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they hear or read them, but which they do not ordinarily use in speaking

and writing. Harris J Albert and Edward R Sibay also had a different point

of view about vocabulary types. They divided vocabulary into writing and

meaningful vocabulary. Writing vocabulary consists of words that people

hear or they use in writing, whereas the second type is the sum of all

words that people can understand or use correctly whether in listening,

speaking, reading or writing. The last classification that is stated by the

experts in English language is a classification of traditional vocabulary,

which contains verb, adjective, noun and adverb.

From those classifications I can conclude that there are six types of

vocabulary. They are working or active vocabulary, recognition

vocabulary, meaningful vocabulary that covers active and recognition

vocabulary, content word, function word and the last is traditional

vocabulary. It covers verb, adjective, noun and adverb.

General Meaning of Vocabulary Mastery

The vocabulary mastery is a thing that is difficult enough to be defined.

Fries (1945: 3) stated that the mastery of language is meant as the ability

to use or to understand all the words of the language, but when we read a

newspaper or a magazine we often find words we do not know. Therefore,

we can never master a through vocabulary or even the vocabulary of our

own language.
Furthermore, he also said that the vocabulary mastery of a foreign

language is also bound by our actual experience. It takes time to learn

them and there is no short cut to attain mastery of the complete vocabulary

of a foreign language. However, we can learn few hundreds lexical items

that are most useful in situations and really master them first. So, one can

really master a limited number of very useful vocabulary items in a short

time.

In essence, vocabulary mastery is people ability to use or to understand

words of a language that they have learned and heard in certain situations

in which they really have experienced the situations in their life.

2.1 General Concepts of Media (Audiovisual)

Teaching media is needed in the teaching learning processes to help

students to become active. Gerlach and Ely (1980:281) propose that

establishes conditions which enable learners or students to acquire

knowledge, skills and attitudes. They also claim that the term instructional

media includes a wide range of materials, equipment and technique:

chalkboards, bulletin boards, filmstrips, slides, motion picture, TV,

programmed instruction, models, demonstrations, charts, maps, book and

combination of these. Hornby (1974: 528) defines media as mass

communications, e.g. television, radio and the press.


There are a lot of media in teaching and learning processes. Gerlach and

Elly (1980:247) classify media into six types:


1. Still picture

They form as photographs of any objects or events which can be presented

in textbook illustration, bulletin board materials, slides, filmstrip frames or

overhead transnsparancies.

2. Audio recording

They are made on magnetic tape on discs or a motion picture sound tract.

These are the actual events or sound effects reproductions.

3. Motion picture or video tape recording

It is a moving image produced in color or black and white from live action

or graphic representation, objects or events can be in normal, slow, time-

lapse or stop motion.

4. All types of audio-video electronic distribution system

eventually appear on a cathode ray tube (television

monitor) included or television.

5. Real things, simulation and models

They include people, events, objects and demonstration. Real things are

the actual objects or events. Simulation is a copy of real situation designed

to be as similar as possible to the actual events.

6. Programmed and computer-assisted instructions

They are sequences of information (verbal, visual or audio) designed to

elicit predetermined responses. The most common examples are


programmed textbooks or instructional programs prepared for computers.
The audiovisual aids can be interpreted as any substances which play an

important role in teaching and learning process. They help the students or

learners master the material more interestingly.

Audiovisual aids as one of the media are not new things in the

instructional world. Things such as television and video compact disk are

often found in the teaching-learning processes.

2.2 Television in Indonesia

Television is one of mass media that has a great attractive power for its

audience. It offers so many interesting things for them such as knowledge,

information, experience and also excitement. It is also an actual medium

that gives something different to them compared with other medium.

George Comstock (1978: 9) stated that television is an actual medium that

can be seen anytime and it also brings to its audience places, events and

situations that could not be seen otherwise. A wonderful box has amazing

influences its audience through it programs.

Gerlach and Elly (1980:354) states that the rapid growth of television over

the last twenty five years has brought about a number of changes in

education. Many teachers feel that they are competing with television in

teaching students how the world works. Some educators believe the

television distorts the real world; others feel that television glorifies anti

social behavior such as crime and violence. Whatever we may think, we

must be aware that commercial and educational television affects students


for better or worse.
From the definitions above, I conclude that television in general is a means

of communication and it can function as an entertainment, learning media,

especially in learning English because there are many English programs

on television.

According to Gerlach S. Vernon (1980 :366-368) television has several

advantages for the English learners to enlarge their vocabulary. They can

practice them if they want to be successful in learning vocabulary. Those

advantages are:

a. Television offers a means for providing a common base of

experience for all who see a given program at the same

time.

b. It brings to the classroom people, places, and events that

could not be seen otherwise.

c. Preconditioned learners come to school as confirmed TV


consumers.

d. The reality and concreteness of the visual image are as

present in television as in other audiovisual media.

e. A television signal can originate from one source but can

be distributed to several areas at the same time.

f. Television makes it possible for the teacher to be in two

places at the same time.

g. Immediate feedback of results and performance by


teachers and students alike is possible with television.

h. Television can instantly magnify small objects so that all

class members can see them at the same time.


In this era, the technology television development in the world is so

wonderful. There so many TV stations with variations of program

throughout the world right now. In Indonesia there are many television

channels recently. There are TVRI, RCTI, SCTV, ANTV, INDOSIAR,

METRO TV, TV 7,

TRANS TV, TV GLOBAL Etc. Each of them has specific characteristics.

All of them offer interesting programs such as films, news, sports and also

music program to attract its audience’s attention. Among so many

programs which are broadcast by them, the writer is interested in English

TV programs to be examined in her thesis. She considers that the programs

are good programs for English learners in Indonesia, especially for the

fourth semester students of English Department of Semarang State

University to develop their English knowledge, especially in mastering

vocabulary.

2.3 English TV Programs

English TV Programs are the English programs which are broadcast by our

television channels everyday. The programs include English music, news

and films programs. In this thesis, the writer wants to discuss two of the

programs; they are English news and films. She chooses the two programs

to be examined because of two reasons:


a. The two programs contain larger and broader vocabulary

compared with the first program; that is English music

program.
b. The two programs contain vocabulary of many different

fields. This condition will help the English learners,

especially the fourth semester students of English

Department of Semarang State University.

2.9.1 English News Programs

Two of many television channels broadcast the program; they are METRO

TV and TVRI. They broadcast the program with different names and times.

METRO TV broadcast the program everyday at 7.30 a.m. The name of the

program is METRO This Morning. Meanwhile, TVRI broadcast the

program at the name time, it is at 15.00 p.m. The name of the program is

English News Service. The duration of the program in the three television

channels is 30 minutes.

2.9.2 English Film programs

The English film programs have many variations of the theme, such as love,

family, friendship, adventure, science, criminals, corps etc. All of them

have different specific characteristics, both the stories and the stars. All of

our television channels broadcast the program. The duration of English film

is two hours.

In general, each television channels broadcast it twice a week with

different names. RCTI broadcast its English films in a program with the

name Layar Emas and Film Sabtu Siang. SCTV with Gala Sinema. Trans
TV with Sinema Gemilang. Lativi with Sinema Malam Minggu. ANTV

with Film TV Special. INDOSIAR with Film Sabtu Malam. Meanwhile

TPI broadcasts with the name Film tengah malam. Etc.


The writer consider that the programs are really good programs to the

English learners, especially the English students to learn the vocabulary.

They contain so many useful vocabularies, both from the announcers and

the actors/ actresses. Listening to them video jockey is a good way for the

English students to enlarge their vocabulary, because listening to the

intelligent people who have a better speech style than we have will help us

in learning vocabulary. It is mentioned by Robert A Butler (1978: 7)

“…… A good vocabulary results from years of listening to intelligent

people talk and of reading a wide variety of good books”. From the

quotation, we know that listening to the intelligent people talk is one of

the ways that can be used by the English learners in enriching their

vocabulary.

2.10 Types of Vocabulary Found in English TV Programs

Based on the types of vocabulary that have been discussed in section

2.5 (types of vocabulary), the writer considers that vocabularies which are

found in English TV programs are included into active or working

vocabulary. The vocabularies that appear in the programs are the

vocabularies that people use daily in their speaking and writing. The words

like: “keep your eyes”, “he is as cool as ….”, “take a round”, she is really

a fair girl”, “hello mam”, “the victory of republic party….” , “keep on


moving….”, “I want to establish a business….”, “They postpone their

wedding and the winner is….”, “I dedicate my love to….”, “My father will

discipline me….”, “Welcome back in school”, and others are the words

that are familiar with the people in communication.


They use the words in their daily life. Both in oral and writing

communication. The audience will not get a difficulty to understand those

words because the speakers on those programs speak in an interesting and

a right expression and intonation. So, they will know about how to

pronounce the words in a right and good pronunciation. Moreover, they

will learn to determine appropriate meaning of words by seeing their

contexts.

2.11 Student’s Activity in Watching English TV Programs.

Students’ activity in watching English TV Programs that the writer

mentioned in her thesis is the daily activity which is done by the fourth

semester students of English Department of Semarang State University in

watching English TV programs. Watching in this context does not mean

watching only, but also covers the activities such as: thinking, writing and

discussing that are done by them after they watched the English TV

programs. Their intensity in doing the activity is expressed by their

responses to the statements on the questionnaires concerning with the

matter.
2.12 Hypothesis

In this thesis the writer stated the working; the alternative hypothesis is there is
a significant correlation between the students’ activity in watching English TV
programs and their vocabulary mastery.