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AC1 304R-00

Guide for Measuring, Mixing,Transporting,


and Placing Concrete
Reported by AC1 Committee 304

Neil R. Guptill
Chahman

David J. Akers John C. King Kenneth L. Saucier


Casimir Bognacki Gary R. Mass James M. Shilstone, Jr.
James L. Cope Patrick L. McDowell Ronald J. Stickel
Michael R. Gardner Dipak T. Parekh William X. Sypher
Daniel J. Green Roger J. Phares J.A. Tony Tinker
Brian Hanlin James S. Pierce Robert E. Tobin
Terence C. Holland Paul E. Reinhart Joel B. Tucker
Thomas A. Johnson Royce J. Rhoads Kevin Wolf

This guide presents information on the handling, measuring, and batching 2.6-Water and ice
of all the materials used in making normalweight, lightweight structural, 2.7-Fiber reinforcement
and heavyweight concrete. It covers both weight and volumetric
measuring; mixing in central mixtureplants and truckmixers; and concrete
placement using buckets, buggies, pumps, and conveyors. Underwater
Chapter 3-Measurement and batching, p. 304R-6
concrete placement and preplaced aggregate concrete are also covered in 3. 1"General requirements
this guide, as well as procedures for achieving good quality concrete in 3.2-Bins and weigh batchers
completed structures. 3.3-Plant type
3.4"Cementitious materials
Keywords: batching; conveying;
heavyweight
concletes;
lightweight 3.5-Water and ice measurement
concietes; mateiials handling; mixing; placing; pieplaced aggregate concrete; 3.6-Measurement of admixtures
pumped conciete; hemie conciete; volumehic measuring; continuous mixing. 3.7-Measurement of materials for small jobs
3 . 8 4 t h e r considerations
CONTENTS
Chapter 1-Introduction, p. 304R-2 Chapter 4-Mixing and transporting,p. 304R-9
1.l S c o p e 4. 1"General requirements
1.24bjective 4.2-Mixing equipment
1 . 3 4 t h e r considerations 4.3"Central-mixed concrete
4.4-Truck-mixed concrete
Chapter 2-Contro1, handling, and storageof 4.5"Charging and mixing
materials, p. 304R-3
2.1"General considerations 4.6-Mixture temperature
4.7-Discharging
2.2-Aggregates
2.3-Cement 4.8-Mixer performance
2.4"Ground slag and pozzolans 4.9-Maintenance
2.5-Admixtures 4.10-General considerations for transporting concrete
4.11-Returned concrete

AC1 Committee Reports, Guides, Standard Practices, and Commentaries Chapter 5-Placing concrete, p. 304R-13
ae intended for guidance in planning, designing, executing, and inspecting
construction.This document is intended for theuse of individuals who 5. 1"General considerations
arecompetenttoevaluate the significance and limitations of its 5.2-Planning
content and recommendations and who will accept responsibility for
theapplicationofthe material it contains. The AmericanConclete
Institute disclaims any and all responsibility for the stated principles.The
Institute shall notbe liable for any loss or damage arising theiefiom. AC1 304-00 supersedes AC1 304-89 and became effective January 10,2000.
Reference to this document shall be notmade in contract documents. If Copyright O 2000, American Concrete Institute.
items found in this document are desired by the Architecfingineer to be All rights reserved including lights of reproduction and use in any folm or by any
means, including the making of copies by any photo process, or by electronic or
a part of the contract documents, they shall be restated in mandatorylan- mechanical device, printed, written, or oral, or recording for sound or visual
guage for incorporation by the ArchitecVEngineer. reproduction or for use in any knowledge or retrieval system or device, unless
permission in writing is obtained from the copyright proprietors.

304R-1

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304R-2 AC1 COMMITTEE REPORT

5.3-Reinforcement and embedded items Chapter 13-Volumetric-measuring and


5.&Placing continuous-mixing concrete equipment,
5.5-Consolidation p. 304R-38
5.6-Mass concreting 13.1-General considerations
13.2-Operations
Chapter 6--Forms, joint preparation, and 13.3-Fresh concrete properties
finishing, p. 304R-19
6.1-Forms
6.2-Joint preparation Chapter 14"References, p. 304R-39
6.3-Finishing unformed surfaces 14.1-Referenced standards and reports
14.2-Cited references
Chapter 7-Preplaced-aggregate concrete,
p. 304R-21 CHAPTER 1-INTRODUCTION
7.1-General considerations 1.1-Scope
7.2-Materials This guide outlines procedures for achieving goodresults
7.3-Grout proportioning in measuring and mixing ingredients for concrete, transport-
7.6Temperature control ing itto the site, and placing it. The first six chapters are gen-
7.5-Forms eral and apply to all types of projects and concrete. The
7.6-Grout pipe systems
7.7-Coarse aggregate placement following four chaptersdeal with preplaced-aggregate con-
7 . 8 4 r o u t mixing and pumping crete, underwater placing, pumping, and conveyingon belts.
7.9-Joint construction The concludingthree chapters deal with heavyweight, radia-
7.10-Finishing tion-shielding concrete, lightweight concrete, and volumet-
7.11-Quality control ric-measuring and continuous-mixing concrete equipment.
Chapter 8-Concrete placed under water,
1.2-Objective
p. 304R-24
When preparingthis guide, AC1 Committee 304 followed
8. l a e n e r a l considerations
8.2-Materials this philosophy:
8.3-Mixture proportioning Progress in improvement of concreteconstruction is
8.4"Concrete production and testing better served by the presentation of high standards
8.5-Tremie equipment and placement procedure rather than common practices;
8.6-Direct pumping In many,if notmost, cases, practices resulting in the
8.7"Concrete characteristics production and placement of high-quality concrete can
8.8-Precautions be performed as economically as those resulting in poor
8 . 9 S p e c i a l applications concrete. Many of the practices recommended in this
8.10-Antiwashout admixtures document improve concrete uniformityas well as qual-
Chapter 9-Pumping concrete, p. 304R-28 ity, yielding a smoother operation and higher produc-
9. l a e n e r a l considerations tion rates, both of which offset potential additional cost;
9.2-Pumping equipment and
9.3-Pipeline and accessories Anyone planning to use this guide should have a basic
9.4-Proportioning pumpable concrete knowledge of the general practices involved in concrete
9.5-Field practice work. If more specific information on measuring, mix-
9.6-Field control ing, transporting, and placing concrete is desired, the
reader should refer to the list of references given at the
Chapter 10-Conveying concrete, p. 304R-30
end of this document, and particularly to the work of
10.1-General considerations
the U.S. Bureau of Reclamation (1981), the U.S.
10.2-Conveyor operation
10.3-Conveyor design Department of Commerce (1966), the Corps of Engi-
10.&Types of concrete conveyors neers (1994a), ASTM C 94, AC1 311.1R, andAC1 318.
10.5-Field practice To portray more clearly certain principles involved in
achieving maximum uniformity,
homogeneity, and
Chapter 11-Heavyweight and radiation-shielding quality of concrete in place, figures that illustrate good
concrete, p. 304R-33 and poor practices are also included in this guide.
11.1-General considerations
11.2-Materials 1.3-Other considerations
11.3-Concrete characteristics All who are involved with concrete work should know the
11.&Mixing equipment importance of maintaining the unit water content as low as
11.5-Formwork possible
and
still
consistent
with
placing
requirements
11.6-Placement (Mielenz1994;Lovern1966). If thewater-cementitious
11.7-Quality control materials ratio (wlcm) is kept constant, an increase in unit
Chapter 12-Lightweight structural concrete, watercontentincreases the potential for drying-shrinkage
p. 304R-36 cracking,andwiththiscracking, the concrete can lose a
12.1-General considerations portion of its durability and other favorable characteristics,
12.2-Measuring and batching such
monolithic
as properties
and
lowpermeability.
12.3-Mixing Indiscriminate addition of water that increases the wlcm
12.&Job controls adversely affects both strength and durability.

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MEASURING, MIXING, TRANSPORTING, AND PLACING CONCRETE 304R-3

The more a form is filled with the right combination of sol- effective control of gradation, handling operations thatdo not
ids and the less it is filled with water, the better the resulting increase the undersized materials in aggregates significantly
concrete will be. Use only as much cement as is required to before their use in concrete are essential (Fig. 2.1 and 2.2).The
achieve adequatestrength, durability, placeability, workabil- gradation of aggregate as it enters the concrete mixer should
ity, and other specified properties. Minimizing the cement be uniform and within specification limits. Sieve analyses of
content is particularly important in massive sections subject coarse aggregate shouldbe made with sufficient frequency to
to restraint, as the temperature rise associated with the hydra- ensure that grading requirements aremet. When two or more
tion of cement can result in cracking because of the change aggregate sizes are used, changes may be necessary in the
in volume (AC1 207.1R and 207.2R). Useonly as much wa- proportions of the sizes to maintain the overall gradingof the
ter and fine aggregate as is required to achieve suitable work- combined aggregate. When specification limits for grading
ability for proper placement and consolidation by means of cannot be met consistently, specialhandling methods should
vibration. be instituted. Materials tend to segregate
during
transportation, so reblending may be necessary. Rescreening
CHAPTER 2-CONTROL, HANDLING, AND the coarse aggregate as it is charged to the bins at the batch
STORAGE OF MATERIALS plant to remove undersized materials will effectively
2.1-General considerations eliminate undesirablefines when usual storage and handling
Coarse and fine aggregates, cement, pozzolans, and chem- methods are not satisfactory. Undersized materials in the
ical admixtures should be properly stored, batched, and han- smallercoarseaggregate fractions canbe consistently
dled to maintain the quality of the resulting concrete. reduced to as low as 2% by rescreening (Fig. 2.2). Although
rescreening is effective in removing undersized particles, it
2.2-Aggregates will not regrade segregatedaggregates.
Fine and coarse aggregates should be of good quality, un- 2.2.2 Fine aggregate (sand)-Fine aggregate should be
contaminated, and uniform in grading and moisture content. controlled to minimize variations in gradation, giving special
Unlessthis is accomplishedthroughappropriatespecifica- attention to keeping finer fractions uniform and exercising
tions (ASTM C 33) and effective selection, preparation, and care to avoid excessive removalof fines during processing.
handling of aggregates (Fig. 2.1), the production of uniform If the ratio of fine-to-coarse aggregate is adjusted in accor-
concrete will bedifficult (Mielenz 1994; AC1 221R). dance with AC1 21 1.1 recommendations for mixture propor-
2.2.1 Coarse aggregate-The coarse aggregate should be tioning, a wide range of fine aggregate gradings can be used
controlled to minimize segregationand undersized material. (Tynes 1962). Variations in grading during production of con-
The following sections deal with prevention of segregation crete should be minimized, however, andthe ASTM C 33 re-
and control of undersized material. quirement that the fineness modulusof the fine aggregate be
2.2.1.1 Sizes-A practical method of minimizing coarse maintained within 0.20of the design value should be met.
aggregate segregationis to separate the material into several Give special attention to the amount and nature of material
size fractions and batch these fractions separately. As the finer than the No. 200 screen (75 pm sieve). As stated in
range of sizes in each fraction is decreased and the number ASTM C 33, if this material is dust of fracture, essentially
of size separations is increased, segregation is further free of clay or shale, greater percentages of materials finer
reduced.Effective control of segregation and undersized than the No. 200 screen(75 pm sieve) are permissible. If the
materials is most easily accomplished when the ratio of reverse is true, however, permissible quantities should be
maximum-to-minimum size in each fraction is held to not significantly reduced. The California sand equivalent test is
more than four for aggregates smallerthan 1 in. (25 mm) and sometimes used to determine quantitatively the type,
totwo for larger sizes. Examples of someappropriate amount, and activity of this fine material (Mielenz 1994;
aggregate fraction groupings follow: ASTM D 2419). Excessive quantities of material finer than
the No. 200 screen (75pm sieve) increase the mixing-water
Example 1 requirement, rate of slump loss, and drying shrinkage, and
Sieve designations therefore decrease strength.
No. 8 to 3/8 in. (2.36 to 9.5 mm) Avoid blendingtwo sizes of fine aggregate by placing al-
No. 4 to 1 in. (4.75 to 25.0 mm) ternate amounts in bins or stockpiles or when loading cars or
3/4 to 1-1/2 in. (19.0 to 37.5 mm) trucks. Satisfactory results are achieved when different size
fractions are blended as theyflow into a stream from regulat-
Example 2 ing gates or feeders. A morereliable method of control for a
Sieve designations wide range of plant and job conditions, however, is to sepa-
No. 4 to 3/4 in. (4.75 to 19.0 mm) rate storage, handling, and batching of the coarse and fine
3/4 to 1-1/2 in. (19.0 to 37.5 mm) fractions.
1-1/2 to 3 in. (37.5 to 75 mm) 2.2.3 Storage-Stockpiling of coarse aggregate should
3 to 6 in. (75 to 150 mm) be keptto a minimum becausefines tend to settle and accu-
mulate.Whenstockpiling is necessary,however,use of
2.2.1.2 Control of undersized material-Undersized correct methods minimizes problems with fines, segrega-
material for a given aggregatefraction is defined as material tion, aggregate breakage, excessive variation in gradation,
that will pass a sieve having an opening 5/6 of the nominal and contamination. Stockpiles should be built up in hori-
minimum size of each aggregate fraction (U.S. Bureau of zontal or gentlysloping layers, not by end-dumping.
Reclamation 1981).In Example 2in Section 2.2.1.1,it would Trucks, loaders, and dozers, or other equipment should not be
be material passing the following sieves:No. 5 (4.0 mm), 5/8 operated on the stockpiles because, in addition to breaking the
in. (16.0 mm),1-1/4 in. (31.5 mm), and 2-1/2in. (63 mm). For aggregate, they frequently track dirt onto the piles (Fig. 2.1).

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INCORRECT METHODS OF STOCKPILING AGGREGATES


CAUSE SEGREGATIONAND BREAKAGE

PREFERABLE
OBJECTIONABLE
CRANE OR OTHER MEANS OFPLACING MATERIALIN
PILEINUNITSNOTLARGERTHANATRUCKLOAD METHODS WHICHPERMITME AGGREGATE TOROLL
WHICH REMAIN WHEREW E D AND DO NOT RUN DDWNTHESLOPEASITISADDEDTOTHEPILE
DOWN SLOPE. OR PERMITHAULING EQUIPMENTTOOPERATEOVER
THE SAME LEVEL REPEATEDLY,

LlMlTEOACCEPTABILIT-GENERALLY OBJECTIONABLE

PILE
BUILT
RADIALLY IN HORIZONTAL
LAYERS
BULLDOZER
BY OR FRONT
LOADER
STACKING
PROGRESSIVE LAYERS ON
BULLDOZER OR FRONT UNDERWORKING FROM MATERIALS AS SLOPE NOT FLATTER THAN3:i.UNLESS MATERIALS
DROPPED FROMC O N V N R BELT A ROCK LADDER MAY STRONGLY RESISTBREAKAGE,THESEMETHODSARE
NEEDED
OBJECTIONABLE.ALSO
BE IN SETUP

b. C.

CORRECT

CHIMNEY SURROUNDING MATERIAL FALLING


FROM ENDOF CONVEYOR BELTTO PREVENT
WINDFROMSEPARATINGFINEANDCOARSE
MATERIALS. OPENINGS PROVIDED AS REQUIRED
TD DISCHARGE MATERIALSATVARIOUS
ELEVATIONS ON THE PILE.

INCORRECT
FREE FALLOF MATERIAL FROM HIGH END WHENSTDCKPILINGMRGESIZEDAGGREGATES
OFSTACKER PERMlTlNG WINDTOSEPARATE FROM ELEVATED CONVEYORS. BREAKAGEIS
FINE FROM COARSE MATERIAL MINIMIZEDBYUSEOFAROCKLADDER

UNFINISHEDOR FINE AGGREGATE STORAGE FINISHEDAGGREGATESTORAGE


(DRY MATERIALS)

NOTE: IF EXCESSIVE FINES CANNOT BE AVOIDED


IN COARSE AGGREGATEW T I O N S BY STOCKPILING METHODS USED, FINISH
SCREENING PRIORTO TRANSFER To BATCH PLANT BINS WILL BE REQUIRED.

Fig. 2.1-Correct and incorrect methodsof handling and storing aggregates.

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MEASURING, MIXING, TRANSPORTING, AND PLACING CONCRETE 304R-5

DOUBLE DECK 2.2.5 Samples for testSamples representing the various


V I B R A T I N G SCREEN aggregate sizes batched shouldbe obtained as closely as pos-
sible to the point of their introduction into the concrete. The
difficulty in obtaining representative samples increases with
TO WASTE F I N E AGG.
the size of the aggregate. Therefore, sampling devicesrequire
careful design to ensure meaningful test results. Methods of

K!/
FEEDBELT
sampling aggregates are outlined indetail in ASTM D 75.
CEMENT
C.AGG.
\\ #I i
I FINE
AGG.
/
/'
C.AGG. Maintaining a running average of the results of the five to
10 previous gradationtests, dropping the results of the oldest
and adding the most recent to the total on which the average
is calculated, is good practice. This average gradation can
then be used for both quality control and for proportioning
purposes.
Fig. 2.2-Batching plant rescreen arrangement.
2.3-Cement
Provide a hard base with good drainageto prevent contami- Allcementshouldbestoredinweathertight,properly
nation from underlyingmaterial. Prevent overlap of the dif- ventilatedstructurestopreventabsorption of moisture.
ferent sizes by suitable walls orample spacing between piles. Storage facilitiesforbulk cement shouldinclude separate
Protect dry, fine aggregate from being separated by the wind compartments for each type of cement used. The interior of a
by using tarps or windbreaks. Do not contaminate stockpiles cement silo should be smooth, witha minimum bottom slope
by swinging aggregate-filled buckets or clam-shovels over of 50 degrees from the horizontalfor a circular silo and55 to
the other piles of aggregate sizes. In addition, fine aggregate 60 degrees for a rectangular silo. Silos should be equipped
that is transported over wet, unimproved haul roads canbe- with nonclogging air-diffuser flow pads through which small
come contaminatedwith clay lumps. The sourceof this con- quantities of dry, oil-free, low-pressure air canbe introduced
tamination is usually accumulationof mud between the tires intermittently at approximately 3 to 5 psi (20 to 35 kPa) to
and on mud flaps that is dislodged during dumping of the
loosen cement that has settled tightly in the silos. Storage silos
transporting unit. Bottom-dump trailers are particularly sus-
should be drawn down frequently, preferably once per month,
ceptible to causing contamination when they drive through
to prevent cement caking.
discharged piles. Clay lumps or clay balls can usually bere-
moved from the fine aggregate by placing a scalping screen Each bin compartmentfrom which cement is batched
over the batch plant bin. should include aseparate gate, screw conveyor,air slide, ro-
Keep storage bins as full as practical to minimize breakage tary feeder, or other conveyance that effectively allows both
and changes in grading as materials are withdrawn. Deposit constant flowand precise cutoff to obtain accurate batching
materials into the bins vertically and directly over the bin out- of cement.
let (Fig. 3.lb). Pay particular attention to the storage of spe- Make sure cement is transferred to the correct silo by
cial concrete aggregates, including lightweight, high-density, closely monitoring proceduresand equipment. Fugitive dust
and architectural-finish aggregates. Contamination of these should becontrolled during loading and transferring.
materials has compounding effects on other propertiesof the Bags of cement should be stackedon pallets or similar plat-
concrete in which they are to be used (Chapters 11 and 12). forms to permit proper circulationof air. For a storage period
2.2.4 Moisture control-Ensure, as practically as possible, of less than 60 days, stackthe bags no higher than 14 layers,
a uniform and stable moisture content in the aggregate as and for longer periods, no higher than seven layers. As an ad-
batched. The useof aggregates with varying amountsof free ditional precaution the oldest cement should be used fxst.
water is one of the most frequent causesfor loss of control of
concrete consistency (slump). In some cases, wetting the 2.4-Ground slag and pozzolans
coarse aggregate in the stockpiles or on the delivery belts Fly ash, ground slag, or other pozzolans should be han-
may be necessary to compensate for high absorption or to dled, conveyed, and stored in the same manner as cement.
provide cooling. When this is done, the coarse aggregates The bins, however, should be completelyseparate from ce-
should be dewatered to prevent transfer of excessive free wa- ment bins without common walls that could allowthe mate-
ter to the bins. rial to leak into the cement bin. Ensure that none of these
Provide adequate time for drainage of free water from fine materials is loaded into a cementbin on delivery.
aggregate before transferring it to the batch plant bins. The
storage time required depends primarilyon the grading and
2.5-Admixtures
particle shape of the aggregate. Experience has shown that a
free-moisture content of as high as 6%, and occasionally as Most chemical admixtures are delivered in liquid form and
high as 8%, can bestable in fine aggregate. Tighter controls, should be protected against freezing. If liquid admixtures are
however, may berequired for certain jobs.Theuse of frozen, they should be properly reblended before they are
moisture metersto indicate variations in the moisture of the used in concrete. Manufacturers' recommendations should
fine
aggregate as batched, and the use of moisture be followed.
compensators for rapidbatchweightadjustments,can Long-term storage of liquid admixtures in vented tanks
minimize the influence of moisture variations in the fine should be avoided. Evaporation of the liquid could adversely
aggregate (Van Alstine 1955, Lovern 1966). affect the performance of the admixture (AC1 212.3R).

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Table 3.1.2-Typical batching tolerances


I Batch weights greater than 30% of scale capacity I Batch weights less than 30% of scale capacity
Inmedient I Individual batchinr I Cumulative batchinr I I Cumulative batchinr
Individual batchinr
Cement and other cementitious +1%of required mass or +0.3% of scale capacity, Not less than required weightor 4% more than
materials whichever is greater required weight
% +1 INot recommended Water (by volume I
+1or weight), recommended
Not

I
+0.3% of scale capacity or
+3% of required cumula-
Aggregates, %
tive weight, whichever is
I I I I
less
Admixtum
volume
(by or weight), % I +3 INot recommended I +3 I
recommended
Not

2.6-Water and ice 3.1.2 Tolerances-Mostengineeringorganizations,both


Water for concrete productioncan besupplied fromcity or public and private,issue specifications containing detailed re-
municipal systems, wells, truck wash-out systems, or from quirements for manual,semiautomatic,partiallyautomatic,
any other source determined to be suitable. If questionable, and automatic batching equipmentfor concrete (U.S. Bureau
the quality of the water should be tested for conformance of Reclamation 1981, CorpsofEngineers 1994b, ASTM C 94,
with the requirements givenin ASTM C 94. Concrete made AASHTO 1993). Batching equipmentcurrentlymarketed
with recycled wash water can show variations in strength, will operate within theusual specified batch-weight toleranc-
setting time, and response to air-entraining and chemicalad- es whenthe equipment is maintainedin good mechanical con-
mixtures. Recycled wash water may be required to meet dition. The “Concrete Plant Standards of the Concrete Plant
chemical requirements of ASTM C 94. Compensation may Manufacturers Bureau” (Concrete Plant Manufacturers Bu-
be necessary for the solids in recycled water to maintain reau 1996a) andthe “Recommended Guide Specifications for
yield and total water contentin the concrete. Batching Equipmentand Control Systems in Concrete Batch
The water batcher and the water pipes should beleak-free. Plants” (ConcretePlant Manufacturers Bureau 1996b)are fre-
If ice is used, the ice facilities, including the equipment for quentlyused for specifying batchingand scale accuracy.
batching and transporting to the mixer, should be properly Batching tolerances commonly used aregiven in Table 3.1.2.
insulated to prevent the ice from melting before it is in the Othercommonlyusedrequirements include: beam or
mixer. scale divisions of O. 1% of total capacity and batchinginter-
lock of 0.3% of total capacity at zero balance (Concrete Plant
ManufacturersBureau1996a);
quantity of admixture
2.7-Fiber reinforcement weighed neverto be so small that 0.4% of full scale capacity
Synthetic fiber reinforcement is available inone cubic exceeds 3%of the required weight; isolation of batching
yard (one cubic meter)or multicubic yard (cubic meter) in- equipment fromplant vibration; protection of automatic con-
crements frommost manufacturers. These prepackaged units trols fromdust and weather; and frequentchecking and
should bereadily accessible so they can be added directly to cleaning of scale and beam pivot points. With good inspec-
the mixer duringthe batching process. tion and plant operation, batching equipment can be expect-
Steel fibers are packaged in various sizes; the most com- ed to perform consistently within the required tolerances.
mon are 50 or 100 lb (23 or 45 kg) increments. Appropriate
equipment should be used to disperse the fibers into the mix- 3.2-Bins and weigh batchers
er to minimize the potential for the development of fiber Batch plant bins and components should be of adequate
balls. Steel fibers should be stored so that they are not ex- size to accommodate the productive capacity of the plant.
posed to moisture or other foreign matter. For more informa- Compartments in bins should separate the various concrete
tion on working with steel fibers, see AC1 544.3R. materials, and the shape and arrangement of aggregate bins
should be conduciveto the prevention of aggregate segrega-
CHAPTER 3-MEASUREMENT AND BATCHING tion andbreakage. The aggregatebins should be designedso
3.1-General requirements that material cannot hang up in the bins or spill from one
3.1.1 Objectives-An importantobjectiveinproducing compartment to another.
concrete is to achieve uniformity and homogeneity, as indi- Weigh batchers should be charged with easily operated
cated by physical properties such as unit weight, slump, air clamshell or undercut radial-type bin gates. Gates used to
content, strength, and air-free unit weight of mortar in individ- charge semiautomatic and fully automatic batchers should
ual batches and successive batches of the same mixture pro- be power-operated and equipped with a suitable dribble con-
portions (U.S. Department of Reclamation 1981, U.S. trol to allow the desired weighing accuracy. Weigh batchers
Department of Commerce 1966, Bozarth 1967,ASTM C 94, should be accessible for obtaining representative samples,
Corps of Engineers 1994b). Duringmeasurement operations, and they should be arrangedto obtain the proper sequencing
aggregates should be handled so that the desired grading is and blending of aggregates during chargingof the mixer.
maintained, and all materials should be measured within the Illustrations showing proper and improper design and ar-
tolerances acceptablefor desired reproducibility of the select- rangement of batch plant bins and weigh batchers are given
ed concretemixture. Another important objective of success- in Fig. 3.1.
ful batching is the proper sequencing and blending of the
ingredients (U.S. Department of Commerce 1966, Bozarth 3.3-Plant type
1967). Visual observation of each material being batched is Factors affecting the choice of the batching systems are:
helpful in achieving this objective. 1) size of job; 2) required production rate; and 3) required

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MEASURING, MIXING, TRANSPORTING, AND PLACING CONCRETE 304R-7

U N I F O R M I T OYCF O N C R E T I EAS F F E C T E B0TY H AE R R A N G E M E N T


OF B A T C H E R - S U P P L BY I N AS N O W E I G H B A T C H E R S

b.

I N C O R R EC CO TR R E C T I N C O R R E C TC O R R E C T

F U L L BOTTOM S L O P I N G 50' F L PBTO T T O EMI N S DR THOSE WITH


UNY M A T E R I A L DROPS V E R T I C A L L Y C H U T I N GM A T E R I A LI N T OB I N
FROMHORIZONTUL IN ALL ARRPNGEMENT OF SLOPES HPVlNG CORNERS I N T O B I N OIRECTLYOVERTHE ON UPNN G L M E .A T E R I P L
D I R E C T I O N S TO
OUTLET
WITH DR A R E ASSU CTHH UPTLML P T E R I PILN D I S C H U R G EO P E N I N GP E R M I T T I N G F A L L I N G OTHERTHPNOIRECTLY
CORNERS OF B I N PROPERLY BINS
WILL NOT
FLOW
REUOILY THROUGH DISCHURGEOF MORE GENERALLY OVEROPENINGNOTALWAYSIINI-
ROUNDED SO T H AMLTOLaU- T L W
E Tl T H O lSJ H
T OVELING. UN lFORl4 MUTER I U L . FORM ns o ISCHARGED.
T E R I A L MOVES TOWPRD
THE
OUTLET.

C.
GRUVI
SLOPE OF AGGREGATE B I N BOTTOMS
L -
d.""::lNGS&$ I y/
AGGREGATE B I NF I L L I N G

CUMULUTIVE
-HEXAGONAL BATCHER
OR SQUARE (CEMENT
SHAPE WEIGHED
SEPARATELY)

-SUSPENDED
BATCHER

R E F E R R E D A R R A N G E M E N AT C C E P T A B L EA R R A N G E M E N 1 P O O R A R R A N G E M E N T S

UUTOMATICWEIGHINGOFEPCHINGREOIEPT UGGREGATEUUTOMPTICPLLYWEIGHEDSEPPRPTELI EITHER OF n B o v E CLOSE G R O U P I N G S OF B I N


I NI N D I V I D U A LW E I G HB P T C H E R S , O I S C H P R G - OR CUMULUTIVELY. CEMENT WEIGHED SEPARUTEL) DISCHARGESWHICHCAUSELONGSLOPES OF
INGTHROUGHCOLLECTINGCONEDIRECTLY B A T C H E R SI N S U L U T E OF R O MP L U N TV I B R A T I O N . M U T E R I U ILNE I N SR E S U L TI NS E P A R U T I O N
INTO MIXER. DISCHARGE OF CEMENT BATCH- WEIGHT R E C O R D I N G EUUIPMENT P L n l m Y VISIBLE PNO I M P A I R E DU N I F O R M I T Y .
ER CONTROLLED SO THRT CEMENT I S FLOWING T O OPERPTOR. PROPER SEQUENCE OF DUMPING
W H I L E UGGREGUTE I S B E I N GD E L I V E R E D . MUTERIPLS NECESSARY. AVOID AGGREGATE CON-
B A T C H E R SI N S U L A T E DF R O MP L A N VT I E R U T I O N . STPNTLYFLOWING OVER TOP OF M P T E R I P LI N
WILLPERMITOVERLOUDCORRECTION. BINSW . ILL NOTPERMIT ( )RRECTING OVERLOUOS.

. LENO
VIEW
- S I D EV I E W

ENDVIEW-

-
P R E F E R R AE R
D R A N G E M E N T A C C E P T A B L AE R R A N G E M E N T

QGGREGUTEAUTOMPTICPLLYWEIGHEDCUMULATIVELY,ANUCURRIED UGGREGATE AUTOMATICALLYWEIGHEO CUMULATIVELY. CEMENT


WEIGHED
TO M I X E R ON CONVEYOR B E L T . CEMENT
WEIGHED
SEPARATELY UNO SEPPRUTELY AND
DISCHPRGE
CONTROLLED SO THAT
CEMENT I S FLOW-
DISCHPAGE I S CONTROLLED so THUT CEMENT I S FLOWING WHILE INGWHILEUGGREGATE I S B E I N GD E L I V E R E D .
AGGREGRTE I S B E I N GD E L I V E R E D .

Fig. 3.1-Correct and incorrect methodsof batching.

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304R-8 AC1 COMMITTEE REPORT

standards of batching performance. The production capacity the reading of the scale within 0.1% of the scale capacity or
of a batch plant is determined by a combination of the ma- one increment of any volumetric batching device. A digital
terials handling system, bin size, batcher size, and mixer batch-documentation recorder should record information on
size and number. each material in the mixture along withthe concrete mixture
Available weigh batch equipment falls into four generalcat- identification, size of batch, and production facility identifi-
egories: manual; partially automatic; semiautomatic; andfully cation. Required information can be preprinted, written, or
automatic (Concrete Plant Manufacturers Bureau 1996a). stamped on the document. The recorder should identify the
3.3.1 Manual weigh batching-As the name implies, all load by a batch-count number or aticket serial number. The
operations of weighing and
batching of the concrete recorder, ifinterlocked to anautomaticbatchingsystem,
ingredients are controlled manually.Manual plants are shouldshowa single indication of all batchingsystems
acceptable for small jobs having low
batching-rate meetingzeroorempty balance interlocks. All recorders
requirements.As the job size increases, automation of should produce two or more tickets containing the informa-
batching operations is rapidly justified. Attempts to increase tion stated previously and also leave space forthe identifica-
the capacity of manual plants by rapid batching can result in tion of the job or project, location of placement,sand
excessive weighing inaccuracies. moisture content, delivery vehicle, driver’s signature, pur-
3.3.2 Partially automaticweigh batching-A partially au- chaser’s representative’s signature, and the amount of water
tomatic system consists of a combination of batching con- added at the project site.
trols where at least one of the controls for weighing either 3.3.4.2 Individualautomatic weighbatching-This
cement or aggregates iseither semiautomatic or automatic as systemprovidesseparate scales andbatchers for each
described as follows.Weighing of the remaining materials is aggregate size and for everyothermaterialbatched. The
manually controlled and interlockingof the batching system weighing cycle is started bya single start switch, and
to any degree is optional. This system canalso lack accuracy individual batchers are charged simultaneously. Interlocks
when rapid batching is required. for interrupting weighing and discharge cycles when
3.3.3 Semiautomatic weigh batching-In this system, aggre- tolerances are exceeded, mixture selectors, aggregate
gate-bin gates for charging are opened by manually operated moisture meters and compensators, and recorders differ only
buttons or switches. Gatesare closed automatically whenthe slightly from those described forcumulative automatic
designated weight of material has been delivered. With sat- batching systems.
isfactory plant maintenance, the batching accuracy should 3.3.5 Volumetric batching-When aggregates or cementi-
meet the tolerancesgivenin Section 3.1.2. The system tious materials are batched by volume, it is normally a con-
should contain interlocks that prevent batcher charging and tinuous
operation
coupled
with
continuous
mixing.
discharging from occurring simultaneously. In other words, Volumetric batching and continuous mixing are covered in
when the batcher is being charged, it cannot bedischarged, Chapter 13.
and whenit is being discharged, it cannot becharged. Visual
confirmation of the scale reading for each material being 3.4-Cementitious materials
weighed is essential. 3.4.1 Batching-Forhigh-volumeproductionrequiring
3.3.4 Automatic weigh batching-Automatic weigh batch- rapid andaccuratebatching,bulkcementitiousmaterials
ing of all materials is activated by asingle starter switch. In- should be weighed with automatic,rather than semiautomat-
terlocks, however, interrupt the batching cycle when the ic or manual, equipment. All equipment should provide ac-
scale does not return to 0.3% of zero balance or when preset cess for inspection and permit samplingat any time. The bins
weighing tolerances detailed in Section 3.1.2 are exceeded. and weigh batchers shouldbe equippedwith aeration devic-
3.3.4.1 Cumulative automatic
weigh
batching- es, vibrators, or both to aid in the smooth and complete dis-
Interlocked sequential controls are required for this type of charge of the batch. Return to zero and weighing tolerance
batching. Weighing will not begin, and it will be automatically interlocks described inSection 3.1.2 should be used.Cement
interrupted when preset tolerances in any of the successive should be batched separately and kept separate from all in-
weighings exceed values such as those given in Section 3.1.2. gredients before discharging. When both cement and poz-
The charging cycle will not begin when the batcher discharge zolan orslag are to be batched, separate silos should be used.
gate is open, and the batcher discharge cycle will not begin They canbe batched cumulatively, however,if the cement is
when batcher charging gates are open or when any of the weighed first.
indicated material weights is not within applicable tolerances. 3.4.2 Discharging-Effective precautions should be taken
Presetting of desiredbatchweightsiscompletedbysuch to prevent loss of cementitious materials during mixer charg-
devices as punched cards, digital switches, or rotating dials ing. At multiple-stop plants where materials are charged sep-
and computers. Setting of weights, starting the batch cycle, arately, losses can be minimized by
discharging the
and dischargingthe batch are all manually controlled. Mixture cementitiousmaterialsthrougharubber drop chute. At
and batch-sizeselectors, aggregate moisture meters, manually one-stop plants, cement and pozzolan can be successfully
controlled fine aggregate moisture compensators, and graphic charged along with the aggregate through rubber telescopic
or digital devices for recording the batchweight of each dropchutes. For plant mixers, a pipe should be used to dis-
material are required for good plant control (VanAlstine charge the cementitious materials to a point near the center
1955; Lovern 1966). This type of batching system provides of the mixer after the water and aggregates have started to
greater accuracy for high-speed production than either the enter the mixer. Proper and consistent sequencingand blend-
manual or semiautomatic systems. ing of the variousingredients into the mixerduring the
A digital recorder can have a single measuring device for charging operation will contribute significantly toward the
each scale or a series of measuring devices canrecord on the maintenance of batch-to-batch uniformity and, perhaps, re-
same tape or ticket. This type of recorder should reproduce duced mixing time when confirmed by mixer performance

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MEASURING, MIXING, TRANSPORTING, AND PLACING CONCRETE 304R-9

tests (U.S. Department of Commerce1966,Gaynor and The operating mechanismin the water measuring devices
Mullarky 1975,ASTM C 94). should besuch that leakage (dribbling or watertrail) will not
occur when the valve is closed. Water tankson truck mixers
3.5-Water and ice measurement or other portable mixers should be constructed so that the in-
3.5.1 Batching equipment- large jobs and in central dicating device will register, within the specified accuracy,
batching and mixing plants where high-volume production is the quantity of water discharged, regardless of the inclina-
required, accurate water and ice measurement can onlybe ob- tion of the mixer.
tainedby the use of automaticweighbatchersormeters.
Equipment and methods used should, under all operating con- 3.6-Measurement of admixtures
ditions, be capableof routine measurement within the1%tol- Batching tolerances (Section 3.1.2) and charging and dis-
erance specified in Section 3.1.2. Tanks or vertical cylinders charge interlocks described previouslyfor other mixture in-
with a center-siphon discharge can be permitted as an auxil- gredients should also be provided for admixtures. Batching
iary part of the weighing, but should not be used as the direct and dispensing equipment should be readily capable of cali-
means of measuring water. For accurate measurement,dig- a bration. When timer-activated dispensers are used for large-
ital gallon (liter) meter should be used. All equipment for volumeadmixtures suchas calcium chloride, acontainer
water measurement should be designed for easy calibration with a sight tube calibrated to show admixture quantity (usu-
so that accuracy can be quickly verified. Ice-batching equip- ally referred to as a “calibration tube”) should be usedto al-
ment should beinsulated to avoid meltingthe ice. low visual confirmation of the volume being batched. In
3.5.2 Aggregate moisture determination and compensa- practice, calibration tubes are usually installed for all liquid
tion-Measurement of the correct total mixing water de- admixtures.
pends on knowing the quantity and variation of moisture in Refer to AC1212.3R for additional information on recom-
the aggregate (particularly in the fine aggregate) as it is mended practices in the use and dispensing of admixtures in
batched. Aggregatethat is not saturated surface dry will ab- concrete.
sorb mixture water from the concrete. Fine aggregate mois-
ture meters are frequently usedin plants and when properly 3.7-Measurement of materials for small jobs
maintained do satisfactorily indicate changes in fine aggre- If the concrete volume on a job is small, establishing and
gate moisture content. Use of moisture metersin fine sizes of maintaining a batch plant and mixer at the construction site
coarse aggregateis also recommended if these materials vary may not be practical. In such cases, using ready-mixed con-
in moisture content. Moisture meters should be calibrated to crete or mobile volumetric batching and continuous mixing
oven-dried samples for optimum consistency of readings. equipment may be preferable. If neither is available, precau-
Moisture meters should be recalibrated monthly or whenever tions should be taken to properly measure and batch concrete
the slump of the concrete producedis inconsistent. materials mixedon the job site. Bags of cementitious materials
Moisture-compensating equipment can also be used that should be protectedfrommoisture and fractional bags
can reproportion waterand fine aggregateweights for a should not be used unless they are weighed. The water-mea-
change in aggregate moisture content, with a single setting suring device should be accurate and dependable, and the
adjustment. Compensators are usually used on the fine ag- mixer capacity should not be exceeded.
gregate, but occasionally are also used on the small coarse
aggregate size fractions. The moisture setting on the com- 3.8-Other considerations
pensators is made manually with calibration dials, buttons, In addition to accurate measurement of materials, correct
or levers. The use of moisture compensatorsis recommend- operating procedures shouldalso be usedif concrete unifor-
ed when used in conjunction with calibrated moisture meters mity is to be maintained. Ensure that the batched materials
or regularly performed conventional moisture-controltests. are properly sequencedand blended so that they are charged
Under these conditions, compensators can be useful tools for uniformly into the mixture (U.S. Department of Commerce
maintaining satisfactory control of the fine aggregate and the 1966;Bozarth 1967). Arrange the batching plant control
mixing water content. room, if possible, with the plant operator’s station located in
Mostcomputer-controlledbatchingsystemsnowhave a position where the operator canclosely and clearly see the
software that interlocks moisture meters or compensating scales and measuring devices during batching of the con-
equipment with the measuring of fine aggregate and water. crete, as well as the charging, mixing,and discharging of the
Readings are taken automatically and incorporated into the mixtures without leavingthe operating console. Some com-
batching of these ingredients. Some systems work with an mon batching deficiencies to be avoided are: overlapping of
individual reading, whereas others can continuously record batches; loss of materials; loss or hanging up of a portion of
moisture as the fine aggregate is batched. Regardless of the one batch, or its inclusion with another.
system used, the software should impose user-defined upper
and lower moisturelimits and alert the operator when mois- CHAPTER 4-MIXING AND TRANSPORTING
ture values are outside those limits. Proper maintenanceand 4.1-General requirements
calibration of equipment is essential to satisfactory perfor- Thorough mixing is essential for the productionof uniform,
mance and consistent production of concrete. quality concrete. Therefore, equipment and methods should be
3.5.3 Total mixingwater-In addition to the accurate capable of effectively mixing concrete materials containing
weighing of added water, uniformity in the measurement of the largest specified aggregate to produce uniform mixtures of
total mixing water involves control of such additional water the lowest slump practical for the work. Recommendations on
sources as mixer wash water, ice, and free moisture in aggre- maximum aggregate size and slump to be used for various
gates. One specified tolerance (ASTM C 94)for accuracy in types of construction are given in AC1 21 1.1 for concretes
*
measurement of total mixing water from all sources is 3%. made with ASTM C 150 and C 595M cements, and in AC1

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304R-10 AC1 COMMITTEE REPORT

223R for concretes made with ASTM C 845 expansive hy- mixergenerally usedfor roller-compacted concrete and
draulic cements. Sufficient mixing, transporting, and placing cement-treated base. Aggregates,cement, and fly ash are
capacity should be provided so that unfinished concrete lifts measured by weight or volume and fedinto the charging end
can be maintained plastic and free of cold joints. of the pugmillbyvariable-speed belts. Water is metered
either from an attached tank or an outside source. Mixing is
4.2-Mixing equipment accomplishedbypaddlesattached to one ortwo rotating
Mixers can be stationary parts of central mixture plants or horizontal shafts. The mixture is lifted and folded as it is
of portable plants. Mixerscan also be truckmounted. moved from the charging end to the discharging end of the
Satisfactorily designed mixers have a bladefinorarrangement pugmill, where the completed mixture is discharged onto an
anddrumshape that ensureanend-to-endexchange of elevated conveyor belt for easy loading into trucks. These
materials parallel to the axis of rotation or a rolling, folding, types of continuous-feedmixerscan be used for normal
and spreading movementof the batch over itself asit is being concretes as well. These would be considered semimobile
mixed. For additional descriptions of some of the various plants as they are mounted on wheels and can be broken down
mixer types, refer to the publications of the Concrete Plant for transport. Refer to Chapter 13 for additional information
ManufacturersBureau (1996~)and of the TruckMixer on continuous mixing equipment.
Manufacturers Bureau (1996). 4.2.7 Separatepaste mixing-Experimentalworkhas
The more common types of mixing equipment are: shown that the mixing of cement and waterinto a paste before
4.2.1 Tilting drum mixer-This is a revolving drum mixer combining these materials with aggregates can increase the
that discharges by tilting the axis of the drum. Inthe mixing compressive strength of the resulting concrete (Mass 1989).
mode, the drum axis can be either horizontal or at an angle. The paste is generallymixedinahigh-speed,shear-type
4.2.2 Nontilting drum mixer-Thisis a revolving drum mixer at a wlcm of 0.30 to 0.45 by mass.The premixed paste
mixer that charges, mixes, and discharges with the axis of the is then blended with aggregates and any remaining batch wa-
drum horizontal. ter, and final mixing is completed in conventional concrete
4.2.3 Vertical shaft mixer-This is often called a turbine mixing equipment.
orpan-typemixer.Mixingisaccomplishedwith rotating
blades or paddles mounted on avertical shaft in either a sta- 4.3-Central-mixed concrete
tionary pan or one rotating in the opposite direction to the Central-mixed concrete is mixed completely in a station-
blades. The batch can be easily observed and rapidly adjust- ary mixer and thentransferred to another piece of equipment
ed, if necessary. Rapid mixing and low overall profile are for delivery. This transporting
equipmentcan be a
other significant advantages. This type of mixer does an ex- ready-mixed truck operating as an agitator, or an open-top
cellent job of mixing relatively dry concretes and is often truck body with or without an agitator. The tendency of con-
used for laboratory mixing and by manufacturers of concrete crete to segregate limits the distance it can be hauled in trans-
products. porters not equipped with an agitator. If a truck mixer or a
4.2.4 Pugmill mixers-These mixers are defined in AC1 truck body with an agitator is used for central-mixed con-
116R as“a mixer having astationary cylindrical mixing com- crete, ASTM C94 limits the volume of concrete chargedinto
partment, with the axis of the cylinder horizontal, and one or the truck to 80% of the drum or truck volume.
more rotating horizontal shafts to which mixing blades or pad- Sometimes the central mixer will partially mix the con-
dles are attached.” Although this isanaccurate definition, crete with the final mixing and transporting being done ina
there are many types, styles, and configurations. Pugmills can revolving-drumtruckmixer.Thisprocess is often called
have single or double shafts. They can have a curved blade “shrink mixing” as it reduces the volume of the as-charged
configuration or a paddle configuration that is vertical to the mixture. When using shrinkmixing, ASTM C 94 limits the
shaft. In either case, they are designed to fold and move the volume of concrete charged into the truck to 63% of the
concrete from oneend of the pugmill to the other. drum volume.
These mixers are suitable for harsh, stiff concrete mix-
tures. They have primarily been used in the production of 4.4-Truck-mixed concrete
concrete block units, cement-treated bases, and roller com- Truck mixing is a process by which previously propor-
pacted concrete. Newer versions of these mixers are used in tioned concrete materialsfrom a batch plantare charged into
the production of normal- and high-strength concrete, with a ready-mixed truckfor mixing and delivery tothe construc-
slumps of up to 8 in. (200 mm). tion project. To achieve thorough mixing, total absolute vol-
4.2.5 Truckmixers-There are twotypes of revolving ume of all ingredients batched in a revolving drum truck
drum truck mixerscurrently in use-rear discharge and front mixer should not exceed 63% of the drum volume (Truck
discharge. The rear-discharge, inclined-axis mixer predomi- Mixer Manufacturers Bureau 1996; ASTM C 94).
nates. In both, fins attached to the drum mix concrete in the
mixing mode and also discharge theconcrete when drum ro- 4.5-Charging and mixing
tation is reversed. The method and sequence of charging mixers is of great
4.2.6 Continuous mixingequipment-Two types
of importanceindeterminingwhether the concrete will be
continuous mixing equipment are available. In the first type, properly
mixed.For central plant mixers, obtaining
a
all materials come together at the base of the mixing trough. preblendingorribboning effect bychargingcementand
Mixing is accomplishedbya spiral blade rotated at a aggregates simultaneously asthe stream of materials flow into
relatively high speed inside the enclosed trough, which is the mixer is essential (U.S. Department of Commerce 1966;
inclined at 15 to 25 degrees fromthe horizontal. These canbe Bozarth 1967; Gaynor and Mullarky1975).
mobile,mounted either onatruck chassis ora trailer, or In truck mixers, all loading procedures should be designed
stationary. The secondtype is acontinuous-feedpugmill to avoid packing ofthe material, particularly sand and cement,

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MEASURING, MIXING, TRANSPORTING, AND PLACING CONCRETE 304R-11

in the head of the drum during charging. The probability of mixing speed for approximately 30 revolutions to enhance
packing is decreased by placing approximately 10% of the uniformity.
coarse aggregate and water in the mixer drum before the Mixer charging, mixing, and agitating speeds vary with
sand and cement. each truck and mixer-drum manufacturer. ASTM C 94 re-
Generally, approximately 1/4 to 1/3 of the water should be quires that these speeds and the mixing and agitating capac-
addedto the dischargeend of the drum afterallother ity of each drum be shownon a plate attached to the unit.
ingredients have been charged. Water-chargingpipes should Maximum transportation time can be extendedby several
be of proper design and of sufficient size so that water enters different procedures. These procedures are often called dry
at a point well inside the mixer and charging is complete batching and evolved to accommodate long hauls and un-
within the first 25% of the mixing time (Gaynor andMullarky avoidable delays in placing by attempting to postpone the
1975). Refer to Section 4.5.3.1 for additional discussion of mixing of cement with water. When cement and damp aggre-
mixing water. gate comein contact with each other, however, free moisture
The effectiveness of chemical admixtures will vary de- on the aggregate results in some cement hydration. There-
pending upon when they are added during the mixing se- fore, materials cannot be heldin this manner indefinitely.
quence.Follow the recommendations of the admixture Inonemethod, the dry materials are batched into the
supplier regarding when to add a particular product. Once ready-mixed truck andtransported to the job site where all of
the appropriate timein the sequence is determined, chemical the mixing water is added. Water should be added under
admixtures should be charged to the mixer at the same point pressure, preferably at both the front and rear of the drum
in the mixing sequence for every batch. Liquid admixtures with it revolving at mixing speed, and then mixing is com-
should be charged with the water or on dampsand, and pow- pleted with the usual 70to 100 revolutions. The total volume
dered admixtures should be ribboned into the mixer with of concrete that can be transported in truck mixers by this
other dry ingredients. When more than one admixture is method is the same as for regular truck mixing, approximate-
used, each should be batchedseparately unless premixingis ly 63% of the drum volume (Truck Mixer Manufacturers Bu-
allowed by the manufacturer. reau 1996, ASTM C94).
Synthetic fiber reinforcement can beadded any time dur- Another approachto accommodate longhauls is touse ex-
ing the mixing processas long as at least 5 min of mixing oc- tended-set admixtures. The concrete is mixed and treated
curs after the addition of the synthetic fibers. with the admixture before leavingthe plant. The admixture
4.5.1 Central mixing-Procedures for charging central dosage is typically selected to wear off shortly after the con-
mixers are less restrictive than those necessaryfor truck mix- crete arrives at the placement site, allowing the concrete to
ers because a revolving-drum central mixer is not chargedas set normally. In some instances, an accelerator is added to
full as a truck mixer and the blades and mixing action are activate the concrete once it arrives at the placement site.
quite different. In a truck mixer,there is little folding action Concrete has been transported over 200 miles (320 km) us-
compared withthat in a stationary mixer. Batchsize, howev- ing this technique.
er, should not exceed the manufacturer’s rated capacity as 4.5.3 Water
marked on the mixer nameplate. 4.5.3.1 Mixing water-The water required for proper
The mixing time required should be based on the ability of concrete consistency (slump) is affected by variables such as
the mixer to produce uniform concrete throughout the batch amount and rate of mixing, lengthof haul, time of unloading,
and from batch to batch. Manufacturers’ recommendations and ambient temperatureconditions. In cool weather,or for
and other typical recommendations, such as 1 min for 1 yd3 short hauls and prompt delivery, problems such as loss or
(3/4 m3) plus 1/4 min for each additional cubic yard (cubic variation in slump, excessive mixing water requirements,
meter) of capacity can be usedas satisfactory guides for es- and discharging, handling, and placingproblems rarely
tablishing initial mixing time. Final mixing times, however, occur. The reverseis true, however, when rate of delivery is
should be based on the results of mixer performance tests slow or irregular, haul distances are long, and weather is
made at frequent intervals throughout the duration of the job warm.Loss of workabilityduring warm weathercanbe
(U.S. Bureau of Reclamation1981; U.S. Department of minimized by expediting delivery and placement andby
Commerce 1966;ASTM C 94; CRD-C 55). The mixing time controlling the concrete temperature. Good communication
should be measured fromthe time all ingredients are in the between the batching plant and the placement site is essential
mixer. Batchtimers with audible indicators used in combina- for coordination of delivery. It may be necessary to use a
tion withinterlocks that prevent under-or over-mixing of the retarder to prolong the time the concrete will respond to
batch and discharge before completion of a preset mixing vibration after it is placed. When feasible, all mixing water
time are provided on automatic plants and are recommended should beadded at the central or batch plant. In hot weather,
on manual plants. The mixer should be designed for starting however, it is better to withhold some of the mixing water
and stopping underfull-load conditions. until the mixer arrives at the job. With the remaining water
4.5.2 Truck mixingaenerally, 70 to 100 revolutions at added, an additional 30 revolutions at mixingspeed is
mixing speed are specified for truck mixing. ASTM C 94 required to adequately incorporatethe additional water into
limits the total number of revolutions to a maximumof 300. the mixture. When loss of slump or workability cannot be
This limits the grinding of soft aggregates, loss of slump, offset by these measures, the proceduresdescribed in
wear on the mixer, and other undesirable effects that can Section 4.5.2. should be considered.
occurinhot weather.Finalmixingcanbedone at the 4.5.3.2 Addition of water on the job-The maximum
producer’s yard, or, more commonly,at the project site. specified or approvedwlcm should never be exceeded.
If additional time elapses after mixing and before discharge, If all the water allowed by the specification or approved
the drum speed is reduced to the agitation speed or stopped. mixture proportions has not been addedthe at start of mixing,
Then, before discharging, the mixer should be operated at it may be permissible, depending upon project specifica-

COPYRIGHT American Concrete Institute


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304R-12 AC1 COMMITTEE REPORT

tions, to addthe remaining allowable water at the point of de- by using heated water, aggregates, or both. Recommenda-
livery. Once part of a batch has been unloaded, however, it tions for control of concrete temperatures are discussed in
becomes impractical to determine what wlcm is produced by detail in AC1 305R and 306R.
additional water.
The production of concrete of excessive slump or adding 4.7-Discharging
water in excess of the proportioned wlcm to compensate for Mixers should be capable of discharging concrete of the
slump loss resulting from delays in delivery or placement lowest slump suitable for the structure being constructed,
should be prohibited. Persistent requests for the addition of without segregation(separation of coarse aggregate from the
water should beinvestigated. mortar). Before discharge of concrete transported in truck
Where permitted, a high-range water-reducing admixture mixers, the drum should again be rotated at mixing speedfor
(superplasticizer) can be added to the concrete to increase about 30 revolutions to reblend possible stagnantspots near
slump while maintaining low a wlcm (Cement and Concrete the discharge endinto the batch.
Association 1976; Prestressed Concrete Institute 1981). Ad-
dition of the admixture can be made by the concrete supplier 4.8-Mixer performance
or the contractor by a variety of techniques. When this ad- The performance of mixers is usually determined by a
mixture is used, vibration for consolidation is reduced. In series of uniformity tests made on samples taken from two or
walls and sloping formedconcrete, however, somevibration three locations within the concrete batch after it has been
is necessary to remove air trapped in the form. Useof this ad- mixed for a given time period(U.S. Bureau of Reclamation
mixture canalso increase formpressure. 1981,ASTMC 94and CRD-C 55). Mixerperformance
4.5.3.3 Wash water-Most producers find it necessary requirements are based on allowable differences in test
to rinse off the rear fins of the mixer between loads and wash results of samples fromany two locations or a comparisonof
and discharge the entire mixer only atthe end of the day. Hot individual locations with the average of all locations. The
weather and unusualmixtureproportionscan require procedures publishedby Gaynor and Mullarky (1975)are an
washing and discharge of wash water after every load. Rinse excellent reference.
water shouldnotremain in the mixer unless it canbe Among the many tests used to check mixer performance,
accurately compensated for in the succeeding batch. Rinse the following are the most common: air content; slump; unit
water can be removed from the mixer by reversing the drum weight of air-free mortar;coarseaggregate content; and
for 5 to 10 revolutions at medium speed. Pollution-control compressive strength.
regulations make it increasingly difficult to wash out after Another importantaspect of mixer performance is
every loadand have createdan interest in systems to reclaim batch-to-batchuniformity of the concrete, whichisalso
and reuse both wash water andreturned concreteaggregates. affected by the uniformity of materials and their
ASTM C 94 describes the reuse of wash water based on measurement as well asby the efficiency of the mixer.
prescribed tests. Particular attention is necessary when ad- Visualobservation of the concreteduringmixing and
mixtures are being used because the required dosages can discharge fromthe mixer is an important aid in maintaining
change dramatically. When wash water is used, admixtures a uniform mixture,particularly with a uniformconsistency.
should be batched into a limited quantity of clean water or Some consistency-recordingmeters, such as those operating
onto damp sand. from the amperage draw on the electric motor drives for
Wash water canalso be treated using extended-set admix- revolving-drum mixers, have also proven to be useful. The
tures. In this case, a limited amount of wash water is added most positive control method for maintaining batch-to-batch
to a drum after all solid materials are discharged. Typically uniformity, however, is a regularly scheduled program of
50 gal. (200 L) instead of the normal 500 gal. (2000 L) are tests of the fresh concrete, including unit weight, air content,
used. The admixture is added tothe drum and the drum is ro- slump, and temperature. All plants should havefacilities and
tated to ensure that all surfaces are coated. This treated wash equipment for conveniently obtaining representative
water can be left in the truck overnight or overa weekend. The samples of concrete for routine control tests in accordance
next morning or after the weekend, concrete can be batched with ASTMC 172. Although strength tests provide an
using the treated wash water part as of the mixing water. Giv- excellent measure of the efficiency of the quality control
en the small amount of the admixture usedfor this application, procedures that are employed, the strength-test results are
use of an activating admixture isnot usually required. available too late to be of practical use in controlling day-to-
day production.
4.6-Mixture temperature
Batch-to-batch uniformity of concrete from a mixer,par- 4.9-Maintenance
ticularly with regard to slump, water requirement, and air Mixers should be properly maintained to prevent mortar
content, also depends on the uniformity of the concrete tem- and dry material leakage. Inner mixer surfaces should be
perature. Controlling the maximum and minimum concrete kept clean and worn blades should be replaced. Mixers not
temperatures throughoutall seasons of the year is important. meeting the performance tests referenced in Section 4.8
Concrete can be cooled using ice, chilled mixing water, should be taken out of service until necessary maintenance
chilled aggregates, or liquid nitrogen. In-place concrete tem- and repair corrects their deficient performance.
peratures as low as 40 F (4 C) are not unusual.
Liquid nitrogen at a temperature of -320 F (-196 C) can 4.10-General considerations for transporting
beused to chill mixture water, aggregates, or concrete concrete
(Anon. 1977). Liquid nitrogenhas been injected directly into 4.10.1 General-Concrete can be transported by a variety
central mixers, truck mixers, or both toachieve required con- of methods and equipment, suchas pipeline, hose, conveyor
crete temperatures (Anon. 1988). Concrete can be warmed belts, truck mixers, open-top truck bodieswith and without

COPYRIGHT American Concrete Institute


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MEASURING, MIXING, TRANSPORTING, AND PLACING CONCRETE 304R-13

agitators, or buckets hauled by truck or railroad car. The 4.1 1-Returned concrete
method of transportation should efficiently deliver the con- Disposal of returned concreteis becoming more and more
crete to the point of placement withoutlosing mortar or sig- difficult for some producers. Two approaches for alleviating
nificantly altering the concrete’s desired properties this problem are currently being used:
associated with wlcm, slump, air content, and homogeneity. 4.11.1 Admixtures-Extended-set admixtures weredevel-
Various conditions should be considered when selecting a oped to address the need to holdreturned concreteovernight.
method of transportation, such as: mixture ingredients and These admixtures are also used to hold concrete during the
proportions; type and accessibility of placement; required day for reuse on the same day.
delivery capacity; location of batch plant; and weather con- The appropriate dosageof admixture is determined by the
ditions. These conditions candictate the type of transporta- mixture characteristics, the quantity of concrete to be stabi-
tion best suited for economically obtaining quality in-place lized or held, and the length of time that the concrete is to be
concrete. held. Depending on the length of time that the concrete is
4.10.2 Revolving drum-In this method, the truck mixer held, an accelerating admixture may be required. The stabi-
(Section 4.2.5) serves as an agitating transportation unit. The lized concrete is usually blended with freshly batched con-
drum is rotated at charging speed during loading andis re- crete before beingsold.
duced to agitating speed or stopped after loading is complete. Various methods have been developed by concrete pro-
The elapsed time before discharging the concrete can bethe ducers to handle and determine the volume of returned con-
same as for truck mixing and the volume carried can be in- crete. In some cases, all returned concrete is transferred at
creased to 80% of the drum capacity(ASTM C 94). the end of a day to a single mixer for treatment andholding.
4.10.3 Truck body with and without an agitator-Units Other producers have elected to handle the concrete on a
used in this form of transportation usually consist ofan truck-by-truck basis.
open-top body mounted on a truck, although bottom-dump 4.11.2 Mechanical methods-Equipment has been devel-
trucks have been used successfully. The metal body should oped to process plastic, unused concrete returnedto a plant.
have smooth, streamlined contact surfaces and is usually de- This equipment typically involves washing the concrete to
signed for discharge of the concrete at the rear when the body separate it into two or more components. Someor all of the
is tilted. A dischargegate and vibrators mounted on the body components are then reused in concreteproduction.The
should be provided at the point of discharge for control of components can include coarse and fine aggregate, com-
flow. An agitator, if the truck body isequipped with one, aids bined aggregate, and a slurry of cement and water, some-
in the discharge and ribbon-blends the concrete as it is un- times called gray water.
loaded. Water should neverbe added to concrete in the truck Although the processed components can often be reusedin
body because no mixingis performed by the agitator. new concrete, a concrete producer should take care to ensure
Use of protective covers for truck bodies during periods of that these materials will not adversely affect the new con-
inclement weather, proper cleaning of all contact surfaces, crete. Variations in aggregate grading canoccur due to deg-
and smooth haul roadscontribute significantly to the quality radation of the previously used aggregate during mixingor
and operational efficiency of this form of transportation. The reclaiming. Use of the slurry can affect strength and setting
maximum delivery time specified is usually 30 to 45 min, al- time. Conduct appropriatetesting to verify that the concrete
thoughweather conditionscan require shorter or permit meets project requirements.
longer times.
Trucks that have to operate on muddy haul roads should CHAPTER 5-PLACING CONCRETE
not be allowed to discharge directly on the grade or drive 5.1-General considerations
through the discharged pile of concrete. This chapter presents guidelines for transferring concrete
4.10.4 Concrete buckets on trucks or railroadcars-This from the transporting equipment to its final position in the
is a common method of transporting concrete fromthe batch structure.
plant to a location close to the placement areaof a mass con- Placement of concrete is accomplished with buckets, hop-
crete placement. A crane then lifts the bucket to the final pers,manualormotor-propelledbuggies,chutesanddrop
point of placement. Occasionally,transfer cars operating on pipes, conveyor belts, pumps, tremies, and paving equipment.
railroad tracks are used to transport the concrete from the Figure 5.1 and 5.2 show a number of handling and placing
batch plant to buckets operating from cableways. Discharge methods discussed in this chapter and give examples of both
of the concrete fromthe transfer cars into the bucket, which satisfactory and unsatisfactory construction procedures.
can be from the bottom or bysome formof tilting, should be Placement of concrete by the preplaced aggregate method
closely controlled to prevent segregation. Delivery time for and by pumps and conveyors is discussed in Chapters 7, 9,
bucket transportation is the same as for other nonagitating and 10, respectively. In addition, placing methodsspecific to
units-usually 30 to 45 min. underwater,heavyweight, and lightweightconcreting are
4.10.5 Other methods-Transporting of concreteby noted in Chapters 8, 11, and 12, respectively. Another effec-
pumpingmethodsandbybeltconveyorsare discussed in tive placement techniquefor both mortar and concrete is the
Chapters 9 and 10, respectively. Helicopter deliveries have shotcrete process. Thin layers are applied pneumatically to
been used in difficult-to-reach areas where other transporting areas where forming is inconvenient or impractical, access
equipment could not be used. This system usually employs or location provides difficulties, or normal casting tech-
one of the methods described previously to transport the niques cannot be employed (AC1 506R).
concrete to the helicopter, which then lifts the concrete in a Placing of concrete by the roller-compacted methodis not
lightweight bucketto the placement area. covered in this guide. Refer to AC1 207.5R.

COPYRIGHT American Concrete Institute


Licensed by Information Handling Services
304R-14 AC1 COMMITTEE REPORT

~~

UNLEO
S SI S C H A R G
COEF N C R E FT RE OMMI X E R S I S C O N T R O L L E TOHU. EN I F O R M I TR YE S U L T I N G
F R OEMF F E C T I VMEI X I N G
"- WILL BE U E S l R O Y ESB O
EY P A R A T I O N

b.
17

I N C O RCROE RC RT E C T
DfiOPPING OF CONCRETE DROPPING OF CONCRET!
A O E O U A T E D I R E C T L Y O V E R GATE ON S L O P I N GS I D E S Cf
OPEN 1NG HOPPER
CONCRETF
OISCHARGE
SHObLD
F I L L I C
N O
G N C R E T E
H O P P E R S O R B U C K E ~ S
I I I I

C O R R E C l
E l l H E R O f THE
ARRPNGEMENTS
ATTHL
LEFTPRE'JENTSSEPARATIONREGARDLESS
OF L E N G T H OF CHUTE OR CCNVEYOR, I N C O R R E C T
WETHER UISCHORGING CONCP!IC INTO
BUCKETS. CARS,
TRUCKS,
C O N RT
CR HOPPERS.
O L O F SE P A R A T I O N A S
I DISCHARGE FROM C E N l L R O P E N I N G T O
G EVTE R T I C A L
BUGGY ALTERNATE
DROP I N T O CENTER OF
APPROACH
~~~

FROP4
SLOPINGHOPPERGATE)LIHICH
ARE I NE F F E C TC H U T E S
OUT [NDCONTROLCPUSING
WITH

c0K c R E T E Is r~J s c H A R G E 0 O P P O S I T E S I D E S P E R M I T S AS R A P I D D E J L C I I O N O B L ES E P A R A T I O NI N
F R O M M I X E R S LOODING O S MAY BE O B T A I N E OL I I T H F I L L I N G THE BUGGIES
I H EO B J F l T I C N A h L ED I V I D E DH O P P E R S
H A \ I I f I ú T..C DISCHARGEGATES
d.
D I S C H A R G E O F H O P F E FR OS R

BAÇfLE \CRAPERRUBBER HEAD INCH


ROOF: FOR
UOWNP I P t
PVOVIDE A{o'$/ . " ..
t O U N T E R WEIGH1 L O A D I CN OG P ! C R E T E
NO B A F F L E
e.
B U G G I E S I o/

HEADROOM
F O R UOdNPIPE

I N C O R R E C T C O R R E C T
THE A B O ' l i ARRANGEMENT PREVENTS I Y P R @ P l R O R CONPLETE
LACK O F COIIIROL PT
S E P A R P T I O N OF CONCRETE
WHETHER ENO O F B E LUTS U A L L Y A B A F F L E OR SHOLLOIJ
IT I S B E I N G DISCHARGED INTO
HOP- tIOPPER YERELY C H A N G t ST H ED I R E C T I O N DF C O R R E C T
PERS, BUCKLTS. CORS.
TRUCKS, OR SEPARATION THC ABO'JE ARRANGEMEIIT PREVENTSSEPA-
FORMS Y A 7 ; O N . LO "ATTER
HOA
SHORT
THE
CHdTE,
-1HEThLR
CONCRETE I S BEING
OISCHPRGEO
C O N T R O L O F SEPARIITIPY IIF C O N C R E T E A T T H E
INTO
HOPPERS.BUCKETS. C O R S . TRUCKS,
E N D OF C P H V E V O R B E L T IR FORI5

f.
/"-I
4 4 Asn-
I
"d
4 ,<-?,
d'. \i, 0 Il
J ? \
o
..o:
-D .J
I N C O R R E C T
. .o IMPROPER OR EN0
L A C K O FATCONTROL O F ANY C O W
C R E T E C H U T E . NO M A T T E R HOW S H O R T . U S U A L L Y A
~0 0 . .
0 0,p
B n F F L EM E R E L YC H A N G E SD I R E C T I O N OF S E P A R O T I O N
4. . .
e... ~, o; .. .-.a.., 0 .'o
CONTROL OF S€PARATION
TAEHTNE 0 OF C O N C R ECT HE U T E S
T H I SC P P i I E S T O S L O P I N GO I S C H A R G t S 'ROM M I X E P L . TRUCK
N I X E R S . E T C A S P F L L P S TO LONGER CHUTES
BUT M T dHEN
C ~ N T R O L A T T R A N S F E R POINT
CONCRETE I S DISCHARGE@ INTO ANOTHER CHUTE OR ONTO A
OF T W O C O N V E Y BO ERL T S CON'JEYOR B E L T

Fig. 5.1-Correct and incorrect methodsof handling concrete.

COPYRIGHT American Concrete Institute


Licensed by Information Handling Services
MEASURING, MIXING, TRANSPORTING, AND PLACING CONCRETE 304R-15

C O N C R E T WE I L SL E P A R A T SE E R I O U S L UY N L E S S
I N T R O D U C E I DN T O O R MPSR O P E R L Y

b.
CONSTPN
SLUMP

-SLUMP REDUCED

C O R R E C l I N C O R R E C l

DISCHARGE CONCRETE
PERMIT
INTO
TO
CONCRETE
FROM
CHUTE
L I GHHOTP PFEERE D I N GT O OR BUGGY
TO S T R IAKGEP I N S T
L I G HF TL E X I B L E DROP CHUTE.
FORM ANO RICOCHET ON BARS fiNo
SEPURATION I S AVOIOEO. FORM FACES
CPUSING
SEPARPTION I N C O R R E C T C O R R E C T
FORMSPNOSTEELARECLEPN ANO HONEYCOMB ATTHEBOTTOM.
NECESSARILYWETTERCONCRETE TOUSESAMESLUMPPTTOP
UNTILCONCRETECOVERSTHEM. P S REQUIREDATBOTTOM OF
ATBOTTOMOFDEEP NPRROW
FORMMBOEDRIER P S MOREAC- LIFT. H I G H SLUMP PT TOP
C E S S I B L EL I F T SN E P RT O PA R E R E S U L T SI NE X C E S S I V E
PLACING CONCRETE I N TOP OF NARROWFORM REACHED. WATER GAINTENOS WATER G A I NW I T HR E S U L l A N T
T OE Q U P L I Z EQ U P L I T YO FC O N - OISCOLORATION. LOSS OF
CRETE.SETTLEMENT SHRINKAGE Q U A L I T Y ANO O U R P B l L l T Y I N
IS M I N I M U M . THEUPPERLAYER.
C.
CONSISTENCY OF CONCRETE I N DEEP NARROW
FORMS

d.
BUCKETHANDLE0 BY COMPR JSEO P l R
CRANE AND R E M P I N - FROMCRANE FOR
BUCKETGATE.

O P E N I N GI NF O R M

MORTAR

FRPMEWORK T O PRO COLLECTOR


T E CCI O L L E C T O R CONE UNDER
I N C O R R E C T C O R R E C T BUCKETGPTE
CONEFROMOAMAGE
PERMANENTLY
PTTPCHEO TO
BUCKET FREME.,
,POCKE1
“---.l

PORTPBLE DR
CHUTETO MO
\CORO TO OPERRTE
A I RP C T U A T E O
O P E N I N GI NF O R M .
GPTE FROMTHE
FORM.

I N C O R R E C T C O R R E C T

D R O PC O N C R E T EV t R T l C P L L Y T O P E R M I TH I G HV E L O C I T YS T R E P I F L E X I B L E DROPCHUTEATTACHED TO COLLECTOR
INTOOUTSIDEPOCKETUNDER OFCONCRETETOENTERFORMSON CONE. CHUTE COLLPPSES
FLPT WHEN
NO
CON-
EACHFORMOPENING SO AS TO AN A N G L EF R O MT H EV E R T I C A L . CRETE I S D R O P P I N GP, L L O W I N GI T TO B EU S E 0
LETCONCRETESTOPANOFLOW T H I SI N V A R I P B L YR E S U L T SI N FORTHESMPLLESTSIZEDGGREGPTE P S WELLAS
E P S I L YO V E RI N T OF O R M SEPIIRPT I O N . BEINGLPRGEENOUGHFORTHELARGESI.
WITHOUTSEPPRPTICN.

PLACING I N OEEP OR CURVED WALL


PLACING CONCRETE I N DEEP
THRUFURT I N FORM
NARROWForas

Fig. 5.2(a) to(d)-Correct and incorrect methods of placing concrete.

COPYRIGHT American Concrete Institute


Licensed by Information Handling Services
304R-16 AC1 COMMITTEE REPORT

-
C O N C R E T WE I L SL E P A R A T SE E R I O U S L UY N L E S S
I N T R O D U C E ! 0N T 0 FORMS P R O P E R L Y

e. *

I N C O R R E C T C O R R E C T
TO DUMP
CONCRETE I N T OF A C E TO DUWP CONCRETE n w n y FROM
OF CONCRETE I NP L P C E . CONCRETE I NP L P C E .

P L P C EB P F F L EP N D DROP P T TO DISCHPRGECONCRETEFROM P
EN0
UF
CHUTE S O THOT
SEP= FREE END CHUTE ON n SLOPE T O PLACING SLABCONCRETE
ORATION I S A V O I D E D RN0 BE PPVED.ROCK I S SEPPRATED
FROM BUGGIES
CONCRETE REMRINS ON SLOPE. 1\NO GOES TO BOTTOM SLOPE.
OF
V E L O C I T Y TENDS TO c m R Y
CONCRETE DOWN SLOPE

PLACING C W R E T E ON A SLOPING SURFACE

POEQUATESUPPORTS
TO M P l N T P l N DROP
P I P E R I G I D PNO PLUMB

I N C O R R E C T

PLACING CONCRETE I N TOPOF NARROWFORM


BY CONCRETE WNP ANO HOSE

ONCRETECUSH

PLACING CONCRETEBY
ROtK 4 OROP PIPE

I N C O R CR OE R
C R
T E C T NOTE: A STRONG OPEN TUB FROM WHICHCONCRETE
OVERFLOWS INTO AREGULARHOPPER FOR A DISCHARGE TO
P L A C I N GI ND E E P OR CURVED
WALL BELT
A BUCKETCHUTE OR PUMP CAN BE SUBSTITUTED
FOR THE REINF~RCED ~ U B B E R BOOT.
BY CONCRETE PUMP UND HOSE

Fig. 5.2 ( e ) to (h)-Correct and incorrect methods of placing concrete.

COPYRIGHT American Concrete Institute


Licensed by Information Handling Services
MEASURING, MIXING, TRANSPORTING, AND PLACING CONCRETE 304R-17

5.2-Planning dried mortar on embedded items projecting into future lifts


A basic requirement in all concrete handling is that both should be removedprior to placing thoselifts.
quality and uniformity of the concrete, in terms ofwlcm, The methodof holding a waterstop in the forms should en-
slump, air content, and homogeneity, have to be preserved. sure that it cannot bendto form cavities during concreting.
The selection of handling equipment shouldbe based on its Bars and embedded items should be held securely in the
capability to efficiently handle concreteof proportions most proper position by suitable supports and ties to prevent dis-
advantageous for being readily consolidated in place with vi- placementduring concreting. Concreteblocks are some-
brators. Equipment requiring adjustmentof mixture propor- times used for support of the steel. Metal bar chairs with or
tions beyond ranges recommendedby AC121 1.1 should not without plastic protected endsor plastic bar chairs are more
be used. commonly used. Whatever system is used, there should be
Advance planning should ensurean adequate and consis- assurance that the supports will be adequateto carry expect-
tent supply of concrete. Sufficient placement capacity should ed loads before and during placement and will not stain ex-
be provided so that the concrete can be keptplastic and free posedconcrete surfaces, displaceexcessive quantities of
of cold joints while it is being placed. All placement equip- concrete, or allow bars to move from their proper positions
ment should be clean and in proper repair. The placement (Concrete ReinforcingSteel Institute 1982).
equipment should be arrangedto deliver the concrete to its In some caseswhen reinforced concreteis being placed, it
final position without significant segregation. The equip- is useful to have a competent personin attendance to adjust
ment should be adequately and properly arranged so that and correct the position of any reinforcement that may be
placingcanproceedwithoutunduedelaysandmanpower displaced. Structural engineers shouldidentify critical areas
should be sufficient to ensure the proper placing, consolidating, where suchadditional supervision would be advantageous.
and finishingof the concrete.If the concrete is to be placed at
night, the lighting system should be sufficient to illuminate the 5.4-Placing
inside of the forms and to provide a safe work area.
5.4.1 Precautions-Arrange equipment so that theconcrete
Concrete placement should not commence when there is a has an unrestricted vertical drop tothe point of placement or
chance of freezing temperatures occurring, unless adequate into the container receiving it. The stream of concrete should
facilities for cold-weather protection have been provided notbe separatedbyfallingfreelyoverrods,spacers,
(AC1 306R). Curing measures should be ready for use at the reinforcement,orotherembeddedmaterials. If forms are
proper time (AC1 308). Where practical, it is advantageous sufficiently open and clear so that the concrete is not disturbed
to have radio or telephone communications betweenthe site in a vertical fall into place,direct discharge without theuse of
of major placements and the batching and mixing plant to hoppers, trunks or chutes is favorable. Concrete should be
better control delivery schedules and prevent excessive de- depositedator near its final positionbecause it tendsto
lays and waste of concrete. segregate whenit has to beflowed laterally into place.
The concrete should be delivered to the site at a uniform If a project involves monolithic placement of a deep beam,
rate compatible with the manpower and equipment being wall, or column with a slab or soffit above, delay placingthe
used in the placing and finishing processes. If an interruption slab or soffit concrete until the deep concrete settles. The
in the concreting process is a potential problem, consider- time allotted for this settling depends on the temperature and
ation should be givento the provision of backup equipment. setting characteristics of the concrete placed, but is usually
A final detailed inspection of the foundation, construction about 1 h. Concreting shouldbegin again soon enoughto in-
joints, forms, water stops, reinforcement, and any other em- tegrate the new layer thoroughly with the old by vibration.
bedments in the placement shouldbe made immediately be- 5.4.2 Equipment-When choosing placement equipment,
fore the concrete is placed. A method of documenting the consider the ability of the equipment to place the concrete in
inspection should be developed and approved by all parties the correct location economically without compromisingits
before the start of work. Allof these features should be care- quality.
fully examined to make sure they are in accordance with the Equipment selection is influenced by the method of con-
drawings, specifications, and goodpractice. crete production. Certain typesof equipment, such as buck-
ets, hoppers, and buggies will suit batch production;whereas
5.3-Reinforcement and embedded items other equipment,such as belt conveyors and pumps, are
At the time of concrete placement, reinforcing steel and more appropriatefor continuous production.
embedded items should be clean and free from mud, oil, and 5.4.2.1 Buckets and hoppers-The use of properly
other materials that can adversely affect the steel’s bonding designed bottom-dump buckets permits placement of
capacity. Most reinforcing steel is covered with either mill concrete at the lowest practical slump consistent with
scale or rust and such coatings are considered acceptable consolidation by vibration. The bucketshould
be
provided that loose rust and mill scale are removed and that self-cleaning upon discharge, and concrete flow should start
the minimum dimensionsof the steel are not less than those when the discharge gate is opened. Discharge gates should
required in AC13 18. havea clear openingequal toat least five times the
Care should be takento ensure that all reinforcing steel is maximum aggregate size being used. Side slopes should be
of the proper size and length and that it is placed in the at least 60 degrees fromthe horizontal.
correct position and spliced in accordance with the plans. Control the bucket and its gate openingto ensure a steady
Adequate concrete cover of the reinforcing steel has to be stream of concrete is discharged against previously placed
maintained. concrete where possible. Stacking concrete by discharging
Mortar coatingon embedded items within a lift to becom- the bucket too close to the lift surface or discharging buckets
pleted within a few hours need not be removed, but loose while traveling, commonly causessegregation.

COPYRIGHT American Concrete Institute


Licensed by Information Handling Services
304R-18 AC1 COMMITTEE REPORT

To prevent contamination, do not shovelspilled concrete point of placement as soon as the concrete has gained enough
back into buckets or hoppers for subsequent use or swing dimensional stability and rigidity to retain its design shape.
buckets directly over freshly finished concrete. Careful, consistent concrete control with suitable mixture
To expedite the placement schedule, the use of two or adjustments for changing ambient temperaturesis required.
more buckets per crane is recommended.
5.4.2.2 Manual or motor-propelled buggies-Buggies 5.5-Consolidation
should run on smooth, rigid runways independently Internal vibrationis the most effective method of
supported, and set well above reinforcing steel. Concrete consolidatingplasticconcrete for mostapplications. The
being transferred by buggiestends to segregateduring effectiveness ofan internal vibrator depends mainly on the
motion; therefore, the planking on which the buggies travel headdiameter,frequency,andamplitude of the vibrators.
shouldbebutted rather than lapped to maintain the Detailed recommendations for equipment and proceduresfor
smoothestpossible surface and subsequently reduce consolidation are given in AC1 309R.
separation of concrete materials in transit. Vibrators should not be used to move concrete laterally.
The recommended maximumhorizontal delivery distance They should be inserted and withdrawn vertically, so that
to transfer concrete by manual buggiesis 200 ft (60 m), and they quickly penetratethe layer and are withdrawn slowlyto
for power buggies,1000 ft (300 m). Manual buggies range in remove entrappedair. Vibrate at close intervals using a sys-
capacity from 6 to 8 ft3 (0.2 to 0.3 m3) with placing capaci- tematic pattern to ensure that all concrete is adequately con-
ties averaging from3 to 5 yd3 (3 to 5 m3) per h. Power bug- solidated (Fig. 5.3).
gies are available in sizes from 9to 12 ft3 (0.3 to 0.4 m3) with As long as a runningvibrator will sink into the concrete by
placing capacities ranging from 15 to 20 yd3 (14 to 18 m3) means of its own weight, itis not too late for the concrete to
per h, depending on the distance traveled. benefit from revibration, which improves compressive and
5.4.2.3 Chutes and drop chutes-Chutes are frequently bond strengths. There is no evidence of detrimental effects
used for transferring concrete fromhigher to lower either to embedded reinforcement or concrete in partially
elevations. They should
have
roundedcomers,
be cured lifts that are revibrated by consolidation efforts on
constructed of steel or be steel-lined, and shouldhave fresh concrete above.
sufficient capacity to avoid overflow. The slope should be In difficult and obstructed placements, supplemental form
constant and steep enough to permit concreteof the required vibration can be used. In these circumstances, avoid exces-
slump to flow continuously down the chute without sive operation of the vibrators, which can cause the paste to
segregation. weaken at the formed surface.
Drop chutes are circular pipes used for transferring con- On vertical surfaces where air-void holes need to be re-
crete vertically from higher to lower elevations. The pipe duced, use additional vibration. Extra vibration, spading, or
should have a diameterof at least eight times the maximum mechanical manipulationof concrete, however, are not always
aggregate size at the top 6 to 8 ft (2to 3 m) of the chute, but reliable methods for removing air-void holes from surfaces
can be taperedto approximately six times the maximum ag- molded under sloping forms. Conduct trial placements to de-
gregate size below. It should be plumb, secure, and posi- termine what worksbest with a particular concrete mixture.
tioned so that the concrete will drop vertically. The The use of experienced and competent vibrator operators
committee is aware of instances in which concrete has been working withwell-maintained vibrators and a sufficient sup-
dropped several thousand feet in this manner without ad- ply of standby units is essential to successful consolidation
verse effects. of fresh concrete.
The flow of the concrete at the end of a chute should be
controlled to prevent segregation. Plastic or rubberdrop 5.6-Mass concreting
chutes or tremies can be used and shortened by cutting them The equipmentand method usedfor placing mass concrete
rather than raising them as placement progresses. When us- should minimize separation of coarse aggregate from the
ing plastic drop chutes, ensure that the chutes do not fold concrete. Although scattered pieces of coarse aggregate are
over or kink. not objectionable, clusters and pockets of coarse aggregate
5.4.2.4 Paving equipment-The use of large mixers, are and should be scattered before placing concrete over
high-capacity spreaders, and slipform pavers has made it them. Segregated aggregate will not be eliminatedby subse-
possible to place large volumes of concrete pavement at a quent placingand consolidation operations.
rapid rate. Most of the same principles of quality control are Concrete shouldbe placed in horizontal layers not exceed-
required for successful pavingas for other forms of concrete ing 2ft (610 mm) in depth and inclined layers and cold joints
placement. The rapid rate at which concrete pavement is should be avoided. For monolithic construction, each con-
placed necessitates routine inspection procedures to detect crete layer should be placed while the underlying layer is still
any deviations fromacceptable quality that shouldbe responsive to vibration, and layers shouldbe sufficiently
corrected. shallow to permit the two layers to be integrated by proper
Some of the more frequent problems that can detrimentally vibration.
affect the quality of the concrete in paving are also common in The step method of placement should be used in massive
other typesof placement, namely, poor batch-to-batch mixing structures where large areas are involved to minimize the oc-
uniformity,
variation
slump
in andair
content,
and currence of cold joints. In this method, the lift is built up ina
nonuniform distribution of the paste through the aggregates. series of horizontal, stepped layers12to 18 in. (300 to450 mm)
Placing concretewith paving equipmentis covered in AC1 thick. Concrete placementon each layer extends for the full
325.9R. width of the block, and the placement operations progress
5.4.2.5 Slipforming-This method entails placing from one end of the lift toward the other, exposing only small
concrete in prefabricated forms that are slipped to the next areas of concrete at a time. As the placement progresses, part

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a. b.

INCORRECT CORRECT
STnCT P L U C I N G U 1 BOTTOI1 OF SLOPE T G BEGINPLGCING fi1 T O P OF SLOPC
SO THAT C O M P ! X l I D N I S INtREObtD UPPER CONCRETE TLNOS IO PULL RPLR- INCORRECT CORRECT
M V WEIGH1 OF NtWLYADOtDLONCRETt ESPEC1DLI.Y WHEN \' tB P U T F O BttOW A S
VIBRPllON C O N S C L I D U l t S . ' r l w e T I r I t i s T m s FLOL AND PLPIOVES
VERTICPL PENETRUTION O f l l I B R 4TO R HiIPHDZURO RPNOO? PENElRAlI[Ih OF
SUPPGRl FROM CONCRFTL 460U[
4 FLh INCHES INTO PREYIDJS L I F T THE I'IBRAIOR AT ALL O N G L E S UOll
i i H l L H SHOULD NOT Y E 1B t RIGIO) SPACINGS W I l H O U l SUfFItliNl DEPTH
4 1 S I S T E ~ I U T I C R t G U L A P INTCRVULS IO ASSURE MONOLITHIC C O M M I N U l I D N
FOUND T O G I V E ADEnUATE COIUSOLIO- Or THE T W O L A l L R j
W H EC
NO N C R E TM
EU S T BE PLACED nT I O N
I N A S L O P I N GL I F T

C.
S Y S T E M A T I CV I B R A T I O N
OF EACHNEWLIFT
L
FOR PLACIN6 UNFORMtO C U N L R t l t ON SLOPES l~IRECllCII4 OF T R G V E L
SLIPFDRM SCREEC SHOllLD BE STLLL FnCEO,
WEIGHTED PNU U N Y I t i R G l i O . CUNCREIE SIICULO
BEYlBRAlLD UHEUD OF SL I P f U R I l

NC SHOLS Pl R I D I N G
C O H C R L l € FOR UEI
INCORRECT CORRECT
UMRUTtD
IHO'VtL R G C K S F R N R O C < P Q C ( E 1 U l T E P P - I N G T O CORRECT
ROCK POCKE-
.ruwuCC
O N T O SO'TLR. UMPlV SANUED eRLU B Y SHDI'ELING 1lOPTUR AND SOFT
UND T R O M P OR 'lltlRAlE CONCRLTC ON Il

I e.
C
POLTA
N
RCC
EIR
ANE
ON A SLOPtNG
TGT
MEE N T
SURFACE WHEN
ROCK OF
PCLO
ANCC
I NRGE T E
POCKET

CORRECT INCORRECT
TURN BUCKET S O T H G l StPCRATfLI RUCK DUMPING S O I H A l FUEL W h ROLLS OUT ON
FALLS ON CONCRtlE W
' E Ii
f
l
T lUY HI FORMS OP SUBGRADF
REPOILY dORKED INTO W S 5 .

I F S E P A R A T I O NH A S NOTBEENELIMINATED
IN FILLING PLACING
BUCKETS
( A TEMPORARY E X P E D I E N T U N T I L C O R R E C T I O N IS MADE)

Fig. 5.3-Correct and incorrect methodsof consolidation.


of the lift will be completed while concreting continues on should be establishedbefore erection, andshopdrawings
the remainder. containing construction details, sequence of concrete plac-
For a more complete discussion of mass concrete and the ing, and loading values used in the design should be ap-
necessary thermal considerations, see AC1 207.1R. proved before construction begins. Shop drawings should be
available on site during formwork erection and when placing
CHAPTER 6-FORMS, JOINT PREPARATION, AND the concrete.
FINISHING
Design and construction of concrete forms should comply
6.1-Forms
with AC1 347R. The design and construction of concrete
Forms are the molds into which concrete is placed and
falsework is the structural support and the necessary bracing formwork should be reviewed to minimizecosts without sac-
required for temporary support during construction. Form- rificing either safety or quality. Because workmanshipin
work is the total system of support for freshly placed con- concrete construction is frequently judged by the appearance
crete, includingforms and falsework.Formworkdesign of the concrete after removal of the forms, proper perfor-

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304R-20 AC1 COMMllTEE REPORT

mance of formwork while bearing the plastic concrete weight 6.2-Joint preparation
and live construction loadingis of vital importance. Construction joints occur wherever concretingis stopped
Forms shouldbe built with sufficient strength and rigidity or delayed so that fresh concrete subsequently placed against
to carry the mass and fluid pressure of the actual concrete as hardened concrete cannot be integrated into the previous
well as all materials, equipment, or runways that are to be placement by vibrating. Horizontal construction joints will
placed upon them. Fluid pressureon forms should becorre- occur at the levels between lifts, whereas vertical joints occur
lated to the capacity and type of placementequipment, where the structure is of such length that it is not feasible to
planned rate of placing concrete, slump, temperature, and place the entire length in one continuousoperation. In gener-
stiffening characteristics of the concrete. al, the preparation of a vertical construction jointfor accept-
Form-panel joints, comers, connections,and seams should able performanceandappearance is the same as for
be mortar-tight. Consolidation will liquefy the mortar in con- horizontal joints.
crete, allowing it to leak fromany openings in the formwork, The surfaces of all construction joints should be cleaned
leaving voids, sand streaks, or rock pockets.When forms are and properly prepared to ensure adequate bond with concrete
set for succeeding lifts, avoid bulges and offsets at horizontal placed on or adjacent to them and to obtain required water-
joints by resetting forms with only 1 in. (25 mm) of sheathing tightness (U.S. Bureau of Reclamation 1981; Tynes 1959,
overlapping the concrete below the line made by the grade 1963). Several methods of cleanup are available depending
strip from the previous lift and securelytying and bolting the on the size of the area to becleaned, age of the concrete, skill
forms close to the joint. The formties used should result in of workers, and availability of equipment. Creating a satis-
the minimum practical hole size and their design shouldper- factory joint when high-quality concrete has been properly
mit removal withoutspalling surrounding concrete. Leakage placed is not difficult. When large quantities of bleed water
of mortar aroundties should be prevented, and filling of cone and fines rise to the construction-joint surface, concrete at
holes orother holes left by form ties should be done in a man- the surface is so inferior that adequate cleanup becomesdif-
ner that results in a secure, sound, nonshrinking, and incon- ficult. Under normal circumstances, it is necessary only to
spicuouspatch (AC1 311.1R).Before concreting, forms remove laitance and expose the sand and sound surface mor-
should be protected from deterioration, weather, and shrink- tar by sandblasting or high-pressure water jetting.
age by proper oiling or by effective wetting. Form surfaces Sandblasting is performed to prepare the surface of the
should be clean and of uniform texture. When reuse is per- construction jointafter the concrete has hardened and prefer-
mitted, they should be carefully cleaned, oiled, and recondi- ably just before forms are erected for the next placement
tioned if necessary. (U.S. Bureau of Reclamation 1981;Tynes 1959, 1963). Wet
sandblasting is usually preferred due to the objectionable
Steel forms should be thoroughly cleaned and promptly dust associated with the dry process. Wet sandblasting pro-
oiled to prevent rust staining. If peeling of concrete is en- duces excellent results on horizontal joint surfaces, particu-
countered when using steel forms, leavingthe cleaned, oiled larly on thoseplaced with 2 in. (50 mm) or less slump
forms in the sun for a day, vigorously rubbingthe affected ar- concrete usinginternal vibrators.
eas with liquid paraffin, or applying athin coating of lacquer
Another method for cleaning construction joints entails
will usually remedy the problem. Sometimes peeling is the
the use of a waterjet under a minimum pressure of 6000 psi
result of abrasion of certain form areas from impact during
(40 MPa). As with the sandblasting method, cleanup is de-
placement. Abrasion canbe reduced by temporarily protect-
layed until the concrete is sufficiently hard so that only the
ing form areas subject to abrasion with plywood or metal surface skin of mortar is removed and no undercutting of
sheets.
coarse aggregateparticles occurs.
Form faces should betreated with areleasing agent to pre- Cloudy pools of water will leave a film on thejoint surface
vent concrete from sticking to the forms and thereby aid in when they dry and should be removed by thorough washing
stripping. The releasing agent canalso act as a sealer or pro- after the main cleanup operation is completed. Cleaned joint
tective coating for the forms to prevent absorption of water surfacesshouldbecontinuouslymoist-cureduntilthe next
from the concrete into the formwork. Form coatings should concreteplacementoruntilthespecifiedcuringtimehas
be carefully chosen for compatibility with the contact surfac- elapsed. Before placing new concrete at thejoint, the surface
es of the forms being used and with subsequent coatings to shouldbe
restored
to
the
clean
condition
that
exists
be applied to the concrete surfaces. Form coatings that are immediatelyafterinitialcleanup. If thesurfacehasbeen
satisfactory on wood are not always suitable for steel forms; properly cured, little final cleaning will be necessary prior to
for example, steel forms would require a coatingthat acts pri- placement.
marily as a releasing agent, whereas plywood requires a coat- Hand tools such aswire brushes, wire brooms, hand picks,
ing that also seals the forms against moisture penetration. or bush hammers can be used to remove dirt, laitance, and
Ample access should be provided within the forms for soft mortar, but are only practical for small areas.
proper cleanup, placement,consolidation, and inspection of Retarding admixtures canbe used, if allowed bythe project
the concrete. specifications, to treat concrete surfaces after the finishing
For the sake of appearance, properattention should be paid operations and before the concrete has set. Manufacturer’s
to the mark made bya construction jointon exposed formed instructions for applicationand coverage rate should be
surfaces of concrete. Irregular construction joints should not followed.Subsequentremoval of the unhardened surface
be permitted. A straight line, preferably horizontal, should be mortaris completed withother cleanup methodssuchas
obtained by filling forms to a grade strip. Rustication strips, water jets, air-water jets, or hand tools. Concrete surfaces
either a v-shapedor a beveled rectangularstrip, can be used treated with retarding admixtures should be cleanedas soon
as a gradestrip and toform a grooveat the construction joint as practical after initial set; a longer delay results in less of
when appropriate. the retarded surface layer being removed.

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The clean concrete jointsurface should be saturated, sur- greater effect on the properties of the concrete. For example,
face dry at the time new concrete is placed on it. Surface themodulus of elasticityisslightlyhigherthanthat of
moisture weakens the joint by increasing the wlcmof the conventional concrete. Also, because of point-to-point contact
newly placedconcrete. Ensure that the first layer of concrete of the coarse aggregate, drying shrinkage is approximately 112
on the constructionjoint is adequatelyconsolidated to the magnitudeof that in conventionally placed concrete (Davis
achieve good bond with the previously hardenedconcrete. 1958,Davis1960).
Structural
design for PA concrete,
however, is the same as for conventionally placed concrete
6.3-Finishing unformed surfaces (U.S. BureauofReclamation 1981, CorpsofEngineers 1994a).
To obtain a durablesurface on unformed concrete, proper Structural formwork for PA concrete is usually more ex-
procedures should becarefully followed. The concrete used pensive than thatrequired for conventionally placed concrete
should beof the lowest practical slump that can be properly because greater care is needed to prevent groutleaks. In un-
consolidated, preferably by means of internal vibration. Fol- derwater construction, higherplacing rates at lower cost
lowing consolidation, the operations of screeding, floating, have been achieved bythismethodthanby conventional
and first troweling should be performed in such a manner placement methods.
that the concrete will be workedand manipulated as little as Because PA concrete construction is specialized in nature,
possible to produce the desired result. the work should be undertakenby qualified personnel expe-
Overmanipulation of the concrete brings excessive fines rienced in this method of construction. Detailed information
and water to the surface, which lessens the quality of the on all aspects of PA concrete is given in AC1 304.1R.
finished surface, causing checking,crazing, and dusting. For
the same reason, each step in the finishing operation, from 7.2-Materials
the first floating to the final floating or troweling, should be 7.2.1 Cement-Grout can be made with any one of the
delayed as long as possible while still working toward the nonair-entraining types of cement that complies with ASTM
desired grade and surface smoothness. Free water is not as C 150 or ASTM C 595M. Useof air-entrained cements com-
likely to appear and accumulate between finishing bined with gas-forming fluidifiers could result in excessive
operations if proper mixture proportions and consistency are quantities of entrained air in the grout, resulting in reduced
used. If free water does accumulate, however, it should be strengths. When airentrainment is required to a higher extent
removed by blotting with mats, draining, or pulling off with than that provided by the gas-forming fluidifier, air-entrain-
a loopof hose so that the surface loses its water sheen before ing agent shouldbe added separately.
the next finishing operation is performed. Under no 7.2.2 Coarse aggregate-Coarse aggregateshould be
circumstances should any finishing tool be used in an area washed, free of surface dust and fines, and in conformance
before accumulated water has been removed, nor should with the requirements of ASTM C 33, except as to grading.
neat cementor mixtures of sand and cement be workedinto The void contentof the aggregate should be as low aspos-
the surface to dry such areas. sible and is usually attained when the coarse aggregate is
Satisfactoryresultscanbeachievedfrom a correctly graded uniformly from the smallest allowableparticle size to
designed mortar topping placed on, and worked into, base the largest (King 1971).
concrete before the base concrete The sets.mortar consistency, Grading 1 or 2 (Table 7.1) is recommended for general
consolidation, and finishing should be as described previously.use. Where reinforcementis crowded or the placement is in
A concrete of correct proportions, consistency, and texture relatively shallow patches, Grading 1 should beused. Where
placedandfinishedmonolithicallywiththebaseconcrete, special circumstances dictate the use of coarser sand, Grad-
however, is preferable atomortar topping.See AC1 302.1R for ing 3 is acceptable.
a detailed discussion and recommendationson concrete floor 7.2.3 Fine aggregate-Sand should conform to ASTM C
and slab finishing. 33, except that grading should be as shown in Table 7.1.
Several special floor finishes, such as terrazzo, that are in- Fine aggregatethat does not fall within these grading limits
stalled over cured concrete surfaces require special tech- is usable provided results fall within the requirements of
niques and are not coveredin this guide. Section 7.3.
7.2.4 Pozzolan-Pozzolans conforming to ASTM C 618,
CHAPTER 7-PREPLACED-AGGREGATE Class N or F, can be used in PA concrete. Class F has been
CONCRETE used in the great majority of installations as it improves pum-
7.1-General considerations pability of the fluid grout and extends grout handling time.
In this method of construction, forms are first filled with Class C fly ash and blast-furnace slag have been used to a
clean, coarse aggregate. The voids in this coarse aggregate limited extent, but extensive data on grout mixture propor-
are then filled with structural quality grout to produce pre- tions and properties are not currently available.
placed-aggregate (PA)concrete. This type of concrete is par- 7.2.5 Admixtures
ticularly useful where concrete is to be placed under water, 7.2.5.1 Grout fluidifier-This admixture is commonly
where structures are heavily reinforced for seismic or other used to offset the effects of bleeding, reduce the wlcm for a
reasons, where structural concrete or masonry is to be re- given fluidity, and retard stiffening. The usual dosage of
paired, or where concreteof low volume changeis required grout fluidifier is 1% by weight of the total cementitious
(U.S. Bureau of Reclamation 1981; Davis and Haltenhoff material in the grout mixture.
1956;Davis et al. 1955;Anon.1954; King 1971;Davis 7.2.5.2 Calcium chloride-A small quantity of calcium
1958; Corpsof Engineers 1994a). chloride may be desirable to promote early strength
PA concrete differs from conventionally placed concrete in development. Calcium chloride in excess of 1%by weight of
that it contains a higherpercentage of coarseaggregate; cementitious materials, however, will diminish the
consequently, the properties of the coarse aggregate have a expansive action of the aluminum powder,if present, in the

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304R-22 AC1 COMMllTEE REPORT

Table 7.1-Gradation limits for coarse and fine aggregates for preplaced-aggregate concrete
Percentage passing
Coarse aemeeate
Grading 1 Grading 2 Grading 3
Sieve size For 1/2 in. (1.25 mm) minimum size For 3/4 in. (19 mm) minimum size For 1-1/2 in. (38 mm) minimum size
coarse aggregate coarse aggregate coarse aggregate

in. 1 (25.0 mm) I 80 40 to I - I -

3/4 in. (19.0 mm) 20 to 45 o to 10 -

1/2 in. (12.5 mm) o to 10 o to 2 -

3/8 in. (9.5 mm) o to 2 o to 1 -

Fine aeereeate (sand)


No. 4 (4.75 mm) - 1O0
No. 8 (2.36 mm) 1O0 90 to 100
No. 16 (1.18mm) 95 to 100 80 to 90
No. 30 (600 microns) I 55 to 80 I 55 to 70
No. 50 (300 microns) 30 to 55 25 to 50
No. 100 (150 microns) 10 to 30 5 to 30
No. 200 (75 microns) o to 10 o to 10
Fineness modulus I 1.30 to 2.10 I 2.45 1.60 to

grout fluidifier because the acceleration will reduce the time the minimum for obtainingthe desired properties. Refer to
available for expansion to take place. Pretesting for AC1 207.2R and AC1 224R for moredetail.
expansion, bleeding, rate of curing, and strength in PA
concrete cylinders is recommended (refer to ASTM C 953). 7.5-Forms
Forming materials for PA concrete are similar to those for
7.3-Grout proportioning conventionally placedconcrete. The forms, however, should
7.3.1 Cementitious materials-Usually, the proportion of be tight enough to prevent grout leakage andresist high lat-
portland cement-to-pozzolanis in the range of 2.5: 1 to 3.5: 1 eral pressures (refer to AC1347R). Afterthe forms are erect-
by mass. Ratiosas low as 1.3:1 (equal bulk volumes) for lean ed, shored, properly braced, and set to line and grade, all
mass concrete and as high as 12:1 for high-strength concrete small openings should be caulked. Alljoints between adja-
have been used. Thewlcm usually ranges from 0.42 to 0.50. cent panels should be sealed on the inside of the form with
7.3.2 Fine aggregate"Compressive strength, pumpability tape. Specifications may require that a layer of water 1 to 2 ft
(Anon. 1954; King1971), and void-penetration requirements (0.3 to 0.6 m) deep be maintained abovethe rising grout sur-
control the amount of fine aggregate that can be usedin the face to ensure saturation of the coarse aggregateparticles. In
grout. For structural grade PA concrete, the ratio of cementi- these cases, the forms should beessentially watertight.
tious material-to-fine aggregate will usually be 1:1 by mass.
For massive placements wherethe minimum size of coarse 7.6-Grout pipe systems
aggregate is 3/4 in. (19 mm), the ratio may be increased to 7.6.1 Delivery pipes-Themost reliable grout delivery
1:1.5. With Grading 3 (Table 7.1), the ratio may be further system consists of a single line. To provide for continuous
increased to approximately 1:3. grout flow, a y-shapedfitting can beincorporated. The grout
7.3.3 Proportioning requirements-Materials should be should beinjected through only one leg of the y at a time.
proportioned in accordance with ASTM C 938 to produce a The deliveryline should beof sufficient diameter to allow
grout of required consistencythat will provide the specified grout velocity at the planned operatingrate to range between
strength of PA concrete. For best results, bleeding should be 2 and 4 ftls (0.6 and 1.2 d s ) .
less than the total measured expansion. Strength, bleeding, High-pressure grout hose, 400 psi (3 MPa) or higher, is
and expansion shouldbe tested according to ASTM C 943. commonly used for delivery lines.A hose diameterof 1-1/4 or
7.3.4 Consistency of grout-For most work, such as walls 1-1/2 in. (30 or 40 mm) is preferredfor distances up to500 ft
*
and structural repairs, a 22 2 s flow (ASTM C 939) is usu- (150 m). For longer distances, up to approximately 1000 ft
ally satisfactory. For massivesections and underwater work, (300 m), 2 in. (50 mm) diameter is preferred.
*
the flow can be as low as 20 2 s or as high as 24 2 S. * 7.6.2 Grout insertion pipes-Insertion pipes are used to
Where special care can betaken in the execution of work inject the grout into the aggregate mass and are normally
and higher strengths are required, flows as high as 35 to40 s schedule 40 pipe, 3/4 to 1-1/4 in. (20 to 30 mm) diameter for
can beused. normal structural concrete and up to 1-1/2 in. (40 mm) for
mass concrete. The groutinsertionpipesshouldextend
7.4-Temperature control verticallytowithin 6 in. (150 mm) of the bottom of the
For mass concrete placements, temperature rise in PA aggregate mass, or they can extend horizontally through the
concrete can be limited by one or more of the following formworkat different elevations. When insert pipesare
procedures: chilling coarseaggregatebeforeplacement; required in depths of aggregate exceeding approximately50 ft
chilling coarse aggregate in place; chilling the grout with (15 m),flush-coupledschedule120 pipe orflush-coupled
chilled mixing water; and reducing the cement content to casing is recommended.For deepplacements,suchas

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caissons in deep water, telescoping-insertion pipescan be are used for large-volume work. A separate agitator is used
required. to provide continuous operation.
7.6.3 Ventpipes-Vent pipes should be usedwhere water Pan or turbine mixers are well-suited for mixing grout, al-
or air can be entrapped by the rising grout surface, such as though maintenance of a tight seal at the discharge gatecan
beneath a blockout or under some embedments. Grout is be difficult. Conventional revolving-drum concrete mixers
usually injected through insert pipes until it returns through are suitable if the mixing is sufficiently prolonged to ensure
these vent pipes. thorough mixing. The colloidal, or shear mixer, provides ex-
tremely high-speed, first-stage mixing of cement and water
7.7-Coarse aggregate placement in a close-tolerance centrifugal pump followed by mixingof
7.7.1 Preparationfor placement-Coarse aggregate the cement slurry with sand with an open-impeller pump.
should be washed and screened immediately before placing This type of mixer provides a relatively bleed-free mixture,
in forms. Coarse aggregate should not be flushedwith water but becauseof high-energy input, mixing time should be lim-
after placement in the forms (Anon. 1954; King1971). This ited to avoid heating the grout.
will cause fines to accumulate in the lower strata of aggre- 7.8.2 Pumps-The pump should be a positive-displace-
gate. When it is necessary to flood the coarse aggregate to ment pump such as the piston or progressive cavitytype. The
obtain saturation orprecooling(King1971), the water pump should be equipped with a bypass line connecting the
should be injected through the insert pipes so that the water discharge with the pump inlet or the agitator. On large jobs,
rises gently through the coarse aggregate. providing standby equipment so that continuous discharge
For underwater placement, all loose, fine material should can be provided is prudent. A pressure gauge should be in-
be removed fromthe foundation area before placement of ag- stalled on the pump line discharge inclear view of the pump
gregate to prevent subsequent coating the of aggregate orfill- operator to indicate incipient line blockage.
ing of voids with stirred-up sediment. Where the concrete 7.8.3 Grout injection-There are essentially two basicpat-
will bear on piles, it is only necessaryto remove soft material terns of grout injection: the horizontal layer and advancing
a sufficient depth below pipe encasement depth to provide for slope techniques. With both systems, grout shouldstart from
a filter cloth on the mud. Additionally, alayer of aggregate is the lowest point within the forms.
carefully dropped on top of the cloth to stabilize it and form In thehorizontal layer technique, grout isinjected through
a base forthe bulk of the coarse aggregate tofollow. each insert pipe to raise the grout ashort distance at the point
7.7.2 Aggregate placement-For structural concrete of injection, and by sequentialinjection through adjacent in-
work, aggregate is commonly delivered to the forms in con- sert pipes, a layer of coarse aggregate is grouted before pro-
crete buckets and placed through flexible a elephant trunk to ceeding to the next horizontal layer above. When injecting
prevent segregation and breakage of the aggregate. A pipe through vertical-insert pipes, the injection pipes are with-
having a diameterof at least fourtimes the maximum aggre- drawn after each injection, leaving the lower end of the insert
gate size has been usedfor lowering aggregate preplaced un- pipe embedded a minimum of 1 ft (0.3 m) below the grout
der water to depthsranging from 50 to 1000 ft (15 to 300 m) surface. When injecting through ports in the forms or hori-
(Davis, Johnson, and Wendell 1955). The pipe is normally zontal insert pipes, grouting should be continuous through
lowered to bottom contact, then gradually filled. Discharge the injection point until grout flows from the next higher
is then controlled by raising the pipe only enough to permit point. For the next liftof grout, injection should be into the
discharge at a controllable rate. Where coarse aggregate is insert point next abovethat just completed.
being placed through water, it can be discharged directly When the horizontal surface procedure is not practical, as
into the water from bottom-dump barges or self-unloading when plan dimensions are relatively large compared to the
ships (Davis and Haltenhoff 1956). depth, the advancing slope methodis used. Intrusion is start-
Coarse aggregate can also be blown into place around tunnel ed at one end of the narrowest dimension of the form and
liners by using 6in. (150 mm) or larger pipe andlarge volumes pumping is continued throughthe first row of insert pipes un-
of low-pressure air (Davis, Johnson, and Wendell1955). til the grout appears at the surface. The surface of the grout
In most placements, there is little to be gained from attempts within the submerged aggregate will assume a generallyver-
to consolidatethe coarse aggregate in placeby rodding orvi- tical-to-horizontal slope rangingfrom 1:5 to 1:10. The slope
bration. Roddingorcompressed-airlancescan beused, is advanced by pumping grout through successive rows of in-
however, to achieve placement into heavily reinforced areas sert pipes until the entire slabhas been grouted.
and in the construction of overhead repairs. Normal injection rates through a given insert pipe vary
Around closely spaced piping, reinforcement, and pene- from less than 1 ft3/min (0.03 m3/min) to over 4 ft3/min
trations, such as in some nuclear shielding situations where (O. 11 m3/min). For a particular application, the injection rate
uniformhighdensityandhomogeneity are desired, hand will dependon form configuration,aggregate voids, and
placement in shallow lifts may be required. grout fluidity.
7.7.3 Contamination-Inunderwaterconstructionwhere 7.8.4 Grout surface determination-The location of the
organic contamination is known or suspected exist, to sample grout surface within the aggregate mass should be known at
and test the water to estimate the rate of sludge build-up on all times. When grout is injected horizontally through the
immersed aggregate andits possible influence onthe quality side of the formwork, grout location can be readily deter-
of the concrete. mined by flow fromadjacent grouting points, the location of
7.8-Grout mixing and pumping seepage throughthe forms, or withthe aid of closable inspec-
7.8.1 Mixers-Vertical-spindle, paddle-type, and double- tion holes throughthe forms. Where grout isinjected through
tub mixers are commonly used for mixing grout. One tub vertical-insert pipes, soundingwellsshould be provided.
serves as a mixer while the second, from which grout is be- These sounding wells usuallyconsist of 2 in. (50 mm) diam-
ing withdrawn, serves as an agitator. Horizontal shaft mixers eter thin-wall pipe with 1/2 in. (12 mm) milled (not burned)

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slots at frequent intervals. Partially rolled, unwelded tubing


providing a continuous slot can also be used. The sounding
line is equipped with a 1 in. (25 mm) diameter float weighted
to sink in water, yetfloat on the grout surface, within the slot-
ted pipe. Sounding wells are usually left in place and become
a permanentpart of the structure.

7.9-Joint construction
7.9.1 Coldjoints-Cold joints are formed withinthe mass
of preplaced aggregate concrete when pumping is stopped
for longer than the grout remains plastic. When this occurs,
the insert pipes should be pulledto just above the grout sur-
face before the grout stiffens and rodded clear. To resume
pumping, the pipes should be worked back to near contact
with the hardened groutsurface and pumping resumed, slow-
ly for a few minutes, to create a mound of grout around the
end of the pipe.
7.9.2 Constructionjoints"Construction joints canbe
formed in the same manner as cold joints by stopping the
grout rise approximately 12 in. (300 mm) below the aggre- NOTE: MIX RATIOSARECEMENT:
ASH:
FLY FINE AGGREGATE, -
gate surface. Dirt and debris should be prevented fromfilter- BYWEIGHT
ing downto the grout surface.
, , , I I I ,
If construction joints are made by bringing the grout up to Ö 7 I4 2 1 28 35 42 49 56 6 3 70 77 84 90
the surface of the coarse aggregate, the surface should be AGE OF CYLINLERS,DAYS
green-cut, chipped, or sandblasted to present a clean, rough
surface for the new groutin the next lift. Fig. 7.1-Comparison of results, field- andlab-made
cylinders versus cores.
7.10-Finishing
Exercise care when topping out to control the grout injec-
tion rate and avoid lifting or dislodging the surface aggre- CHAPTER 8 P O N C R E T E PLACED UNDER WATER
gate (Anon. 1954). Coarse aggregate at or near the surface 8.1-General considerations
can be held in place by wire screening, which is removed Typical underwater concrete placements include nonstruc-
before finishing. turd elements suchas cofferdams or caisson seals, and struc-
Low-frequency, high-amplitude external vibration of tural elements suchas bridge piers, dry-dock walls and
forms at or just below the grout surface will permit grout to floors, and water intakes. Concrete placed under water has
cover aggregate-form contacts, thereby providing an excel- also been usedto add weight to sink precast tunnel sections,
lent, smooth surface appearance. Excessive form vibration to join tunnelsections once in place, and to repair erosion or
will cause bleeding, the usual result being sand streaking cavitation damage to major hydraulic structures (Gerwick
from the upward movement of the bleed water. Internal vi- 1964; Gerwick, Holland, and Kommendant 1981).
bration should only be used in short bursts to level the grout 8.1.1 Scope-The recommendations givenin this chapter
between insert pipes for toppingoutpurposes.Whena are directed toward relatively large-volume placements of
screeded or troweled finish is required, the grout should be concrete under water, but these recommendations are also
brought up toflood the aggregate surface and anydiluted sur- generaly applicable to small-volume underwater placements,
face grout should be removedby brooming. A thin layer of such as thinoverlays or deepconfined placements. The read-
pea gravel is then worked down into the surface by raking er is cautioned to consider the specific problems associated
followed by tamping. When the surface is sufficiently hard- with these placementsand howthey differ from typical
ened to permit working, ascreeded, floated, or troweled fin- placements.
ish is then applied. 8.1.2 Methods available-The tremie is currently the most
frequently used technique to place concrete underwater, but
7.1 1-Quality control use of direct pumping is increasing. These two methods are
Job site control of fresh grout characteristics is maintained similar and are described in this chapter.
by following the appropriate ASTM methods. Compressive 8.1.3 Basic techniqueSuccessfu1 placement of concrete
strength of PA concrete should be determined in accordance underwaterrequirespreventingflow of wateracrossor
with procedures givenin ASTM C 943. Thestrength of grout throughtheplacementsite. Once flowiscontrolled,either
alone, when determined in cubes or cylinders, may bearlittle tremie or pump placement consists of the following three steps:
relation to the strength of PA concrete made with the same 1. The first concrete placed is physically separated from
grout becausethese units do not duplicate the weakening ef- the water byusing a go-devilor pig in the pipe, or byhaving
fect of excessive bleeding of the grout in place. Properly the pipe mouth sealed and the pipe dewatered;
made PA concrete cylinders, however, bear aclose relation- 2. Once filled with concrete, the pipe is raised slightly to
ship tocores taken from the concrete in place. A typical com- allow the go-devil to escape or to break the end seal. Con-
parison of lab-made and field-made cylinders with cores crete will then flow out and develop a mound around the
taken from a majorinstallation is given in Fig. 7.1. mouth of the pipe. This is termed establishing a seal; and

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3. Once the seal is established, fresh concrete is injected that concrete with the proper characteristics is arriving at the
into the mass of existing concrete. The exact flow mecha- tremies. Once a concrete mixture has been approved, slump,
nism that takes place is not precisely known, but the majority air content, unit weight, and compressive strength testing
of the concrete apparently is not exposed to direct contact should be adequate for production control. Because of the
with the water (Gerwick, Holland, and Kommendant 1981). importance of the flowability of the concrete to the success
of the placement, slump and air content tests should beper-
8.2-Materials formed more frequently than isusually donefor concrete not
8.2.1 General requirements-Concrete materials should placed underwater.
meet all appropriate specifications. In addition, materials Compressive strength specimens should be available for
should be selected for their contribution toward improved testing at early agesto determine when the concrete has
concrete flowcharacteristics. gained enoughstrength to allow dewateringof the structure.
8.2.2 Aggregates- The maximum size of aggregates 8.4.2 Concretetemperature-Theconcretetemperature
used in reinforced placements under water is usually 3/4 in. should be kept as low as practical to improve placement and
(19 mm). Larger aggregates (1 in. [25 mm]) can be used structural qualities. Dependingon the volumeof the placement
depending on availability, reinforcing spacing, and and the anticipated thermal conditions within the placement,
maintenance of the workability of the concrete. The maximum temperatures inthe range of 60 to 90F (16 to 32 C)
maximum size of aggregates for nonreinforced placements are normally specified. While concrete placed under water
should be 1-1/2 in. (38 mm). obviously cannotfreeze, a minimum concrete temperature of
8.2.3 Admixtures- Admixtures to improve the character- 40 F (5 C) should be maintained. Because heating either wa-
istics of fresh concrete, especially flowability, are frequently ter or aggregates can cause erratic slump-loss behavior, ex-
used in concrete placed under water (Williams1959). For ex- treme care should be taken when suchprocedures are used to
ample, an air-entraining admixture can be beneficial because raise the concrete temperature.
of the increased workability that canbe achieved with itsuse.
Water-reducing or water-reducing and retarding admix- 8.5-Tremie equipment and placement procedure
tures are particularly beneficial in reducing water contentto 8.5.1 Tremie pipes-The tremie should be fabricated of
provide a cohesive yet high-slump concrete. Retarding ad- heavy-gage steel pipe to withstand all anticipated handling
mixtures are beneficial in a large monolithic placement. Be- stresses. In deep placements, buoyancyof the pipe can be a
cause of the extreme importance of maintaining as high a problem if an end plate is used to gain the initial tremie seal.
slump as possible for as long as possible, the use of a Use of pipe with thicker walls or weighted pipe can over-
high-range water-reducing admixture(HRWR) for massive come buoyancy problems.
placements is not recommended, unless slump-loss testing Tremie pipes should have a diameterlarge enough to en-
has shown no detrimental results. The use of HRWR for sure that aggregate-induced blockageswill not occur. Pipes
smaller volume placementsin which flow distances are not in the range of 8 to 12 in. (200to 300 mm) diameter are ad-
as critical may be acceptable. equate for the range of aggregates recommendedherein. For
Admixtures are also available to prevent washout of ce- deep placements, the tremie should befabricated in sections
mentitious materials and fines from concrete placed under with joints that allow the upper sections to be removedas the
water. These antiwashout admixtures are discussed in Sec- placement progresses. Sections can be jointed by flanged,
tion 8.10. boltedconnections, (with gaskets) or screwed together.
Whatever joint technique is selected, joints between tremie
8.3-Mixture proportioning sections should bewatertight and should betested for water-
8.3.1 Basic proportions-Pozzolans (approximately 15% tightness before beginning placement. The tremie pipe should
by mass of cementitious materials) are generally used be- be marked to allowquick determinationof the distance from
cause they improveflow characteristics. Relatively rich the surface of the water to the mouth of the tremie.
mixtures, 600 lb/yd3 (356 kg/m3) cementitious materials, or The tremie should have asuitably sized funnel or hopper
more, or a maximum wlcm of 0.45 are recommended. Fine to facilitate transfer of concrete from the delivery device to
aggregate contents of 45 to 55% by volume of total aggre- the tremie. A stable platform should be providedto support
gate and aircontents of up to approximately 5% are general- the tremie during placement. Floating platforms are general-
ly used. Referto 8.8.5 for thermal crackingconsiderations. ly not suitable. The platform should be capable of supporting
A slump of 6 to 9 in. (150 to 230 mm) is generally neces- the tremie whilesections are being removed fromthe upper
sary, and occasionallya slightly higherrange is needed end of the tremie.
when embedded items obstruct the flow or when relatively 8.5.2 Placement procedures-All areas in which there is
long horizontal flow is required. to be bond betweensteel, wood, or cured concreteand fresh
8.3.2 Final selection-If possible, the final selection of a concrete should be thoroughly cleaned immediately before
concrete mixture should be basedon test placements made concrete placement.
under waterin a placement box or in a pit that can be 8.5.2.1 Pipe spacing-Pipe spacing should be on the
dewatered after the placement. Test placements should be order of one pipe for every 300 ft2 (28 mZ)of surface area or
examined for concrete surface flatness, amount of laitance pipes on approximately 15 ft (4.5 m) centers. These spacings
present, quality of concrete at the extreme flow distanceof are recommended, but concretehas been placed that flowed
the test, and flow around embedded items, if appropriate. as far as 70 ft (21 m) with excellent results. For most large
placements, itwill not bepractical to achieve a pipe spacing
8.4-Concrete production and testing as close as 15 ft (5 m) on centers simply becauseit would be
8.4.1 Production samplingand testing-Sampling should impractical to supply concrete to the number of tremies or
be done as near to the tremie hopper as possible to ensure pumps involved.

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Actual pipe spacing should beestablished on the basis of volume. Overruns(using more concretethan anticipated) are
the thickness of the placement, congestion dueto piles or re- therefore also indicative of loss of concrete fromthe forms.
inforcing steel, available concrete production capacity, and Once the placement schemehas been developed, flowdis-
available capacity to transfer concrete to the tremies. The tances and rates of rise can be calculated. If flow distances
placement methodselected should also be considered. seem excessiveor if the rate of concrete rise is too low, make
8.5.2.2 Starting placements-Tremies started using the a judgment as to the suitability of the available plant or the
end-plate, dry-pipe technique should befilled with concrete necessity for breaking the placement into smaller segments.
before beingraised off the bottom. The tremie should then be Tremie blockages that occur during placement should be
raised a maximum of 6 in. (150 mm) to initiate flow. These cleared extremelycarefully to prevent loss of seal. If a block-
tremiesshouldnotbe lifted further until a moundis age occurs, the tremie should be quicklyraised 6 in. to 2 ft
established around the mouth of the tremie pipe. Initial lifting (150 to 610 mm) and then lowered in an attempt to dislodge
of the tremie should be done slowly to minimize disturbance the blockage. The depth of pipe embedment should be close-
of material surrounding the mouth of the tremie. ly monitored duringall such attempts. If the blockage cannot
Tremies started using a go-devil should be lifted a maxi- be clearedreadily, the tremie shouldbe removed, cleared, re-
mum of 6 in. (150 mm) to allow water to escape. Concrete sealed, and restarted.
should be added to the tremie slowly to force the go-devil 8.5.2.4 Horizontal distribution of concrete-The pipe
downward. Oncethe go-devil reachesthe mouth of the trem- delivering concrete should remain fixed horizontally while
ie, the tremie should be lifted enough to allow the go-devil to concrete is flowing. Horizontal movement of the pipe will
escape. After that, a tremie should notbe lifted again until a damage the surface of the concrete in place, create additional
sufficient mound is established around the mouth of the laitance, and lead to loss of seal. Horizontal distribution of
tremie. the concrete is accomplished by flow of the concrete after
Tremies should be embedded in the fresh concrete 3 to 5 ft exiting the pipe or by halting placement, moving the pipe,
(1.0 to 1.5 m) deep. Exact embedment depths will depend on reestablishing the seal, and resuming placement.
placement rates and setting time of the concrete. All vertical Two methods are typically used to achieve horizontal con-
movements of the tremie pipe should be done slowly and crete distribution in large placements: the layer method or
carefully to prevent loss of seal. If loss of seal occurs in a the advancing slope method.In the horizontal layer method,
tremie, placement through that tremie should be halted im- the entire area of the placement is concreted simultaneously
mediately.Thetremieshouldberemoved, the end plate using a numberof tremies. With the advancing slope meth-
should bereplaced, and flow should be restarted as described od, one portionof the placement is brought to finished grade
above. To prevent washing of concrete already in place, a and then the tremies are moved to bring adjacent low areas
go-devil should not be used to restart a tremie after loss of to grade. Work normally progresses from one end of a large
seal. placement to the other. Concrete slopes from nearly flat to
8.5.2.3 P1acing"Concreteplacementshouldbe as 1:6 (vertical to horizontal) can be expected.
continuous as possible through each tremie. Excessive 8.5.3 Postplacement evaluation-To evaluate the under-
delays in placement can cause the concrete to stiffen and water placement, the following techniques can be used:
resist flow when placement resumes. Coring in areas of maximum concrete flowor in areas
Placement interruptions of upto approximately 30 min of questionable concretequality;
should allow restarting without any special procedures. In- After
dewatering, accurately surveying the concrete
terruptions of between 30 min and the initial setting time of surface to evaluate the adequacy of the concrete mix-
the concrete should be treated by removing, resealing, and ture and the placement plan; and
restarting the tremie. Interruptions of a durationgreater than Afterremoval of forms or sheet piling, inspecting the
the initial setting time of the concrete should betreated as a exterior surface of the concrete with divers for evidence
constructionjoint. If abreak in placement results in a
of cracking, voids, or honeycomb.
planned (or unplanned) horizontal construction joint, the
concrete surface should be green-cutafter it sets. Green-cut-
ting by a diver is difficult but can be accomplished where 8.6-Direct pumping
there is no practical alternative for cleaning. The concrete Tremie placement techniques are generally applicable to
surface should bewater-jetted immediately before resuming direct pump placement under water. The following minor
concrete placement. differences, however, are worth noting:
Recommendations on the rate of concrete rise are general- Themechanismcausingconcrete flow
through the
ly in the range of 1 to 10 f t h (0.3 to 3 d h ) . Calculation of a pipeline is pump pressurerather than gravity;
projected rate is somewhat difficult because the exact flow Theconcreteshouldbeproportioned for flow after
pattern of the concrete will not be known. The mostlogical leaving the pipe rather than simply for pumping;
approach is to compare concrete production withthe entire Pipes are typically smaller than those used for tremies.
area that is being supplied. As with pipespacing, achieving Rigid sections should always be used for the portion
the recommended values can be difficult. Concrete has been actually embedded in the concrete;
successfully placed under water at rates of approximately Thepump action cancausesome lateral movement of
0.5 ft (150 mm) of rise per h (Gerwick, Holland,and Kom- the pipe whereit is embedded in the fresh concrete; this
mendant 1981). movementcan contribute to laitance formation by
Thevolume of concrete in placeshould be monitored drawing fines to the pipe-concrete interface; and
throughout the placement. Underruns (using less concrete A relief valve (air vent) can be required nearthe highest
than anticipated) are indicative of loss of tremie seal, because point in the pipeline to prevent development of a vac-
the washed and segregated aggregateswill occupy a greater uum blockage.

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8.7-Concrete characteristics acceptable, but notto restart a tremieor pumping line during
Concreteplaced under water can be expected oftoexcel- be a placement.
lent quality. Curingconditionsare excellent anddrying 8.8.4 Laitance-Because it is physically impossible to
shrinkage is minimal. Compressive strengths of the rich mix- separate the concrete and the water completely, a certain
be 4000 to8000 psi (28 to55 MPa).
tures used will often from amount of laitance will be formed.If the seal is lost, or if the
There is no evidence that other structural properties differ concrete is disturbed in any way, additional laitance will be
from those of similar concretes placed in the dry. In-place formed when starting or restarting pipes. The laitance will
unit weight, often critical in massive placements to offset flow to and accumulate in any low areas onthe surface of the
hydrostatic uplift, will be close to thatmeasured for the fresh concrete. Such accumulations can prevent sound concrete
concrete before placement. If laitance is entrapped in the from filling an area and canbecome entrappedby subsequent
concrete, however, unit weight can be significantly below concrete flows. In either case, the zones of laitance will be
that of the fresh concrete. more permeable and lower in strength. Problems withlaitance
Although there have been recent attempts to ascertain the can be avoided by using pumps or air-lifts during the place-
qualityandhomogeneity of concrete placed under water ment to remove unsuitable material itasaccumulates. Another
using nondestructive techniques (Laine et al. 1980),coring is way of reducing laitance problems is to discard several inches
still the recommended technique for evaluation of of concrete fromthe form. This can only done be where the top
questionable areas. of the form coincides with the top of the placement.
8.8.5 Cracking-Problems associated with heat develop-
8.8-Precautions ment and subsequent crackingin massive underwaterplace-
The precautions inthis section are applicable to either ments havegenerallynotbeen resolved. Thefollowing
tremie or pump placement. characteristics, however, of underwater placements should
8.8.1 Inspection-Inspection of concrete placements un- be considered.
der water is difficult. The water itself will become increas- 8.8.5.1 Cement content-Underwater concrete mixtures
ingly murky as the placement progresses andthe surface of have traditionally used high cement contents (650 lb/yd3
the fresh concrete will not support the weight of a diver. [385 kg/m3] or more) to compensate for cement washoutand
Therefore, preplacement inspection becomes extremely im- to provide the necessary flowcharacteristics to the concrete.
portant and should concentrate on reviews of the proposed Measurements made on one large placement indicated
procedures and equipment and the proposed concrete mix- maximum internal concrete temperature in excessof 95 F (35
ture. Inspection during the placement will be limited to ob- C) above the placement temperature of 60 F (16 C) (Gerwick,
serving all phases of the concrete production,transportation, Holland, and Kommendant 1981).
and placement procedures. Because the success of an under- 8.8.5.2 Placement environment-Tremie concrete is usu-
water placement dependslargely on the concrete itself, sam- ally placed in locations that act as excellent heat sinks. The
pling and testing during the placement are critical to ensure temperature of the water surrounding the concrete will nor-
compliance with approved mixtures and required concrete mally vary little; thus, the outside of the concrete mass cools
characteristics (slump, air content, temperature). quickly, developing steep temperature gradients. In the
An inspection plan detailing locations and frequency of placement mentioned previously, the concrete temperature
soundings shouldbe developed. Soundings should betaken varied from 150 F (66 C) to river temperature 55 F (13 C) in
over the entire area of the placement on a regular basis, such only 40 in. (1 m).
as every houror every 200yd3 (75 m3). Locations for taking 8.8.5.3 Volume-To eliminate
construction
joint
soundings should be marked on the structure to ensure that preparationunder water, placementstend to be large
all soundings are made at the same location. Additionally, monoliths placedover short periods of time.
soundings shouldbe required on a more frequentbasis adja- 8.8.5.4 Restraint-Underwater
placements are
cent to each tremie to monitor pipe embedment. Data ob- frequentlymadeonrockorcontainmanypileswith the
tained fromsoundingsshouldbe plotted immediately to concrete acting as a pile cap. In either case, a high degree of
monitor the progress of the placement. restraint can be present.
8.8.2 Loss of seal-The most common cause of loss of Of the methods recommendedfor controlling cracking in
seal is excessive vertical movement of the pipe to clear a mass concrete, modifying the materials or mixture propor-
blockage or toremove a pipesection. With either placement tions appears to have the greatest potential for application in
method, the loss of seal likely will result in washing andseg- underwater placements. Inparticular, use of lower-heat ce-
regation. A related and similar problem is the failure to es- ments, replacement of 15 to 30% of the cement with a suit-
tablish a satisfactory seal at the beginning of a placement. able pozzolan, and cooled aggregates and water are
8.8.3 Go-devils-The use of go-devils has traditionally recommended. It is conceivable,but as yet untried, to provide
been advocated as a technique for sealing tremies or pump internal cooling using the water available at the site or to in-
lines. Although the technique is effective, the water that is clude insulation in the fabrication of forms used in structural
forced out of the pipe ahead of the go-devil can wash and placements. The reader is referred to the work of Carlson,
scour the material underlyingthe placement area. This con- Houghton, and Polivka (1979), Gerwick and Holland (1983),
dition can bealleviated by the placement of a layer of prop- and AC1 224Rfor additional information oncracking.
erly graded rock beforethe start of concreting. 8.8.6 Detailing-Concrete placed underwater moves toits
When a pipe is relocated during a placement, the water final position in the structure by gravity, without vibration
forced outof the pipe will wash previously placedconcrete, and inspection. Therefore, all formwork, reinforcing steel,
resulting in extreme segregation, laitance formation, and and precast elementsto be filled with concrete shouldbe de-
possibly entrapped zonesof uncemented aggregates. There- tailed with underwater placement in mind and incorporate
fore, the use of a go-devilat the beginning of a placementis the following:

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Reinforcing steel shouldbe sized andplaced toallow flow through or under existing structures, such as earthfill
the maximum possible openings between bars so that dams or levees.
concrete flow will not be impeded; Because these walls are confined placements, the rate of
Forms shouldbeadequatelysealed topreventloss of concrete rise will be high, necessitating frequent removalof
concrete or mortar; and tremie sections to maintain flow.
Formsand reinforcing steel shouldnot trap laitance in
areas intended to be filled with concrete. 8.10-Antiwashout admixtures
8.8.7 Preplacement planning-Underwater concrete Chemical admixtures intendedfor use in concrete placed
placements are infrequent and cannot be treated as just another under water havebeen developed (Saucier and Neeley 1987;
concreteoperation.Planning for anunderwaterplacement Khayat,Gerwick, and Hester 1990). Theseantiwashout
should begin as soon the as decision to do theproject has been admixtures make the concrete more cohesive and thus less
made. Items that have a long lead time include detailing of prone to washout of cement or fines from the concrete during
reinforcing steel (if any), detailing of forms, consideration of placement.
overexcavating the placement area to avoid concrete removal These admixturesweredeveloped for use insituations
if concrete placed under water is above design grade, and where freshly placed concrete, may be exposed to flowing
consideration of incorporating members required to support water during or after placement whereconcrete placement is
the tremie platforms into the internal bracing scheme of a not thick enoughto
permit
therequired
tremie pipe
cofferdam, if appropriate. embedment, or where the wash-out of cement may cause an
Consideration of the above items should result in the de- environmental problem. A Corps of Engineers test method
velopment of a placement plan that includes pipe spacings (CRD-C 61) has been developed toevaluate the effectiveness
and locations throughout the duration of the placement. The of these admixtures (Neeley 1988). Because of the thixotropic
plan shouldalso include the locations to be used for relocat- nature of the concretetreatedwiththeseadmixtures,they
ing pipesas placement progresses. should beused with caution for massive placements in which
8.8.8 Personnel-Because underwater placements are in- the concrete is expected to flowfor long distances onceit exits
frequent and errors can lead to problems that are extremely the tremie pipe. Trialplacementsshould be conductedto
difficult and expensiveto correct, all underwater placements verify that the concrete proportioned with the antiwashout
should be done under the direct supervision of qualified, ex- admixture can maintain adequate slumplife and can flow for
perienced personnel. An experienced individual should be the required distance.
available to interpret soundings and make necessary deci- Applications of these antiwashout admixtures includeun-
sions concerning relocation of placement pipes and air lifts, derwater pavingof a canal (Kepler 1990; Klemens 1991) and
and to observe overall placement procedures. underwater repair of a dam (Neeleyand Wickersham 1989).

8.9-Special applications CHAPTER 9-PUMPING CONCRETE


8.9.1 Fabric forming-Fabric forming offers some unique 9.1-General considerations
advantages for specialized types of underwaterconcrete This chapter gives an overview of concrete pumping. For
placement (Lamberton 1980; Koener and Welsh 1980). Nor- a moredetailed discussion, refer to AC1 304.2R.
mally, a sand-cementmortar, sometimes with the addition of AC1 defines pumped concreteas concrete that is transport-
pea gravel, is pumped into a fabric container tailored to the ed through rigid or flexible pipeline by means of a pump.
required shape. The fabric acts as a separator between sur- Pumping can be used for most concrete construction, but is
rounding water andthe concrete as it flowsinto the container especially useful where space for construction equipmentis
preventing segregation. limited. A steady supply of pumpable concrete is necessary
A high-strength, water-permeable fabric is preferred. This for satisfactory pumping. A pumpable concrete, like conven-
fabricisusuallywoven of nylonorpolyesteryams of tional concrete, requires good quality control: that is, uni-
industrial tire cord weight at approximately 20 yams per in. form, properly gradedaggregate, and uniform batching and
(780 yams per m). The use of textured multifilament yams thorough mixingof all materials.
produces a more stable fabric and is also more effective as a Pumped concrete moves as a cylinder riding on a thin lu-
filter, permitting the release of excess mixing water from the bricant film of grout or mortar on the inside diameter of the
concreteandtherebyincreasing the rate of stiffeningand pipeline.
long-term strength and durability (Lamberton 1980). Maximumvolumeoutputandmaximumpressureonthe
Fabric forming is used in construction of erosion-control concrete cannot be achieved simultaneously from most concrete
revetments producedby injecting mortar into a double-layer pumpsbecausethiscombinationrequirestoomuchpower.
fabric envelope and in the construction of concrete jackets Three to four times more pressure is required per of vertical
foot
used to rehabilitate deteriorated marine piles. Large fabric rise than is necessary per footof horizontal movement.
containers have been usedto cast blocks of concrete weigh-
ing up to 15 tons (14 Mg) for construction of breakwaters. 9.2-Pumping equipment
Specially designedfabric assemblies have been usedto cast The most common concrete pumps consist of a receiving
saddles and weights for underwater pipelines. hopper, two concrete pumpingcylinders, and a valvingsys-
8.9.2 Diaphragm-wall construction-In diaphragm- or tem to alternately direct the flow of concrete into the pump-
slurry-wall construction (Xanthakos 1979; Nash 1974; Hol- ing cylinders, and from them, to the pipeline. One concrete
land and Turner 1980), concrete is placed underwater or un- cylinder receives concrete from the receiving hopper while
derabentonite slurry in trenches to form walls. These the other discharges into the pipeline to provide a relatively
placements can serveas retaining walls for open excavations constant flow of concrete through the pipeline to the place-
(when suitably braced or tied back) or as cutoff walls tostop ment area. The price of concrete pumps varies greatly with

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maximum pumping capacity and maximum pressure that The coupling connectionsrequire a gasket sealing ring to hold
can be appliedto the concrete. Pumps should beselected to the required pressure and prevent grout leakage. The most
provide the desired output, volume, and pressure on the con- common connecting endsuse araised sectionprofile to make
crete in the pipeline. a joint that can withstand pressures in excess of 2000 psi
The most versatile concrete pumps use hydraulically op- (14 MPa). They canalso withstand considerablestress from
erated concrete valves that have the ability to crush or dis- external bending forces. Grooved-end connections should
place aggregatethat becomes trappedin the valve area. Most not be used on pipeline with diameter greater than 3 in. (75
of these pumps have an outlet port 5 in. (125 mm) or larger mm).
in diameter and use reducersto reach smallerpipeline sizes, Concrete pumpinghose isdivided into two classifications:
if necessary. hose intended for use at the end of a placement line (dis-
Other pumps use steel balls and mating seats to control the charge hose) and hose used on a placement boom (boom
flow of concrete from the hopper into the pumping cylinder hose). A discharge hosehas a lower pressure
and rating. A boom
out of the pumping cylinder into the pipeline. These units are hose typically connects rigid boom sections and should with-
limited to pumping concrete with smaller than 1/2 in. mm) (13 stand high pressures. Approximately three times more pres-
maximum-sizedaggregate.AC1304.2Rdescribesgeneral- sure is required to pump concrete through a given lengthof
purpose, medium-duty, and special-application pumps in de- hose than isneeded to pump throughthe same lengthof steel
tail. These can be trailer- or truck-mounted units. Truck- line. Pumping pressure can cause a curved or bent hose to
mounted pumps can also be equipped with placement booms straighten. Injuries have resulted from such movement, and
that support a5 in. (125 mm) diameter pipeline that receives sharp bends should be avoided.
the discharge from a concrete pump and places it in the To help achieve maximum componentlife, safe and thor-
forms. Most booms havethree or more articulating sections ough cleaning of the pipeline is necessary at the end of each
and are mounted on a turret that rotates to enable the dis- placement or at any time a lengthy delayin pumping opera-
charge of the pipeline to be located where needed. Booms tion occurs. The pipeline is cleaned by propelling a sponge
are generally rated according to their vertical reach and ball or rubber go-devil through the line with air or water
range in size from about72 ftto 175 ft (22 to 53 m). pressure. Arrangements for disposal of this residual concrete
Concrete pumps are powerful machinesthat use high hy- should bemade before pumpingbegins.
draulic oil pressures, concrete underhigh pressure, and com-
pressed air for cleanup.Safeoperating practices are 9.4-Proportioning pumpable concrete
necessary for the protection of the pump operator, 9.4.1 Basic considerations-Concrete pumping is so es-
ready-mixed concrete drivers, and the workers placing and tablished in most areas that most ready-mixed concretepro-
finishing the pumped concrete. ducers can supply a concrete mixture that will pump readily
if they are informed of the concrete pump volume and pres-
9.3-Pipeline and accessories sure capability, pipeline diameter, and horizontal and verti-
9.3.1 General-Most concrete transported to the place- cal distance to be pumped.
ment area by pumping methods is pumped through rigid The shape of the coarse aggregate, whether angular or
steel tubing or heavy-duty flexible hose, both of which are rounded, has an influence on the required mixture propor-
called pipeline. The flexibility of the hose allows workersto tions, although both shapes can be pumped satisfactorily.
place concreteexactly where it is needed. For placements on The angular pieces have agreater surface area per unit vol-
grade, rubber hoseis frequently usedat the end of a steel tub- ume as compared with rounded pieces andthus require more
ing pipeline. Large or elevatedplacementsgenerally are mortar to coat the surface for pumpability.
done by placement booms. 9.4.2 Coarse aggregate-The maximum size of angular or
Pipeline surface irregularity or roughness, diametervaria- crushed coarse aggregateis limited to 1/3 of the smallest in-
tions, and directional changes disturb the smooth flow of side diameter of the pump or pipeline. For well-roundedag-
pumped concrete. This results in increased pressure required gregate, the maximum size should belimited to 2/5 of these
to push concrete through the pipeline and increased wear diameters. The principles of proportioning are covered in
rate throughout the pump and pipeline. AC1 211.1 and AC1 211.2.
All components of the pipeline should be able to handle, Whereas the grading of sizes of coarse aggregate should
with an adequate safety factor, the maximum internal pres- meet the requirements of ASTM C 33, it is important to rec-
sure that the concrete pump being used is capable of produc- ognize that the range between the upper and lower limits of
ing. The safety factor decreases as the pipeline wears due to this standard is broader than AC1 Committee 304 recom-
the abrasiveness of the coarse and fine aggregate usedin the mends to produce a pumpableconcrete.
concrete. The rate of wear can vary greatly. 9.4.3 Fine aggregate-The properties of the fine aggregate
Straight sections of pipeline are made of welded or seam- have a much more prominent role in the proportioning of
less steel tubing, most commonly 10 ft (3 m) in length. The pumpablemixturesthan do those of thecoarseaggregate.
most common diameters are 4 and 5 in. (100 and 125 mm) Togetherwith the cement andwater, the fine aggregate
with most systems in the 5 in. (125 mm) size. Aluminum provides the mortar or fluid that conveys the coarse
pipeline should not be used in concrete pumping (Fowler aggregates in suspension, thus rendering mixture
a
and Holmgren 1971). pumpable.
9.3.2 Pipeline components-Concrete pipeline compo- Particular attention should be given
to those portions pass-
nents can be assembled in virtually any order, then disas- ing the finer screen sizes (Anderson 1977). At least 15 to
sembled and reconfiguredin a different manner. To achieve 30% should pass the No. 50 (300 Pm) screen and 5 to 10%
this flexibility, each delivery line component requires the should pass the No. 100 (150 Pm) screen. AC1 211.1 states
use of connecting ends or collars, a coupling, and a gasket. that for more workable concrete, whichis sometimes re-

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quired when placement is bypump, itmay bedesirable to re- and uneconomical. Correctingany deficiencies in the aggre-
duce the estimated coarse aggregate content by up to 10%. gate gradationis more important.
Exercise caution to ensure that the resulting slump, wlcm, 9.4.7 Admixtures-Any admixture that increases work-
and strength properties of the concretemeetapplicable ability in both normalweight and lightweight concreteswill
project specification requirements. usually improve pumpability. Admixtures used to improve
9.4.4 Combined normalweight aggregates-The com- pumpability includeregular and high-range, water-reducing
bined coarse and fine aggregates occupy about 67 to 77% of admixtures, air-entraining admixtures, and finely divided
the mixture volume. For gradation purposes, the fine and mineral admixtures.
coarse aggregates should be consideredas one even though Increased awareness of the need to incorporate entrained
they are usually proportionedseparately. air in concrete to minimize freezing and thawing damage to
AC1 304.2R includes an analysis worksheet for evaluating structures has coincided with increaseduse of concrete
the pumpability of a concretemixture by combining the fine pumps,as well as the development of longerplacement
and coarse aggregate with nominal maximum-sized aggregate booms. This hasresulted in considerableresearch and testing,
from 3/4 to 1-1/2 in. (19 to 38 mm). The worksheet makes which hasestablished that the effectiveness of the air-entrain-
provision for additional coarse and fine aggregate that can be ing agent(AEA) inproducing abeneficial air-void systemde-
addedto a mixturetoimprove the overallgradationand pends on many factors. The more importantfactors are:
recognizes possible overlapof some coarse and fine aggregate The compatibility of the AEA andother admixtures as
components. If a mixtureisknownto be pumpableis well as the order in which they are introduced into the
evaluatedandgraphed first, the curve representingits batch;
proportions provides a useful reference for determining the The mixture proportions and aggregate gradation;
pumpability of a questionable mixture. If that mixture has a Mixingequipment and procedures;
curve running in a zigzag fashion, or has one or more values Mixturetemperatures; and
falling belowthe boundary line, the mixture is questionable for Slump.
pumping and may not be pumpable by all types of concrete AEA effectiveness and the resulting dosage of AEA also
pumps. Those pumps with powered valves, higher pressure on depend on the cement fineness, cement factor, and water
the concrete, and the mostgradual and smallest reduction from content, and the chemistry of cement and water, as well as
concrete tube diametercan pump the most difficult mixtures. that of other chemical and mineral admixtures used in the
Concrete containing lightweight fine and coarse aggregate concrete. Refer to AC1304.2R for more detailed information
can be pumped if the aggregate is properly saturated. Refer on air content and admixtures.
to AC1304.2R for more detailed information and procedures.
9.4.5 Water-Water requirements and slump control for 9.5-Field practice
pumpable normalweight concrete mixtures are interrelated Preplanning for concrete pumpingis essential for success-
and extremely importantconsiderations. The amount of wa- ful placements, with increasing detail and coordination re-
ter used in a mixturewill influence the strength and durabil- quired as the size of the placement and the project increases.
ity (for a given amount of cement) and will also affect the This planning should provide for the correct amount and type
slump or workability. of concrete for the pump beingused, provision for necessary
Mixing water requirements vary for different maximum pipeline, and agreement as to which personnel will provide
sizes of aggregate as well as for different slumps. the labor necessary to the complete placementoperation.
To establish the optimum slumpresulting from water con- Any trailer- or truck-mounted concrete pump can be used
tent for a pump mixtureand to maintain control of that par- for pipeline concrete placement. The limiting factor in this
ticular slump throughthe course of a jobare both extremely method is the ability to spread the concrete as needed at the
important factors. Slumps from 2to 6 in.(50 to 150 mm) are end of the pipeline. Generally, this is done by laborers using
most suitable for pumping. In mixtures with higher slump, a rubber hoseat the end of a rigid placement line.
the coarse aggregate canseparate from the mortar and paste The discharge of powered placement boomscan be posi-
and can cause pipeline blockage. Slumps obtained through tioned at almost any point withinthe radius of the boom and
the use of superplasticizers, however, are usually pumped at elevations achieved with the boom from near vertical (up
without difficulty. or down) to horizontal. Their use generally reduces the man-
There are several reasons why the slump of concrete can power requiredfor a given placement.
change between initial mixing and final placement. If the
slump at the end of the discharge hose can be maintained 9.6-Field Control
within specification limitations, it may be satisfactory for the Pumpedconcretedoesnot require any compromise in
concrete to enter the pump at a higher slumpto compensate quality. A high level of quality control, however, should be
for slump loss, if the change is duesimply to aggregate maintained to ensure concrete uniformity.
absorption. Concrete has been pumped successfully during both hot
9.4.6 Cementitious materials-The determination of the and cold weather. Precautions may be necessary to provide
cementitious materials content followsthe same basic princi- adequate protection during extreme conditions. Refer to
ples used for any concrete. AC1 305R and AC1 306R for guidance.
In establishing the cement content, remember the need for
overstrength proportioningin the laboratory to allowfor field CHAPTER 10-CONVEYING CONCRETE
variations. 10.1-General considerations
The useof extra quantities of cementitious materials as the This chapter gives an overviewof conveying concrete. For
only means to correct pumping difficulties is shortsighted a more detailed discussion, refer to AC1 304.4R.

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Belt conveyors for handling concrete are unique in that Using properlydesigneddischargehoppers, chutes, drop-
they transport plastic concrete that is approximately 48% chutes, or elephant trunks will eliminate concrete segregation
heavier than aggregate or other commonly conveyed problems. Equipping every end-discharge conveyor belt with
materials. They transport plastic concretefromasupply a belt wiper or scraper will limit mortar loss.
source, such as a truck mixer or a batchingand mixing plant,
to the point of placement or toother equipment that is used to 10.3-Conveyor design
place the concrete. Maximum success for conveyor Concrete conveyorbelts are quite flexible because they op-
placement requires aconstantsupply of properlymixed erate at high speeds over relatively small-diameter head and
concrete for charging the belt conveyor and a provision for tail pulleys. Almost all conveyor belting is madein long
moving the dischargepointduringplacement so that the lengths and is cut to fit the conveyor on which it is installed.
plastic concrete is deposited over the entire placement area The endsof the belt are spliced to make the belt continuous.
without the need for rehandling or excessive vibration. Most concrete belt conveyors are moved frequently and it is
Concrete belt conveyors are classified into three types: 1) impossibleto ensure that the supportingstructureand belt
portable or self-contained; 2) feeder or series; and3) idlers will always be level in the plane at a right angle to the
spreader-radial or side-discharge. center line of the belt. Whenever a belt conveyor is not level,
All concrete conveyorsrequire charge and discharge hop- gravity willcause the belt to drift to the low side. This problem
pers, belt wipers, and proper combinations of belt support is usually solved with specially designed belt-support idlers or
idlers and belt speed to prevent segregation of the concrete. with guide rollers that are in contact with the beltedge.
Any normalweight or lightweight aggregate concrete that can The single most important factor in determining load cross
be discharged by a truck mixer can be placedby a concrete section is belt width. A relatively small increase in conveyor
belt conveyor. belt width greatly increases capacity. For example, increasing
belt widthfrom 16 to 24in. (400 to600 mm) more than doubles
10.2-Conveyor operation the capacity of the conveyor system at thesame belt speed.
Concrete conveyors running at the correct belt speed and A convenient methodof estimating concrete belt-conveyor
with properly functioning charging hoppers, transfer devices, capacity is to use conveyor capacity tables published by the
and belt wipers have only a minor effect on the strength, conveyor manufacturer. Thesetables usually assume contin-
slump, or air content of the concrete that they carry. uous horizontal operating conditions, average angle of sur-
The characteristics of the ribbon of concrete on a conveyor charge, and aconventional three-roll idler configuration.
belt are determined by the angle of surcharge of the concrete, These tables are intended to cover average conditionsand are
the required minimum edgedistance, and the load cross sec- usually accurate enoughfor most purposes. There is a direct
tion. The angleof surcharge is the angle to the horizontal that relationship between capacity and belt speed so that capaci-
the surface of the same concrete assumes whileis being it car- ties can beinterpolated for belt speeds not shown.
ried on a moving(horizontal) belt conveyor. The angle of sur- Keeping the weight of concrete on the belt to a minimum
charge for most concrete falls in a range fromO to 10 degrees will allow the belt conveyor to run at optimum belt speed.
(Anon. 1979). The angle of surcharge determines the cross Generally, this speed is in the range of 300 to 750 ftlmin (90
section of the concrete ribbon that can be efficiently carried to 230m/min) dependingon the type of concrete belt convey-
on the belt and the maximum slope (ascending or descending) or involved, the angle of surcharge of the concrete, and the
at which concrete can be handled by a belt conveyor. angle of the conveyor.
Concrete cannotbe carried across the entire face of a belt. The proper combination of idler spacing and belt tension
The ribbon of concrete should be centered on the belt with allows concrete belt conveyors to stop and hold concrete on
equal widths of clear belt or edge distance between it and the belt without spillage. Increasing idler spacing decreases
each edge of the belt. Failure to observe the minimum edge the overall weight of the concrete conveyor butincreases the
distance requirement will result in excessive spilling and loss belt tension required for successful operation.
of large aggregate off the edges of the belt. Operating conditionsfor concrete belt conveyorsrequire the
All concretebelt conveyors use idlers that trough or cupthe use of watertight or waterproof electrical components, sealed
belt, enabling it to carrya deeper ribbonof concrete than would bearings, and closed hydrauliccircuits. Consequently, there is
be possible ona flat belt. Asthe angle of the belt (ascending or noequipment-relatedreasonto protect the conveyorsfrom
descending) is increased, the ribbon of concrete on the belt weather and environmental conditions. There is rarely a need
becomes shallower. As concrete is loaded on a belt conveyor, to enclose or protect the concrete on portable conveyors or on
anydifferencebetweenitsvelocityinthedirection of belt other types of conveyors up to 200 to 300 ft (60 to 90 m)long.
travelandthespeed of thebeltwillbeequalizedby The concreteis conveyed at high speed and isexposed to am-
acceleration or deceleration of the concrete, which results in bient conditions for only a short time.
turbulence. Properlydesignedcharginghoppersuse this If extreme ambient conditions are anticipated when using
turbulence to produce a remixing of the concrete as it flows longer conveyor systems, some form of enclosure may be
onto the belt. A concrete belt conveyor should be equipped necessary to maintain the workability of the concrete or to
with a charginghopper that levels out surges of concrete flow protect it from freezing. Whether such an enclosure will be
and delivers a uniform ribbonof concrete onto the belt with required should be determined on a project-by-project basis.
proper edgedistance. All structural concrete can be handled satisfactorily by a
Plastic concrete is traveling at the same speed as the belt concrete belt conveyor. Extremesof slump, either below 1 in.
when it is dischargedfroma belt conveyor.The plastic (25 mm) or above 7 in. (180 mm), reduce the placement ca-
concrete generallyleaves the belt as a cohesive mass except pacity of a belt conveyor significantly.
that some of the larger pieces of coarseaggregatecan Saucier (1974) reportedthat in tests of concrete conveyed
segregate fromthe stream and some mortarclings to the belt. over 3000ft (900m), cement hydration, water evaporation,or

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aggregate absorption resulted in loss of slump for concrete Radial spreaders are also supported by rigid posts mounted
conveyed these long distances. Strength tests indicateda in or near the placement area.
definite increase in strength corresponding to the decrease in The limitations of reach and weight of radial spreading
slump.The loss of entrained airwas less than 0.5% for units have beenlargely overcome through the use of two- or
concrete originally containing approximately5% air. three-section telescoping conveyors mounted ontracksor
No single factor of conveyor design is of such overriding the telescoping boom of a hydrauliccrane. Radial spreaders
importance that it alone will produce satisfactory or unsatis- have the advantages of relatively quick setup time and the ca-
factory operation. pability of reaching past obstructions. They alsocause a min-
imum obstruction or congestion in the placement areaitself.
10.4-Types of concrete conveyors For wide placements,the most efficient method of equip-
Different project requirements haveresulted in the devel- ment use and the best placement pattern for finishing with
opment of portable, feeder, and spreading conveyorsfor con- mechanical equipment are achieved by side-discharge con-
crete placement. Each type can be used alone or combined veyors or straight-line spreaders (Cope 1972).
with others to form a conveyor system. 10.4.3.2 Side-discharge conveyorsSide-discharge
10.4.1 Portable conveyorsShort-lift short-reach
or conveyors span completely across the placement area. By
concrete-placement applications require the use of a portable discharging concrete over the side of the belt with a traveling
belt conveyor. Themost important characteristic is that each plow or diverter, they place astraight ribbon of concrete that
unit isself-containedandcanbereadilymovedaboutthe is ideal for mechanical finishing. Side- discharge conveyors
project. Belt widths of 16 or 18 in. (400 or 460 mm) are most normallyoperate horizontally, so the belt can be loaded
common. The weight and mobility trade-off of the portable heavily. Those equipped with 16 in. (400 mm) wide belts
belt conveyor restricts its overall length to approximatelyft 60 have a capacityof approximately 100 yd3/h (75 m3/h), 20in.
(18 m).This,in turn, establishes the maximumdischarge (500 mm) wide belt capacity is 200 yd3 (153 m3) per h, and
height at approximately 35ft (11 m). 24 in. (600 mm) wide belt capacity is approximately 300 yd3
(230 m3) per h.
Portable belt conveyors are generally poweredwith diesel
A crane using a bucket to bringconcreteto the relatively sta-
or gasoline enginesand use hydraulicdrive systems to power
the load-carrying belt. A self-propelled conveyor with an tionary and usually visible hopper of a side-discharge convey-
overall belt length of 56 ft (17m), a 30 hp (22 MW) engine, or is significantly moreefficient than the same craneswinging
blind to place concrete for an elevated slab. Side-discharge
and power steering can place at a rate as high as 100 yd3/h
(76 m3/h). conveyors have made pumps more practical for wide slabs or
decks by eliminatingthe labor needed to constantly move the
10.4.2 Feeder conveyors-Long-reach concrete-place- discharge end of the pipeline back and forth in front of the
ment applications require the use of transporting or feed- commonly used straight-line finishingequipment.
er-type belt conveyors that operate in series with end- The diverter that removes concrete fromthe belt and dis-
discharge transfer points.
charges it over the side of the conveyor uses a wiper blade to
Feeder-belt conveyorsare normally poweredwith alternat- remove the concrete fromthe belt. The operationand adjust-
ing current electric motors so that the load-carrying belt ment of the wiper blade is critical on an end-discharge con-
speed will be controlled by the power supply. Controls and veyor.Provisionsshouldbe made for adjusting the belt
cables should meet the normal electrical code requirements wiper or scraper on side-discharge conveyors while concrete
and be safe for use in a wet environment. Themotors should is being placed. Some wear onthe wiping strip is normal, and
be protected against both overload conditionsand low-volt- a small amountof grout can becarried past the diverter.
ages. It is important that the conveyors automaticallystart in 10.4.3.3 Conveyor combinations-Each type of
sequence and that the system ensure that each flight or unit conveyor has some limited ability to reach, lift, carry, or
of the system is operating at the proper belt speed before con- spread. On complex or large projects, economics will
crete is discharged onto the belt. normally favor using each type of machine for the function it
Feeder-belt conveyors can be operated over a rail or track performs best. As long as belt speedsand widths are
that allowsthe feeder train to be extended retracted
or without compatible,it is practical to combinevarioustypes of
interrupting concrete placement. On large projects, relatively equipment.
permanent feeder-belt conveyors can be installed. Under these
conditions, muchlonger conveyor units can beused. 10.5-Field practice
Spreading of the concrete at the discharge endof the train It is generally notpractical to custom designbelt convey-
requires particular attention because feeder-belt conveyors ors for each project or application. Normal practice is to se-
move such a large volume of concrete. Usually, feeder con- lect standard, commercially available equipment that has
veyors discharge into equipment especially designed for adequate capacityand reach, and toorganize and plan its use
spreading concrete. to meet the general construction sequences required to prop-
10.4.3 Spreading conveyors erly perform the work.
10.4.3.1 Radial spreaders-Radialspreaders are The actual field placement rate of a concrete conveyor will
mounted on the placement conveyor oron a cantilevered rarely equal the theoretical capacityfrom charts. This is
support that swings the discharge end through an arc. They primarily attributable to the inevitable delays that occur in
also have provision for extending and retracting the batching, mixing,and transporting concrete to the belt
placementconveyora substantial distance. Cantilevered conveyor at the placement area. Otherdelaysinvolve
radial spreaders normallyrely on outrigger legs supported by consolidation and finishing of the concrete and moving of
the forms or the base on which the concrete is being cast to the conveyor. Thereis no way that a belt conveyor can place
resist the overturning moment created by the loaded belt. a surge of concrete in excess of design capacity because

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MEASURING, MIXING, TRANSPORTING, AND PLACING CONCRETE 304R-33

excess concrete placedon the belt will usually be spilled off produce concrete havinga typical density as high as 240 lb/ft3
the sides. (3840kg/m3)and340lb/ft3(5450kg/m3),respectively.
Hourlyproduction onan efficient project will usually Heavyweight concrete notonly has a higher density, but also
average about 70%of the capacity of the belt conveyor. This more desirable attenuation properties.
adjustment of the theoretical capacity provides the safety Whenheavyweightconcrete is used to absorbgamma
factor thatmost jobs require for successful completion rays, the density is of prime importance(Pihlajayaara 1972).
within scheduled times. When the concrete is to attenuate neutrons, material of light
As the placement progresses, fresh concrete should al- atomic weight containing hydrogen should be included in the
ways be discharged onto or against concrete of plastic con- concrete mixture (Davis 1972a). Some aggregates are used
sistency that is alreadyin place so there will be some because of their ability to retain chemically bound water at
blending of concrete through vibration and there will be no elevated temperatures (above 185 F [85 C]), which ensures a
opportunity for objectionable rock pockets to beformed. Vi- source of hydrogen.
bration at the delivery point and immediately behind the ad- Colemanite,amineralcontainingboron,andmanufac-
vancingedge of the concrete will cause the concrete to tured boron additives, such asboron frit, ferroboron, and bo-
surround reinforcing steel without significant segregation. ron carbide have been used in conjunction with
Some conveyor maintenance can be necessary during con- normalweight and heavyweight concrete. Their use enhances
crete placement on large-volume projects because conveyor absorption of thermal neutrons, limits hard gamma radiation,
belting will stretch to some degree during concreteplacing. and limits buildup of long-lived activity. Caution should be
Concrete conveyors should have provision for increasing exercised becauseof the possibility of retardation due to the
belt tension. presence of soluble borates (Volkman 1994).
Any spilled concrete should be cleanedoff the conveyor
before it can harden. 11.2-Materials
Concrete belt conveyors are an open system where almost 11.2.1 General-Cements, admixtures, and water used
all of the concrete being placed can be visually inspected. in heavyweight concrete should conform to the standards
The ribbon of concrete on the conveyor belt should be ob- generally required for normalweight concrete, only the ag-
served at the start and frequently throughthe placement. The gregate is different and may require special consideration
main emphasis of inspection should be on the proper dis- during handling,batching, mixing, transporting and placing.
charging of concrete from the conveyors and consolidation 11.2.2 Aggregate-Thorough examination and evaluation
of the concrete. Concretedischargedfromaconveyor of heavyweight aggregate sources are necessary to obtain
should notfree-fall far enough to cause segregation. material suitable for the type of shielding required (Browne
Concrete belt conveyor systems should tested be under job and Blundell 1972).
conditions before any significant placement is attempted if Composition of aggregates for use in radiation-shielding
there is any doubt aboutthe ability of the system to success- concrete is described in ASTM C 638, and aggregates should
fully place the concrete. Fortunately, handling of only a few meet requirementsof ASTM C 637. Some typical properties
cubic yards of concrete over any belt conveyor system will for shielding aggregates are shown in Table 11.1.
validate the conveyor designand identify problem areas.
Some aggregates (ferrophosphorousand barite) and some
Tests of the plastic concrete and samples for strength de-
iron ores are brittle and highly crystalline in structure and
termination taken at the discharge fromthe mixing or trans-
tend to break up into smaller pieces while being handled.
portingequipmentand at the concrete belt conveyor
These factors should not preclude the use of the material,
discharge point should provide adequate assurance of satis-
provided it is demonstrated that the concrete manufactured
factory operation. The quality of concrete being placed in
has properties meeting the specification requirements.
the structure can be measuredonly atthe point of placement
in the structure. Oncea satisfactory correlation between Fine metallic aggregateshould consist of commercial
samples taken at the point of placement and the point of dis- chilled-iron, steel shot, or ground iron meeting the specifica-
charge of the mixer has been established, sampling at the tions of the Society of Automotive Engineers(1993).
moreconvenientpointshouldbe satisfactory, provided Heavyweight PA concrete usually precludesthe use of ag-
placement conditions remain unchanged. gregate larger than 1-1/2 in. (40 mm) due to form configura-
tion and embedment limitations. Coarse aggregate should be
CHAPTER 11-HEAVYWEIGHT AND RADIATION- uniformly graded from 1/2 to 1-1/2 in. (10 to 40 mm) and con-
SHIELDING CONCRETE form to Grading 1 in Table 7.1 (Chapter 7). Fine aggregate
11.l-General considerations grading shouldbe within the limits shown in Table 7.1 so that
The procedures for measuring, mixing, transporting, and the smaller particles show less tendency to segregate.
placingheavyweightandradiation-shieldingconcrete are Aggregate should be shipped, handled, and stored in a
similar to those used in conventional concrete construction. manner that will ensure little loss of fines, no contamination
Special expertise and thorough planningare necessary forthe by foreign material, or significant aggregate breakageor seg-
successful completion of this type of concrete work (Pihla- regation.
jayaara 1972). For a detailed discussion on heavyweight and 11.2.3 Proprietary premixed mortar-Heavyweight iron
radiation-shielding concrete, refer to AC1 304.3R. mortar and lightweight organic and inorganic mortar con-
Normalweight concrete is generally specified for radiation cretes produced commerciallyby manufacturers for biologi-
shieldingwhenspaceisavailable.Whenspaceislimited, cal shielding shouldbe tested beforeuse for radiation-
however, the thickness of these shields can be reduced by shielding properties. Inspection at the point of manufacture
usingboth natural andsyntheticheavyweightaggregates. should be as stringent as for natural and synthetic heavy-
Naturalmineralaggregatesandsyntheticaggregatecan weight aggregatesand shielding concretes.

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Table 11.1-Typical radiation-shielding aggregates*


mineral Natural I mineral Svnthetic
Percent by weight Percent by weight
Specific Specific
Aggregate Source$ gravityt Iron Fixed water Aggregate gravity$ Iron Fixed water
Hvdrous ore Crushed aeaeeate
Bauxite - 1.8 to 2.3 O to 25 Heavy slags 15 5.0 O O
Utah,
Geothite Michigan 3.4 to 3.8 O 8 to 12 FelvophosphorousP 5.8 to 6.3 O O

Utah,
Limonite 3.4 to 3.8 8 to 12 55 Felvosilicon 6.5 to 7.0 70 O
Michigan
Heavy ore Metallic iron products
Nevada,
Barite 4.0 to 4.4 1 to 10 O 7.7 to 7.8 Sheared
99 reinforcingO bars
Tennessee
Nevada,
Magnetite Wyoming, 1.0 to2.5 60 4.2 toSteel
4.8 punchings 7.7 to 7.8 99 O
Montana
Ilmentite Quebec 40 4.2 to 4.8 O and steel shot 7.5 to 7.6 Iron 99 O

Hematite I ’Outh America’


Afrka I 4.8
4.2
to I 70 I -
I Boron Products

Boron additives fi-it 2.4 to 2.6 BoronO O


Bor0 calcite Turkey 2.3 to 2.4 O O Felvoboron 5.0 85 O
Borated Diatomaceous earth 1.0 O O
Califolnia Colemanite
2.3 to 2.4 O O
Boron carbine 2.5 to 2.6 O O
*Source: Society of Automotive Engineers (1993), Davis (1967), and Anon (1955).
“Material water-saturated with its sulface dry.
$Other sources may be available.
SFelrophosphorous when used in portland cement will generate flammable and possible toxic gases that can develop high pressure if confined

11.3-Concrete characteristics 11.5-Formwork


11.3.1 Physical properties-High modulus of elasticity, Formwork should follow the practices set forthin AC1 347R.
low coefficient of thermal expansion, and low elastic and Formwork for conventionally placed heavyweight concrete
creep deformationare ideal properties for heavyweight con- needs to be stronger than comparable formworkfor ordinary
crete. High compressivestrengths may be requiredif heavy- concrete becauseof the increased concretedensity.
weight concrete to
is be
subjected to
high stresses. Typical radiation-shielding structures require a complex
Heavyweight concrete with high a cement content and low a shape, and they can contain many penetrations through the
wlcm can exhibit increased creep and shrinkage, and in a formwork. Thestrutting and bracing system should becare-
massive concrete placement could generate high tempera- fully designed toavoid unintentionally placing a load on
tures at early ages, causing undesirable localized cracking penetrating members and to ensure precise alignment of ex-
from the thermally inducedstresses. When structural consid- ternal fixtures corresponding to these penetrations. Consider
erations require this cracking potential to be eliminated, it is the use of permanent steel forms.
necessary to use appropriate temperature control measures, Steel penetrations are often precisely machined andfabri-
which could include precoolingor postcooling the concrete, cated assembliesthat can be subject to delays in delivery. It
or both, as described in AC1 207.2R and AC1224R. is prudent to allow for such delays by providing for block-
11.3.2 Mixtureproportioning-Procedures outlined in AC1 outs to receive these penetrations. Blockouts shouldbe pro-
21 1.1should be used for concrete proportioning. Convention- vided with normal bendsor a stepped configuration to reduce
ally placed heavyweight concrete should be proportioned to the possibility of radiation streaming or leakage. The basic
provide the desired compressive strength and density as well structure then can be completed aroundthe blockouts. After
as adequate workability. Also, the chemical constituents and the items to be embeddedare placed, the blockouts are filled
fixed water content of the resulting mixture should provide with heavyweight grout. Precautions should betaken to en-
satisfactory shielding properties (Davis 1972b). Typicalpro- sure that penetrations and blockoutsare tightly grouted with
portions for heavyweight, conventionally placed concrete, a nonshrink groutof appropriate density.
PA concrete, and grout mixturesare shown in Table 11.2.
11.6-Placement
11.4-Mixing equipment 11.6.1 Conventional method-Placement of conventionally
Standard mixing equipment is generally used to mix heavy- mixed
heavyweight concrete
subject
is to the same
weight concrete, but care should be taken not to overload the considerations of quality control as normalweight concrete,
equipment. In general, the amount of heavyweight concrete except that it is far more susceptible to variations in quality
mixed should be equivalent to the mixture weightof normal- due to segregation caused by improper handling.
weight concrete rather than the volume capacity of the mixing The placement of heavyweight concretedictates thestrictest
equipment. Heavyweight concrete should be agitated when observance of goodplacementpractice.Regular concrete
transported from the mixing plant theto point of placement to placementtechniquescanbeused,includingpumping.
prevent segregation, consolidation, and packing. Heavyweight concrete should be placed asclose as possible to

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Table 11.2-Typical proportions for radiation-shielding concrete conventionally mixed and placed
Fine aggregate Wet density Coarse aggregate Slump
Mixture
no. WIR* Material WIR* Admixture Material
WICM in. lb/ft3 mmke/m3
A I 3.40 I Ilmenite 1 - 1 - I Soecifv I 0.43 I O I O I 190 I 3040
B 3.35 - - 0.47 O O 190 3040
Magnetite Specify
C 2.39 Serpentine 5.07 0.62
Specify Magnetite 2 50 190 3040
D 4.46 Barite 5.44 Barite Swcifv 0.60 2 50 220 3520
E I 3.66 I Ilmenite I 4.62 I Ilmenite I Soecifv I 0.45 I 3 I 75 I 225 I 3630
F 3.61 Magnetite 4.58 Magnetite I Specify I 0.49 I 2 I 50 I 225 I 3630
. . I 2.95 I Feivophosphorous
. . I 2.95 I Feivophosphorous I Specify
. . I 0.54 I 2 I 50 I 260 I 4170
I 1.48 ¡ Barite I 2.11 I Barite I Swcifv I 0.54 I 2 I 50 I 260 I 4170
I 3.01 I Maenetite I 1.76 I Maenetite I Soecifv I 0.49 I 2 I 50 I 270 I 4330
H - - 2.69 S3301390 iron shot - - " - -

- - 2.65 S111011320 iron shot - - " - -

2.98 Magnetite 2.60 S3301390 iron shot Specify 0.51 2 300 50 4800
I
- - 5.76 S111011320 iron shot - - " - -

3.21 Ilmenite 2.60 S3301390 iron shot Specify 0.49 2 300 50 4800
J
- - 5.54 S111011320 iron shot - - " - -

K 3.82 Feivophosphorous 7.10 Ferrophosphorous Swcifv 0.53 2 50 300 4800

L
1.00 I Magnetite I 5.96 I S3301390
shot
iron I Specify I 0.46 I 2 I 50 I 330 I 5290
- - 5.89 S111011320 iron shot - - " - -

Replaced-aggregate grout
M I 1.15 I Serwntine - - - I 0.50 I - I - I 128 I 2050
N I 1.00 I Conventional 1 - 1 - I - I 0.42 I - I - I 129 I 2060
O 1.28 Limonite - - - 0.55 - - 146 2390
P 1.49 Barite - - - 0.54 - - 155 2480
0 2.12 Magnetite - - - 0.55 - - 170 2720
Preplaced-aeereeate concrete
Mixture Grout
no. no. Material WIR* Admixture Material
WICM in. lb/ft3 mmkg/m3
Limonite 1.23 Limonite 0.55 - - 215 3440
Specify
R O
- 5.37 Maenetite - - " - -

- - 240 3850
S Q Magnetite 10.29 Specify 0.55
Magnetite
T M Serpentine 2.46 Serpentine Specify 0.50 - - 240 3850
- - - 7.44 - - - -
Steel punchings "

- - 260 4170
Magnetite Magnetite 6.16 Specify 0.55
U Q - 3.38 Steel ounchines - - " - -

Limonite 2.70 Limonite 0.55 - - 260 4170


Specify
V O
- 6.31 - - - -
Steel punchings "

W - - 300 4810
Q Magnetite 8.08 Steel punchings Specify 0.55
X Q Magnetite 13.11 Steel punchings Specify 0.55 - - 340 5450
*WIR =weight ratio aggregatelcement.

its final position in the forms witha minimum of vibration to (Davis 1972~).This grout should be removed from the lift
prevent segregation. The use of long, rigid chutes or drop surface while the concrete is still in a fresh state.
pipes should be avoided. Where concreteis placed in narrow 11.6.2 Preplaced-aggregate method-Precautions for
forms or through restricted areas, a short, flexible-type drop placement of heavyweight PA concretes are given in
chute that tends tocollapse and restrictthe fall should be em- Chapter 7. Placement of grout for heavyweight PA concrete
ployed. Liftsshould be limited toa maximum 12 in. (300 mm) requires extreme care because of a greater tendency for
segregation and line blockages. Therefore,
ample
thickness.
preparations should be made for rapid clearing of grout hoses
Consolidation procedures should conform to AC1 309R. and pipes. Standby equipment should be provided, and a trial
In heavyweight concrete, vibrators have a smaller effective run is recommended beforeoperation.
area or radius of action; therefore, greater care should beex-
ercised to ensure that the concrete is properly consolidated. 11.7-Quality control
Vibration and revibration for removing entrappedair and 11.7.1 Samples and testing-Heavyweight and radiation-
to establish aggregate-to-aggregate contact can cause an ex- shielding concrete materials should be sampled and tested
cessive amount of grout to collect on the top of lift surfaces before and during constructionto ensure conformance with

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applicable standards and specifications. Guidance presented (Tobin1967).The total waterusedper unit volumeis
in AC1 standards andreports, as well as previous experience divided into two components. One part is the water absorbed
with the same materials, will determine the required by the aggregates,whereas the other is similar to that in
frequency of testing. normalweightaggregateconcrete and is classified as free
The complexity of structures in whichheavyweight water. Free water controls the slump, and when mixed with
concrete is placed usually precludes the possibility of taking a given quantity of cement, establishes the strength of the
test cores. It is, therefore, of the utmost importance that a paste, as for any concrete mixture.The amount and weightof
thorough quality control program be established before the absorbed water will varywith different lightweight
start of construction and maintained throughoutconstruction. materials, presoaking, andmixing
times (Reilly 1972;
11.7.2 Control tests-The quality of the concreteproduced Shideler 1957). Absorbed water doesnot change thevolume
and of its constituent materials shouldbe controlled by anes- of the aggregatesor the concretebecause it is inside the
tablishedprogram of sampling and testing inaccordance aggregate. Most important, absorbed water does not affect
with appropriate ASTMtest methods. The limits of rejection the wlcm or the slump of the concrete.
for heavyweight concrete should be established in the con- 12.2.2 Unit-weight variations-The unit weight of light-
struction specifications and conform to the design parame- weight aggregate varies depending onthe raw materials used
ters of the structures involved. Prior to wasting expensive and the sizeof the aggregate. Smaller particles usually have
heavyweight concrete, the engineer shouldbe notified so that higher unit weights than larger particles. Unit weights also
the severity of any nonconformance canbe evaluated. vary due to changes in absorption ormoisture content. If the
Heavyweight PA concrete is adaptable to the use of so- lightweight aggregates are batched by weight without adjust-
phisticated and exacting quality control tests. The extent of ing for these variations in unit weight, problems of over- or
control exercised depends onthe complexity and importance under yield of the concretecan result.
of the project. The dry, loose unit weight of aggregate depends primarily
Tests of materials, grouts, and compressive strength of on itsspecific gravity and onthe grading and shapeof the par-
heavyweight PA concrete should be the same as those dis- ticles. Angular crushed aggregates have more voids unfilled
or
cussed in Chapter 7. spaces betweenthe aggregate particles than rounded orspher-
11.7.3 Inspection-The inspection of heavyweight con- ically shaped pieces (Tobin 1978; Wills1974). Poorly graded
crete should be in accordance with applicable standards and aggregate (that is, all one size) generally has more voids than
project specifications. a uniformly graded materialthat has enough smaller pieces to
Other than special modificationsdiscussed
in this fit into the voids betweenthe larger particles.
chapter, those inspection items emphasizedas important in Numerous routine tests of both natural and lightweight
AC1 3 11.4R should be followed for heavyweight concrete aggregates show an amazingly close correlation of the void
as well. content forspecific Qroducts being produced by a given plant
over along period. Eachproduction facility has its own
CHAPTER 12-LIGHTWEIGHT STRUCTURAL characteristic void content values for each size of aggregate
CONCRETE being produced and this information can usuallybe obtained
12.1-General considerations from the source.
Thischaptergivesanoverview of lightweight structural The absolutevolume of a specific lightweight coarse
concrete. For a moredetailed discussion, refer to AC1304.5R. aggregate is the volume of materialremaining after the
Procedures for measuring, mixing, transporting, and plac- volume of voids has beensubtracted. The absolutevolume or
ing lightweight concreteare similar in many respects to com- the displaced volume in the concrete for a given lightweight
parableprocedures for normalweight concrete. There are materialremains the same eventhough its densityor its
certain differences, however, especially in proportioning and moisture contentchanges.
batching procedures, that should be considered to produce a The proper usage of these basic principles makes it possi-
finished product of comparable quality. The weight and ab- ble to batch and deliver lightweight concrete at the proper
sorptive properties of lightweight aggregatesare different and slump and yield for any job.
should be considered.Thischapter deals primarilywith
batching methodsfor coarse lightweight aggregates to correct 12.2.3 Volume-weight batching of coarse aggregate-To
avoidproblemswith yield of concrete, it is necessary to
for changes in weight and moisture content to ensure proper
yield (Tobin 1971).It also covers batchingof lightweight fine maintain the same absolute volumes of lightweight
aggregatesusingamodification of the methodused for aggregates in each batch of concrete by adjusting the batch
coarselightweightaggregates(Expanded Shale, Clay and weights to compensate for changes in unit weights. Standard
unit weight tests on the lightweightaggregates, made
Slate Institute 1958a, Portland Cement Association 1988).
frequently during batching operations can be used to adjust
These proportioning and batching methods have been co-
batch weights to reflect any changes that can occur in unit
ordinated withthe basic principles set forth in AC1 21 l .2 and
weights. This practice is rather time-consuming in a busy
AC1 304.5R.It is necessary for the user to refer to those doc-
production facility, and a volume-weight batching system
uments for detailed discussions of the methods available for
has been developed and used in some areas as an alternate
batching lightweight aggregate, as that material is not dupli-
method. Either methodproduces satisfactory results. The
cated herein.
principal difference between the systems reported herein and
that reported in AC1 21 1.2 is that the volume-weight method
12.2-Measuring and batching providesautomatic yield adjustments for eachbatch of
12.2.1 Free water and absorbed water-One of the first
considerations in batching lightweight concrete mixturesis
a proper understanding of the water used in the mixture *Unpublished data provided by committee member Robert E. Tobin.

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lightweight concrete without the needfor determining To adjust for the proper amount of lightweight fines, the
specific gravity factors of structural lightweight aggregate. oven-dry unit weight of the material being used is deter-
12.2.3.1 Calibrating the weighing hopper-The mined as indicated previously. If this dry unit weight differs
volume-weightsystemcan beset up for virtually any from that shown on the laboratory mixture proportion, then
batching system that employs a hopper or bin for weighing the dry batch weightis changed by multiplyingthe loosevol-
materials. The first operation is to determine the volume of ume by the new dry unit weight just determined. This dry
this weighing hopper. batch weight is increased by the moisture content as deter-
mined previously togive the actual scale weight to be used.
When the discharge gate in the overhead bin containing
the lightweight coarse aggregate is opened,the material will
flow into the weighing hopper until it builds up to the level 12.3-Mixing
of the discharge gate. Some plants may be slightly different The absorptive properties of lightweightaggregates re-
than others but suitable modifications can be made in the quire consideration during mixing. The time rate of absorp-
overhead bins, the weighing hopper, or both to allow the tion aswell as the maximum total absorptionhave to be
weighing hopper tobe filled to a prescribedlevel each time. properly integrated into the mixing cycle to control consis-
tencyproperly(Expanded Shale, Clayand Slate Institute
Thevolume of lightweightaggregate in this filled
1958b; Tobin 1971).
weighing hopper can be calibrated for most batching plants
12.3.1 Charging mixers-The sequence of introducing the
in the following manner. The total weight of the material
ingredients for lightweight concrete into a mixer can vary
(either dry or containing absorbed water) in the filled hopper
from one plant to another. Once acceptable procedures for
can be read directly from the scales. The hopperisthen
both wetting and batching have been established, it is impor-
discharged into a dump truck and the unit weight of three or
tant to repeat these as closely as possible at all times to pro-
four samples of loose material is determined in a suitable
duce uniformity.Weatherconditions,suchasambient
container. The total hopper weight divided by the average
temperature and humidity, can exert significant influences
unit weight will give the total volume of the material in the
on lightweight concrete production and should be properly
weighing hopper in ft3 orinm3.Forexample,if the net
considered.
weight of the filled hopper is 4650 lb (2100 k ) and the average
8
unit weight of the material in it is 48.2 lb/ft (772 kg/m3), the
12.3.1.1 Stationary mixers-Stationary plant mixers are
volume is simply 4650/48.2= 96.5 ft3 (2210/772 = 2.73 m3). commonly used in precasting or prestressing operations and
This calibration procedure should be performed about three occasionally on buildingsites where concrete is not moved a
great distance. Theycan also be used at aready-mixed
times to ensure valid measurements. A newcalibration can be
concrete production plant.
necessary if the source of lightweight aggregate is changed,
because the new material can have different
a angle of repose Coarse aggregates should be placed in the mixer first, fol-
that could alter the overall volume in the weighing hopper. If lowed by the fine aggregates. Then add in sequence the re-
no major changes occur in the lightweight aggregates, one quired water, cement, and any specified additives.
calibration will suffice for several monthsor until the After all of the ingredients have been fed into the plant
materials are changed significantly. mixer, it should be operated at mixing speed to produce a
complete mixture that will meet the evaluation tests as de-
The calibrated weighing hopper canbe used as a container scribed in ASTM C 94. When stationary mixers are used for
todetermine the unit weight of the lightweightcoarse the purpose of partial or shrink mixing, they are only re-
aggregate for each batch of concrete. A batching chart can be quired to blend the materials together as mixing is completed
prepared for any specified mixture proportions based on fu all in the truckmixer.If the lightweightaggregatehas not
range of unit weights of aggregate as measuredtheinweighing reached its full saturation, further absorption during andafter
hopper. This procedure is explained in detail in AC1 304.5R. mixing can cause the mixture to stiffen.
12.2.4 Batchinglightweight fine aggregate-It is not 12.3.1.2 Truckmixers-Chargingorloadingatruck
practical to batch the lightweight fine aggregate by volumet- mixer follows the same general practice usedwith stationary
ric methods because their volume changes due to variable mixers. Larger volumes of lightweight concrete
can
bulking with different amounts of surface water (Portland sometimes be hauled in truck mixers without exceeding the
Cement Association 1944). For this reason, the lightweight legal weight or axle load limits. The volume of concrete in
fines are batched by mass in much the same manner as nat- the drum should not exceed 63% of the drum volume when
ural sand with allowances madefor total moisture content. used as a mixer or80% of the drum volume when usedas an
Because the moisture in lightweight fines can be partly agitator (Gaynor and Mullarky 1975).
absorbed water aswell as surface or free water, the moisture 12.3.2 Mixer operation-Delivery time has an important
meters used in batch plant storage bins for natural sand are role in slump control and can require changes inthe amount
not satisfactory for lightweight sand. Satisfactory batching of water needed to produce the desired slump. Construction
results havebeenachievedbydryingasmallsample jobs at different distances from the batch plant require longer
[approximately 1 lb (500 g)] of the lightweight sand being or shorter haul periods, and it is not uncommon to have a
usedina suitable containertoaconstantweight at the delayinunloading.These factors make it difficult to
temperature of 212 to 230 F (100 to 110 C). The total determine the total time that a mixturewill be in the drum for
moisture(absorbedplus free moisture) is calculatedby any particular load. Most lightweight aggregates continue to
comparing the moistweight of the samplewith its dry absorbwaterwith time, eventhoughthey are prewetted.
weight. Moisture tests should be conducted at least once per Prewettingslows the rate of absorptionbutdoesnot
dayorwhenevera fresh supply of lightweight sand is necessarily eliminate absorption. It can be desirable to hold
introduced. back 2 or3 gal./yd3 (10 to 15 L/m3) of water to make certain

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that the batch isnot too wet upon arrival. It is often necessary axleloading limitations. Production of larger volumes of
andpermissibletoaddwatertoalightweightconcrete concreteorhigh rates of production will require special
mixtureon the job to replacefree water that hasbeen provisions for recharging the material storage compartments.
absorbed by the lightweight aggregate to bring the concrete The portability of the equipment makesit practical to bring
back to the desired slump. Mixing is done as described in the VMCM unit to the point of use, which can be an advan-
Section 4.5.2. tage in many applications. Having the unit at the placement
site also allows close control of concrete quality at the site.
1 2 . 4 4 o b controls VMCM equipment lends itself to many different applica-
Field control of the yield of lightweight concrete is most tions. Many of these applications involve relatively low-vol-
important. Overyield produces a larger volume of concrete Ume production of concrete, but large jobs have also been
than intended, whereas underyield produces less. Overyield done with this equipment. In addition to producing conven-
is nearly always associated with a loss in strength due to a tional concrete, VMCM equipment is well suited for a vari-
reduction in the net cement content. Underyield results in ety of special applications, such as:
less concrete being delivered than was expected or ordered. Mixtureswith short working times;
ASTMC127,C138,C 173, andC 231 give methods of Low-slump mixtures;
establishing field control. Long unloading times;
The unit weight of the fresh concrete is used to measurethe Concrete at remote sites;
yield of a mixture.The total weight of all the ingredients that Makingsmall deliveries;
are placed in a mixer drum as given onthe delivery ticket is Precast operations;
computed, orthe entiretruck canbe weighed before and after Hot weatherconcreting;
discharging. The weight of all of the ingredients divided by Mining applications;
the unit weight of the concrete will give the total volume of Grouting and pile filling;
concrete in the mixer drum. When the calculated volume is Colored concretes;
more than 2% above or below the volume shown on the de- Emergency applications;
livery ticket, an adjustment is required. Variableslumpswithin sameload; and
If the change in yield is due to entrained air content, then Flowable-fill
mixtures.
an adjustment in the amount of air-entraining admixture can
correct this condition. 13.2-Operations
If the unit weight measured in the field is greater than the Quality
control-The
production
of concrete by
wet unit weightshown for the mixtureproportioning,this volumetric measurement and continuous mixing is subject to
indicates an underyield; conversely, if the weight is less, an thesame rules of quality control asanyother concrete
overyield can occur. When there have been no appreciable production method.
changes in the weights of the lightweight aggregates Calibration-To ensure production of quality concrete,
themselves, in all probability, the differences in yield can be calibrate each volumetric-measuring unit for each respective
attributed toan incorrect amountoran incorrect absolute concrete ingredient, following the manufacturer’srecom-
volume of lightweight aggregates. In this case, steps should be mendations and ASTM C 685.
taken at the batch plant to correct the absolute volume of Operational precautions-The VMCM should be in good
lightweightaggregatesusedin the concreteas it isbeing condition. All shields and covers shouldbe in place. All con-
batched. trols should operate smoothlyand beconnected according to
the manufacturer’s recommendations. All material-feed op-
CHAPTER 13-VOLUMETRIC-MEASURING AND erations should start and stop simultaneously. The cement-
CONTINUOUS-MIXING CONCRETE EQUIPMENT measuring device should be inspected and cleanedregularly.
13.1-General Considerations
This chapter gives an overview of volumetric-measuring
and continuous-mixing concrete equipment (VMCM). For a
more detailed discussion, refer to AC1 304.6R.
When aggregates or cementitious materialsare batched by
volume, the method of batching is considered volumetric. It
is normally a continuous operation coupled with continuous
mixing. Accurate volumetric batching is achieved by passing
material through a calibrated rotary vane feeder, conveying
material through a calibrated gate opening, or by any other
method that would provide a known volume in a calibrated
unit time.
Volumetric batching is suitable for the production of most
concrete, provided the equipment is operated in accordance
with ASTM C 685 and with the same attention to detail as
that required for weigh batching. The available equipment is
highlymobile,requires little or no setup time, and often
serves as its own material transport.
VMCM units carry enough materials to produce 6 to10 yd3
(5 to 8 m3) of concrete (Fig. 13.1). This limitation is based on Fig. 13.1-Typical system.

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MEASURING, MIXING, TRANSPORTING, AND PLACING CONCRETE 304R-39

Indicating meters and dials should be checked for proper 544.3R Guide for Specifying, Proportioning, Mixing, Plac-
flow and operation. All filters should be clean and
allow full ing, and FinishingSteel Fiber-Reinforced Concrete
flow of water. Aggregate feed systems should freebe of any
blockage. Checks of the various feeding systems should be ASTM
carried out according to the manufacturer’s recommenda- c 33 Specification for Concrete Aggregates
tions and asjob experience indicates. c 94 Specification for Ready-Mixed Concrete
C 127 Test Method for Specific Gravity and Absorption
13.3-Fresh concrete properties of Coarse Aggregate
Fresh concrete producedbyVMCMbehavesslightly C 138 Test Methodfor Unit Weight, Yieldand Air Con-
differentlythanready-mixedconcrete.Elapsedhydration tent (Gravimetric) of Concrete
timeat discharge ismeasuredinsecondsratherthanin C 150 Specification for Portland Cement
minutes.Thismeansthat,althoughtheactualsettingtime C 172 Practice for Sampling Freshly Mixed Concrete
(from start of hydration) isthe same, the apparent settingtime C 173 Test Method for Air Content of Freshly Mixed
(from time in place) can seem longer. Finally, the apparent Concrete by the Volumetric Method
slump atdischarge is often higher thanthe measured slump 3 C 231 Test Method for Air Content of Freshly Mixed
to 5 min after discharge. Finishers and inspectors should be Concrete by the Pressure Method
made awareof these differences. C 595M Specification for BlendedHydraulicCements
CHAPTER 14-REFERENCES
(Metric)
14.1-Referenced standards and reports C 618 Specification for Coal Fly Ash and Raw or Cal-
The documents of the various standards-producing orga- cined Natural Pozzolanfor Use as a Mineral Ad-
nizations referred to in this document are listed below with mixture in Portland Cement Concrete
their serial designation. C 637 Specification for Aggregates for Radiation-Shielding
Concrete
C 638 Descriptive Nomenclature of Constituents of
American Concrete Institute Aggregates for Radiation-Shielding Concrete
116R Cement and Concrete Terminology C 685 Specification for Concrete Made by Volumetric
207.1R Mass Concrete Batching and Continuous Mixing
207.2R Effect of Restraint, Volume Change, and C 845 Specification for Expansive Hydraulic Cement
Reinforcement on Cracking of Mass Concrete C 938 Practice for Proportioning Grout Mixturesfor Pre-
207SR Roller Compacted Mass Concrete placed-Aggregate Concrete
211.1 Standard Practice for SelectingProportionsfor c 939 Test Methodfor Flow of Grout for Preplaced-Ag-
Normal, Heavyweight,and Mass Concrete gregate Concrete(Flow Cone Method)
21 1.2 Standard Practice for SelectingProportionsfor c 943 Practice for Making Test Cylinders and Prisms for
Structural Lightweight Concrete Determining Strength and Density of Preplaced-
212.3R Chemical Admixturesfor Concrete Aggregate Concretein the Laboratory
22 1R Guide for Use of Normalweight and Heavyweight c 953 Test Methodfor Time of Setting of Grouts for Pre-
Aggregates in Concrete placed-Aggregate Concretein the Laboratory
223 Standard Practice for the Use of Shrinkage Com- D 75 Practice for Sampling Aggregates
pensating Concrete D 2419 Test Method for Sand Equivalent Value of Soils
224R Control of Cracking in Concrete Structures and Fine Aggregate
302.1R Guide for Concrete Floor and Slab Construction
304.1R Guide for the Use of Preplaced AggregateConcrete U.S. Army Corps of Engineers
for Structural andMass Concrete Applications CRD-C 55 Test Method for Within-Batch Uniformity of
304.2R Placing Concreteby Pumping Methods Freshly Mixed Concrete
304.3R Heavyweight Concrete:Measuring,
Mixing, CRD-C 61 Test Method for Determining the Resistance of
Transporting and Placing Freshly Mixed Concretetowashing Outin Water
304.4R Placing Concrete with Belt Conveyors
304.5R Batching, Mixing, and Job Control of Lightweight
Theabove publications may beobtainedfrom the
Concrete
following organizations:
304.6R Guide for the Use of Volumetric-Measuring and
Continuous Mixing Concrete Equipment
American ConcreteInstitute
305R Hot Weather Concreting P.O. Box 9094
306R Cold Weather Concreting Farmington Hills, Mich., 48333-9094
308 Standard Practice for Curing Concrete
309R Guide for Consolidation of Concrete ASTM
311.1R AC1 Manual of Concrete Inspection (SP-2) 100 Barr Harbor Drive
311.4R Guide for Concrete Inspection West Conshohocken,Pa., 19428
318 Building Code Requirements for Structural Concrete
325.9R Guide for Construction of ConcretePavements U. S. Army Corps of Engineers Waterways
and Concrete Bases Experiment Station
347R Guide to Formwork for Concrete 3909 Halls Ferry Road
506R Guide for Shotcrete Vicksburg, Miss., 39180

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14.2-Cited references Davis, H. S., 1958, “High Density Concretefor Shielding


AASHTO, 1993, Guide Specifications for Highway Con- Atomic Energy Plants,” AC1 JOURNAL, Proceedings V. 54,
struction, AmericanAssociation of State Highwayand No. 11, May, pp. 965-978.
Transportation Officials, Washington, D.C., 296pp. Davis, H. S., 1967, “Aggregates for Radiation Shielding
Anderson, W.G., 1977, “Analyzing Concrete Mixtures for Concrete,” Materials Research and Standards,V. 7, No. 11,
Pumpability,” AC1 JOURNAL,Proceedings V. 74, No. 9, PP. 494-501.
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