Submitted by
Amit kumar

In partial fulfillment of the award of the degree of Bachelor of Technology in ELECTRONICS AND COMMUNICATION ENGINEERING Of COCHIN UNIVERSITY OF SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY


Toc H INSTITUTE OF SCIENCE & TECHNOLOGY Arakkunnam P.O, Ernakulam District, KERALA- 682 313

Arakkunnam P.O, Ernakulam District, Kerala ± 682 313 .


This is to certify that the seminar entitled ³Grating Light Valve Technology ´ submitted by ³Amit Kumar´ of semester VII is a bonafide account of the work done by him under our supervision during the academic year 2010 -2011

Seminar Guide

Head of the Department

Head of the Institution


The satisfaction and euphoria that successful completion of any task would be incomplete sans the mention of the people who made it possible, whose constant guidance and encouragement crowd our effort with success.

First and foremost we would like to express our whole hearted thanks to the invisible, the indomitable god for his blessings showered upon us in enabling us to successfully present the seminar. We would like to extend our heartiest thanks to the management of our college, who provided us with necessities for the completion of the seminar. We feel highly privileged in making a mention of Prof.(Dr.) V. Job Kuruvilla (Principal, TIST) for his co-operation and help. We would also like to extend our heartfelt thanks to Asst. Prof. Deepa Elizabeth George
(H.O.D., ECE) for the inspiration inculcated in us and for the apt guidance.

It would be a grave error if we forget to take a mention of our guides Ms. Sangeetha C.P and
Ms.Soumya.K.S whose constant persistence and support helped us in the completion of our

seminar. We also stand grateful to all teaching and non -teaching staff and fellow students for their constant help and support.


The Grating Light ValveŒ (GLVŒ) technology is a micromechanical phase grating. . Operation is based on electrically controlling the mechanical positions of grating elements to modulate diffraction efficiency. Thus by providing controlled diffraction of incident light, a GLV device will produce bright or dark pixels in a display system .With pulse width modulation, a GLV device will produce precise gray-scale or color variations. Built using micro electromecha nical system (MEMS) technology, and designed to be manufactured using mainstream IC fabrication technology, the GLV device can be made both small and inexpensively. A variety of display systems can be built using GLV technology each benefiting from the hig h contrast ratio, fill ratio, and brightness of this technology. In addition, GLV technology can provide high resolution, low power consumption, and digital gray -scale and color reproduction



Semester: VII Branch :Electronics & Communication Engineering Seminar Title: Grating light valve technology .

As a light valve for display. the V has a number of interesting properties. The combination of speed and bistability may be used for spatial light modulator applications as well as for simplifying the design of drivers fast pixels can be addressed by a passive matrix. The black-and-white B extremely fast. urthermore. Toc H Institute of Science & Technology Arakkunnam ± ¥¦ ¥ ¤£¢ . Page ¡   o. the pixels are bistable with applied V and achieve active matrix performance with only voltage: it may be possible to operate the a passive matrix.1. The pi els of the ns. requiring only one mask step for basic devices and only three or four for complete array fabrication. V fabrication is fairly simple. leaving the beams suspended in air. switching in under V is capable of either V are or color operation with white l ight illumination. The ody of the device is a collection of ten eams stretched across a frame. By moving the beams electrostatically it is possible to modulate the diffraction efficiency of light incident on the structure. while slow pixels require the increased complexity of an active matrix structure).1 INTRODUCTION The di ti i ht V l e hereafter V i a i romechanical li ht al e intended for lay applications. This frame is attached y a spacer to the substrate. This should translate into low production cost..


1 FUNDAMENTAL CONCEPTS A rating ight Valve V) device consists of parallel rows of reflective ribbons. By blocking light that returns along the same path as the incident light. Alternate rows of ribbons can be pulled down approximately one -quarter wavelength to create diffraction effects on incident light see figure below). incident light is reflected from their surfaces.Semester: VII Branch :El i mm i i Seminar Title: E i i 2. nblocked. diffraction produces light at an angle that is different from that of the incident light. ! Toc H Institute of Science & Technology Arakkunnam ±   ©¨    §    §¨  ©¨ § %& % $#" rating light valve technology Page o. hen the alternate) movable ribbons are pulled down. this light produces a bright spot in a viewing system. igure :showing dark and bright state) hen all the ribbons are in the same plane. however. . this state of the ribbons produces a dark spot in a viewing system.

V devices. field sequential color. There are several means for displaying color images using using "tuned" diffraction gratings.Semester: VII Branch :El i mm i i Seminar Title: E i i . If the up and down ribbon switching state can be made fast enough. and sub -pixel color Page A @ Toc H Institute of Science & Technology Arakkunnam ± 9 21 )7( 26 82 0 ' 2 82 15 4'3( 210 )( ' EF E DCB rating light valve technology o. and subdivided into separately controllable picture elements. pixels can be built with multiple ribbons producing greater image brightness. or pixels. If an array of such V elements is built. then modulation of the diffraction can produce many gradations of gray and/or colors. . By making the ribbons small enough. These include color filters with multiple light valves. then a white-light source can be selectively diffracted to produce an image of monochrome bright and dark pixels.


The zigbee module transmits data collected from the sensors. The wireless camera takes the live video of the desired area and transmits to the server wirelessly. The V is a micro-electromechanical phase diffraction period phase grating with rectangular grooves constructed from aluminum igure . with 41% of the light in each of the first order diffraction modes. The microcontroller provides control to the movement of the robot and camera and manipulates on the received data. . Amplitude gratings are formed by alternating stripes of absorbing and transmitting material. as a function of groove depth are shown in reflectivity of 9 % when no grooves are present 9 % is the reflectivity of aluminum).Semester: VI Branch :El i mm i i Seminar Title: E i i 3.1 Diffraction Grating Analysis A diffraction grating is a periodic structure that affects either the amplitude or phase of incident light. Phase gratings modulate the phase rather than the amplitude of light. a wireless camera and a zigbee module. The specular mode has a peak owever. The second module is the robot consisting of a microcontroller. Shadowing effects caused by reflections from the sidewalls of the grating elements) limit this maximum reflectivity to reflected into the specular mode is diffracted. Toc H Institute of Science & Technology Arakkunnam ± 13 Page ` Y RQ IWH RV XR P G R XR QU TGSH RQP IH G d cba rating light valve technology o. This value decreases as the light is diffracted rather than reflected. The light that is not modes of a . the reflectivity is again maximum.4 . A detailed analysis of diffraction gratings [Born 9 ] shows that incident light is diffracted by the grating into several directions which conform to the Bragg condition. or small grating depths there is little diffraction. As the round-trip depth approaches X/4 in phase. The amplitudes of the diffracted ~. deep. when the grooves are ?J %. Typically the period is several times the wavelength of light. the diffraction peaks.

.Semester: VII Branch :El i mm i i Seminar Title: E i i igure :showing diffraction patterns) Toc H Institute of Science & Technology Arakkunnam ± 313 Page y x w pi guf pt vp h e p vp is reqf pih gf e ‚€ rating light valve technology o.

The source image was then collimat ed and directed by a turning mirror onto Toc H Institute of Science & Technology Arakkunnam ± 313 Page — – • ˆ‡ …“„ ˆ’ ”ˆ † ƒ ˆ ”ˆ ‡‘ ƒ‰„ ˆ‡† …„ ƒ d™˜ rating light valve technology 0 o. and the normally incident light is reflected back to the source. If the beams are brought into the down´ position. Since the non-diffraction grating portions of the device. remain equally reflecting in both the up´ and down´ positions.Semester: VII Branch :El i mm i i Seminar Title: E i i 3. The light was condensed with ff . but the optics used had too small an aperture to collect this light. then the pixel diffracts diffraction modes.´ the device is % of the in cident light into the 1 about 10% of the reflective. At the intermediate point the image was spatially filtered to insure adequate collimation. The illumination source was either a metal halide arc lamp with an integrated reflector or a 40 tungsten -halogen lamp with dielectric reflector. the arc or filament of the lamp is shown perpendicular to this plane. including bond pads and other large areas. Since collimation within the plane is essential for good contrast. The latter has two clear advantages.4 optics and imaged without magnification at an intermediate point. hen the beams are up. The optical systems were used in device testing. .2 Basic Optical Systems Optical systems can be constructed to view either the reflected or diffracted light. there will be a problem generating adequate contrast without the use of masking films or spatial filters to remove the unmodulated light The basis of B operation was shown in igure . Additional light is diffracted into higher order modes incident).

In this system the projection lens is used both for projection to the Toc H Institute of Science & Technology Arakkunnam ± 313 Page r q ji gof jn pj h e j pj im lekf jih gf e uts rating light valve technology o.Semester: VII Branch :El i mm i i Seminar Title: E i i the face of the device. The specular reflection was returned to the lamp.7 . The distance between the device and the projection lens was adjusted to focus the image on a distant screen. while the diffracted orders were collected by a projection lens placed just over a focal length away.

all non -diffracted light is blocked from the screen. all the +1 diffraction order rays focus at one point while all the -1 rays focus at another.e. By placing a stop with slits in it at those two points. Toc H Institute of Science & Technology Arakkunnam ± 313 Page „ ƒ ‚ {z x€w { { y v { { z~ }v|w {zy xw v ‡†… rating light valve technology o. At this plane.Semester: VII Branch :El i mm i i Seminar Title: E i i screen as well as spatial filtering of the diffracted light. all rays from the device plane with the same angle all pass though the same point. i.. A telecentric stop was placed at a distance of one focal length from the projection lens. .


9 . V ribbons are built using silicon nitride.4.) to create the micro electromechanical systems V device. The entire mainstream I V device is designed to be built using E S) that make up the fabrication technology e. one avoids some of the metalization. etching.1 Building the GL device V device capable of The following describes the materials. deposition. The aluminum see figure surface roughness that otherwise scatters the light reducing the contrast ratio. By making the aluminum layer very thin. etc.g. igure 3: Build using I fabrication technology ) Toc H Institute of Science & Technology 313 Arakkunnam ± Page ‰ Œ‹Š ˆ o. photolithographic masking. dimensions and packaging of a implementing a high-resolution display. then coated with a very thin layer of ).

š Toc H Institute of Science & Technology Arakkunnam ± 313 ™ ’‘ —Ž ’– ˜’   ’ ˜’ ‘• ”“Ž ’‘ Ž  œ› rating light valve technology Page o. a set of four m. or approximately onequarter wavelength of green light.) The "up" position of the ribbons is maintained by the tensile stress of the silicon nitride material. The pull-down distance is approximately 1300 Angstroms. the ribbons will naturally "snap back" into an upward position.10 . and ith these dimensions. ith no other forces applied. igure 4: A single pixel consists of a pair of fixed and a pair of movable ribbons. ribbons two fixed and two movable) produces a 0 m square pixel see figure 3).Semester: VII Branch :El i mm i i Seminar Title: E i i In one implementation which Silicon ight the ribbon pitch is achines has built. By integrating. the ribbon lengths are 0 m.

the more masks needed to manufacture an I . And.Semester: VII Branch :El i mm i i Seminar Title: E i i electrodes below the ribbons. each additional masking step has a negative impact on yield i. dry nitrogen environment for pressure equalization and to prevent oxidation. The deflection distance is determined during manufacture. Silicon ight V pixel is defined using a achines has built devices using only 7 masks. As shown in figure 4. the simple V design should provide lower initial costs and higher yields hen the compared with light-valve technologies that require more complex manufacturing.11 . Thus. the higher the initial cost.e. multi-chip module. a clear glass lid is fixed above the ribbons area sealing in a igure-5:shows packaging) ¬ Toc H Institute of Science & Technology Arakkunnam ± 313 ª £¢  ¨Ÿ £§ ©£ ¡ ž £ ©£ ¢¦ ¥ž¤Ÿ £¢¡  Ÿ ž ¯®­ « rating light valve technology Page o. V device is finished and tested. the percentage of good versus faulty components). In general. -mask I process. additional electronic driver and control logic is built into a complete. lightvalve. an electrostatic attraction force will pull the movable ribbons downward. The basic simple. and applying different voltages to the ribbons and the bottom electrodes.


e¶ve built V devices such that V /V1 i s approximately .Semester: VII Branch :El i mm i i Seminar Title: E i i 5. where V1 is the switch -up voltage at which the ribbon returns to its up state.g.1 Controlling the GL To control a device V-based device. the ribbons will naturally assume the up state.12 . one can pull t he ribbon down with a switch-down voltage V ). As mentioned previously. and maintain that state with bias voltage. Interestingly. the switch-down voltage. Vb. the ribbons maintain their down state even as the voltage differential is reduced. such that V1<Vb<V volts see figure 5). V ) between the movable ribbons and bottom electrodes. one must apply a voltage difference e. To pull them down. Thus. one simply directs the up and down ribbon movement of this two-state technology. igure :shows ribbon hysteresis) ½ Toc H Institute of Science & Technology Arakkunnam ± 2 313 ¼ µ´ ²º± µ¹ »µ ³ ° µ »µ ´¸ ·°¶± µ´³ ²± ° ¿¾ rating light valve technology Page o.

At these speeds. In other words. and about 1000 times faster than micro-mirror technology). There is no need to provide buffers or delay functions to complement the mismatch in speeds between electronic devices and this E S device. without drawing current. Switching time is approximately 20 nanoseconds. Other display technologies require significantly more complex control circuits to maintain pixel states. ribbon hysteresis) make Í Toc H Institute of Science & Technology Arakkunnam ± 2 313 Ì ÅÄ ÂÊÁ ÅÉ ËÅ Ã À Å ËÅ ÄÈ ÇÀÆÁ ÅÄÃ ÂÁ À ÏÎ rating light valve technology Page o.e. or greater gray scale.g.13 . over a wide V switching speeds make it easy to implement an -bit technology. The up and down ribbon switching occurs very quickly. This high-speed switching offers several benefits.Semester: VII Branch :El i mm i i Seminar Title: E i i This ribbon hysteresis permits one to maintain present pixel states with a bias voltage. This ribbon hysteresis offers mechanical memory and zero-power pixel-state retention. The V device described here switches in 20 nanoseconds. a static pixel configuration can be maintained with practically zero power consumption. Texas Instruments The reasons for the high speed are the small size and mass. That is roughly a display devices. and small excursion. it is easier to streamline drive electronics and to simplify the memory requirements. and are fast enough to support colors and grays over a 1000-to-1 dynamic range. of the ribbons. . for example. This is much broader gray and color accuracy than is produced using controlling the V device very simple. The combination of speed and mechanical memory e. Another speed advantage is the ability to modulate. the time ratio of up-to-down states or dark and bright states) which produces the effect of shades of gray or color variations. range. V million times faster than conventional another light-valve technology i.

5 percent was s. greatly simplifying the manufacturing V device thus lends itself to an easy interface to other display system Ý Toc H Institute of Science & Technology Arakkunnam ± 2 313 Ü ÕÔ ÒÚÑ ÕÙ ÛÕ Ó Ð Õ ÛÕ ÔØ ×ÐÖÑ ÕÔÓ ÒÑ Ð ßÞ rating light valve technology Page o. inally. V array built using mature 1. This makes for brighter images compared with other technologies when operated at comparable power consumption levels. ontrast ratios.1 order of diffraction. ill ratios ² the ratio of optically active area to total pixel area ² is already better than typical prototype achieved compared with 0 percent for ratios of 0 percent are expected. igh contrast ratios provide crisper images. about 1 percent of the incident light can be collected in the bright state.14 .Semester: VII Branch :El i mm i i Seminar Title: E i i An elegantly simple row and column addressing scheme can be used. In a typical V prototype.25 micron design rules. fill ratios of 7. The electronics. design rules. where the optical system collects +/ . sing more modern. fill V array itself. fill ratios and optical efficiencies are important metrics for distinguishing among various display technologies. A V system that is s. optical efficiency for reflective devices is naturally higher than that for transmissive devices. and passive matrix rather than the more complex active matrix) pixel control is all that is required. smaller. In a built using relatively inexpensive optics exhibits a contrast ratio of better than 200 -to-1. This eliminates the need for any transistors in the process.


2 COLOUR PRODUCTION There are several ways in which coloured images can be produced. igure 7:shows a simple interface to upstream electronics) 6. or Video input is format converted and then input to a digital driver. The latter interfaces directly V device.Semester: VII Branch :El i mm i i Seminar Title: E i i 6.15 .1 Applying the GL In general. Some of the methods are described below í Toc H Institute of Science & Technology Arakkunnam ± 2 313 ì åä âêá åé ëå ã à å ëå äè çàæá åäã âá à ïî rating light valve technology Page o. ight is diffracted by the into an optical system for image projection onto a screen. the with the technology V device can be used to build a relatively simple display system see figure .) V device into an eyepiece for virtual display.

In such a system. igure : color production by using different spacing between ribbons.Semester: VII Branch :El i mm i i Seminar Title: E i i 6. having narrower pitch. In essence. the V plane while green and blue light is refracted at other angles. ) ý Toc H Institute of Science & Technology Arakkunnam ± 682 313 ü õô òúñ õù ûõ ó ð õ ûõ ôø ÷ðöñ õôó òñ ð rating light valve technology Page o.16 .1 METHOD 1 One way of reproducing color images is by using different ribbon pitch to create a red-greenblue pixel "triad" instead of the monochrome pixel described earlier see figure 7). refracts red light normal to the same for green and blue light.2. V device. do the olor is produced by reducing the slit width to allow only a limited bandwidth about each of the primary colors to be selected. respectively. having the widest pitch. white light is introduced at an angle slightly off -axis to the red area. The green and blue areas.

and as an optical stop blocking igure 9: color display can be built using a single light source. green and blue pixel data with the appropriate filtered source light. combinations of red. and rotating B Page o.17 . a turning mirror is used both to direct light onto the reflected light. as shown.2 METHOD 2 In a frame-sequential projection system figure 8) a white light source is filtered sequentially by a spinning red-green-blue filter disk. V device.)  Toc H Institute of Science & Technology Arakkunnam ± 682 313 £¢ ÿ £§ ¢¦ ¥ Semester: VII Branch :El i mm i i Seminar Title:   ¨ ©£ ¡ £ þþ£ÿ©£¢¡ ÿ ¤   þ rating light valve technology V. single filter disk. green and blue diffracted light is directed to the projector lens. for instance). In this system.2.E i i 6. By synchronizing the image data stream¶s red.

red.E i i 6.2. handheld.3 METHOD 3 An even simpler.18 .2. A single reproduce the color pixel information sent to the controller board. V devices. V device diffracts the appropriate incident primary -color light to igure 10: An even simpler color display can be built with 3 E s 6. By passing the source¶s white light through dichroic filters. color display device see figure 9) uses three E green and blue). blue and green light are incident iffracted light is collected and directed through the optical system to a viewing screen % Toc H Institute of Science & Technology Arakkunnam ± 682 313   Semester: VII Branch :El i mm i i Seminar Title: B) and a single $  ! " #   #          rating light valve technology V) Page o.4 METHOD 4 A more elaborate and accurate color projection system can be build using three on three separate V devices. sources red.

optical components. An implementation scheme see figure 10).E i i This represents a much smaller and lower -cost solution. to the three-tube projection systems now used for large-screen projection of P images and videos.) 9 Toc H Institute of Science & Technology Arakkunnam ± 682 313 10 Semester: VII Branch :El i mm i i Seminar Title: 8 ' 15 (6 71 ) 1 71 && 04 3 ' 1 0) ' 2 ( & rating light valve technology Page o.19 . igure 11: A three-GLV color display solution is shown for a large -screen projector. say. and three -GLV module. shows the light source.


GLV technology matches much more closely the speeds of its electronic interface components. requires less Several orders of magnitude faster than conventional LCDs and other light -valve technologies. ribbon dimensions are easily scaled allowing the production of smaller. ompared to its closest alternative ² micro-mirror light valve technology ² the GLV device is much simpler to fabricate. As a result. This is equivalent to a television display system running non-stop. GLV speeds also provide for higher gray scale and color variation accuracy. requiring only 7 mask steps. mechanical structures that move through smaller excursions than alternative light-valve technologies. external memory and no transistors in the E S array.20 . lighter. lower -cost.bit-per-pixel. The GLV technology¶s E S architecture is exhibiting very encouraging reliability. devices with higher resolution and fill ratios. for 15 years. Early experiments have shown no ribbon fatigue after 210 billion ribbon switching cycles. and it does. GLV devices use smaller. the interface is simpler. highresolution display. ence. GLV technology must demonstrate some compelling benefits. without failure . a GLV device can be used to build a 10-bit -per-pixel.E i i COMPARING TO OTHER DISPLAY TECHNOLOGIES To succeed as an alternative to existing display technologies. compared with 8 . or example. Because GLV devices are built using mainstream IC fabrication technolog y. R Toc H Institute of Science & Technology Arakkunnam ± 682 313 ED Semester: VII Branch :El i mm A EI BP QE C E QE @@ DH G A E DC A F B @ i i Seminar Title: Grating light valve technology Page o. LCD displays. it is faster.

and with higher resolution . low cost displays. brighter. And their inherent zero -power pixel-state retention make them ideal for use in small. e Toc H Institute of Science & Technology Arakkunnam ± 682 313 XW Semester: VII Branch :El i mm T Xb Uc dX V X dX SS Wa ` T X WV T Y U S i i Seminar Title: Grating light valve technology Page o. the GLV technology promises to revolutionize display system design by making them smaller.3 inch diagonal. Their small size makes it practical to build over a million pixels in a 1. Coupled with their mass producibility. In essence.E i i ith their higher optical efficiencies. less power consuming. battery powered devices. this makes the GLV a candidate for building high-resolution. cheaper. GLV systems can deliver higher levels of brightness per watt of power consumed.21 .


21 . y The position of the beams is bistable for intermediate voltages. . and normally incident light is reflected. If a potential is applied to bring the beams into contact with the substrate. hen the beams are suspended up´ from the substrate the device has a minimum of diffraction. A contrast of 80:1 can be achieved with improved processing techniques. y y The device operation is not much affected by temperatures in excess of 200 °C. It is based on reflection phase gratings of electrically controllable depth. understanding. x Toc H Institute of Science & Technology Arakkunnam ± 682 313 qp Semester: VII Branch :El i mm g qu hv wq i q wq ff pt s g q pi g r h f i i Seminar Title: Grating light valve technology or a qualitative Page o. the beams can be modelled as strings under tension. Switching voltages between 5 and 10 V can be used. a full integration of th e fourth order beam equation can be used. Improved lamp collimation should improve the saturation of the colors. To get better quantitative results. Contrast ratios for optimized color devices should exceed 200.E i i CONCLUSION y The grating light valve is a relatively new display technology. which are then collected by a Schlieren optical system. then the device diffracts 80% of the light into the first order diffraction modes. The contrast ratio was measured to be 20:1 for black-and-white displays. y y y Pixels as small as 6x20 ~Lmare possible.

y ith additional work in the above mentioned areas it is possible that the GLV will someday be commercially produced. This increase in capacitance would cause a substantial decrease in the first instability voltage. y It is not clear what sort of packaging is necessary to ensure long life of the device. y sing conductive beams can help reduce the gap b/w the top and bottom electrodes. So a research is in progress to determine its effect.E i i FUTURE SCOPE y The aging characteristic of micromechanical displays are not well understood.22 . y It is yet to determine the effect of surface roughness on contrast ratio. ‘ Toc H Institute of Science & Technology Arakkunnam ± 682 313 „ƒ Semester: VII Branch :El i mm € „ˆ ‰ „ ‚ „ „ yy ƒ‡ † € „ ƒ‚ € …  y i i Seminar Title: Grating light valve technology Page o.

olfe. eality Conference V ¶06) 1087-8270/06 $20. . and et al. 4. . allace.23 .00 © . Kunihiko Saruta* and Yasuyuki Ito ©2006 IEEE 2. Pergamon Press. G. Ayumu Taguchi. Proceedings of the IEEE Virtual 2006 IEEE 5. itoshi Tamada. 3. In WACE. h Toc H Institute of Science & Technology Arakkunnam ± 682 313 —– Semester: VII Branch :El i mm “ —e ”f g— • — g— ’’ –d ™ “ — –• “ ˜ ” ’ i i Seminar Title: Grating light valve technology Page o. 1959. Banyai and D. Born and E. Abla. New York. 6.E i i REFERENCES 1. G. . Principles of Optics. Apte. " Grating Light Valves for High Resolution Displays. "Solid State Sensors and Actuators Workshop. June 1994. 2005. . Sandejas. Schissel. Kazunao Oniki. Bloom. D. Shared display wall based collaboration environment in the control room of the DIII -D national fusion facility.


E i i u Toc H Institute of Science & Technology Arakkunnam ± 682 313 nm Semester: VI Branch :El i mm j nr ks tn l n tn ii mq p j n ml j o k i i i Project Title: Auto surveillance Page o.10 .

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