n
¶x ¶y 2

-1 æ x 2 + y2ö
3) If u = t aç n ÷ , show that
è x + yø
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¶u ¶u 1
x + y = sn i n
¶x ¶y 2

## 4) If u be a homogeneous function of degree u in x and y, prove that

¶u ¶u ¶ 2u ¶2 2u 2
¶u
x +y n= u hence show that x 2 2
x + 2 y + 2
(y =n 1 n- ) n
¶x ¶y ¶x ¶x ¶y ¶y

æ x3 + y3ö
5) If u=tan-1 ç ÷ , prove that
è x- yø

¶u ¶u 1
x + y = s ni n 2
¶x ¶y 2

d u 2 3
6) Find i f =u 3x 4y 2 zwhere x=t , y=t ; z=4
d t
d u
7) Find i f= su i xn 2y( where
) x=log t; y=et
d t
d u 2 2 2
8) Find i f =u 3x 2ywhere x -xy+y =a
d t
16.8. Points for discussion
d y
9) Find if (a) xy=e2
d x
x 2 y2 x 2 y2
(b) 2 - 2 = 1 (c) 2 - 2 = 1
a b a b
(d) x2+y2=a2 (f) (x+a)2+(y+b)2=r2
(g) x2/3+y2/3 (h) (y-k)2=4a(x-h)
(i) ax2+2hxy+by2=0 (j) (x-h)(y-k)=c2
16.9 References
A book of Calculus by T.K. Manickavasagam Pillai
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Lesson-17
INTEGRATION
Contents
17.0. Aims and Objectives
17.1. Integrals
17.2. Examples
17.3. Let us sum up
17.5. Lesson End Activities
17.6 Points for discussion
17.7. References

## 17.0 Aims and Objectives

In this method different methods of integration are to be learnt
Methods of Integration
f 1 (x d) x
17.1 Integrals of the form ò Method proof f(x) = t
f ( x)

s i dn x
17.2. Examples òc ox s
put cosx = t
\ -sinxdx=dt
sinxdx=-dt
s i xn d x
I =ò
c oxs
-d t

t
=-logt+c
=-logcosx+c
= +log(cosx)-1+c
1
=l o g+ c
c oxs
= log sinx+c
e x - ex-
(2) ò e x + ex- d x
put ex+e-x=t
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(ex-e-x)dx=dt
e x - ex-
l e= ò t x I x- d x
e +e
d t
ò = l o t+g c
t
= log (ex-e-x)
x d x
(3) ò 2
put 1+x2=t
1+ x
2xdx=dt
d t
xdx=
2
x d x
\ I =ò
1 + x2
d /t 2

t

1 -1 / 2 1 t1 / 2
= t =d t +c
2ò 2 1 / 2

= t+ c

= 1 + x2 + c

## 17.2.1. Integrals of the form

( p +x ) q M e t h o d d 2
òa 2
dx = A a+( x +b ) x +c B
x+ b +x c p +x q d x

Important formulas
d y 1
(1) òx 2
= t a-n x1 (+a/ ) c
+ a2 a
d y 1 x æ -a ö
(2) òx 2 2
= l o çg+ ÷ c
+ a 2a + xè aø

d y 1 a æ -x ö
(3) òa 2 2
= l o çg+ ÷ c
+ x 2a + aè xø

x d x
(1) Example òx 2
+ x +1
d
let x = A +( x2 +1 x )+ B
d x
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x=A(2x+1)+B …(1)
compose the coefficient of x
1=2A \ A=1/2
put x= out …(1)
0=A+B \ B=-1/2
\ x=1/2 (2x+1) -1/2
x d x
let I = òx 2
+ x +1
1
( 2x +1 )= 1 / 2
=ò2 2 d x
x + x +1
1 2x + 1 1 d x
= ò 2
- d x òx 2
2 x +1x + 2 + x +1
1 1 d x
= l +o x 2g +x( 1 - ) ò
2 2 1
( x 2 + 2 x + . 1 - ) 1 +1
2 4 4

1 1 d x
= l +o x 2g +x( 1 - ) ò ( x 1+
2 2 2
/ 2+ )3
4
1 1 d x
= l +o x 2g +x( 1 - ) ò 2
2 2 2
( x 1+ / 2+ ) æç 3 ö÷
è 4ø

1 1 1 1 / æ x+2 ö
= l ox 2+g ( 1 +) 1x. t a- -n ç c +÷
2 2 3 3 è/ 2ø
2
1 1 2 æ 1x + ö
= l o x+2g ( 1 + ) 1x t a --n ç c +÷
2 3 è3 ø

3x + 2
(2) ò 3x 2
d x
-4 x + 2
3x + 2
I =ò 2
dx…(1)
3 x -4 x + 2
d
Let 3x+2= A ( x 32 - 4x +2 B
+)
d x
3x+2=A(6x-4)+B
put x = 0
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2=-4A+B …(2)
put x=1
5=2A+B….(3)
solve (2) and (3)
A=1/2; B=4
\ 3x+2=1/2(6x-4)+4
using in (1)
1
( x6+ 4 +) 4
I =ò 2 dx
3 x 2 -4 x + 2
1 6 x -4 d x
= ò 2
+ òd 2 x 4
2 x3 - 4x + 2 x - 3 4x + 2
1 d x
= l o- gx 2 ( +3x 4 +2 ) ò4 2
2 3 ( 4 / 3 x 2- x/ + 3 )

1 4 d x
= l o- gx 2 ( +3x 4 +
2 ) òx
2 3 2
- 2x + x 4 - 4 + 2
2
3 9 9 3
1 4 d x
= l o- gx 2 ( +3x 4 +2 ) ò 2
2 3
( x - 23 ) + 29
1 4 d x
= l o- gx 2 ( +3x 4 +
2 ) ò 2
2 3 2
( x-2 )+ æç 2 ö÷
3 è 3 ø

æ x- 2ö
1 2 4 11
= l o xg- ( 3 4 +2 x) . t +a nç c + 3÷÷
- ç

2 3 2 ç2 ÷
è 3ø
3

æ ö
1 2 4 13 - ç 2x - ÷
= l o g-x ( 3 4+ 2 x) t a+ nç c +÷
2 3 ç 2 ÷
è 3ø

1 3 2 æ x- ö
= l o gx-2( 3 4 2+ ) x12 2 t+a - nç c + ÷
2 è 2ø

x +1
(3) ò 1- x d x
- x2
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d
let x+1 = A ( - x1 - x2 ) + B
d x
x+1 = A(-1-2x)+B
put x=0, 1= -A+B
put x= -½ : ½ = B
\A=-½
\ x+1 = -½ (-1-2x)+ ½
x +1
I =ò dx
1 - x - x2
1
-1 -( 1 - 2x +)
2 2d x
=ò 2
1- x - x

= 1- l o- g x -( x12 +) 1 d x
2 ò
2 1- x - x2

= 1- l o- gx -( x12 +) 1 d x
2 ò
2 1 - ( x - x2 )

= 1- l o- gx -( x12 +) 1 d x
2 2ò æ 1 ö1 1
1 - ç x22 + . x+. ÷ -
è 2 ø4 4

= 1- l o- gx -( x21 +) 1 d x
2 2ò ææ 2
1ö ö 1
1 - ç ç x + ÷ ÷-
çè 2ø ÷ø 4
è

= 1- l o- gx -( x12 +) 1 d x
2 ò 2
2 3 - x +1
4 2 ( )
= 1- l o- gx -( x21 +) 1 d x
2 ò
2 æ 3 ö 2
2
ç 4÷ - x 2+ 1
è ø
( )
é 3 + x ù+1 / 2
1 1
= 1 l -o xg ( - 1 ò ) lx- o gê + 2 c ú +
2
2 2 2 . 3 / ê2 3 - x ú-1 / 2
êë 2 úû

é 3 + x ù+1 / 2
= 1 l -o gx ( -21 ) 1l -xo êg 2+ cú +
2 2 3 ê 3 - x ú-1 / 2
ëê 2 úû

## 17.2.3. Integrals of the form

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x -a
(a) ò in where b > a
b -x

x-2
Example (1) ò d x
5- x

## let x = a cos2v+bsin2v (Method)

Here a = 2, b = 5
x = 2 cos22+5sin22
dx = [2(2cos2sin2)+5(2sin2cos2)]d2
=[-4sin2cos2+10sin2cos2]d2
= 6sin2cos2d2
x-2 = 2cos22+5sin22-2
= 2(cos22-10)+5 sin22
= 2(-sin22)+5sin22
= -2sin22+5sin22
3 s i 2 nq
x-2 =

5-x = 5-(2cos22+5sin22)
= 5-2cos22-5sin22
= 5(1-sin22)-2cos22
= 5cos22-2cos22
5 - 3x =c o 2 sq

x-2
I =ò d x
5- x

3 s i 2 nq
=ò 6 s iqn c qo ds q
3 c o2 qs

s i qn
=ò . 6 s iq n cqo ds q
c oq s

= ò 6 s i2 qnd q

= 3ò2 s i2 q
nd q
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= 3ò ( -1 c o qs 2d q) { \ 1 – cos2q = 2sin2q}

= 3 éë ò cd-
q o ò qs dùû 2 q

é s i ùnq 2
= 3 êq - ú + c
ë 2û

é 2 s iqnù c q
os
= 3 êq - ú + c
ë 2û

=3[2-sin2cos2]+c
But x-2 = 3sin22
x-2
= s i 2 nq
3

x-2
sinv =
3

x-2
2= sin-1 =
3

5- x
Also cos2 = =
3
using in (1)
é x-2 x-ù2 5-x
I = 3 ês i -1n - cú +
ë 3 3û 3

é x-2 1 ù
= 3 ê s -1-i n -( 2ú x )- ( x 5 + ) c
ë 3 3 û

## (b) Integrals of the form ò (x -a

) x b-( d ) x

Method As in (a)
problem ò ( x -2 x) -( d5 )x

I= ò ( x -2 x) -( d5 )x

## = ò 3 s i2 nq 3 c2 qo s 6qs i nqc o dsq

= 1 8ò s i2 qn c qo ds q

1 8
= 4 s i2 qn c2 qo sd q
4 ò
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9 2
= ò ( s i qn c oq )s dq
2
9 2
= ò ( s i qn) dq
2
9
= ò s i 2 nq2d q
2
1 -c o sa2
9 1 -c o sq4 \ s i na=2
= ò dq 2
2 2
Hea
r e= 2q
9
= (1- c o sq 4) d q

=
4 ëò
d-q òcq odùû s 4q
9 é s i nù q4
= q - ú + c
4 êë 4 û

9 é s i n ù2x q2
= q - + c
4 êë 4 úû

9 é2 s i n 2 xcù o sq 2
= q - + c
4 êë 4 úû

9 é2 2 sx i n 2xù c o sq2
= q - úû + c
4 êë 4

9
= [q s i-qn c oqs c +oqs 2] . c. . . ( 1 )
4

x-2 -
5x
But sin2= c oq s=
3 3

cos22=2cos22-1
é 5 - xù
= 2 ê -ú1
ë 3 û
1
= [1- 0 x-2 ]3
3
1
= [ 7- 2x ]
3
using in (1)
9é -1 2 x - 2 x- 3 ù-x 1æ ö
I= ês -i x n -ú 7 ç c ÷(2+ )
4ë 3 3 3 û 3è ø
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9 é -12 x - 1 ù
I= ês -ix n 2- x( ( 3-ú ) x (- 7 2c+ )
4ë 3 9 û
(c) Integrals of the form
d x
ò ( x - a) b-x( )

Method as in (a)
problem
d x
I= ò
(x -
2 ) -x( 5 )

x-2=3sin2v
5-x=3cos2v
dx=6sinvcosvdv
d x
I= ò
(x -
2 ) -x( 5 )

6 s i vn cv ods v

( 3 s iv 2n ) ( 23v c o s )

6 s i vn cv o ds v

3 s i vn c ov s

= 2ò d v

=2v+c
\ 3 s = vi n x-2 2
æ x - 2ö
-1
= 2 s i nçç + ÷÷ c x-2
è 3ø s i nv 2=
3

x-2
s i vn=
3
17.2.4. Integrals of the form
1
ò (a c d x
ov +
s bs i v+n c

2t
Method put sinx=
1+ t2
1- t2
cosx =
1+ t2
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where t = tan(x2)
d x
Problem (1) ò 1 +s i xn+ c ox s
2 t ax n ( / 2t ) 2
put sinx = =
1 +t a n 2x ( +/ 2 t) 1 2

1 -t a nx ( /- 2 t) 1 2
cos x= =
1 +t a 2n x( /+ 22 )t 1

t= tan (x/2)
et=sec2(x/2) ½ dx
2d t
d =x 2
s e cx( / 2 )

2d t
=
1+ t2
2d t
d =x
1+ t2
d x
Let I = ò 1 +s i n+2 c ox s
2d t
=ò 1+ t2
2
2t 1 -t
1+ +
1 + t 2 1 + 2t
d x

2t +2 t + 21 -t
2

d t

2t + 2
d t

t+2
= log (t+1)+c
= log [tan(x/2)+1]+c

d x
(2) ò 5 +4 c o -xs 3 s xi n
d x
I =ò
5 +4 c o -xs 3 s xi n
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2d t
=ò 1+ t2
4 x ( - 1t 2 ) x 3 t2
5+ +
1 + t 2 1 + 2t
d t
= 2ò
5 (+ t1 +) t4 2 -( f 1 -) t
2

d t
= 2ò
5 + 5+t 4+t 2 -4 f - t
2

d t
= 2ò 2
t -f t+9

d t
= 2ò
(t -3 2 )

é ( t - 3)ù-1
= 2ê +ú c
êë -1 úû

é 1 ù
= 2 ê- ú + c
ë t - 3û

é 1 ù
= 2ê - ú + c
ë t a nx ( /û -2 ) 3
17.3. Let us sum up
We have studied different types of evaluation of integrals.

(1)
(e x
+ ex- ).d x (2)
d x
ò x
e +e x- òx 2
- x +1
d x d x
(3) ò 2x 2
(4) ò 1- x
- x1+ -2 x2
17.5. Lesson End Activities
Integrate the following
ex d x
(1) ò e2 x + 1 (tan-1(e x)+c)

s i n ( l xo g )
(2) ò d x (-cos(logx)+c)
x
d x æ 1ö
(3) ò x( l ox gx ) ç- ÷ n -1
è (n1- ) ( lxø o g )
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5 - 4x 1 é2 + x1ù-
(4) ò 1 + 2x - xx d x A : 2 ln o+ g ( s1 2- 2 )x l o+êg x ú+ c
2 2 ë2 (- x1û- )

3x + 1 ìï 1 üï é2 + x1ù-
í 3 4 l o xg +( 2 3 +) x l ý o
2
(5) ò 2 x 2 + x3- d x êg+ c ú+
îï 2 þï2 ë2 (- x1û- )

## 17.6 Points for discussion

x+4 ìï 1 7 2 2 üï é 3+ x ù-
(6) ò 6 x - 7 -x 2
d x í- l o xg- ( 6 7- ) x lý o +êg c ú+
ïî 2 2 ïþ 2 ë 2 - x û+3

d x ìï 1 2 t é a n x( /üï + 2ù ) - 1 3
(7) ò 1 -3 c o+xs 2 s xi n í l o êg ý ú +c
ïî 2 3 2 ët a n x( ïþ/ +û2 )- 1 3

d x ìï 1 é 3 ( t a xnüï ( ù/) +2 ) 2 2
(8) ò 1 +3 c o+xs 4 s xi n í l o êg ý ú +c
ïî 2 3 6 3ëê 1 (t -a n ïþx( ûú+
/ )2 ) 2 2

17.7. References
A book of Integral Calculus by T.K. Manickavasagam Pillai
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Lesson – 18
INTEGRATION BY PARTS
Contents
18.0 Aims and Objectives
18.1. Integration by parts
18.2. Examples
18.3. Let us sum up
18.5. Lesson end Activities
18.6. Points for discussion
18.7. References

## 18.0 Aims and Objectives

Our Aim is to evaluate a given integral by parts method
18.1. Integration by parts
d d u
We know that (u )v= v
d x d x
\ d(uv) = udv+vdu
\ ò d ( u =v) ò u d+ u ò v d u

\ u v=òu v- vò d u

\ ò u d= v u-ò v v d u

18.2. Examples
(1) ò x s xi n d2 x
u=x; dx=sin2xdx
dv=dx ò d =v òsxi nd 2 x
c o sx 2
v= -
2

I = xò sx i nd 2 x

=uv- ò v d u
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-x c o s-
x 2 æc o x sö 2
= - ò çè2 ÷ d x
2 ø
- x c o xs 2 1
= - c o sx 2d x
2 2 ò
- x c o s x2 1 æs ix n ö2
= - ç +÷ c
2 2 è 2 ø
- x c o xs 2 1
= - ( s +i nx 2 )c
2 2

(2) ò t a 2 nx d x

u=x ; dv=tan2xdx
du=dx òd =v òt xa 2 nd x

v= ò ( s 2ix n- d1 )x

v = òx ( sdi2 n-x ò d x

v = tanx – x
I = xò tx a 2 dn x

=uv- ò v d u

= x( tx- a xn -)xò ( xt -a dn )x

## = x( xt -ax n x)- òxt ad-n x òx d x

2
I = (x t a- nx ) l -ox g s xe+ c x
2

(3) ò l o xg d x
u=logx ; dv=dx
d u 1
= òd =v òd x
d x x
1
d =u d x
x

I = òx l od g x

=uv- ò v d u
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=xlogx- ò x d x
I=xlogx-x2/2+c
(4) ò x 2 t xa1- nd x

u=tan-1x dv=x2dx
1
d =u d2 x òd v òx 2 d x
=
1+ x
v=x3/3
I = òx 2
tx a1- dn x

=uv- ò v d u

x3 x3 1
= t a -1nx ò d 2 x
3 3 1 +x

x3 1x3
= t a--1 xn . ò. d . . 2 .x . ( 1 )
3 3 1 +x
But x2+1)x3 (x
x3 + 1
-1
x3 1
\ = x2-
x3 + 1 x +1
using in (1)
x3 1 æ 1 ö
I= lx o- g x ò ç- d 2 ÷ x
3 3 è x1 +ø

x3 d1 é x ù
= l o-
xg x ê ò d- x ò ú2
3 3ë 1xû +

x3 1 2
= l ox- géê x t-x a ùún-1+c
3 3 ë 2 û

x3 x2 1
I= l x-o g xt+ a n-1+c
3 6 3
l o xg
(5) ò( d x
+1x 2 )
1
u = l xo gd= ; v d 2 x
( +1x )
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1 d x
d =x d x òd =v ò(
x +1x 2 )

v = -(1+x)-1
1
= -
1+ x
l o xg
I =ò d x
( x +1 2 )

= u v- òv d u

1 1 æ 1ö
= - l o-xg ò ç- d ÷ x
x +1 x +è1 x ø
1 1
= - l o+x g ò . d . . x. ( 1 )
( x + 1) x ( + x1 )
1
To find ò x( d x
x+1 )

## By partial fraction method

1 A B
Let = + ...(3)
x( +x 1 x )+ x 1

1 ( A 1 +x ) B+ x
=
x( +1x ) x +
( x1 )

1=A(x+1)+Bx ……..(2)
Put x=-1 ; B=-1
Put x=0 ; 1=A
\ A =1 B= : -1

using in (3)
1 1 1
= -
x( +x 1 x )+ x 1
1 1 1
ò x( òd =x dò x d x
+ x 1 x )+ x 1

= logx-log(x+1)+c
x ö
= log æç ÷ +c
è x + 1ø
using in (1)
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1 æ x ö
I= l x+
o g l o çg+c ÷
(x + 1 x)+ è 1 ø

## (6) ò e x ( x+1 d2) x

u=(x+1)2
dv=exdx du=2(x+1)dx

òd v òe x d x
=

v=ex
I = eò x( + x1 2d) x

= u v- òv d u

= ( x 1+e2 ) x -2ò e (x x+ 1 d ) x

I = (x 1 +)e2 1x (e-1òx x) .+ .d . .x . ( 1 )

To find ò e x ( x+1 d ) x
u=x+1 dv=exdx
dv=dx òd v òe x d x
=

v=ex
\ ò e x (x+ d1 x)=uò v v d u

= ( x 1+ e )x -e ò x d x

= (x+1)ex-ex
using in (1)
I = ( x 1+ e) x -2 xéë( 2x+ e1) -xùû e + c

## 18.3. Let us sum up

We have studied so far how to evaluate the integral whenever the
integral is of the form ò u d v
(7) ò x s xi 2 nd x
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1 -c o s x2
Hint. uv s i 2 nx =
2
Take u=x; dv=sin2xdx
(8) ò x c xo2 sd x
Take u=x; dv=cos2xdx
(9) ò x s xi 3 nd x
Use: sin3x = 3sinx-4sin3 x
4sin3x = 3sinx-sin3x
sin3x = ¾ sinx-1/4 sin3x
(10) ò x c xo3 sd x
use : cos3x = 4cos3x – 3cosx
4cos3x = cos3x+3cosx
\ cos3x = ¼ cos3x+3/4 cosx
18.5. Lesson end Activities
Integrate the following
(1) (log x)2 [x(log x)2 – 2log x+2]
x s i -1nx é x - 1 -x s 2 ùi 1x-n
(2)
1- x 2 ë û
1
x 3 s i1-xn é1 ù
(3) ò 2
d x êë a úû
0 1- x

ex
(4) Prove that ò e x [ f (x +f) 1x x( d=) x ]e (f x)and hence integrate (1+xlog x)
x

é x ù1
(5) xax ax ê - ú 2
ë l o ag ( lûao g )

## 18.6. Points for discussion

ea x
(1) Evaluate ò e a bxc ox sd x [ a c bo xs+ sb i bn ]x
a 2 + b2

é ea x ù
(2) ò ea bxs ix n d x ê a 2 + b2 [ a s bi únx- cb o b s ]s
ë û
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18.7. References
A book of Integral Calculus by T.K. Manickavasagam Pillai
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Lesson – 19
REDUCTION FORMULAS

Contents
19.0. Aims and Objectives
19.1. Reduction Formula
19.2. Examples
19.3. Let us sum up
19.5. Lesson end activities
19.6. Points for discussion
19.7. References

## 19.0 Aims and Objectives

We are going to study about the evaluation of integrals

## òs in xn d, ònxc ox dsa ,xò ce xob s x ,aòds xi exn b, ò sxm id n x cn x o x s d xusing integration by

parts.
19.1. Reduction Formula
19.2. Examples
Find a reduction formula for ò ea xx nd x

In= ò ea xx nd x
Integrate by paris
u=xn dv=eaxdx
dx = nxn-1dx òd =v òe a dx x

ea x
v=
a

In = uv - ò v d u

x n a e x ae x n -1
== - ò n. x d x
a a
x n ae x
un = - n / a Un -1
a
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## The ultimate integral is U0

a x ea x
U 0 = òe =d x+ c
a
Find a reduction formula for
n
òx ca ox s d x

Prove let In = ò x n ca ox s d ….
x (1)

In regret by parts
u=xn; dv=cosaxdx

òd =v òac ox sd x
n-1
dv=nx dx ; s i an x
v=
a
(1) because
In=uv- ò v d u

x n s ai nx s ai n x n -1
= - ò n x d x
a a

x n s ai nx n n -1
= - x as ix n d x
a a ò

## we shall find ò x n -1as ix nd xagain by parts.

u=xn-1 ; dv =sinaxdx
dv=(n-1)xn-2dx | òd =
v òas ix n d x

- c oa s x
v=
a
n -1
òx as xi nd x ò=u v- v d u

- c oa sn --x1 ( c a o xns-2 )
= x- òn -x ( d1 ) x
a a
-c a o nx-+1 s n 1n -2
= +x x - a ò x c do s x
a a
c a o x s n -1
= - x n -+1 I n-2
a a
using this in (2)
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x s n i a nxé - nc ao n --x1 sù n 1
I = n - ê x + I
aúû
n-2
a aë a

## 1) The ultimate integrals is I when is odd.

I1 =x ò ac xo sd x

Integrate by parts
u=x dv = cosaxdx
du=dx òd =v òac ox sd x

s i an x
v =
a

I1 =uv- ò v d u
x s ai n x s ia n x
= - ò d x
a a
x s ai xn 1
= - s i an x d x
a a ò
x s ia n x1 æ c-a o ösx
= - 2ç +÷ c
a a è a ø

## When n is even, the ultimate integral is I0

s i an x
I 0 = òac o xs= d +x c
a

## (3) Obtain a reduction formula for

n
òx sa i xn d x

Proof un = ò x n sa i xn d x
Integrate by parts
u=xn ; dv = sinaxdx
dv = nxn-1dx

òd =
v òas ix n d x

- c oa s x
v=
a
In =uv- ò v d u
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- x n c a o x-s æc o ö s n -1
= - ò2çè ÷ø n x d x
2

- x cn o as x n n -1
= + x ac ox sd x…..(1)
a a ò

## To find ò x n -1 cosaxdx by parts

u=xn-1 ; dv = cosaxdx
dx = (n-1)xn-2 dx ; òd =v òac ox sd x

s i an x
v=
a
n -1
òx ac xo ds x ò=u v- v d u

x n -1 sa i nx s ai n x
= - ò - (n 1 x )n -d2 x
a a

x n -1 sa ix nn- 1 n - 2
= - ò x as ix nd x
a a
x n s a i xn (n-1 )
= - I n-2
a a
using in (1)
- x n c a ox n ns é x--s1 ai x n ù n 1
In = + nI -
a êë aúû
-2
a a

- x n c a o x sn -n-1 ( n 1 n )
= + 2
x s- ia n2 x I n-2
a a a
i) when n is even, the ultimate integral is I0
- c oa s x
\ I0 òas= i nx =d x+ c
a
(ii) when n is odd, the ultimate integral is I1
\ I1 =x ò as xi nd x

u=x ; dv=sinaxdx
du = dx ; ò d =v òas ix n d x
- c oa s x
v=
a
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I1 =u v -vò d u

- x c ox s 1
= + c oa sx d x
a a ò
- x c o x s 1 aæs i nxö
= + ç +÷ c
a a è a ø

- x c ox s 1
= + s +
i an x c
a a 2

## (4) Obtain a reduction formula for òs i n nx d x

Let In = ò s i n nx d x

= ò s i n -n1 xs xi nd x

Integrate by parts
u=sinn-1x ; du=sinxdx
du=(n-1)sinn-2 xcosxdx ; ò d =v òsx i dn x
v=-cosx
Let un = xò s idn n x

= u v- òv d u

= c o-x s sn -ix+
1
n (ò n1- 2n -) sx i n2 dc o s x

## = c ox- s xns-1 in+ n x(n -2-

1sò ) i s -ni2 nx ( d1 )x

## = c ox- s xns-1 i+n n x( -12-òs ) nis -

i n2 n x( -1 d )ò n(x -1 n) sx i dn x

un = xc -o xs nn+-s1 ni -
n u( 1-n- 2 )n (- 1u )

un + ( n 1- ) u cn= o x s- sx n -i+1 n nn (- 1u ) - 2

un ( +1 n 1 -) xc = o sxn- sn -1i+nn (- u1 ) - 2
-1
o sx ns+
un = xc - n i nn -( u
1 )- 2

1 11 n-
un = xc -o s sxnn -i+ n . u. . . - 2. . ( 1 )
n a
i) When n is even, the ultimate integral is U0
U0 = ò d =x x+ c
ii) When u is odd, the ultimate integral is U1
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U1 = òxs =id n x-
c o x +s c

p
2
5) Find a reduction formula for ò
0
s i nnnxxdx
d x

Proof :

-1 -1 p n
Un = xc o -s ns i nn 1+x]0 2 U -2
n a
n -1
Un = Un -2 \ the first term vanishes at both the limits
n
n -1 n - 3 n - 5
= . . . U. 1. .if n is odd
n n- 2 n- 4
p p
U1 = òx 2 s =di n0 x-
c ox s=2 ) 1
0

n -1 n - 3 n - 5
\U n = . . . . 1 if n is odd
n n- 2 n- 4
If n is even
n -1 n - 3 n - 5
Un = U . . . .0 .
n n- 2 n- 4
p p
\U 0 =dò 2
x0= x) 2= p
0 2
n -1 n - 3 n - 5
\ If n is even, U n = . . . .p. . .
n n- 2 n- 4 2

## (6) Find a reduction formula for ò c on xs d x

Proof : Let Un = ò c on xs d x

= ò c on -s1 c ox sd x
Integrate by parts
u=cosn-1x; dv=cosxdx
du=-(n-1)cosn-2xsinxdx; ò d =v ò c o x s d x
v = sinx
Un=Uv- ò v d u

## = s i xn +c nx-o1 s nò(- 1 n2-)x c ox s2 s di n x

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## = s ix n +ncx-1 o ns -( nx-1ò )2 d-c o x s -(òn 21 )x c od s x

= s ix +n nxc-1 o- n s ( -
U1n - 2 ) n-( n1U )

1 ) -2

## n n =Us i xn+ cn x-1 no s-n ( 1U ) - 2

s ix n nx-c1 o n s- 1
Un = + Un -2 ....(1)
n n
If n is odd, the ultimate integral is U1
U1 = xò c od= s xs i +xn c

## If n is even, the ultimate integral is U0

U0 = ò d =v x+c
p
2
(7) Find a reduction formula for ò c on xs d x
0

## Proof : (Hint : Write upto (1) from Book work (6))

p
c on -s x(ù 2 1-n ) 1
Un = s i n x + n ú U -2
n û0 n

n -1
= U n-2 \ the integral vanishes at both the limits
n
n -1 n - 3 n - 5
= . 1. if n is odd
.U
n n- 2 n- 4
p p
U1 = òx 2 c =od s0 x(+ s xi =n2 ) 1
0

\ when n is odd
n -1 n - 3 n - 5
Un = ....1
n n- 2 n- 4
When n is even, the ultimate integral is U0
p
U 0 = dò 2
x p
=
0 2
n -1 n - 3 n - 5 p
\U n = . . . .
n n- 2 n- 4 2

## Examples for Book works 5 and 7

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p
2 8 7 5 3 1p
(1) ò s ix dn=x . . . .
0 8 6 4 2 2
p
2 5 4 2 8
(2) ò s i x nd =x. . =1
0 5 3 1 5
p
2 8 7 5 3 1p
(3) ò s ix dn=x . . . .
0 8 6 4 2 2
p
2 5 4 2 8
(4) ò s i x nd =x. . =1
0 5 3 1 5
Book work
(8) Find a reduction formula for

òs i mn cx oxn s d x

## Proof Umn = ò s i mnx c nxo sd x

= ò s i m nx cn xo -1s xc od s x
Integrate by parts.
u = cosn-1x
du = -(n-1)cosn-2xsinxdx

òd =v òs ni mn xc od s x

Put sinx = t
cosxdx = dt
t m +1 ms+1xi n
\ v tò= md t= =
m +1 m +1

Um,n = uv- ò v d u

n -1 s im +1 nx s m +i1 xn
=c o x s + ( n 1 ò ) nx--2 c ox s sd i nx
m +1 m +1

n -1s m +i1 x n n- 1
=c o x s+ sxm+2 i nxò cn-2 do s x
m +1 m +1

s m +i1 xm n2n--1 n
n -1
= c o xs +s i x n c òxo s 2 ( d s i nx )
m +1 m +1

s m +i1 x n n- 1
= c no-1 xs s +im x n 2 c- òoxn s- ( 2 1d c o xs )
m +1 m +1
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m +1
s i x n n- 1
=c n -1
o xs s xm+ i nd-2cò [n ox -s xsm ò i xn n
c do sx ]
m +1 m +1
m +1
s i x n n- 1
U m, = c non -x1s , + U 2n ém U, -
- ùû
m +1 m +1 ë
m n

s m +1 xi -nn -1 n - 1
U m, = c x n -1 on U+ s mm, ,- n2 n U
m +1 m+ 1 n+1

n -1 sx i - mn+n1 1
U m, + n U , =m c on -x1s n , + m U 2 n -
m +1 m +1 m +1

n -1 sx i - mnn+1 1
U m , = c onn-x1s , + m U 2 n -
m +1 m +1 m +1

U m, =
1
x n. c on, -1 s+ xsmm+i1 n
(Un - 1)
2 n -
m+ n + m 1
If n is odd, the ultimate integral is Um,1
If n is even, the ultimate integral is Um,0
Book work 9 obtain a reduction formula for
p
2
ò s i mnx c nxo sd x
0

p
2
Proof Um,n = ò s i mnx c nxo sd x
0

## From Book work No:8, write upto the result (1)

1 1 p n-
U m, = x nc on -,1s s+mx+i1mn ]0 2 Un
2 -
m+ n +
m n
n -1
= U m, n- 2 ; the first term vanishes at both the limits
m+ n
similarly
n-3
U m, - =n 2 Um ,- n4
m + n -2
n-5
U m, - =n 6 Um ,- n6
m + n -3
n-7
U m, - =n 6 Um ,- n8
m + n -6
n -1 n - 3 n - 5
U m, = xn , Um 1 . . . . when
m + n +m -n 2 m
+ n4-
p
n is odd U m, 1=xò0 m2 s xi n dc o sx
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## put sin x=t when x=0, t=0

cos xdx = dt x = p 2 t=1
1
1
m t m +1 ù 1
= ò t d= t =ú
0 m + 1û 0 m + 1

\ when n is odd,
n -1 n-3 n-5 1
U m , n= x x x. . . . . .
m + n m + n -2 m + n -4 m +1
when n is even, the ultimate integral is Um,0
p
U m , 0=xò 2 sdi mn x
0

m -1 m - 3 m - 5
= x x x . . . .is1m is odd
m m-2 m-4
m -1 m - 3 m - 5
= x x x . . p. . is m is even
m m-2 m-4 2

## Book work No :10

Find a reduction formula for òt a n nx d x

U n = xò t adn n x

= ò t an -n2 xt a2x nd x

= ò t an -n2 x(- s2 x e cd 1 )x

## Put tan x=t

Sec2 xdx = dt in first term

U n = dò t n - 2tn- U -2

t n -1
= - U n-2
n -1
If n is odd, the ultimate integral is U1

## If n is even, the ultimate integralis U0

U 0 =dò =
x x+ c
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## Book work No :11

Find a reduction formula for ò c on xt d x

U n = xò c odn t x

= ò c on - 2t xc 2xo td x

= ò c on - 2 tx (-c2 xo sd )1 x

## Put cotx = t in first integral

-cos2xdx = dt
cos2xdx = -dt
n-2
U n =t ò d- n t -U -2

-t n -1
= - U n-2
n -1
1
= - c on -1t-x Un - 2
n -1
If n is odd, the ultimate integral is U1
U1 = xò c do t x

= log sinx+c
If n is even, the ultimate integral is U0
U1 =dò =x x+ c

## Book work No :12

find a reduction formula for ò s en cx d x

Un = ò s en cx d x

= ò s en -c2 xs 2xe cd x

Integral by parts
U = secn-2x
dx = (n-2)sec n-3 x sec x tan x dx
= (n-2)sec n-2 x sec x tan x dx
dv = sec2xdx
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òd =v òsx e2 dc x

v = tanx
\U n =u v v- ò d u

= s en -c2 xt -a xn tò ax -nn- 2 (n 2 )x s ex c t da n x

## = s en - 2c-x t a xn -(2n -n2 ) ò xs e 2 cx t( ad n )x

= s en - 2cx t - a x n 2n(- n2-ò) xs 2e nc(- s ed c )1x

## (n -1 )vn s = ex n -c2 +tx an nn- ( 2U ) -2

1 2 n-
Un = x s en -c2+ xt n a n U -2
n -1 n -1
When n is off, the ultimate integral is U1
U1 = òxs e cd=l o gx (+s xe c tx+a n c)

## when n is even, the ultimate integral is U0

U 0 =dò =
x x+ c

Book work 13
Obtain a reduction formula for ò c oe scn x d x

proof U n =e ò cc o xsn d x

= ò c oe snc- 2 cx eo 2cs x d x

Integral by parts

u= c oe sn -c2 n

## du=-(x-2) cosecn-3x cosecxcotxd x

=-(x-2)cosecn-2x cot x dx
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dv=cosec2xdx

òd v òec oc sx2 d x
=

v=-cotx

\ un u= v -vò d u

=-cotxcosecx-2x- ò ( x 2- e) cc o nxs- 2 cx 2o dt x

=-cotxcosecn-2x-(x-2) ò c oe nsc- 2 (x c e2 o c s -x 1 d ) x

## =-cotxcosecx-2x-(x-2) éë ò c oe xcs xò c-d xoùûx es c -2x d x

=-cotxcosecx-2x-(x-2)(ux-ux-2)

=-cotxcosecx-2x-(x-2)ux+(x-2)ux-2
-2
\ un (+n 2 u-) cnn =o et -cc on+nn s (n- 2 u) - 2

(x-1)ux=-cotxcosecx-2x+(x-2)ux-2

1 ( 2 x -)
ux= - c o xt c+oe sx - 2 c x u x-2
x -1 x -1

\ u0 =dò x= x+ c

## If x is odd, the ultimate integral is u1

u1= ò c oe sc x d x

=-log(cosecx+cotx)+c

## 19.3 Let us sum up

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## integrals ò c on xs ò,d sn xi xn òmsd i xn xnc ox sd x

p p
2 2
(1) Evaluate ò s i 6 nx d x (2) ò c o7 xs d x
0 0

p p
2 2
(3) ò s i 6 nx c 4xo sd x (4) ò s i 3 nx c 2xo sd x
0 0

## 19.5 Lesson end activities

d x
1. If ux = ò x
, show that
(x 2
+ 1)

x
2x.ux+1= x
+ ( 2 x- 1)u x
(x 2
+ 1)

a x
2 x 2a
2. If ux= ò0 ( a 2 -x 2 )d ,x prove that ux= ux - 1
2x + 1

1 m

ò (1 - x ) d
2
Hence obtain a reduction formula for 0
xwhere m is a

positive integer

1 x
3. If ux= ò-1 (1 - x 2 ) d, x prove that

2x
ux= u x -1
2x + 1

## 19.6 Points for discussion

4. If um,n= ò c om sx . x c do sxshow
, that

c om sx s i xn m
um,n= + um -1 x,- 1
m+ x m + x

p
5. If um,x= ò0 2 c om xs xc no d s x prove
, that
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m
um,x= um -1 x,- 1
m+ x

p
Hence deduce unx=
2n +1

19.7. References

## A book of Integral Calculus by T.K. Manickavasagam Pillai

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Lesson – 20

## Double and Triple Integrals

Contents
20.0. Aims and Objectives
20.1. Double Integrals
20.2. Examples
20.3. Triple Integrals
20.4. Examples
20.5. Let us sum up
20.7. Lesson end activities
20.8. Points for Discussion
20.9. References

## 20.0 Aims and Objectives

We shall study in this lesson how to evaluate double and triple integrals.

òs ix xn d, òxxc xo dsa ,xò ce xob s x ,aòds xi enn b, ò sxm id n x cxx o x s d xusing integration by

parts.

## When a function f(x) is integrated with respect to n between the limits

b
a and b, we have the definite integral òa f ( x ) d .x If the integral is a function
x and y
i.e., f(x,y) and if it is integrated between the limits a and b for x and c and y

## for y, we get a double integral and is denoted by the symbol

y = dx = b

ò
y= c =
x a
òf (x ,y )d x d y

y=c x=a

## Evaluation of Double integrals

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y = dx = b

To evaluate ò
y= c =
x a
òf (x ,y )d x d , ywe first integrate f(x,y) with respect

## to x partially (treating y, a constant), between a and b. After this inner

integration and substituting the limits for x, we get the integrand a function

of y. If we integrate this integrand, w.r.t. y between the limits y=c and y=d,
d b

## we get the double integral ò f ò(x y, d) n d evaluated.

y The following is the
c a

## illustration of a double integral to be evaluated.

d b
ò c a òf (x y, d ) x d y

20.2 Examples :
2 1

1. ò 4xò y d x d y
0 ¶

2 1

I= ò 4xò y d x d y
0 ¶

2
é1 ù
=4 ò ê xò dú x d y
¶ ë¶ û

2 1
é n2 ù
=4 ò ê ú d y
¶ ë
2 û¶

=2 ò d y
0

=2(y)02=2(2-0) = 4

p s iqn

2. ò rò d rq d
0 0
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p
é s qi n ù
= ò ê òr úd rqd
¶ ë q û

p s i -1nq
é r2 ù
=òê ú dq
¶ ë
2 û0

p
1 1é -c o 2ùqs
= òê dq
2 ¶ ë 2 úû

p p
1é ù
= ê ò dq - òcq odú s 2q
4 ë¶ 0 û

p
1 é s i n ù q2
= êq )p¶ - æç ú ö÷
4 ëê è2 ûú ø ¶

1 1
= éêp - (ùú 0 )
4ë 2 û

=p 4

z = f y= dx = b

z = e y= c =x a

## The following is the evaluation chart for a triple integral.

z= f
y= d b
ò ò ò f (x y, d ) x d y
z= e
y= c =
x a

20.4 Examples
1 2 3

1. ò òx yòz d x d y d z
0 0 0
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1 2 3

I= ò òx yòz d x d y d z
0 0 0

1 2
æ 3 ö 2
=ò ç ò x dò÷ x y d y d z
¶ ¶è ¶ ø

1 2 3
= ò ( xò2y2 )z d y d z
0
0 0

1 2
9 æ ö
= ò ç yò d÷ y z d z
2 ¶è¶ ø

1 2
9 æ y2 ö
= òç ÷ z d z
2 0 è 2 ø0

1
z2 9 9
=9 ò z d =z9 ( =10) ( - 1 0 = )

2 2 2

a b c

2. ò ò( x +òy z +)d z d y d x
0 0 0

a b
æ c ö
=ò ç ò ( x ò+y z +)÷d z d y d x
0 0è 0 ø

a b c

=ò é x +z y +ùz2 2d y d x
ëò û 2
0 0 0

a b

= ò ( xò c+ y +c) c2 2d y d x
0 0

a b
é y2 ù
= ò ê x c+ y +cú c2 2 y d x
0 ë
2 û 0

a
é b2 cù 2c b
= ò êx +b c+ú d x
0 ë
2 û 2
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a
é x2 b 2 c ù 2c b
=ê b + c +
ú x2 x
ë2 2 û 0

a 2 b c 2a b c2 a c b
= + +
2 2 2

a b c
= ( a + b + c)
2

## So far we have learnt an evaluation of double and triple Integrals.

1 1

1. Evaluate ò x òy d y d x
0 0

1 1 1
2. Evaluate ò ò x òt z d z d y d x
0 0 0

## 20.7 Lesson end activities Ans:

b a
dxdy
1. Evaluate ò xò logalogb
1 1
y

p p
2 2
2. Evaluate ò sò i(q n+ )4d
q d y 2
0 0

1 z y+ z
1
3. Evaluate ò ò d òz d y d x
0 0 0 2

a a2 - x2
2 2 2 p a3
4. Prove that ò ò a -x y d- x d= y
0 0
6

1 -1n 1- n - y
1
5. Prove that ò ò xò y z d x d y =d z7
0 0 0
2 0
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l o gn 2x +l o y g
x+ y + z 8 1 9
6. Show that ò ò eò d z d y d =x l o -g 2
0 0 0
3 9

## 20.8 Points for Discussion

7. Evaluate ò x òy d x dover
y the region in the positive Quadrant by the line

## 8. Evaluate ò ò( x òy+y z )+z x d x d, y d where

z v is the region bonded by x=0,

20.9 References

## A book of Integral Calculus by T.K. Manickavasagam Pillai

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Lesson – 21

## AREAS AND VOLUMES

Contents
21.0. Aims and Objectives
21.1. Applications to Calculations of areas and volumes
21.2. Examples
21.3. Areas in Polar Coordinates
21.4. Examples
21.5. Let us sum up
21.7. Lesson end activities
21.8. Points for discussion
21.9. References

volumes.

## 21.1 Applications to Calculations of areas and volumes

21.2 Examples

1. Evaluate ò x òy d x d where
y R is the region bounded by the R line x+2y=2

## Proof : The equation of the line is x+2y=2

x y
\ + =1
2 1
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B C

x y
+ =1
2 1

p(x0,y) Q(x,y)

A
O x

## R is the region as show here.

The limits of the variables of integration are not given. \ we can choose

## (x1,y), since PQ is ||l to x axis (y=a constant)

x varies from x0 to x1

\ x1+2y=2

x1=2-2y

## To find the limits for y :

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We have to find the variation of the line PQ. So that the region R

is fully covered. To sweep the entire area of R, PQ has to start from the

position where y=0, more parallel to itself and should go up to the position

BC where y=1.

\ y=0 to y=1

1 2 - 2y

I= ò òx y d x d y
0 0

1 2 - 2y
æ x2 ö
= ò y ç d÷ y
0 è 2 ø0

1
1
= ò y ( -2y 2d2 ) y
20

=2 ò y ( -y1 d2) y
0

=2 ò y ( 2y+1 y-2 d ) y
0

=2 ò ( y 3 +y2 -2y )d y
0

é1 1 1
ù
=2 ê ò y3 d +yò y 2-dú yò y 2 d y
ë0 0 û
0

1
é y 4 y2 ù 3y
=2 ê + -ú2
ë4 2 û 3 0

1
=
6

x 2 y2
2. Find the area of the ellipse + = 1 by double integration.
a 2 b2

Solution :
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## Area of the Ellipse = 4 x area of the quadrant of the ellipse

=4 x ò d òx d y
x2
b 1-
a a2
=4 ò òd y d x
x =0 y =0

a x2
b 1-
a2
=4 ò [ y ]0 d x
x =0

a
a 2 - 22
=4b ò d x
0
a2

a
4b
= ò a 2 -x 2 d x
a 0

a
4b ì 2a x 2
öx üï a - x
2
= ïí s i -1næç +
÷ ý 2
a îï 2 a è ø þïa 0

4b p a2
= =pa b
a 4
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3. Find the volume of the tetra hedron bounded by the coordinate planes

x y z
and + + =1
a b c

Solution :

Volume = ò òd xò d y d z
x y z
Evaluation of the plane is + + =1
a b c

\ x=0 to x=a

x y
Put z=0 + =1
a b

y=ab|| - x/a

## To find the limits for z

z x 2y
=1 - -
c a b

x y
z= c(1- - )
a b

x öy
z=0 to z=c æç1 - -÷
è a øb

x c 1- x - y
a b 1- a( a b ) ( )
v= ò ò ò dzdydx
n =0 y=0 z =0

x
a b 1- a( )
(d
c 1- x - y )
= ò
x =0 y =0
ò ( z) a b
y d z
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x
a b 1- a ( )
y
=c ò
x =0 0
ò éêë1 - x a - ùúû b 0
dydx

æ xö
a b ç1- ÷
é x ù y 2 è aø
=c ò êb æç1 - yö÷ ú- b2d x
0 ë è
aø û 0

a 2
1b 2
=c ò b (1 - x a )(-1 d x a)- 1 (x-ax ] )
0
2b
a 2
é 1bù 2 2
(
=c ò êb 1 - x a -d1 úx -a
0 ë
) 2bû
( x )
a
b c 2
=
2 ò0
1 -
a(
x d x )
3 a
é x ù
b êc 1 - aú
= ê
( )
2 1- /aú
êë úû 0

a
a b éc x ù 3
=
6 êë
1- ú
aû ( ) 0

a b c
=- {-0 1}
6

a b c
=
6

## Then area = ò r òd o dwith

r suitable limits for r and q

21.4 Examples

## Proof: Area= ò r òqd d r

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r=2acos2

## =2 x upper area of the diagram shown

p a (1+c oq s)

=2. ò ò r d rq d
0 0

ìq = 0tq o= p ü
í ý
îr =t0 o(= r1 aþ+
c o qs )

p a ( 1+ c oq s
é r2 ù
=2 ò ê ú .dq
0 ë
2 û0

p
a2
=2 ò ( +1 c oq s2 d)q
0
2

p
2

=a 2
ò (2
0
c o2 q s / ) 2qd

## =4a2. ò c o4 (sq 2 )dq

0

q = Q \q =
Q2
Put 2
dq =d2 Q

q = 0 ÞQ 0=

q = p Þ Q =p
2
p
2
2
òc o4 Q
s . d2 Q
\ Area = 4a
0

p
2
2
=8a òc o4 Q
s d Q
0

3 1p
=8a2x . . d.3
4 2 2
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3p 2
Area = a
2

2. Find the area of the circle by double integration, using polar coordinates.

Solution :

## Area = 2 x upper area

q = 0tq o= p
2

r=0 to 2a c oq s
p
2 2 ac oq s
=2 ò ò r d rq d
0 0

p 2 ac oq s
2 2
ér ù
=2 ò ê ú dq
0 ë 2 û0

p
2
=4a2 ò c o2 qsd q
0

1 p
2.
=4a x 2 2
= p a2

## 1. Prove that the area of the curve r2=a2 c o2 qs by double integration is a2

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## 21.8 Points for discussion

4p a 3
1. Find the volume of the sphere of radius a by triple integral (Ans. )
3

21.9. References

## A book of Integral Calculus by T.K. Manickavasagam Pillai

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UNIT 5

Lesson – 22

IMPROPER INTEGRALS

Contents

## 22.0 Aims and Objectives

22.1 Notion of Improper integrals
22.2 Beta Gamma Integrals
22.3 Properties of Beta function
22.4 Let us sum up
22.6 Lesson end Activities
22.7 Points for discussion
22.8 References

b

a

## (i). first kind (ii). Second kind (iii). Third kind

(i) first kind of either a ® + o¥ r ®b + ¥or both, then the case is called an

## unbounded at one or more points of the integral of integration.

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(iii) third kind : An improper integral is of third kind if it is of first kind and

second kind.

¥

0

1

0

¥

## Proof : (n)= ò e- x x -x 1d x(by definition)

0

¥
-x
\ ( x +1 e )=òx dx x
0

Integrate by parts

u=xx; dv=e-xdx

du=nxn-1dx ò d =v òe - x d x

v=e-n
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\ ( x +1u )=v v- ò d x
¥
¥
n -n ]0 + ò-e. n x- x 1d x
=-n e 0

=0+x ò e- x x -x 1d Q
x the first term vanishes at both the limits
0

=x.(x)

\ (x+1)=x(x)

## Proof : We have (x+0=x (x)

=x(x+1) (x-1)

=x(x-1)(x-2) (x-2)

=x(x-1)(x-2)----3.2.1 (1)
¥

But (1)= ò e- x d x
0

=-e-x )¥0 =( 0- 1- ) = 1

\ (x+1)=x(x-1)(x-2)----3.2.1

(x+1)=x1.

1

## Proof : B(m, n) = ò x m -1 (x -1x -1d ) x

0

a a

By using : ò f ( x d )=
òx f ( a- x) d x
0 0
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1
x -1
\ B(m, n)= ò ( -1x m)--1 [x1 +1 d ] x
0

= ò ( - 1x m-)1x x -(1d ) x
0

= ò x x -1 ( x-m1-1d) x
0

=B(n, m)
¥
y m -1
2. Prove that B(m, n)= ò m+ n
d y
0
( +1 y )

## Proof : B(m, n)= ò n m-1 (n -n1-1d ) n , ……… (1) for m, n > 0

0

y
Put n= in …(1)
1+ y

(1 + y. ) d-1 y y
\d = n
( +1y 2)

y
\ 1-n=1-
1+ y

1
= d y
( +1y 2)

1+ y - y
=
1+ y

1
= when n=o, y=0, n=1, y= ¥
1+ y

Using in (1)

¥ m -1 n -1
æ y ö æ 1 ö 1
B(m, n) = ò ç ÷ ç ÷ 2
d y

1 + yø 1 +è y | ø (1 + y )
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¥
y m -1
=ò d y
0
( +1y m)+ n-2 +2

¥
y m -1
=ò d y
0
( +1y m)+ n

3. Prove that
p
2
B(m, n)=2 ò s i2 mn- 1qc n2o- qs1 dq
0

Proof : By definition
1

0

Put x= s i 2 nq

## dn=2x 2 s iqn cqo ds q

\ when x=0 q =0

s 2i q n= 1
x=1,
q =p
2

\ q =0 to q = p 2

p m -1
2
n -1
\ B(m,n)= ò ( s i2 qn) 1 (s2q-i n 2q) s i nq c o qsd
0

p
2
n -1
=2 ò s i2 mn- q2c( o2 qs s) qi n cq o sdq
0

p
2
=2 ò s i2 m-n2 qc+1 no2- qs2 + 1 dq
0

p
2
B(m,n)=2 ò s i2 mn- 1qc n2o- qs1 dq
0
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p
2
\ If Im,n= ò s i mnq c n oq sd q ,
0

1 m1+ n ö+1
then Im,n= B æç , ÷
2 è 2 2ø

## 4. Recurrence relation between Beta and Gamma functions:

( m )( n)
Prove that B(m,n)=
( m + n)
¥

## Proof : (m)= ò e - n nm- 1d n

0

Put x=t2

dx=2tdt

¥ m -1
-n 2
\ (m)= 2ò e ( t )t d t
0

¥
2
=2 ò e-t t2-m 2 +d 1 t
0

\ (m)=2 ò e- n 2x m2- d1 x
0

¥
2
Similarly (n) = 2 ò e- y y 2-n d1 y
0

é¥ 2 ù-m 2
ép 2 ù
\ (m)(n)=4 ê ò e- n x 2 úd
1 -y 2
ò xêê e yn- 1 úd y
ë0 û0 ú
ë û

¥ ¥

2 2
- x +y

0 0

## Put x=r r c oqy s =, rs q i n

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Then x2+y2=r2

q = 0t po=; r 0t¥ o
2

q = p =r ¥
2

2n- 1
q =p
2 r= ¥
-r 2 2 m -1
\ (m) (n) =4 ò
q = 0 r= 0
òe ( r c oqr ) s rs( qi d n ) r q d

p

2
=4 ò e-òr 2r -m1c r2 o-m 1 sqr 2-ns 1 di nq-2 n 1r qd
0 0

p
é ¥ -r2 2
ù+m( ) é-n 1 2 2 m- 1 ù
2n-
= ê 2ò e 2 cúr oò ê ds s r iq ún q1d q
ë 0 û 0 ê ú
ë û

= (m+n) B(m,n)

(m) (n )
\ B(m,n)=
(m + )n

¥
2
Note : 1. (n)=2 2ò e- r n 2n-. d1 n
0

p
2. (n) (1-n)=
s i nnp

## So far we have studied Beta, Gamma integrals and their properties.

1. Find b (7,8)
2. (x)=____________________

## 4. If n is a positive integer, (x+1)=___________

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## 1. Prove that (1/2) = p

p
2
2. Evaluate ò s i qnd q
0

3. If x>0, prove that (n+1)=n (n) Deduce the value of (n+1), n is a positive

integer
p
2
4. Find ò t a qnd q
0

## 22.7 Points for discussion

5. Define b (m,n)

1

0

1
5 3
òx ( x- 11 d)0 x
0

22.8 References

## A book of Integral Calculus by T.K. Manickavasagam Pillai

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Lesson-23

Contents

## 23.0. Aims and Objectives

23.1 Convergence of Improper Integrals
23.2. Simple Examples
23.3. Let us sum up
23.5. Lesson End Activities
23.6. Points for discussion
23.7. References
23.0. Aim and Objectives

## We will learn on finding the convergence of Improper Integral

23.1 Convergence of Improper Integrals
Definition 1: The interval whose length or range is infinite is called an
infinite interval.

Example :The intervals (a,¥), (-a,b) and (-a,¥) are Infinite intervals
b
Definition: Proper integral. The definite integral òa
f ( x )d is
x called a proper

## integral if the range of integration is finite and f(x) is bounded.

p
2
For example, ò0
s i xn d ax proper integral

b
Improper Integral : The definite integral ò
a
f ( x )d xis called an improper

integral if (1) the interval (a,b) is not finite or (2) the interval is finite but f(x)
is not bounded or (3) neither the interval (a,b) is finite nor f(x) is bounded.
There are two kinds of improper integrates (viz) of first kind and
second kind.
First Kind: When the range of integration is infinite and f(x) is bounded.
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¥ d x
Eg : ò is an improper integral.
0 1 + x2
b
Second kind: A definite integral òa
f ( x )d in
x which the range of integration

is finite but the integrate f(x) is unbounded at one or more points of the
interval a £ x £ b.
4 d x
For example ò is an improper integral of second kind.
1 (x -
2 ) x -( 3 )
1 1
(ii) ò is an improper integral of second kind.
0 x2
Convergence of Improper integrals
b
The integral ò
a
f ( x )d isx said to Converge to the value I, if for any arbibarily

chose possible number Î, however small but not zero these exists a
b
corresponding positive number |N such that | òa
f ( x )d |<Î
x for all values of

b³ N
Similarly we define the convergence of an integral, when the lower
limit is infinite or when the integral becomes in finite at the upper or lower
limit.
In other words, when the limit of an improper integral as defined is a
definite finite number, we say that the given integral is convergent. When
the limit is a or -a, we say that the integral is called divergent is the value of
the integral does not exist.
In case the limit is neither a definite number use a o r -a then the
integral is called oscillatory and therefore in this case the value of the
integral doesnot exist. the integral is not convergent.
23.2. Simple Examples
¥ d x
1) Evaluate ò
1
x
¥ d x
I= ò
1
x
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¥ 1
= ò x 2d x
1

x 1
ò x 2d x
=l i m
x® ¥ 1

x
x x
1
2 ù
=l i m
ò ú
x® ¥ 1 1 ú
2 û1

= l i m x2 1x( )
x® ¥

=l i m
- x2 ( =1 )a
x® ¥

## \ The limit does not exist finitely

The integral is divergent
¥ d x
(2) Evaluate ò
3 ( x -2 2)
¥ d x x
Solution ò = l i m-x ( 2d-2) x
2 3 òx ® ¥
3 ( x -2 )
x
æ 1 ö
= -x®l i¥m
ç ÷
è x - 2ø 3

1
= - l æçi -m ö÷ 1
x® ¥ x - 2
è ø
=-(-1)=1=0 finite number
\The given integral is convergent.
¥ 4a d x
(3) Test the convergence of ò
0 x + 4a2
2

Solution
¥ 4a d x 4 ax d x
ò =l i m
0 x + 4 a20 ò x ® +x¥2 4
2 2
a
x
1
= 4al i m t a -1n x
x ® ¥2 a
ù
2a û 0 ( )
x
= 2 l i m t a-1 n x
x® ¥
( 2a )ùû 0

ì -1 æ x üö
= 2í t aç- ýn÷ 0
î è 2aþø

= 2p = p
2
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## \ The given integral is convergent

¥ d x
(4) Show that ò is not convergent
0 ( +1x 2 )/ 3

Solution
we have
¥ d x dx x
ò =/ l i3 m 2 / 3
2 0 ò
0 ( + x1 ) x ® +x(¥ 1 )
¥
= l i òm+x( 1d-2)/ 3 x
x® ¥ 0

x
= l i m+x3 ( 11 /)ùû3
x® ¥ 0

x
= 3 l i +xm ( 11 /)ùû3
x® ¥ 0

= 3 l i+xm ( 1-1/ 3 ) ùû 1
x® ¥

=a

## \ The given integral is not convergent.

23.3. Let us sum up
We have studied on how the convergence of Improper Integrals are
known.
a x d x
(1) Discuss the convergence of ò1 1 + x2
1

¥ 2
(2) Evaulate ò e- x d x
0

## 23.5. Lesson End Activities

b d x
(1) Show that the Improper Integrals ò converges if n<1
a ( x - a) x
1 d x
(2) Examine the convergence of ò 0 x ( +x21 )
2

¥ s i 2 nx
(3) Show that the integral ò d xis convergent.
p x2
23.6. Points for discussion
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¥ d x
(4) Show that the integral òp
x 1 +x 2
¥ s i 2 nx
(5) Test the convergence of ò d x
p x2
¥ d x
(6) Test the convergence of ò p
x3 + 1
¥ d x
(7) Test the convergence of ò 2
2 x 2 - 1x -
23.7. References
A book of Integral Calculus by Vasiswha and Sharma
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Lesson – 24
APPROXIMATE INTEGRATION

Contents
24.0. Aims and Objectives
24.1. Simpson’s rule:
24.2. Examples
24.3. Let us sum up
24.5. Lesson End Activities
24.6. Points for Discussion
24.7. References

## 24.0 Aims and Objectives

We shall study to find out the area of curve y=f(x) between x=a and
x=b by using (1) simpson’s rule (2) Trapezoidal rule

Approximate Integration
We know that the area between the curve y=f(x), the x axis and the
b
ordinates x=a, x=b is given by òa
f ( x )d .xThis method will fail when the

## equating of the curve is not available or the integral is not integrable.

The simplest method of approximating to the area would be: (a)
Simpson’s rule (b) Trapezoidal rule.
24.1. Simpson’s rule:
b
To evaluate òa
f ( x )d x

Divide the interval [a,b] into n equal parts let the length of each sub-interval
be h. Let y1,y2,y3,….y2n+1 be the values of the function to be integrated at
2n+1 equitant points applying the parabolic rule to the white area
b 1
ò f ( )x =( d) [ 2+1 x ( n+
.2+h . 1.+y . 3.y+ .- 5n .y +. 2 y. +) 1 y4 +(2ny . 4.+y . 2.y . ] )
a 3
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## (a) Simpson’s one-third rule or parabolic rule

Solution p y
M Q

x1 A O B x
We shall first find the area ABQP let AO=OB=h
Through any three points, a parable can pass through, having its axis
parallel to of axis.
Let the centum of such parabola passing through P,M and Q be
y=a+bx+cx2
Taking the are ABQP to be approximately given by the area enclosed by this
h
parabola, the x axis and the ordinates AP, BQ, aera ABQP = ò
-h
y d x

h
é b 2xù c3 x
= ê a +x +
ë 2 úû 3 - h

æ b 2 öh c 3 h æ b2 h 3cö h
= ç a + h ÷+ a - çh + -÷
è 2 ø 3 è 2 3ø

b 2 h c 3 h b2 h 3c h
=a + h + a + h - +
2 3 2 3

æ c ö 3h
= 2 ç a +h ÷
è 3ø

2
= h [3+a cch22h]]
3
Let y1,y2,y3, be the lengths of the ordinates at A,O,B respectively
y1 = a-bh+ch2; y2=a; y3 = a+bh+ch2
\ a = y2
\ y1 = y2-bh+ch2
y3 = y2+bh+ch2
\ y1+y3 = 2(y2+ch2)
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y1 + 3y
= y 2 +c 2 h
2
y1 + 3y
\ c2 h= 2- y
2
2
\ Area ABQP = h( +a 3c 2h)
3

2 é 1 ù
= h 3+ 2y ( -
1y úû2y + y)
3 êë 2
2 3

h
= [ 6+y2 y1-2 y2 + 3y ]
3
h
= [ y1+ 4y2 + 3y ]
3

## This approximation is called one third rule or parabolic rule

(c) Trapezoidal rule
b
To evaluate ò a
y d x
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y
pn-1 Q
p1 p2
p

A x1 x2 xn-1 B x

## Erect the ordinates at A, x1,x2,x3,…..xn-1 B.

Join the chords pp1,p1p2, p2p3, ….. pn-1 Q
Take the sum of the areas of the trapezium Ax1p1p, x1x2, p2p1,……xn-1BQpn-1
as the value of the area.
Area of the trape Ax1p1p=1/2h(y1+y2)etc
b
\ Area of ABQP = òa y d x

1
= h [+( 1 y) + ( y2 )+ y. 2 + . y . +3 y. n+. 1 yn( + ])
2
1
= h [ (+ 1 )y +n21+ y ( 2+ .y 3.+n y. +
. y. ])
2
24.2. Examples
4 d x
Evaluate ò taking 6 equal intervals. Hence find log2 to 5 decimal
1 x
places. (a) by Trapezoidal rule (b) by simpsm’s rule
Solution
Step 1
f(x) = 1/x
a=1, b=4
b - a 4- 1 3
h= = = = 1
n 6 6 2

## x 1 1.5 2 2.5 3 3.5 4

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## y1=1, y2=0.66666; y3=0.5, y4=0.4, y5=0.33333; y6=0.28571; y7=0.25

(a) By Trape zooidal rule
4 1 1
ò d = x [+h( 1 y+ 7) y +2 y 23+y 4 +
y( 5 y+ 6) y ]
1 x 2
1
= x0 . 5[ (+1 . 2 5 ) 2 ( 2 . 1 8 5] 7 )
2
log4=1.358925
log22=1.358925
\ 2 log2 = 1.358925
\ log2 = 0.6794625
(b) Using simpsm’s rule
4 1 1
ò d =x [ (+h 1 )y+7 2y +
3 y( 5 + y) 2 +
y4 4 y +( 6 y ) ]
1 x 3
1
= [ ( 1 . 2 +5 ) 2 ( 0 . 8 +3 3 3 3 ) 4 ( 1 . 3 5 2 3] 7 )
6
1
= [ ( 1 . 2+ 5 ) 1 . 6 6+ 6 6 6 5 . 4 0 9]4 8
6
log4 = 1.38769
log22 = 1.38769
2 log2 = 1.38769
log2=0.693845
24.3. Let us sum up
We have seen how to find area of a curve y=f(x) between specified
limits using simpson’s rule and Trapezoidal rule.
p
(1) Evaluate ò x simpson’s rule for x=0, p
s i xn d by , 2p , . . .p. . .
0 1 0 1 0
(Nov 2000)
1 1
(2) Evaluate ò 1 + xd
0
xusing Trapezoidal rule with h=0.125 (Ap 2003)
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¥ x d x
(3) Compute ò by simpson’s rule taking eight intervals
0 1 + x2
(Bharathiar Ap 2006, Ap 2005)
24.5. Lesson End Activities
4 1 2
(1) Evaluate ò d ,xTaking 4 equal intervals, using simpsm’s rule.
1 x
(Ans : 16.70)
1 1
(2) Evaluate ò x3 d ,xtaking 10 equal intervals using trapezoidal rule
1

(Ans : 3690)
24.6. Points for Discussion
1 d x
(1) Applying simpson’s rule to find ò 1+ x
0
, correct to three places of

## decimals, taking h=0.25. (Ap 2003)

p
(2) Using Trapezoidal rule, find ò0
s i xn d , xtaking 10 equal parts. (Ap

2000).
¥ x d x
(3) Complete ò by Simpson’s rule taking eight intervals
0 1 + x2
(Bharathiar Ap 2006, Ap 2005)
24.7 References
A book of Integral Calculus by Vasiswha and Sharma
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Lesson – 25
CHANGE OF ORDER OF INTEGRATION
Contents
25.0 Aims and Objectives
25.1. Change of order of integration in double Integral
25.2. Examples – 1.
25.3. Let us sum up
25.5. Lesson End Activities
25.6. Points for discussion
25.7. Improper Integral
25.8. References

## 25.0 Aims and Objectives

In this lesson we shall study the evaluation of double integral using
change of order of integration.
25.1. Change of order of integration in double Integral
When the limits for inner integration are functions of a variable, the
change in order of integration will result in changes in the limit of
b J
integration i.e. the double integral òa J òg ( x , y) dxdy will take the form

d f2( y )
ò ò g (x y, d) y d x
c f 1( x )

## When the order of integration is changed.

This process of converting a given double integral into an equivalent
double integral is called change of order or integration.
Working Rule : (1) The region of integration is identified first
(2) a rough sketch of the region is drawn
(3) New limits are fixed
(4) Then integral is evaluated.
25.2. Examples – 1.
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a a x
Change the order of integration ò òx 2
dxdy and then evaluate
0 y
+ y2

the same.
Solution : The region of integration is
y £ x £ a and 0 £ y £ a

y
y=x
x=0

M x=a
(x,y)

x
o N (x,0) y=0
Let R denote the region bounded by the lives x=y, x=a, y=0, y=a.
x
\ I =òd òxy + yd x
2 2
R

## By treating x as a constant, i.e. we shall draw a line parallel to y axis in the

region R of integration.
a y2 x x
\ I =ò d ò y d x
0 y =0
x 2 + y2
a y= x
= ò x él + y o x g+ 2ù y( 2 )d x
0 ë û y =0

a
= ò x é l+ xo gx+ (2 y )2ù -lx o dg x
0 ë û

a é ( x + 2ùx )
= ò x êl o gd ú x
0
ë xû
a
= ò x l o+ gd ( 1 2x )
0

a
=l o +
g ( 1 2ò )x d x
0

a
g ( 1 2 x)
=l o + ( 2) 2

0
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a2
= l o+ g ( 1 2 )
2

2 2
a a+ a - y
2. Change the order of integration in ò ò nxydxdy
y d n d and
y then evaluate the
0 a - a 2- y2

same
Solution :
We shall fix the region of integration R as x = a ± a2 - y2

i.e. x - 1 =a ± 2 y- 2

(x-a)2=a2-y2
\ (x-a)2+(y2)=a2

y

M(x,y)
R (x-a)2+y2=a2
o N C(x,o) x

## Keeping x as a Constant, draw a line MN to y axis M(x, 2a -x 2x): x=0 to 2a

y=0 to y= 2a -x 2x
After changing the order of integration
I =x ò y dò y d x
R

2a a2 x - x2
=ò ò xydydx
x =0 y =0

2a- x
2a æ 2 ö
= ò xç y ÷
x =0
è 2ø 0

1 2a
= ò x(-a 2x x2 )d x
2 0
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1 2a
= ò ( -a 22x x3 ) d x
2 0

2a
1 é x3 xù4
= 2 a -
2 êë 3 úû 4 0

4 2a
1 é a2 1 aù 6
= ê 8-a 3 ú4
2ë 3 û 0

1 41æ 6 ö
= a ç - 4÷
2 è3 ø
2 4
= a
3
25.3. Let us sum up
We have studied so far the evaluation of double integral using
changing order of integration.
a 2a - x
(1) Change the order of integration in the integral ò 0 x2 ò x y d x dand
y
a

## evaluate it. (Ap 2003) (Ap 2005)

a a
(2) Change the order of integration and evaluate ò (òx 2 +
y 2d) y d x
0 x

(Ap 2003)
¥ ¥ e- y
(3) By changing the order of integration evaluate ò 0 x òy d y d x
Ap 2005
25.5. Lesson End Activities
Change of order of integrals and convergence of Improper Integrals.
(1) Change the order of integration
1 1 xdxdy
ò and then evaluate the same
0 x xò
2
+ y2

(Ans : ½ log 2)
(2) Change the order of integration
b ab ( -y )
b æ a2 b2ö
ò ò x y d x dand
y evaluate ç ÷
o 0
è 2 4ø
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## (3) Change the order of integration and evaluate.

2 2
ò (òx 2 +
y 2d) y d x (Ans 16/3)
o 0

## 25.6. Points for discussion

(4) Change of the order of integration and evaluate
1 y ydxdy
ò òx
2
(Ans : ½ log 2)
0 y2 + y2

Exercise : Convergence of
25.7. Improper Integral
a d x
(1) Show that ò is convergent
1 x3 / 2
a d x
(2) Show that ò is divergent
1 x3 / 2
¥
(3) Show that ò e - md n x( m>0 )
0

¥
(4) Test the Convergence of ò e 2 k d x(divergent)
0

## (5) Test convergence of the following

¥ 0
(a) ò ex d x (b) ò e- x d x
-a -a

0 0
(c) ò
-a
s i nxh d x (d) ò -a
c oh sx d x

(e) ò e- x d x (f) ò
-a -a 1 + x 2

a d x
(g) ò 2
-a x + 2x + 2
(c) Divergent (d) divergent
(e) divergent (f) convergent
(g) convergent

25.8. References
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## A book of Integral Calculus by Vasiswha and Sharma

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Lesson – 26
JACOBIANS
Contents
26.0. Aims and Objectives
26.1. JACOBIANS
26.2. Three variables
26.3. Change of variable in case of Two variables
26.4. Three variables
26.5. Examples Two variables
26.6. Let us sum up
26.7 Lesson End Activities
26.8. Points for discussion
26.9. References

## 26.0. Aims and Objectives

Our aim is to determine Jacobians using partial derivatives and the
concept of a determinant.
26.1. JACOBIANS
Two Variables
If u=f(x,y), v=(x,y) be two continuous functions of the independent
¶u ¶u
¶x ¶y
variables x and y, then is called the Jacobian of u and v w.r.t x and y
¶v ¶v
¶x ¶y

æ u / vö ¶ (u , v )
and is denoted by ç ÷o r
è x, yø ¶( x , y )

## 26.2. Three variables

Let u,v,w be functions of x,y,z the Jacobica of u,v and w w.r.t. x,y,z is
defined by
¶u ¶u ¶u
¶x ¶y ¶z

¶v ¶v ¶v æ u , v ,öw
and is denote = ed by J ç ÷
¶x ¶y ¶z è x, y ø, z
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¶w ¶w ¶w ¶ (u , v , w )
or =
¶x ¶y ¶z ¶( x , y , z )

## Note : Jacobians will be useful while evaluating multiple integrals which is

an easy way of evaluation.
Result 1: Let u,v, be function of x and y, whose x and y functions of a,b,
then
¶ (u , v ) ¶ ( x , y ) ¶ (u , v )
= …..(1)
¶( x , y ) ¶ (a , b ) ¶ (a , b )

¶ (u , v ) ¶ ( x , y )
Result 2 Prove that =1
¶ ( x , y ) ¶ (u , v )

## Proof : In the above result (1) Put a =u; b=x we have.

¶ (u , v ) ¶ ( x , y ) ¶ (u , v )
=
¶ ( x , y ) ¶ (u , v ) ¶ (u , v )
¶ (u , v ) ¶u ¶u
But =
¶ (u , v ) ¶x ¶v

¶v ¶v
¶u ¶u
But u and v are independent variables,
¶u ¶v
=0 ; =0
¶v ¶x
using in (2)
¶ (u , v )
\ = 1 0
¶ (u , v )

0 1 =1
¶ (u , v ) ¶( x , y )
\ =1
¶( x , y ) ¶ (u , v )

## 26.3. Change of variable in case of Two variables

Formout1. Suppose we want to charge the variable in the integral

## ò fò(x y, d) x d toy u,v by the relation x=f(u,v); y= f (u,v)

R

we have
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¶x ¶x
d =x d + u d .v. . . ( 1 )
¶y ¶y

¶y ¶y
d =y d + u d .v. . . ( 2 )
¶x ¶v
We shall first treat y, a constant and integrate w.r.t.x.
dy=0
¶y ¶y
\ (2) becomes 0= d +u d v
¶x ¶v
¶y ¶y
\ + x= -d . v
¶x ¶v
¶y ¶y
- d x d x
¶u ¶v

\ using in (1)
æ ¶y ö
d x
¶x ¶u çè ¶u ÷ø
d =x d -x
¶u ¶v ¶y
¶u
¶x ¶y ¶y ¶u
d -x . d . x
= ¶u ¶ v ¶ v ¶v
¶y
¶v
¶( x , y )
¶ (v , u )
= d x
¶y
¶x
¶( x , y )
¶ (u , v )
\ò f ( xò y=, d òx) d y(ò 1d ,y f )y u . d u
R ¶y
¶v
Changing the order of integration

¶( x , y )
¶ (u , v )
= òd xò1 ( f, )y . u. . d. . y. ( 3 )
¶y
¶v
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## Eliminate v, we get a relation between u,x and y \ x can be expressed

interms of x and y.
\ f(x,y) is transformed into f1(x,y)

## To integrate (3), u is considered as a constant dx=0

¶y
\ from (2) d =y d. v
¶v
f 1 fu( ( v, ¶)x ( y,¶ ) y
\ (3) becomes ò d x d . u
¶y ¶ (u , v¶) v
¶v
¶( x , y )
= ò f 2ò( u , v ) d u d v
¶ (u , v )

## 26.4. Three variables

In case of three variables u,v,w
Which are functions of x,y,z the Jacobian of u,v,w, w.r.t x,y,z is defined by
æ u , v ,öw
Jç ÷ = ¶u ¶v ¶u
è x, y ø, z ¶x ¶x ¶x

¶u ¶v ¶w
¶y ¶y ¶y

¶u ¶v ¶w
¶z ¶z ¶z

æ u , v ,öw ¶ (u , v , w )
Jç ÷ is also denoted by
è x, y ø, z ¶( x , y , z )

## 26.5. Examples Two variables

æ u, öv( ¶u, v) ¶u ¶v
Jç ÷= =
è x, øy( ¶x, y) ¶x ¶x

¶u ¶v
¶y ¶y
1) If x+y=u, x-y=v, then show that
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¶( x , y ) 1
= -
¶ (u , v ) 2

¶( x , y ) ¶x ¶y
=
¶ (u , v ) ¶u ¶v

¶x ¶y
¶v ¶v
u = x+y
v = x-y
subtract, u-v=2y y=1/2 (u-v)
¶x ¶y
=1/2 =1/2
¶u ¶v
¶x ¶y
=1/2 =-1/2
¶v ¶v

æ x, yö 1 1
Jç ÷=
è u , vø 2 2

1 1
2 2
=-1/4 ¼ =-1/2

## (2) If x+y+z=u; y+z=uv; z=uvw,

¶( x , y , z ) 2
Show that =u v (Nov 2006 Bharathiar)
¶ (u , v , w )

Solution
u=x+y+z …….(1)
uv=y+z………(2) uv=y+uvw
uvw =z ………(3) y=uv-uvw
using (2) in (1)
u=x+uv
x=u-uv
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## x=u-uv y=uv-uvw z=uvw

¶x ¶y ¶z
=1-v = v -u w =v w
¶u ¶u ¶x

¶x ¶y ¶z
= u- = u -u w =u w
¶v ¶v ¶v

¶x ¶y ¶z
=0 = u- v =u v
¶w ¶w ¶w

1-v v-vw vw
u u-uw uw
0 -uv uv

## Expanding through first column

J = (1-v) u-uw uw +u v-vw vw
-uv uv -uv uv

-1 1 -1 1

## = ( 1 v-) u( v) -u[ u w+ u w] + u 2 (v - v / v +w/ v ]w

=(1-v)u2 v+u2v2
= u 2 v- 2 u 2 v + u 2 v2
= u2 v
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## 26.6. Let us sum up

so far we have studied the method of finding Jacobians for two
variables and three variables.
(1) If x=uv2, y=u2v, Show that
¶( x , y )
= 3-u 2 v2
¶ (u , v )

¶( x , y )
show that =r
¶ (u , v )

## 26.7 Lesson End Activities

(1) If x2-y2=u, xy=v show that
¶ ( x ,y ) 1
=
¶ (u , v ) + x22 (y2 )

## (2) If x=vsinv cos f

y=vsinv sin f
z=r cosv, prove that J=r2sinv
¶( x , y )
(3) If x+y=u, y=uv find (Ans :u)
¶ (u , v )

## (4) If u=x2-y2 ; v=x2+y2, prove that

¶( x , y )
¶ (u , v )
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## 26.8. Points for discussion

¶( x , y )
(5) If =u, then find the value of
¶ (u , v )

¶( x , y )
¶ (u , v )

y z z x x y
(6) If u = v, = ,w =
x y z
¶ (u , v , w )
find (Apr. 2006)
¶( x , y , z )

¶ (u , v )
(7) If u-x+y, v=x-y, then find
¶( x , y )

26.9. References
A book of Integral Calculus by T.K. Manickavasagam Pillai