Real Analysis

© All Rights Reserved

1 views

Real Analysis

© All Rights Reserved

- Mathematics Honours Syllabus of Presidency University
- Infinite Series
- Infinite Series
- A Collection of Problems Published on Mathematical Magazines
- Caribbean Studies Internal Assessment (2)
- Pi Through Calculus
- A Course of Modern Analysis. an Introduction to the General Theory of Infinite Series and of Analytic Functions
- Sequences Series Solutions
- Rudin Series
- 9.4 Summer School Day 2
- Erum Dost - Pure Mathematics - Analysis I
- RCD Standards
- Course Outline Summer
- Test1 Hl Seq Series Bin Thm v1
- Practical Guide 02 Series
- Final InfoW11
- Unit-16 Sequences and Series of Functions
- c5-1
- c10
- 2ok Real(Talk)

You are on page 1of 8

FIRST COURSEWORK EXAM (15%)

Monday 8th October 2012

Please write your student ID number AND your name on your answer booklet

Instructions to Candidates: Answer any two questions

Time Limit: 1 hour

SOLUTIONS

(a) Provide a formal de…nition for the limit of a sequence. Use this de…nition to

2n + 3 2

prove that the sequence ; n 1 converges to a limit :

3n + 4 3

[8 marks]

SOLUTION: The sequence fan g1 n=1 converges to a limit L if given any > 0;

there exists a N (positive integer) such that jan Lj < for n > N:

SOLUTION: We wish to prove that given any > 0; there exists a N (positive

2n + 3 2

integer) such that < for n > N:

3n + 4 3

Consider

2n + 3 2 3 (2n + 3) 2 (3n + 4) 1

= =

3n + 4 3 3 (3n + 4) 3 (3n + 4)

1 1

< < = for n > N

9n 9N

1 2n + 3 2

Hence for any > 0; there exists a N = such that < for n > N:

9 3n + 4 3

(b) Consider the sequence of positive terms fan g ; n 1 de…ned as

4 + 3an

a1 = 1; an+1 = ; n 1:

3 + 2an

1. Use mathematical induction to prove that the sequence is increasing.

SOLUTION: We need to prove that an+1 an 0 for all n 1:

Case n = 1; we get

4 + 3a1 7

a2 a1 = 1= 1>0

3 + 2a1 5

1

hence it is true for n = 1: Assume that it is true for n = k; i.e. that

Consider n = k + 1;

4 + 3ak+1 4 + 3ak

ak+2 ak+1 =

3 + 2ak+1 3 + 2ak

This simpli…es to

ak+1 ak

ak+2 ak+1 =

(3 + 2ak+1 ) (3 + 2ak )

Now since we know that ak > 0 for all k since this is a sequence of positive

terms, as we have that ak+1 ak 0 for all k 1; it follows that

ak+2 ak+1 0

for all n 1:

2. Use mathematical induction to prove that the sequence is bounded above by

3

:

2

3

SOLUTION: We need to prove that an 0 for all n 1: Consider the

2

case n = 1; we have

3 3

a1 =1 <0

2 2

hence it is true for n = 1: Assume it is true for n = k; i.e. that

3

ak 0 for all k 1

2

Consider the case n = k + 1; i.e.

3 4 + 3ak 3 8 + 6ak 9 6ak 1

ak+1 = = =

2 3 + 2ak 2 2 (3 + 2ak ) 2 (3 + 2ak )

However, we know that all the terms of this sequence are positive, which

means

3

ak+1 <0

2

and therefore the case n = k + 1 is true, and by mathematical induction, we

3

have that an 0 for all n 1:

2

2

3. Find the supremum of the sequence, justifying your answer completely.

SOLUTION: By the increasing sequence theorem, this sequence is convergent

to a limit L which is equivalent to the supremum. Therefore

L= lim an = lim an+1

n!1 n!1

4+3an

Taking the limit of an+1 = 3+2an

as n ! 1; we obtain

4 + 3L p

L= )L= 2

3 + 2L

As

p this sequence is one of positive terms, we have therefore a supremum of

2:

[12 marks]

2. (a) State the integral test and the alternating series test for in…nite series. Given

1

that the function f (n) = p is continuous, positively valued and decreasing for

n ln n

X1

( 1)n

n 3, prove that the series p is convergent. Is the convergence of this

n = 3 n ln n

series absolute or conditional? Justify your answer completely:

[10 marks]

SOLUTION: Integral Test: Let f (x) be a continuous, decreasing, positive valued

function for x 1: Then the in…nite series

X

1

f (n) = f (1) + f (2) + f (3) + :::

n = 1

R1

is convergent if and only if 1

f (x) dx is …nite, and is divergent if

Z b

Lim f (x)dx = +1:

b ! 1 1

P

1

SOLUTION: Alternating Series Test: Consider an alternating series ( 1)n+1 an ;

n = 1

where an 0 and an+1 an for all positive integers n: If lim an = 0; then the

n ! 1

alternating series is convergent.

X1

( 1)n 1

SOLUTION: Consider the series p : As the function f (n) = p is

n = 3 n ln n n ln n

decreasing for n 3; and

1

lim p =0

n ! 1 n ln n

3

by the alternating series test, the series is convergent. To determine whether the

convergence is conditional or absolute, we use the integral test.

X

1

( 1)n X1

1

p = p

n = 3 n ln n n = 1 n ln n

1

As f (n) = p is continuous, positively valued and decreasing for n 3; we can

n ln n

use the integral test.

Z 1 Z 1

1 1 p 1

p dx = p dw = 2 w ln 3 = 1

3 x ln x ln 3 w

X

1

( 1)n

Hence by the integral test, p is divergent, meaning that the original series

n = 3 n ln n

X1

( 1)n

p is conditionally convergent.

n = 3 n ln n

X

1 X

1

(i) jan j converges ) an converges.

n = 1 n = 1

X1 X1

(ii) an converges ) jan j converges.

n = 1 n = 1

[10 marks]

X

1 X

1

SOLUTION (i): It is true that jan j converges ) an converges. We will prove

n = 1 n = 1

P

1

this as follows. Let us assume that an is absolutely convergent. By de…nition, this

n = 1

P

1

implies that jan j is convergent. Its associated sequence of partial sums f ng ; n 1

n = 1

is convergent, where we de…ne its nth partial sum to be

P

1

Now let us de…ne the nth partial sum of the series an to be

n = 1

sn = a1 + a2 + ::: + an

4

P

1

Here, the associated sequence of partial sums of an is fsn g ; n 1: Now if p =

n = 1

1; 2; 3; ::: Then clearly, n + p > n and

jan+1 j + jan+2 j + ::: + jan+p j

= n+p n = j n+p nj (1)

(*Note: in (1) above, n+p n =j n+p nj since both quantities are positive). Hence

we have that

jsn+p sn j j n+p nj (2)

But we know that f n g ; n 1 is a convergent sequence. Hence it is a Cauchy sequence,

and for any > 0; 9 an n such that j n+p n j < for p = 1; 2; 3; :::

P

1

It follows then that its associated in…nite series an is convergent.

n = 1

X

1 X

1

SOLUTION (ii): It is false to say that an converges ) jan j converges. We

n = 1 n = 1

X1

( 1)n

can prove this by counterexample. is convergent by the alternating series

n = 1

n

test, but

X1

( 1)n X1

1

= the divergent harmonic series.

n = 1

n n = 1

n

3. (a) Use the ratio test and the nth root test to derive two di¤erent expressions for the

X1

radius of convergence R of a power series an xn : Show all your working.

n = 1

[6 marks]

P

1

SOLUTION: Applying the ratio test to cn (x a)n ; we consider

n = 0

lim = jx aj lim

n ! 1 cn (x a)n n ! 1 cn

5

From the ratio test, we will have absolute convergence for

cn+1

jx aj lim < 1;

n ! 1 cn

i.e. for

1 cn

jx aj < = lim =R

cn+1 n ! 1 cn+1

lim

n ! 1 cn

where

cn

R = lim = radius of convergence.

n ! 1 cn+1

P

1

SOLUTION: Applying the nth root test to cn (x a)n ; we consider

n = 0

1=n

lim jcn (x a)n j = jx aj lim jcn j1=n

n ! 1 n ! 1

n ! 1

i.e. for

1

jx aj < =R

lim jcn j1=n

n ! 1

where

1

R= = radius of convergence.

lim jcn j1=n

n ! 1

(b) Find the interval of convergence for the power series below. Show all your working

and distinguish between conditional and absolute convergence in relevant cases.

X1

( 2)n (5x 3)2n

(i) p

n = 1

n+2

SOLUTION: Applying the ratio test, we have

p p

n+3 2 n+2

lim n 2n = 2 j5x 3j lim p

n ! 1 ( 2) (5x 3) n ! 1 n+3

p

n+2

= 2 (5x + 3)2

6

Therefore we have absolute convergence, and therefore convergence for

1 1 1

(5x 3)2 < ) p < (5x 3) < p

2 2 2

1

p +3 1

p +3

2

) <x< 2

5 5

1

p +3

2

When x = 5

; the series becomes

2n

1 ( 2)n

X p1 X1

2 ( 1)n

p = p

n = 1

n+2 n = 1

n+2

By the alternating series test, this is convergent since p1 > p1 for all n 1; and

n+2 n+3

1

since lim pn+2 = 0:

n !1

To test whether this convergence is conditional or absolute, consider

X

1

( 1)n X1

1

p = p

n = 1

n+2 n = 1

n+2

X

1

Using the limit comparison test with the divergent p series p1 ; we have

n

n = 1

p1

r

n+2 n

lim = lim =1>0

n !1 p1 n !1 n+2

n

X

1

Hence p1 is divergent, and it follows that the series is conditionally convergent

n+2

n = 1

p1 +3

2

at x = 5

:

1

p +3

2

When 5

; the series becomes

2n

X1 ( 2)n p1 X1

2 ( 1)n

p = p

n = 1

n+2 n = 1

n+2

X1

n (2x)2n

(ii)

n = 1

(n)!

7

SOLUTION: Using the ratio test, we have

(n + 1) (2x)2n+2

(n + 1)! (n + 1) n!

lim 2n = (2x)2 lim

n !1 n (2x) n !1 n (n + 1)!

(n)!

(n + 1) n!

= 4x2 lim =0<1

n !1 n (n + 1) n!

[14 marks]

- Mathematics Honours Syllabus of Presidency UniversityUploaded byADITI Library
- Infinite SeriesUploaded bySuresh Kumar
- Infinite SeriesUploaded bylovekumarchechi
- A Collection of Problems Published on Mathematical MagazinesUploaded byΘωμαςΣτεφανιδης
- Pi Through CalculusUploaded bybloodware
- A Course of Modern Analysis. an Introduction to the General Theory of Infinite Series and of Analytic FunctionsUploaded byLurzizare
- Sequences Series SolutionsUploaded byBatas Rtr
- Rudin SeriesUploaded byTeferi
- 9.4 Summer School Day 2Uploaded bysusangustavson
- Erum Dost - Pure Mathematics - Analysis IUploaded byuser77975
- RCD StandardsUploaded byGlenn Christopher Lambino
- Course Outline SummerUploaded byProf Dr Md Saifur Rahman
- Test1 Hl Seq Series Bin Thm v1Uploaded bypriya
- Practical Guide 02 SeriesUploaded byEmil
- Final InfoW11Uploaded byTom Davis
- Unit-16 Sequences and Series of FunctionsUploaded byChandradeep Reddy Teegala
- c5-1Uploaded byAmit Pandey
- c10Uploaded byJeoff Libo-on
- 2ok Real(Talk)Uploaded byMuhammed Irfan

- Caribbean Studies Internal Assessment (2)Uploaded bySarah Seunarine
- 4345739Uploaded bySarah Seunarine
- 5014970Uploaded bySarah Seunarine
- chap01Uploaded bysanjilima
- Caribbean Studies Internal Assessment (3)Uploaded bySarah Seunarine
- ECON 2000 TUTORIAL SHEET 1.docxUploaded bySarah Seunarine
- Algebra_sG_notes_v_3.3.pdfUploaded bySarah Seunarine
- Science Tech UndergradUploaded bySarah Seunarine
- Science Department UWIUploaded byZamCreative
- Caribbean Studies Internal AssessmentUploaded bySarah Seunarine
- BOOK COVER 1.docxUploaded bySarah Seunarine
- Back Cover 1Uploaded bySarah Seunarine
- Comment SheetUploaded bySarah Seunarine
- Probability Theory II Summer TimetableUploaded bySarah Seunarine
- MATLAB Summer TimetableUploaded bySarah Seunarine
- Drug trafficking and the community (2).pdfUploaded bySarah Seunarine
- drug trafficking info.docxUploaded bySarah Seunarine
- Hirsch Holmes Imagery in Psychopathology Psychiatry FinalUploaded bySarah Seunarine
- Lecture 5Uploaded bySarah Seunarine
- Lecture 7Uploaded bySarah Seunarine
- Lecture 14Uploaded bySarah Seunarine
- Lecture 2Uploaded bySarah Seunarine
- Lecture 10Uploaded bySarah Seunarine
- Lecture 4Uploaded bySarah Seunarine

- 2013 PDM Midterm Exam Review ExercisesUploaded bya24dk
- Practica00Uploaded byhernanquin
- FourierUploaded byparas
- PaperUploaded byabc fds
- syllabus.pdfUploaded bychamakill
- Biomedical.engineering 2011 12Uploaded byShaheerM93
- scnditUploaded bySurya Kumar
- Mathematics - III CUploaded bysagar
- lec6.pdfUploaded bysuntararaajan
- Mobius TransformationsUploaded bypwndabr
- lecturen2Uploaded byS.m. Chandrashekar
- Fourier Series TutorialUploaded byJose Villegas
- Complex AnalysislecturenotesUploaded bydani dani
- TrigonometryUploaded byCharilyn Echeverre
- Challenging Problems in Binomial Theorem- Special Hl Level SumsUploaded bysriramaniyer
- New Approach to special factorial functionsUploaded byInije Ejiro
- bigolittleoUploaded bymrlsd
- Metode numerice in C - Titus BeuUploaded byleonardf
- proof qts c3 edexcelUploaded byWilbur890
- Trig IdentitiesUploaded byGrace Chen
- ISI b.math syllabusUploaded bySayontan Ghosh
- 12Uploaded bybrendannn
- Math Resources Trigonometric FormulasUploaded byAnonymous j3w8EmJb8
- Ch 02 Complex NumbersUploaded byyddap
- Beer Jhonsto Cap 9Uploaded byGustavo Duarte
- Differentiation of Logarithmic FunctionsUploaded byNorman Cruz
- EDT Mathematics Formula Sheetv4Uploaded byDconan
- Trigonometry II Lesson 2Uploaded byleftoverchops
- Assignment 7 SolutionsUploaded bySalim Chohan
- lecture03.pdfUploaded byJoe Tseng