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TRANSFORMS AND PARTIAL DIFFERENTIAL EQUATION
UNIT V – Z - TRANSFORM
PART – A

1. Define Z – transform of the sequence {f(n)}.
Sol. If f(n) is a causal sequence (i.e.) f(n) = 0 for n < 0, then the Z – transform is called
one sided (or) unilateral Z – transform of {f(n)} and is defined as

Z{ f (n)}  f ( z )   f (n) z  n
n0

2. Find the Z – transform of an.

Sol. Z{a }   a n z  n
n

n0

 n  n
z a
     
n0 a n0  z 
2 3
a a a
 1           .............
z z z
1 1
 a za (1  x) 1  1  x  x 2  x 3  .......... ..
 1     
 z  z 
z

za
3. Find the value of Z{f(n)} where f(n) = nan.
Sol. Z{n a n }   z
d
dz

Z (a n ) 
d  z 
 z 
dz  z  a 
 ( z  a)(1)  z (1) 
 z 
 ( z  a) 2 
 a 
 z 2
 ( z  a) 
az

( z  a) 2
4. Find Z{f(n)} where f(n) = n for n = 0, 1, 2, ………

Sol. Z{n}   n z  n
n0

 n
1
n 
n0 z
2 3
a a a
 0     2    3    .............
z z z
a 
2
a a
 1  2    3    .............
z  z z  (1  x) 2  1  2 x  3x 2  4 x 3  .......... ..
2 2
a a a za
 1     
z z z z 
a z2 az
 
z ( z  a) 2
( z  a) 2

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5. Find the Z – transform of (n + 2)
Sol. Z{n + 2} = Z(n) + Z(2)
z 2z z  2 z ( z  1) 2 z 2  z
=   
( z  1) 2 z  1 ( z  1) 2 ( z  1) 2
6. Find Z(1/n)
 1   1 n
Sol. Z n   n z
  n 1
1 1 1
  2  3  .............. x2 x3
z 2z 3z  log(1  x)  x    ..........
2 3
 1 
  log 1  
 z
 z 1
  log  
 z 
 z 
 log  
 z 1
7. Find the Z – transform of 3n.

Sol. Z{3n }   3n z  n
n0

 n  n
z 3
     
n0 3 n0  z 
2 3
3 3 3
 1           .............
z z z
1 1
 3  z 3
 1     
 z  z 
z

z 3
8. Find the Z – transform of (n + 1)(n + 2)
Sol. Z{(n + 1)(n + 2)} = Z{n2 + 3n + 2}
= Z(n2) + 3Z(n) + Z(2)
z ( z  1) 3z 2z
  
( z  1) 3 ( z  1) 2 z  1
z 2  z  3z ( z  1)  2 z ( z  1) 2

( z  1) 3
z 2  z  3z 2  3z  2 z 3  4 z 2  2 z

( z  1) 3
2z 3

( z  1) 3
n
9. Find the Z – transform of sin
2
z r sin 
Sol. We have Z{r sin n }  2
n

z  2 zr cos  r 2
 n  z
 Z sin   2
 2  z 1

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at
10. If Z { f (t )}  f ( z ), then Z {e f (t )}  f ( z e )
aT

Sol. Z{e at
f (t )}   e  a nT f (n T ) z  n
n0

  f (n T ) ( ze a T )  n
n0

 f ( ze a T )
11. Find Z[e –iat] using Z – transform.
z
Sol. We have Z {1} 
z 1

Z e 
i at
 i at
 Z e (1)  i a T
z e 1

z ei a T

z
12. If Z { f (n)}  f ( z ), then Z {a f (n)}  f  
n

a

Sol. Z{a f (n)}   a n f (n) z  n
n

n 0

 n
z
  f ( n)  
n0 a
z
 f 
a
an
 for n  0
13. Find the Z – transform of f (n)   n!
0 otherwise

 
an n
Sol. Z{ f (n)}   f (n) z  n   z
n0 n 0 n!
 n
1 z
  
n0 n!  a 
x x 2 x3

1 a
n
ex  1    ..........
   1! 2! 3!
n0 n!  z 
2 3
1a 1 a 1 a
 1           ...............
1!  z  2 !  z  3!  z 
e a/ z

14. Define the unit step sequence. Write its Z – transform.
Sol. U(n) is the unit step sequence defined by
1 for n  0
U ( n)  
0 for n  0
z
Z {U (n)}  Z (1) 
z 1
15. State convolution theorem of Z – transform.
Sol. If Z { f (n)}  f ( z ) and Z {g (n)}  g ( z ) then
Z { f (n)  g (n)}  f ( z ). g ( z )

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If F ( z )  ..3n1  3 A.. www. f (0)  lim f (z ) [ f (z ) = F(z)] z  lim z2 = z    z  1  z  1  z  3       2  4  4 lim z2 = z   z 3 1  1 1  1 1  3       2 z  4 z  4 z  lim 1 = z   z 1  1 1  1 1  3       2 z  4 z  4 z  1 = 0  19.. State and prove initial value theorem in Z – transform.Vidyarthiplus. y n  A. then f (0)  z   Proof. Form a difference equation by eliminating the arbitrary constant A from yn = A.com 4 16....3n yn1  A. Express Z{f(n + 1)} in terms of f (z )  We have Z{ f (n)}   f (n) z  f ( z ) n Sol..) yn1  3 yn  0 www.e.3n Sol. z z z lim f (z )  f (0) z  17.e. n 0   Z { f (n  1)}   f (n  1) z  n n0    f ( m) z m 1 0  ( m 1) Put n + 1 = m n=m–1   z  f ( m) z  m m 1     z   f ( m ) z  m  f ( 0)  m  0  (i. lim lim Sol. find f (0)  1  1  3  z   z   z    2  4  4 Sol.. lim f (z ) Statement: If Z { f (n)}  f ( z ).. If Z{ f (n)}  f ( z ) then [ f (n)] = {( z  1) f ( z )} n  z 1 z2 18...) Z { f (n  1)}  z [ f ( z )  f (0)] 20.3n  3 yn (i.Vidyarthiplus..com .. State final value theorem in Z – transform. f ( z )   f (n) z  n n0 f (1) f (2) f (3)  f (0)   2  3  .

3n       (3) Eliminating A and B from equations (1). we have yn 1 1 y n1  2 3  0 y n2 4 9 yn (30)  yn1 (5)  yn2 (5)  0 (i.3n ------------.2 ------------.com . Form the difference equation by eliminating the constants A and B from y n  A(2) n  B.3n2  4 A(2) n  9B.3n       (2) yn2  a  b.Vidyarthiplus. Given y n  a  b.(1) n yn1  a(n  1)  b.2 n       (2) yn2  a(n  2)  b.3n Sol.2 n2  a(n  2)  4b.2 n1 Sol.) U n1  2U n  0 22.) yn2  4 yn1  3 yn  0 23.3n1  2 A(2) n  3B.Vidyarthiplus.3n       (2) yn2  A(2) n2  B.com 5 21. www.(1) n yn1  a  b.3 n Sol. Form the difference equation from y n  a  b. Given y n  a n  b. Given y n  A(2) n  B. Find the difference equation generated by y n  a n  b. (2) and (3). (2) and (3).e.2 n Sol. we have yn n 1 y n1 n 1 2 0 y n 2 n2 4 www.2 n       (3) Eliminating a and b from equations (1).3n       (3) Eliminating a and b from equations (1).e. Form a difference equation by eliminating arbitrary constant from U n  a. (2) and (3). we have yn 1 1 yn1 1 3  0 yn 2 1 9 yn (6)  yn1 (8)  yn2 (2)  0 (i.2 n2  2a.2 n1  a(n  1)  2b.2 n1 U n1  a.(1) yn1  A(2) n1  B.3n1  a  3b. U n  a.3n2  a  9b.) yn2  yn1  6 yn  0 24.e.3 ------------.2 n1  2U n (i.

.....) (n  1) yn2  (3n  2) yn1  2nyn  0 1  z  25. Evaluate Z  2  z  7 z  10  z Let f ( z )  Sol.. we get 1  A(3)  0 1  A 3 Put z  5. we get 1  0  B(3) 1  B 3 f ( z) 1/ 3  1/ 3   z z 2 z 5 1 z 1 z f ( z)   3 z 2 3 z 5   1  Z 1 f ( z )  Z 1   z  1 1  z   Z  3  z  2  3  z  5  1 1  (2) n  (5) n 3 3 26...com 6 yn [4(n  1)  2(n  2)]  yn1[4n  (n  2)]  yn2 [2n  (n  1)]  0 yn (2n)  yn1 (3n  2)  yn2 (n  1)  0 (i. Does the Z – transform of n! exist? Justify your answer.  Sol...Vidyarthiplus. z z z Thus the Z – transform of n! does not exist.. ( z  2)( z  5) f ( z) 1 A B    z ( z  2)( z  5) z  2 z  5 1  A( z  5)  B( z  2) Put z  2. www.Vidyarthiplus.. 27.e. www. Z{n!}   n! z  n n0 1! 2! 3!  1   2  3  .com . What advantage is gained when Z – transform is used to solve difference equation? Sol.. The role played by the Z – transform in the solution of difference equations corresponds to that played by the Laplace transform in the solution of differential equations.

. Z{f(n)} = Z{(n + 1)(n + 2)} = Z{n2 + 3n + 2} = Z{n2} + 3Z{n} + Z(2) z ( z  1) 3z 2z    ( z  1) 3 ( z  1) 2 z  1 z 2  z  3 z ( z  1)  2 z ( z  1) 2  ( z  1) 3 z 2  z  3z 2  3z  2 z 3  4 z 2  2 z  ( z  1) 3 2z 3  ( z  1) 3 Z{g(n)} = Z{n(n – 1)} = Z{n2 – n} = Z{n2} – Z{n} z ( z  1) z   ( z  1) 3 ( z  1) 2 z 2  z  z ( z  1)  ( z  1) 3 2z  ( z  1) 3 n n 2...com 7 PART – B 1..Vidyarthiplus... z z z 1 1  a za  1       z  z  z  za (ii) Z{n a }   z n d dz  Z (a n ) d  z   z  dz  z  a   ( z  a)(1)  z (1)   z   ( z  a) 2   a   z 2  ( z  a)  az  ( z  a) 2 www.Vidyarthiplus. Find the Z – transform of the sequences fn = (n + 1)(n + 2) and gn = n(n – 1) Sol.. (i) Z{a }   a z n n n n0  n  n z a       n0 a n0  z  2 3 a a a  1           .com ... Find the Z – transform (i ) {a } (ii) {n a }  Sol. www....

P..... Find the Z – transform   . z 2z 3z  1    log 1    z  z 1   log    z   z   log    z 1 (ii) We know that z Z {a n }  za i put a  r e .Vidyarthiplus...P and I .com .. we get z Z {(r e i  ) n }  z  r ei z Z {r n e i n  }  z  r ei z Z {r n (cosn  i sin n )}  z  r (cos  i sin  ) z Z {r n cos n  i r n sin n }  ( z  r cos )  i r sin  z[( z  r cos )  i r sin  ]  [(z  r cos )  i r sin  ][(z  r cos )  i r sin  ] z ( z  r cos )  i z r sin   ( z  r cos ) 2  r 2 sin 2  z ( z  r cos )  i z r sin   z 2  2 zr cos  r 2 Equating R.. Find the Z – transform (i ) n cos n (ii) n a sin n n Sol.Vidyarthiplus. Z{n cos n }   z Z (cosn ) d dz d  z 2  z cos   z  2  dz  z  2 z cos  1 www.com 8 1   n   n   n n  3. www. sin  .. {a cos n } and n a cos  n  2   2   2   1 1 n Sol.. we get z ( z  r cos ) z r sin  Z {r n cos n }  2 and Z {r n sin n }  2 z  2 zr cos  r 2 z  2 zr cos  r 2  n n  z2  Z a cos   2  2  z  a2  n  z2  n  z Z cos   2 and Z sin  2  2  z 1  2  z 1 z Now... cos  .. (i) Z     z  n  n 1 n 1 1 1   2  3  . Z{a cos n }  Z{a (1) }  Z{(a) }  n n n n za 4.

 sin . www. (i) Z sin    Z  1  cos    4  2  4  1  n    Z (1)  Z  cos  2   2  1 z z2     2  2  z  1 z  1   n    n  n  (ii) Z cos    Z cos cos  sin sin    2 4   2 4 2 4  n 1 n 1   Z cos .   2 2 2 2 1   n   n    Z  cos 2   Z  sin 2  2     1  z 2 z    2  2  2  z  1 z  1 1 z ( z  1)  2 z 1 2 www.Vidyarthiplus.Vidyarthiplus.com 9  ( z 2  2 z cos  1)(2 z  cos )  ( z 2  z cos )(2 z  2 cos )   z   ( z 2  2 z cos  1) 2   (2 z  5 z cos  2 z cos   2 z  cos )  (2 z  4 z cos  2 z cos2  )  3 2 2 3 2  z   ( z 2  2 z cos  1) 2    z cos  2 z  cos  2  z 2   ( z  2 z cos  1)  2  z 2 cos  2 z  cos   z 2 2   ( z  2 z cos  1)  Z{n a n sin n }   z d dz Z (a n sin n )  d  z a sin    z  2 2 dz  z  2 z a cos  a   ( z 2  2 z a cos  a 2 )( a sin  )  z a sin  (2 z  2 a cos )   z   ( z 2  2 z a cos  a 2 ) 2   z 2 a sin   2 z a 2 sin  cos  a 3 sin   2 z 2 a sin   2 z a 2 sin  cos   z   ( z 2  2 z a cos  a 2 ) 2    z a sin   a sin   2 3  z 2 2 2  ( z  2 z a cos  a )  ( z 2  a 2 ) z a sin   2 ( z  2 z a cos  a 2 ) 2 2  n   n   5. Find the Z – transform (i ) sin   (ii) cos     4   2 4  2  n  1  2n  Sol.com .

. 2 3   1   z  log1     z  www....      1  5  n  1   5  1   n  Z     Z    5   2    2         1  z z      5  z  {( 5  1) / 2} z  {(1  5 ) / 2}  1  2z 2z      5  2 z  ( 5  1) 2 z  (1  5 )  2  z[2 z  (1  5 )]  z[2 z  ( 5  1)]    5  [2 z  ( 5  1)][2 z  (1  5 )]  2  2z 2  z  z 5  2z 2  z 5  z    2  5  4 z  2 z (1  5 )  2 z ( 5  1)  (1  5 )(1  5 )  2  2z 5     5  4 z 2  2 z  2 z 5  2 z 5  2 z  (1  5)  2  2z 5    2  5  4z  4z  4  z  z 2  z 1 2n  3 1 7......com 10 1   n n  5  1   1  5   f ( n )     5  2   2  6... Find Z{f(n)} if      5 1 1 5   n n  1   Z { f (n)}  Z        5  2   2   Sol....Vidyarthiplus. Find the Z – transform of (i) (ii) (n  1)( n  2) n (n  1) 2n  3 A B Sol... www......com ........ we get  1  0  B(1)  B 1 2n  3 1 1   (n  1)(n  2) n  1 n  2  2n  3   1   1  Z   Z   Z  n  2        (1)  ( n  1)(n  2)   n  1  1   1 n Z   z  n  1  n0 n  1 1 1 1  1  2  3  ... x2 x3  z 2z 3z 4z   log(1  x)  x    .Vidyarthiplus.. 2 z 3z 4z 1 1 1 1   z   2  3  4  . we get 1  A(1)  0  A 1 Put n  2..... (i)   (n  1)( n  2) n  1 n  2 2n  3  A(n  2)  B(n  1) Put n  1.

www......... 2 3z 4 z  1 1 1   z 2  2  3  4  ..com 11  z 1   z log    z   z   z log    z 1  1   1 Z   z n  n  2  n0 n  2 1 1 1    2  ..............Vidyarthiplus. z 2z 3z  1   log 1    z  z 1   log    z   z   log    z 1 www...Vidyarthiplus. we get 1  A(1)  0  A  1 Put n  1........  2z 3z 4z    1  1  z 2  log 1       z  z  z 1   z 2 log   z  z   z   z 2 log  z  z 1 Equation (1) becomes  2n  3   z  2  z  Z   z log    z log   z  ( n  1)(n  2)   z  1   z  1   z   z (1  z ) log   z  z 1  1 A B (ii)   n(n  1) n n  1 1  A(n  1)  B(n) Put n  0.... we get 1  0  B(1)  B 1 1 1 1   n(n  1) n n  1  1  1  1  Z   Z    Z         (1)  n ( n  1)   n   n  1 1  1 Z     z n  n  n 1 n 1 1 1   2  3  ....com ...

. www..Vidyarthiplus... Z { f (n  2)}   f ( m ) z  ( m  2 )  z 2  f ( m) z  m m  2 0 m2    z   f (m) z  m  f (0)  f (1) z 1  2 m  0  1  z [ f ( z )  f (0)  f (1) z ] 2  z 2 f ( z )  z 2 f (0)  zf (1) Z { f (n  3)}  z 3 f ( z )  z 3 f (0)  z 2 f (1)  zf (2) and so on..... State and prove the second shifting theorem in Z – transform.) Z { f (n  1)}  z [ f ( z )  f (0)] Note:   Similarly..... In general......... We have  Z { f (n)}   f (n) z  n  f ( z ) n0   Z { f (n  1)}   f (n  1) z  n n0   f ( m) z  ( m 1) Put n + 1 = m  n=m–1 m 1 0   z  f ( m) z  m m 1     z   f ( m ) z  m  f ( 0)  m  0  (i... z 2z 3z 1 1 1 1     2  3  .e.com . Statement: If Z{ f (n)}  f ( z ) then Z{ f (n  1)}  z [ f ( z )  f (0)] Proof.. Z { f (n  k )}  z k [ f ( z )  f (0)  f (1) z 1  f (2) z 2  .  f (k  1) z ( k 1) ] www...... z  z 2z 3z  1  1    log 1   z  z  1  z 1   log   z  z  1  z   log   z  z 1 Equation (1) becomes  1   z  1  z  Z    log    log    n(n  1)   z 1  z  z 1   1  z     1   log    z   z 1  1 z   z   z 1   z 1    log   (or )   log    z   z 1   z   z  8......com 12  1   1 n Z  z  n  1 n  2 n  1 1 1 1  2  3  4  ....Vidyarthiplus..

....  Z { f (n  1)  f (n)}   [ f (n  1)  f (n)] z  n n0  [ z f ( z )  z f (0)]  f ( z )   [ f (n  1)  f (n)] z  n n0  (i.. lim lim Statement: If Z{ f (n)}  f ( z ) then [ f (n)] = {( z  1) f ( z )} n  z 1 Proof...... State and prove convolution theorem in Z – transform.. We have   f ( z )   f (n) z  n ...e... State and prove final value theorem in Z – transform... we get  [( z  1) f ( z )]  f (0) [ f (n  1)  f (n)] lim  z 1 n0 lim lim [( z  1) f ( z )]  f (0) = [ f (1)  f (0) z 1 n   f (2)  f (1)  f (3)  f (2)  ..... ..Vidyarthiplus. ....  f (n) g (0)] z  n n0  Z [ f (0) g (n)  f (1) g (n  1)  f (2) g (n  2)  ..  f (n  1)  f (n)] lim = [ f (n  1)  f (0)] n  lim = [ f (n)]  f (0) n  lim lim (i. g ( z ) Proof. g ( z )   g (n) z  n n0 n 0 1 2 f ( z ). ] × [ g (0)  g (1) z 1  g (2) z 2  g (3) z 3  .. g ( z )  [ f (0)  f (1) z  f (2) z  f (3) z 3  . www...........) [( z  1) f ( z )] = [ f (n)] z 1 n  10.......com 13 9.. Statement: If Z { f (n)}  f ( z ) and Z {g (n)}  g ( z ) then Z { f (n)  g (n)}  f ( z )... By definition.com ..Vidyarthiplus.) ( z  1) f ( z )  z f (0)   [ f (n  1)  f (n)] z  n n0 Taking limit as z  1 on both sides...e.. ]    [ f (0) g (n)  f (1) g (n  1)  f (2) g (n  2)  ....  f (n) g (0)]  Z { f (n)  g (n)} www......

Vidyarthiplus. Let f ( z )  ( z  1)( z  2) f ( z) 10 A B    z ( z  1)( z  2) z  1 z  2 10  A( z  2)  B( z  1) Put z  1. we get 10  0  B(1)  B  10 f ( z )  10 10   z z 1 z  2  10 z 10 z f ( z)   z 1 z  2  Z 1   f ( z )  10Z 1   z    z   10Z 1   z  1  z  2   10 (1) n  10 (2) n  10  10. Find Z   using partial fraction method. Let f ( z )  ( z  1) 2 ( z  2) f ( z) z2 A B C     z ( z  1) 2 ( z  2) z  1 ( z  1) 2 z  2 z 2  A( z  1)( z  2)  B( z  2)  C ( z  1) 2 www.com 14 10 z 11. www.2 n 1  z  12. we get 2  0  B(1)  B2 z 1 2   ( z  1)( z  2) z  1 z  2  z   1   1   Z 1     Z 1    2 Z 1   ( z  1)( z  2)   z  1  z  2   (1) n 1  2(2) n 1 2n  1  2 2  1  2 n 1  z3  13. Find Z    ( z  1)(z  2)  z A B Sol.   ( z  1)( z  2) z  1 z  2 z  A( z  2)  B( z  1) Put z  1. we get 10  A(1)  0  A  10 Put z  2.Vidyarthiplus. we get 1  A(1)  0  A  1 Put z  2.  ( z  1) ( z  2)  2 z3 Sol.com . Find the inverse Z – transform of z  3z  2 2 10 z Sol.

1 AC 1 A 4  A  3 f ( z)  3 1 4    z z  1 ( z  1) 2 z2 3z z 4z f ( z)     z  1 ( z  1) 2 z2  z  1  z  1  z   Z 1{ f ( z )}  3Z 1   Z    4 Z  z  1  ( z  1)   z  2  2  3  n  4. of z . of z 2 . we get  2  A(4  4)  0  2  8A 1  A 4 Coeff . 2 0  A B 1 0 B 4 1 (Bz + C)(z + 2) B  Bz2 + 2Bz +Cz + 2C 4 Coeff . of z. Find Z   by the method of partial fractions. www.Vidyarthiplus. we get 1  0  B(1)  0  B  1 Put z  2.com .com 15 Put z  1.  ( z  2)(z  4)  2 z2 Sol. we get 4  0  0  C (1)  C4 Coeff . 1  2 B  C 2 1 C 4 1 1 C  1  2 2 f ( z)  1/ 4 1/ 4 z  1/ 2   z z2 z2  4 1 z 1 z2 1 z f ( z)     4 z  2 4 z  4 2 z2  4 2 1 1 1  z  1 1  z 2  1 1  2 z   Z { f ( z )}   Z   Z  2  Z  2 4  z  2  4  z  4 4  z  4  1 1 n 1 n n   (2) n  2 n cos  2 sin 4 4 2 4 2 www. Let f ( z )  ( z  2)( z 2  4) f ( z) z A Bz C    2 z ( z  2)( z  4) z  2 z  4 2 z  A( z 2  4)  ( B z  C )( z  2) Put z  2.2 n 1  z2  14.Vidyarthiplus.

1 lim  d 2  3 z n2  20 z n  Re s ( z  2)   ( z  2)  2! z  2  d z 2  ( z  2) 3 ( z  4)  1 lim  d 2  z n  2  20 z n      2 z  2 d z2  z4  www.(3) (3) – (1)  C = 1 (1)  A = –1 f ( z) 1 2 z0    2 z z  1 ( z  1) 2 z 1 z 2z z2 f ( z)    z  1 ( z  1) 2 z 2  1 1  z  1  z  1  z  2 1  Z { f ( z )}   Z   2 Z  ( z  1) 2   Z  2   z  1    z  1 n  1  2n  cos 2 z 3  20 z 16. of z. z n 1 are ( z  2) 3 ( z  4)  0  z  2. z  at its poles. www. of z .Vidyarthiplus.Vidyarthiplus. 4 z = 2 is the pole of order 3 and z = 4 is the simple pole.) f (n) = sum of the residues of   at its poles. Let f ( z )  ( z  1) 2 ( z 2  1) f ( z) z2  3 A B CzD     2 z ( z  1) ( z  1) z  1 ( z  1) 2 2 2 z 1 z 2  3  A( z  1)( z 2  1)  B( z 2  1)  (C z  D)( z  1) 2 Put z  1.e.  ( z  2) ( z  4)  3 Poles of f ( z ). 0  A  C  2D 0  0  2 D [ using (1)] D0 (2)  A + 2C = 1 ---------. Find the inverse Z – transform of ( z  2) 3 ( z  4) 1  z 3  20 z n 1  Sol.1   A  B  2C  D 1   A  2  2C  D (Cz + D)(z – 1)2 (Cz + D)(z2 – 2z + 1) A  2C  D  1      (2) Cz3 – 2Cz2 + Dz2 + Cz – 2Dz + D Coeff . Find the inverse Z – transform of ( z  1) 2 ( z 2  1) z 3  3z Sol. we get 4  0  B(2)  0  B2 A(z – 1)(z2 + 1) Coeff .com .com 16 z 3  3z 15. of z 2 . Let Z { f ( z )}  f (n) = sum of the residues of  .  ( z  2) ( z  4) 3   z n  2  20 z n  (i. 3 0  A  C      (1) A(z3 – z2 + z – 1) Coeff .

Find the inverse Z – transform of ( z  2) 3 ( z  4) z 3  20 z Sol.2 n  8n 2  4     2  16  2n  (2n 2  1) 2 lim z n  2  20 z n Re s( z  4)  ( z  4) z 4 ( z  2) 3 ( z  4) n2 lim z  20 z n  z  4 ( z  2) 3 4 n  2  20 4 n  (2) 3 4n  (16  20) 8 4n  2  f (n)  Re s( z  2)  Re s( z  4) 2n 4n  (2n  1)  2 2 2 ALITER z 3  20 z 16. www.2  40 n 2 n }. we get  16  0  0  C (2)  0  C 8 Put z  4.2 n   2(n 2  3n  2)  10n 2  10n  4n  4  20n  20  8n  16  40n     2  16  4.Vidyarthiplus.com 17 1 lim  d  ( z  4)[(n  2) z n 1  20 n z n 1 ]  ( z n  2  20 z n )(1)      2 z  2 d z  ( z  4) 2  1 lim  d  z n  2 (n  1)  z n (20n  20)  4(n  2) z n 1  80 n z n 1      2 z  2 d z  ( z  4) 2   ( z  4) 2 {(n  1)(n  2) z n 1  (20n  20) n z n 1  4(n  2)(n  1) z n  80 n (n  1) z n  2 }    {z n  2 (n  1)  z n (20n  20)  4(n  2) z n 1  80 n z n 1}. we get  4  0  0  0  D(2) 3 4 1  D  8 2 www.2  (10n  10) n 2  4(n  2)(n  1)2  20 n (n  1) 2 }  2 n n n n   {2 n.2( z  4)  1 lim   2 z 2  ( z  4) 4       (2) {(n  1)(n  2)2 .Vidyarthiplus.com .2(2)  1   2 (2) 4      4.4(n  1)  2 n (20n  20)  4(n  2) 2 n. Let f ( z )  ( z  2) 3 ( z  4) f ( z) z 2  20 A B C D      z ( z  2) 3 ( z  4) z  2 ( z  2) 2 ( z  2) 3 z  4 z 2  20  A( z  2) 2 ( z  4)  B( z  2)( z  4)  C ( z  4)  D( z  2) 3 Put z  2.

1 z = –1 is the simple pole and z = 1 is the pole of order 2. 1  8 A  B  6 D 2 D(z3 – 6z2 + 12z – 8) 8 6 1   B  2 2 1  1  B  B  2 f ( z ) 1/ 2 2 8  1/ 2     z z  2 ( z  2) 2 ( z  2) 3 z4 1 z 2z 8z 1 z f ( z)     2 z  2 ( z  2) 2 ( z  2) 2 z  4 3 1 z 2 z ( z  2)  8 z 1 z    2 z2 ( z  2) 3 2 z4 1 z 2z 2  4z 1 z    2 z  2 ( z  2) 3 2 z  4 1 1  z  1  2 z  4 z  1 1  z  2 1 Z { f ( z )}  Z   Z  3   Z  2  z  2   ( z  2)  2  z  4  a z2  a2 z  Z 1  3   ann2 2n 4n  ( z  a )   2 n  n 2 2 2  z ( z 2  z  2)  1 17. lim z n ( z 2  z  2) Re s( z  1)  ( z  1) z  1 ( z  1)(z  1) 2 lim z n ( z 2  z  2)  z  1 ( z  1) 2 (1) n (1  1  2)  4  (1) n 1 lim  d  2 z ( z  z  2)  n 2  Re s ( z  1)   ( z  1)  1! z  1  d z  ( z  1)(z  1) 2  lim  d  z n ( z 2  z  2)      z 1  d z  ( z  1)  www.e.com 18 Coeff .  ( z  1)(z  1)  1  z ( z 2  z  2) n 1  Sol. www.z  at its poles. z n 1 are ( z  1)( z  1) 2  0  z  1. Let Z { f ( z )}  f (n) = sum of the residues of  . Find Z  2  using residue method.0  A D 1 A(z – 2)2(z – 4) 0  A A(z2 – 4z + 4)(z – 4) 2 1 A(z3 – 8z2 + 20z – 16)  A 2 D(z – 2)3 Coeff . of z .com .) f (n) = sum of the residues of  2  at its poles. of z 3 .  ( z  1 )( z  1) 2   z n ( z 2  z  2)  (i.Vidyarthiplus.  ( z  1)(z  1)  Poles of f ( z ).Vidyarthiplus.

) f (n) = sum of the residues of  3  at its poles. Sol.Vidyarthiplus. Given y(n  2)  4 y(n  1)  4 y(n)  n Taking Z – transform on both sides. z n 1 are ( z  1) 3  0  z 1 z = 1 is the pole of order 3. ( z  1) 3  z ( z  1) n 1  Sol.transform.Vidyarthiplus.e. 1 lim  d 2  3 z ( z  1)  n  Re s ( z  1)   ( z  1)  2! z  1  d z 2  ( z  1) 3  1 lim  d2    2 {z ( z  1)} n 2 z 1d z  1 lim  d n    {z (1)  ( z  1) n z n 1} 2 z 1 d z  1 lim  [n z n 1  n( z  1). www. we get Z [ y (n  2)]  4 Z [ y (n  1)]  4 Z [ y (n)]  Z (n) z {z 2 y ( z )  z 2 y (0)  z y (1)}  4 {z y ( z )  z y (0)}  4 y ( z )  ( z  1) 2 z {z 2 y ( z )  0  z (1)}  4{z y ( z )  0}  4 y ( z )  ( z  1) 2 z ( z 2  4 z  4) y ( z )  z ( z  1) 2 www.  ( z  1)  Poles of f ( z ).n}  (2)(1)     (2) 2  2  4n  2  4 n  f (n)  Re s( z  1)  Re s( z  1)  (1) n  n z ( z  1) 18.z  at its poles. Let Z 1{ f ( z )}  f (n) = sum of the residues of  .n z }  z ( z  z  2)(1)  n 2 n 1 n 2  z  1  ( z  1) 2    (2){1  (2).  ( z  1) 3   z ( z  1)  n (i.com .( n  1) z n  2  n z n 1 (1)] 2 z 1 1  [n  2n (n  1)  n ] 2 1  [ n  2n 2  2n  n] 2  n2  f (n)  Re s( z  1)  n2 19. y(1) = 1 by using Z . Solve y(n  2)  4 y(n  1)  4 y(n)  n given that y(0) = 0. Find the inverse Z – transform of by residue method.com 19 lim  ( z  1){z (2 z  1)  ( z  z  2).

e. www. we get 4  4  2  0  0  0  D(9) 10  D 9 Coeff . we get 1  2  2  0  B(9)  0  0 1  B 9 Put z  2.Vidyarthiplus. 1  3A  B  0  D A(z3 + 4z2 – z2 + 4z – 4z – 4) 1 10 A(z3 + 3z2 – 4) 1  3A   9 9 11 2 C(z + 2)(z – 1)2 1   3A  A   C(z + 2)(z2 – 2z + 1) 9 27 C(z3 – 2z2 + 2z2 + z – 4z + 2) 2 (1)  0   C C(z3 – 3z + 2) 27 2  C 27 y ( z )  2 / 27 1/ 9 2 / 27 10 / 9     z z 1 ( z  1) 2 z  2 ( z  2) 2 2 z 1 z 2 z 10 z y( z)      27 z  1 9 ( z  1) 2 27 z  2 9 ( z  2) 2 2  z  1 1  z  2 1  z  5 1   2 z   Z 1{ y ( z )}   Z 1   Z  2  Z   Z  2 27  z  1 9  ( z  1)  27  z  2  9  ( z  2)  2 1 2 5 y(n)   (1)  (n)  (2) n  n.com 20 z  z ( z  1) 2 ( z  2) y ( z )  2 ( z  1) 2 z  z ( z  1) 2 y( z)  ( z  1) 2 ( z  2) 2 y( z) 1  ( z  1) 2 z 2  2z  2   z ( z  1) 2 ( z  2) 2 ( z  1) 2 ( z  2) 2 z2  2z  2 A B C D     ( z  1) 2 ( z  2) 2 z  1 ( z  1) 2 z  2 ( z  2) 2 z 2  2 z  2  A( z  1)(z  2) 2  B ( z  2) 2  C ( z  2)(z  1) 2  D ( z  1) 2 Put z  1. of z 2 . we get Z [un  2 ]  6 Z [un 1 ]  9 Z [un ]  Z (2 n ) z {z 2u ( z )  z 2u (0)  z u (1)}  6 {z u ( z )  z u (0)}  9 u ( z )  z2 z {z 2u ( z )  0  0}  6 {z u ( z )  0}  9 u ( z )  z2 www. Taking Z – transform on both sides. of z 3 .) y(n)     (2) n  n.Vidyarthiplus.(2) n 27 9 27 9 2 n 2 5 (i.(2) n 27 9 27 9 20. n Given un  2  6 un 1  9un  2 n Sol. 0  A  C      (1) A(z – 1)(z+2)2 A(z – 1)(z2 + 4z + 4) Coeff .com . Solve un  2  6 un 1  9un  2 with u0  u1  0 using Z .transform.

com . we get 1  0  0  C (5) 1  C 5 Coeff . 0  A B 1 0 B 25 1  B 25 u ( z ) 1 / 25 1 / 25 1/ 5    z z  2 z  3 ( z  3) 2 1 z 1 z 1 z u ( z)    25 z  2 25 z  3 5 ( z  3) 2 1 1  z  1 1  z  1 1   3z   u n  Z 1{u ( z )}  Z   Z   Z  2 25  z  2  25  z  3  15  ( z  3)  1 1 1 (i. Solve un  2  2 un 1  un  2 with u0  2.2 n  (3) n  .transform.) u n  .com 21 z ( z 2  6 z  9)u ( z )  z2 z ( z  3) 2 u ( z )  z2 z u ( z)  ( z  2)(z  3) 2 u ( z) 1  z ( z  2)(z  3) 2 1 A B C    ( z  2)( z  3) 2 z  2 z  3 ( z  3) 2 1  A ( z  3) 2  B ( z  2)( z  3)  C ( z  2) Put z  2.Vidyarthiplus.e. we get Z [un  2 ]  2 Z [un 1 ]  Z [u n ]  Z (2 n ) z {z 2u ( z )  z 2u (0)  z u (1)}  2 {z u ( z )  z u (0)}  u ( z )  z2 z {z 2u ( z )  2 z 2  z}  2{z u ( z )  2 z}  u ( z )  z2 z ( z 2  2 z  1)u ( z )   2 z 2  3z z2 z  z (2 z  3)(z  2) ( z  1) 2 u ( z )  z2 z [1  2 z 2  7 z  6] u ( z)  ( z  2)(z  1) 2 www. Taking Z – transform on both sides. n Given un  2  2 un 1  un  2 n Sol.n (3) n 25 25 15 21. u1  1 using Z .Vidyarthiplus. of z 2 . we get 1  A(5) 2  0  0 1  A 25 Put z  3. www.

com . we get 9  6  0  0  C (4)(6) 3 1  C  24 8 Put z  1. of z 2 . y1  1 using Z . we get Z [ y n  2 ]  4 Z [ y n 1 ]  3 Z [ y n ]  Z (3n ) z {z 2 y ( z )  z 2 y (0)  z y (1)}  4{z y ( z )  z y (0)}  3 y ( z )  z 3 z {z 2 y ( z )  0  z}  4{z y ( z )  0}  3 y ( z )  z 3 z ( z 2  4 z  3) y ( z )  z z 3 z  z ( z  3) ( z  1)( z  3) y ( z )  z 3 z [1  z  3] y( z)  ( z  1)( z  3)( z  3) z 2  2z y( z)  ( z  1)( z  3)( z  3) z 2  2z A B C    ( z  1)( z  3)( z  3) z  1 z  3 z  3 z 2  2 z  A ( z  3)( z  3)  B ( z  1)( z  3)  C ( z  1)( z  3) Put z  3.) u n  2  1  2n n 22.e. we get 1  2  A(2)(4)  0  0 3  A 8 www.Vidyarthiplus.Vidyarthiplus. Solve yn  2  4 yn 1  3 yn  3 with y0  0. www. we get 8  14  7  A(1) 2  0  0  A 1 Put z  1. we get 2  7  7  0  0  C (1)  C  2 Coeff .com 22 u ( z) 2z 2  7z  7  z ( z  2)( z  1) 2 2z 2  7z  7 A B C 2    ( z  2)( z  1) z  2 z  1 ( z  1) 2 2 z 2  7 z  7  A ( z  1) 2  B ( z  2)( z  1)  C ( z  2) Put z  2.transform. n Given yn  2  4 yn 1  3 yn  3 n Sol. Taking Z – transform on both sides. 2  A B 2 1 B  B 1 u ( z) 1 1 2    z z  2 z  1 ( z  1) 2 z z 2z u ( z)    z  2 z  1 ( z  1) 2  z  1  z  1  z   u n  Z 1{u ( z )}  Z 1   Z  2 Z  ( z  1) 2   z  2   z  1   (i.

com .com 23 Coeff . n  2 given that y(0)  3.e.Using Z-transform solve y(n)  3 y(n  1)  4 y(n  2)  0 . Changing n into n + 2 in the given equation. we get Z [ y (n  2)]  3 Z [ y (n  1)]  4 Z [ y (n)]  Z (0) {z 2 y ( z )  z 2 y (0)  z y (1)}  3{z y ( z )  z y (0)}  4 y ( z )  0 {z 2 y ( z )  3 z 2  2 z}  3{z y ( z )  3 z}  4 y ( z )  0 ( z 2  3 z  4) y ( z )  3 z 2  7 z ( z  4)( z  1) y ( z )  z (3 z  7) y( z) 3z  7  z ( z  1)( z  4) 3z  7 A B   ( z  1)( z  4) z  1 z  4 3z  7  A( z  4)  B( z  1) Put z  1. we get  12  7  0  B(5)  5  5B  B 1 y( z) 2 1   z z 1 z  4 2z z y( z)   z 1 z  4  z   z   y n  Z 1{ y ( z )}  2 Z 1    Z 1   z  1  z  4  (i. www. it becomes y(n  2)  3 y(n  1)  4 y(n)  0 . n  0 Taking Z – transform on both sides. of z 2 . we get 3  7  A(5)  0 10  A 2 5 Put z  4. y(1)  2 Sol.) y n  2  (4) n www.Vidyarthiplus.e. 1 A B C 3 1 1   B  8 8 3 1  B  1  8 8 8  3  1 10 5  B   8 8 4  3 / 8 5 / 4 1/ 8 y( z)    z 1 z  3 z  3 3  1  5 1  1  1 1  1   y n  Z 1{ y ( z )}   Z 1    Z    Z  8  z  1  4  z  3  8  z  3  3 5 1 y n   (1) n 1  (3) n 1  (3) n 1 8 4 8 3 (1) n 5 (3) n 1 (3) n yn     8 (1) 4 (3) 8 3 3 5 3n (i.Vidyarthiplus.) y n  (1)  (3)  n n 8 12 24 23.

transform. y (n)   (2) n 3 3 www. Using Z-transform method solve y k  2  2 y k 1  y k  k given that y0  y1  0 3.com . y (n)  18  36 (2)  18 (3) n n 1 k 1 1 2. yk     (1)  k (1) k k 4 4 4 4 3. 2. y(2) = 8. 0  B  C 0  1 C (Bz + C)(z – 1) Bz2 – Bz +Cz – C  C  1 y ( z) 1  z 1   2 z z 1 z 1 z z2 z y ( z)   2  2 z 1 z 1 z 1 1  z  1  z  1  z  2 1  yn  Z { y ( z )}  Z   Z    Z  z  1  z  1  z  1 2 2  n   n  (i. 0  A B 0  1 B B  1 Coeff . y(1) = 0 by using Z . y (k )  2  k . Answer 1. Using Z-transform method solve y n  2  y n  2 given that y0  y1  0 Sol. y(1) = 0. of z 2 . Given y n  2  y n  2 Taking Z – transform on both sides.Vidyarthiplus. Solve y(n  3)  3 y(n  1)  2 y(n)  0 given that y(0) = 4.Vidyarthiplus.transform.e.2 k k 8 4 4. we get Z [ y n  2 ]  Z [ y n ]  Z (2) 2z {z 2 y ( z )  z 2 y (0)  z y (1)}  y ( z )  z 1 2z {z 2 y ( z )  0  0}  y ( z )  z 1 2z ( z 2  1) y ( z )  z 1 2z y( z)  ( z  1)(z 2  1) y( z) 2  z ( z  1)(z 2  1) 2 A Bz  C   2 ( z  1)( z  1) z  1 z  1 2 2  A( z 2  1)  ( Bz  C )( z  1) Put z  1. Solve y(n  2)  5 y(n  1)  6 y(n)  36 given that y(0) = y(1) = 0 by using Z . Solve y(k  2)  4 y(k  1)  4 y(k )  0 given that y(0) = 1.com 24 24. we get 2  A(2)  0  A 1 Coeff . of z. www.) y n  1  cos    sin    2   2  Problems for practice 1. 4.

find the inverse Z – transform of ( z  1)( z  2)  1   1  1  1  Z 1    Z 1   Z Sol. find the inverse Z – transform of ( z  a) 2  z2  1  z z  Z  2  Z 1  .com .  ( z  a)(z  b)   z  a z  b   z  1  z   Z 1   Z  z  a   z  b   (a) n  (b) n n   (a) r (b) n  r r 0 n  (b) n  (a) (b) r 0 r r a n r  (b)   n  r 0   b  www.  ( z  1)(z  2)   z  1  z  2   1  2 n 1 2n 1 n 1  (2  1) 2 2 1 n r nr   2 .. Z  1   Z 1  .  ( z  a)   z  a z  a   z  1  z   Z 1   Z  z  a   z  a   (a) n  (a) n n   (a) r (a) n  r r 0 n   (a) n r 0  (n  1)(a ) n z2 27..com 25 1 25.Vidyarthiplus.. www.. Using convolution theorem.... Using convolution theorem. 2 n ] 2 1 2 n 1  1  2 2 1 2 n 1  1  2 z2 26. Sol. Using convolution theorem.. find the inverse Z – transform of ( z  a )( z  b)  z2   z z  Sol..(1) 2 r 0 1  [1  2  2 2  2 3  .Vidyarthiplus.

find the inverse Z – transform of (3 z  1)( 4 z  1)      2   2  1 12 z 2  Z  1 12 z Z  1 z  Sol. www...com 26 r n a  ( b )    n r 0  b    a   a 2 a  n  (b) 1        ....com .    n   b   b   b     a  n 1  1      ( b ) n     b  a   1     b  n n  (b  a n 1 ) / b n 1  n 1  (1) b    (b  a ) / b  b  a  n 1 n 1  (1) n    ba  12 z 2 28.Vidyarthiplus.. Using convolution theorem........Vidyarthiplus....    3   4   4   4      3  n 1  n 1     1   4      3  1   3        4    1  4    3    3  n n    1       3  7   4   4   1  4 3   3  n n         3   7 7  4   www. Z    (3z  1)(4 z  1)   3 z  1 4 z  1    z  1   z  1       3   4      3  4    z  1  z   Z 1   Z  z  1 / 3   z  1 / 4   (1 / 3) n  (1 / 4) n  (1 / 4) n  (1 / 3) n n   (1 / 4) r (1 / 3) n  r r 0  1  n  1 n r       (3) r  3  r 0  4  1 n   3 n r       3  r 0  4  1    3    3 2 n   3  n   1      .

..com .  (n  1)] n (n  1)( n  2)  4n 2 www. Using convonlution theorem...Vidyarthiplus. Using convolution theorem..Vidyarthiplus.  z  4 z  3     z  1  z   Z 1   Z  z  4   z  3   (4) n  (3) n n   (4) r (3) n  r r 0 n 3 n  (4) (3) r 0 r r r 4n  3  n r 0  3    4   4 2 4  n  3 1        . Z     Z     Z        (1)  z  4    z  4    z  4   z 2  1  1  z  1  z  Z     Z    Z    z  4    z  4   z  4   4n  4n n n   (4) (4) r nr   (4) n r 0 r 0  (n  1)(4) n Equation (1) becomes  z 3  1  Z     (n  1) 4  4 n n  z  4   n   (r  1)(4) r (4) n  r r 0 n   (r  1)( 4) n r 0  4 [1  2  3  ..    n   3   3   3   n 4 / 3  n 1  1 3    4 / 3  1  n  (4  3n 1 ) / 3n 1  n 1 3    1/ 3  n 1 n 1  4 3 3  z  30... find the inverse Z – transform of ( z  4)( z  3)  z2  1  z z  Sol. Z 1  ( z  4)(z  3)   Z .. www....com 27 z2 29.. find the inverse Z – transform of    z 4  z 3  1   z 2  1  1  z  Sol....

we get  4  A(3) 2  0  0 (z – 2)2 4  A 9 Put z  2. www.(1) n n n yn1  [ A  B(n  1)](3) n1  3[ A  B(n  1)](3) n  3 A(3) n  3B(n  1)(3) n       (2) yn2  [ A  B(n  2)](3) n2  9[ A  B(n  2)](3) n  9 A(3) n  9B(n  2)(3) n       (3) Eliminating A and B from equations (1). we get  1  0  0  C (3) 1  C 3 www. z  3  A( z  2)  B( z  2)( z  1)  C ( z  1) 2 The other factors are z2 – 4z + 4 Put z  1. Let f ( z )  3  z  3 z 2  4 ( z  1)( z  2) 2 –1 1 –3 0 4 0 –1 4 –4 f ( z) z 3 A B C –4     1 4 0 z ( z  1)( z  2) 2 z  1 z  2 ( z  2) 2 (z + 1) is a factor. Derive the difference equation from y n  ( A  Bn )( 3) n Sol. Find Z  3  using partial fraction method.) y n 2  4 y n1  4 y n  0 32. (2) and (3).Vidyarthiplus.(1) n n n yn1  [ A  B(n  1)]2 n1  2[ A  B(n  1)]2 n  2 A2 n  2B(n  1)2 n       (2) yn2  [ A  B(n  2)]2 n2  4[ A  B(n  2)]2n  4 A2 n  4B(n  2)2 n       (3) Eliminating A and B from equations (1).) yn2  6 yn1  9 yn  0 1  z 2  3z  33.com 28 31.Vidyarthiplus. we have yn 1 n y n1  3  3(n  1)  0 yn2 9 9(n  2) yn [27(n  2)  27(n  1)]  yn1[9(n  2)  9n]  yn2 [3(n  1)  3n]  0 yn (54  27)  yn1 (18)  yn2 (3)  0  27 yn  18 yn1  3 yn 2  0 (i.com . we have yn 1 n y n1 2 2(n  1)  0 y n 2 4 4( n  2) y n [8(n  2)  8(n  1)]  y n1[4(n  2)  4n]  y n 2 [2(n  1)  2n]  0 y n (16  8)  y n1 (8)  y n 2 (2)  0 8 y n  8 y n1  2 y n 2  0 (i. Given y n  ( A  Bn )2  A2  Bn 2 ------------. Form the difference equation whose solution is y n  ( A  Bn )2 n Sol.  z  3z  4  2 z 2  3z z 2  3z Sol. Given y n  ( A  Bn )( 3)  A(3)  Bn (3) ------------.e. (2) and (3).e.

...Vidyarthiplus....   ( z  2) ( z  3)   ( z  2) z  3  2 2 1  z2   z  Z  2  Z 1    ( z  2)   z  3  (n  1)(2) n  (3) n Let S  1  2 x  3 x 2  4 x 3  ....3n  2 n (2n  8) www..  (n  1) x n n xS  x  2 x 2  3 x 3  ... of z 2 .....  n x n  (n  1) x n 1   (r  1)(2) (3)r nr r 0 S  xS  1  x  x 2  x 3  ..... 0  A B 4 4 0    B B  9 9 f ( z)  4 / 9 4 / 9  1/ 3    z z  1 z  2 ( z  2) 2 4 z 4 z 1 z f ( z)     9 z  1 9 z  2 3 ( z  2) 2 4  z  4 1  z  1 1  2 z   Z 1{ f ( z )}   Z 1   Z   Z  2 9  z  1 9  z  2  6  ( z  2)  4 4 1   (1) n  (2) n  (n........ (n  1)    n  3 3 3  3     2  n 1 2  n 1 1    (n  1)   3 n   3  3    2 2 2   1   1    3 3   2 2 n  2   2  n 1      (n  1)      3n        3   3  3 3  1 1   9 3       2  n  2    2   2  n  3 91       3(n  1)    n    3   3    3   3   2 n 2  n  3 9  6    2 (n  1)   n  3  3     2 n   3 9    (6  2n  2) n   3     2 n   3 9    (2n  8) n   3    9... find the inverse Z – transform of ( z  2) 2 ( z  3)  z3  1  z2 z  Sol.com ..  x n  (n  1) x n 1 n 1  x n 1 3 n  (r  1)(2) (3) r 0 r r (1  x) S  1 x  (n  1) x n 1 1  x n 1 (n  1) x n 1 S  r n 2  3  (r  1)  n (1  x) 2 1 x r 0 3  2 2 2 2 3 2  n  3 1  2    3    4    . Using convolution theorem.com 29 Coeff ..2 n ) 9 9 6 z3 34.. www...Vidyarthiplus... Z  1   Z  ...

.  n x n 1 2n   2      2  xS  x  2 x 2  3 x 3  .... www.. find the inverse Z – transform of ( z  1) 2 ( z  2)  z2  1  z z  Sol.. Z  1   Z  ( z  1) 2 z  2  ..Vidyarthiplus......Vidyarthiplus.......  ( z  1) ( z  2)  2    z   z   Z 1  2  Z 1   ( z  1)   z  2   n (1) n  (2) n  n  2 n n   r (2) n  r r 0 n 2 n  r 0 r (2)  r r n 1 2 n  r 0 r  2  1 1 2 1 3 1  n  2 0  1   2    3    ..2 n  2  n www....com .......... Using convolution theorem...com 30 z2 35......  (n  1) x n 1  n x n 2  1  2 1   1   1  S  xS  1  x  x 2  x 3  ..... n    n  2 2 2  2   n 1   1 1 2 1  n 1  2   1  2    3    .  x n 1  n x n  2  2  1 xn (1  x) S   n xn  1 n 1  n 1 x  1    n    1 xn n xn 2n   2   2  S    (1  x) 2 1  x 2  1 1   4 2   2n    1  n    1  n   41      2n    2    2     2   2n  1 n 1  n  4  4    2 n    2  2  2    2.... n     2   2 2  2     1 n 1  n 1    n   Let S  1  2 x  3 x 2  4 x 3  ..