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TRANSFORMS AND PARTIAL DIFFERENTIAL EQUATION
UNIT III – PARTIAL DIFFERENTIAL EQUATION
PART – A

1. Find the solution of px  qy  z
2 2 2

Sol. A. E. are
dx dy dz
 2  2
x2 y z
st nd
Take 1 and 2 ratio, we have
dx dy
 2
x2 y
Integrating, we get
1 1
  c1
x y
1 1
  c1
y x
Take 2nd and 3rd ratio, we have
dy dz
 2
y2 z
Integrating, we get
1 1
  c2
y z
1 1
  c2
z y
Hence the required solution is
1 1 1 1
F   ,    0
 y x z y

2. Solve ( D  2 D D ) z  0
3 2

Sol. A.E. is m3 – 2m2 = 0 [Put D = m and D′ = 1]
2
m (m – 2) = 0
m2 = 0 (or) m – 2 = 0
m = 0, 0, 2
 z  f1 ( y )  x f 2 ( y )  f 3 ( y  2 x )

3. Find the particular integral of ( D  2 DD   D  ) z  e
2 2 x y

1
Sol. P.I = 2 ex y
D  2 DD  D 2

1
 2 ex y
(1)  2(1)( 1)  (1) 2

1
 ex y
4
4. Solve the equation ( D  D  ) z  0
3

Sol. A.E. is (m – 1)3 = 0 [Put D = m and D′ = 1]
(m – 1)(m – 1)(m – 1) = 0
m = 1, 1, 1
 z  f1 ( y  x )  x f 2 ( y  x )  x 2 f 3 ( y  x )

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5. Find the particular integral of ( D  3 DD   2 D  ) z  x  y
2 2

1
Sol. P.I = 2 ( x  y)
D  3DD  2 D 2
1
 ( x  y)
2 3DD   2 D  2 
D 1  
 D2 
1
1   3DD   2 D  2 
 2 1    ( x  y)
D   D2 
1   3DD  2 D 2 
 2 1   2
 ( x  y )
D   D 

1
( x  y)  0
D2
1  x2 
   x y
D2 
x3 x 2 y
 
6 2

6. Solve: ( D  2 DD   D  ) z  0
2 2

Sol. A.E. is m2 – 2m + 1 = 0 [Put D = m and D′ = 1]
(m – 1)(m – 1) = 0
m = 1, 1
 z  f1 ( y  x )  x f 2 ( y  x )

7. Solve: ( D  2 D )( D  2 D   1) z  0
Sol. The given equation is non-homogeneous.
( D  2D)(D  2D  1) z  0
 z  e 0 x f1 ( y  2 x )  e  x f 2 ( y  2 x )
(i.e.) z  f1 ( y  2 x)  e  x f 2 ( y  2 x)

8. Solve ( D  D D   DD   D  ) z  0
3 2 2 3

Sol. A.E. is m3 + m2 – m – 1 = 0 [Put D = m and D′ = 1]
2
m (m + 1) –1(m + 1) = 0
(m + 1)(m2 – 1) = 0
m = –1, m2 = 1
m= 1
 m = 1, –1, –1
 z  f1 ( y  x )  f 2 ( y  x )  x f 3 ( y  x )
3 z 3 z 3 z 3 z
9. Solve:  2  4  8 0
x 3 x 2 y xy 2 y 3
Sol. The given equation can be written as ( D  2 D D  4 DD  8D ) z  0
3 2 2 3

A.E. is m3 – 2m2 – 4m + 8 = 0 [Put D = m and D′ = 1]
2
m (m – 2) – 4(m – 2) = 0
(m – 2)(m2 – 4) = 0
m = 2, m2 = 4
m=  2
 m = 2, 2, –2
 z  f1 ( y  2 x )  x f 2 ( y  2 x )  f 3 ( y  2 x )
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2z
10. Solve:  sin y
 x2
2z
Sol. Given  sin y
 x2
z
 x sin y  f ( y )
x
x2
(i.e.) z  sin y  x f ( y )   ( y )
2

2 z
11. Solve: xy
 xy
2 z
Sol. Given xy
 xy
 z x y2
  f ( x)
x 2
x2 y2
(i.e.) z   F ( x)   ( y )
4
12. Form the partial differential equation by eliminating the constants a and b from
z  ( x 2  a 2 )( y 2  b 2 )
Given z  ( x  a )( y  b ) ---------- (1)
2 2 2 2
Sol.
Diff. eqn. (1) p.w.r.t. x, we get
z
p  (2 x)( y 2  b 2 )
x
p
  y 2  b 2        ( 2)
2x
Diff. eqn. (1) p.w.r.t. y, we get
z
q  ( x 2  a 2 )(2 y )
y
q
  x 2  a 2        (3)
2y
Substitute (2) and (3) in equation (1), we have
q p
z .
2 y 2x
(i.e.) 4 xy z  pq
13. Form the partial differential equation by eliminating the arbitrary constants ‘a’ and ‘b’
from z = ax + by.
Sol. Given z  ax  by ---------- (1)
Diff. eqn. (1) p.w.r.t. x, we get
z
p  a        ( 2)
x
Diff. eqn. (1) p.w.r.t. y, we get
z
q  b        (3)
y
Substitute (2) and (3) in equation (1), we have
z  px  qy
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) p 2  q 2  tan 2  15. Diff. we have 2  q  p     2y  4 y2 p  q2 16. Form the partial differential equation by eliminating the arbitrary constants a and b from z  ( x  a )  ( y  b ) 2 2 Sol. we have 2 2  p q z      2  2 (i. y. Form the partial differential equation by eliminating the arbitrary constants a and b from ( x  a )  ( y  b )  z cot  2 2 2 2 Sol. (1) p.w. (1) p. www.com . we get z q q  2ay  a         (3) y 2y Substitute (3) in equation (2). Given z  ( x  a)  ( y  b) ---------.e.com 4 14. we have ( z p cot2  ) 2  ( z q cot2  ) 2  z 2 cot2  z 2 cot4  ( p 2  q 2 )  z 2 cot2  cot2  ( p 2  q 2 )  1 (i. x.w. we get z p  2( x  a)        (2) x Diff. we get z p  a 2        (2) x Diff.t. eqn.Vidyarthiplus.w. eqn. (1) p. Given ( x  a )  ( y  b )  z cot  -----------.Vidyarthiplus.t. y. x.w.(1) 2 2 Diff.w. we get z 0  2( y  b)  2 z cot2  y  y  b  z q cot2         (3) Substitute (2) and (3) in equation (1). eqn. Form the partial differential equation by eliminating the arbitrary constants a and b from z  a x  ay  b 2 2 Given z  a x  ay  b ----------. y. eqn.r. (1) p.r.r. eqn. we get z q  2( y  b)        (3) y Substitute (2) and (3) in equation (1).(1) 2 2 Sol.r.e. eqn.t.t.(1) 2 2 2 2 Diff.) 4 z  p 2  q 2 www.w.t. x. we get z 2( x  a)  0  2 z cot2  x  x  a  z p cot2         (2) Diff.r.t.r. (1) p. (1) p.

t.t. eqn. www. we get 1 q 0   0 a c q 1          (3) c a Divide (2) by (3). eqn. eqn.t.(1) n n Diff.r. x.com . Given z  ax  by -----------. (1) p.w. x.e.w. Find the partial differential equation of all planes cutting equal intercepts from the x and y axes.) n z  p x  q y 18.r. we get z p  a n x n 1 x a n xn p x px  a x n        (2) n Diff.(1) where ‘a’ is the arbitrary constant. (1) p.w. 19. Form the partial differential equation of all spheres whose centre lies on the z-axis. The equation of the plane is x y z    1 -----------. Sol.r. Form the partial differential equation by eliminating the arbitrary constants a and b from z  ax  by n n Sol. 0. (1) p.) p  q.w.(1) a a c Diff.Vidyarthiplus. a) and radius k (say) is x 2  y 2  ( z  a) 2  k 2 -------------.e. 0. Any point on the z-axis is of the form (0. we have px qy z  n n (i. y. a) Then the equation of the sphere with centre (0.Vidyarthiplus. we get p 1 q (i.com 5 17.r. eqn. y.t. we get 1 p 0  0 a c p 1          (2) c a Diff. Sol. (1) p. we get z q  b n y n 1 y bn yn q y qy  b y n        (3) n Substitute (2) and (3) in equation (1). www.

we get 2 ( x  z p) 1  p  2 ( y  z q) 1  q ( x  z p )(1  q )  ( y  z q )(1  p ) x  xq  z p  z pq  y  y p  zq  z pq (i. we get 2( x  a)  2( z  a) p  0 2 x  2 z p  2 a (1  p)        (2) Diff.t. y. eqn.(2) x Diff. eqn. (1) p.w.r. Diff.w. Since the centre (a.r.(3) y Substitute (2) and (3) in equation (1).e.t. eqn. we get z q  B -----------.e. x.com .t.w. we get 2 x  0  2( z  a ) p  0 x  ( z  a ) p        (2) Diff. (1) p. y.r.e. Sol.r. (1) p. we get z p  A -----------.) ( y  z ) p  ( z  x) q  x  y www.r.) p y  q x. we get 2( y  a )  2( z  a ) q  0 2 y  2 z q  2 a (1  q)        (3) Divide (2) by (3). we get x p  y q (i. eqn. 20.w. y. Sol. Find the partial differential equation of all planes passing through the origin. (1) p. x. we get 0  2 y  2( z  a )q  0 y  ( z  a )q        (3) Divide (2) by (3). we have a = b = c Hence the equation of the sphere is (x – a)2 + (y – a)2 + (z – a)2 = r2 ---------------. eqn.t.(1) where ‘a’ is the arbitrary constants. we have z  pxq y 21. eqn. (1) p.Vidyarthiplus.t. (1) p. b.w.com 6 Diff.Vidyarthiplus.w.r. Find the partial differential equation of the family of spheres having their centres on the line x = y = z.) z  A x  B y        (1) where A and B are arbitrary constants. www. The equation of the plane passing through the origin is ax + by + cz = 0  c z  a x  b y a b  z  x y c c (i.t. Diff. c) lies on the line x = y = z. x.

we get p x  q y (i. eqn. we get q  f  ( x 2  y 2 ) (2 y )       (3) Divide (2) by (3). we get p  y  f  ( x 2  y 2 ) (2 x) p  y  f  ( x 2  y 2 ) (2 x)       (2) Diff.   0  z x Sol. Form the partial differential equation by eliminating the arbitrary function from  x   z 2  xy .w.r. y.r.w.t. eqn. eqn.(1) 2 2 Diff. we get  x   z. (1) p.) x 2 p  (2 z 2  x y ) q  z x 23. (1) p.e.com 7 22. (1) p. Form the partial differential equation by eliminating an arbitrary function from z  f (x2  y2 ) Sol.r. (1) p. y.w.t.) p y  q x  y 2  x 2 www. (1) p. x.r.Vidyarthiplus. x. The given equation can be written as z  xy  f   -------------.1  x. Given z  xy  f ( x  y ) -------------.Vidyarthiplus.w.r. (1) p. eqn. eqn. Given z  f ( x  y ) -------------. we get 2z p y z  px  2zq x qx (2 z p  y )(q x)  (2 z q  x)(z  p x)  2 z p q x  x y q  2 z 2q  2 z p q x  z x  p x2 (i. we get p  f  ( x 2  y 2 ) (2 x)       (2) Diff.e. we get q  x  f  ( x 2  y 2 ) (2 y ) q  x  f  ( x 2  y 2 ) (2 y)       (3) Divide (2) by (3).t.t.(1) 2 2 Diff. we get  x   xq 2 z q  x  f     2        (3) z z  Divide (2) by (3).(1) 2 z Diff.w.t.com . Form the partial differential equation by eliminating an arbitrary function from z  xy  f ( x 2  y 2 ) Sol.) p y  q x 24.t. eqn. p  2 z p  y  f           (2) z z 2 Diff. x. y.r.e. we get p y x  qx y p y  y2  q x  x2 (i.w. www.

w.r. eqn.w.r. Given p – q = 0 -----------.t. eqn.w.r.w. Form the partial differential equation by eliminating an arbitrary function from z  f (x2  y2 )  x  y Sol.(1) The solution of equation (1) is z  a x  b y  c where a – b = 0  b = a Hence the complete integral is z  a x  a y  c www. we get q  f  ( x 2  y 2 ) (2 y )  1 q  1  f  ( x 2  y 2 ) (2 y)       (3) Divide (2) by (3).) p y  q x  y  x 26. Form the partial differential equation by eliminating the arbitrary functions from z  f 1 ( x ) f 2 ( y ). Given z  f ( x  y )  x  y -------------.(1) Diff.t. (2) p. x. eqn. (1) p. (1) p.w. y. we get r  f1( x) f 2 ( y)       (4) Diff.e.r. (1) p.Vidyarthiplus. Find the complete integral of p – q = 0 Sol. Find the complete integral of p  q 1 Sol.r. (2) p.e. eqn.com . x.(1) 2 2 Diff. we get p  f  ( x 2  y 2 ) (2 x)  1 p  1  f  ( x 2  y 2 ) (2 x)       (2) Diff.t. we get q  f1 ( x) f 2( y)       (3) Diff. y.(1) The solution of equation (1) is z  axb yc where a  b  1  b  1 a  b  1 a   2 Hence the complete integral is z  a x  1 a  2 yc 28.r. eqn. (3) p. we get t  f1 ( x) f 2( y)       (6) From (2) and (3) we have p q  f1 ( x) f 2 ( y) f1( x) f 2( y) (i. Given p  q  1 --------------. eqn.t. we get p  f1( x) f 2 ( y)       (2) Diff. x. (1) p. Given z  f1 ( x) f 2 ( y) ----------. y.Vidyarthiplus.) p q  z s 27.t.t. y.w. we get p 1 x  q 1 y py y qxx (i.r.w. www. we get s  f1( x) f 2( y)       (5) Diff.t. Sol. eqn.com 8 25.

Find the complete solution of the partial differential equation p  q  4 pq  0 2 2 Sol. Given p  q  4 pq  0 2 2 The solution of equation (1) is z  axb yc where a  b  4 a b  0 2 2  b2  4 a b  a2  0 4a  16a 2  4. www.(1) The complete integral of equation (1) is z  a x  b y  ab ab 32.Vidyarthiplus. we get x2 z  ay  b 2a which is the complete integral.(1) Let q = a Then equation (1) becomes pa  x x  p a Substitute p and q in the relation dz  p dx  q dy x dz  dx  a dy a Integrating . Given    pq pq q p z  p x  q y  p q pq ------------. Given pq  x -----------. 1 4a  12 a 2  2 4a  2a 3   a (2  3 ) 2 Hence the complete integral is z  a x  a (2  3 ) y  c 30.com 9 29.) z = px + qy + (3 – p – 2q) ----------.e.(1) The complete integral of equation (1) is z = ax + by + (3 – a – 2b) www. z x y 31. Solve the partial differential equation pq  x Sol. Given (1 – x)p + (2 – y)q = 3 – z (i.Vidyarthiplus.com .1. Find the complete integral of    pq pq q p z x y Sol. Sol. Find the complete integral of the partial differential equation (1 – x)p + (2 – y)q = 3 – z.a 2 b 2.

Find the singular solution of z  px  qy  p  pq  q 2 2 Sol.(1) 2 2 The complete integral of equation (1) is z  ax  by  a 2  b 2 -------------. in turn.e.Vidyarthiplus. www. we get 0  x  2a  b  2a  b   x       (3) and 0  y  a  2b  a  2b   y       (4) Solving (3) and (4) we get y  2x 3a  y  2 x  a  3 x  2y 3b  x  2 y  b  3 Substitute the values of a and b in equation (2) we have  y  2x   x  2 y   y  2x   y  2x   x  2 y   x  2 y  2 2 z  x   y        3   3   3   3  3   3  9 z  3 x( y  2 x)  3 y ( x  2 y )  ( y  2 x) 2  ( y  2 x)(x  2 y )  ( x  2 y ) 2 9 z  3xy  3x 2  3 y 2 (i.t. Given z  px  qy  p  pq  q ------------.com 10 33.(2) To find singular integral. ‘a’ and ‘b’. eqn.e.t.Vidyarthiplus. Diff. Diff. (2) p.w. (2) p.) 3 z  xy  x 2  y 2 34.) 4 z  y 2  x 2 www. in turn.(1) 2 2 The complete integral of equation (1) is z  ax  by  a 2  ab  b 2 -------------. eqn. Given z  px  qy  p  q ------------. Find the singular integral of the partial differential equation z  px  qy  p  q 2 2 Sol.r.r.com . ‘a’ and ‘b’.(2) To find singular integral. we get 0  x  2a x  a       (3) 2 0  y  2b y b       (4) 2 Substitute the values of a and b in equation (2) we have 2 2  x  y  x  y z  x   y          2  2  2  2 4 z  2 x 2  2 y 2  x 2  y 2 (i.w.

E. we have dx dy  xz  yz dx dy  x y Integrating. Solve: z ( x p  yq)  y  x 2 2 Sol.) x 2  y 2  z 2  c2 Hence the required solution is F ( x y. x 2  y 2  z 2 )  0 www.Vidyarthiplus.) x y  c1 x dx  y dy  z dz Each ratio  2 x z  y2 z  y2 z  x2 z  x dx  y dy  z dz  0 Integrating.e.e. A.com 11 PART -B 1. we get x2 y2 z 2    c2 2 2 2 (i. Solve: x( y  z ) p  y( z  x)q  z( x  y) Sol. E.com . x  y  z )  0 2. are dx dy dz   x ( y  z ) y ( z  x) z ( x  y ) dx dy dz   x y z Each ratio  yz zx x y dx dy dz    0 x y z Integrating we get log x  log y  log z  log c1  log( x y z )  log c1  x y z  c1 dx  dy  dz Each ratio  xy  xz  yz  yx  zx  zy  dx  dy  dz  0 Integrating we get x  y  z  c2 Hence the required solution is F ( xy z.Vidyarthiplus. A. are dx dy dz   2 x z  y z y  x2 Take 1st and 2nd ratio. we get log x   log y  log c1 log x  log y  log c1 (i. www.

A.) x 2  y 2  z 2  c2 Hence the required solution is F ( xyz. www.Vidyarthiplus. are dx dy dz   x ( y2  z 2 ) y (z 2  x2 ) z (x2  y2 ) dx dy dz   x y z Each ratio  2 y  z  z  x  x2  y2 2 2 2 dx dy dz    0 x y z Integrating we get log x  log y  log z  log c1  log( x y z )  log c1  x y z  c1 x dx  y dy  z dz Each ratio  x y  x z  y2 z 2  y2 x2  z 2 x2  z 2 y2 2 2 2 2  x dx  y dy  z dz  0 Integrating. we get x2 y2 z 2    c2 2 2 2 (i. Solve: (mz  ny) p  (nx  lz)q  ly  mx Sol.) x 2  y 2  z 2  c2 Hence the required solution is F (lx  my  nz.e.com 12 3. A. x 2  y 2  z 2 )  0 www. are dx dy dz   mz  ny nx  lz ly  mx ldx  mdy  ndz Each ratio  lmz  nly  mnx  lmz  nly  nmx  ldx  mdy  ndz  0 Integrating we get lx  my  nz  c1 x dx  y dy  z dz Each ratio  m z x  n xy  n xy  lyz  lyz  m z x  x dx  y dy  z dz  0 Integrating.com . x 2  y 2  z 2 )  0 4.e. E. Solve: x( y  z ) p  y ( z  x )q  z ( x  y ) 2 2 2 2 2 2 Sol.Vidyarthiplus. E. we get x2 y2 z 2    c2 2 2 2 (i.

e. we have d ( x y) dz  z( x 2  y 2 ) x 2  y 2  d ( xy )  z dz Integrating we get z2 xy   c2 2 2 xy  z 2  c2 Hence the required solution is F ( x 2  y 2  z 2 . E. are dx dy dz   x ( y 2  z) y ( x 2  z) z ( x 2  y 2 ) dx dy dz   x y z Each ratio  ( y  z)  ( x  z)  ( x 2  y 2 ) 2 2 dx dy dz    0 x y z Integrating we get log x  log y  log z  log c1  log( x z )  log y  log c1 xz  c1 (i.com .e.Vidyarthiplus. E.) y x dx  y dy  dz Each ratio  2 2 x y  x z  x2 y2  y2 z  x2 z  y2 z 2  x dx  y dy  dz  0 www. Solve: z ( x  y ) p  z ( x  y )q  x  y 2 2 Sol. A. are dx dy dz   2 z ( x  y) z ( x  y) x  y 2 x dx  y dy  z dz Each ratio  x z  xyz  xyz  y 2 z  x 2 z  y 2 z 2  x dx  y dy  z dz  0 Integrating.com 13 5. A.Vidyarthiplus. 2 xy  z 2 )  0 6. we get x2 y2 z 2    c1 2 2 2 (i. www.) x 2  y 2  z 2  c1 y dx  x dy d ( x y) Each ratio   xyz  y 2 z   x 2 z  xyz z ( x 2  y 2 ) Equate this to 3rd ratio. Solve: x( y  z ) p  y ( x  z )q  z ( x  y ) 2 2 2 2 Sol.

e. we have x dx  y dy dz  ( x  y )(x  y ) z ( x  y ) 2 2 xdx  ydy x dx  y dy dz I    x2  y2 x2  y2 z put x 2  y 2  t Integrating we get 2 xdx  2 ydy  dt 1 2( xdx  ydy)  dt log( x 2  y 2 )  log z  log c2 dt / 2 1 dt 2 I    t 2 t log( x 2  y 2 )  2 log z  log c2 1 1  log t  log( x 2  y 2 ) log( x 2  y 2 )  log z 2  log c2 2 2 x2  y2 (i. www. Solve: ( x  y  z ) p  2 xy q  2 z x 2 2 2 Sol. E. 2   0  z  8.) x 2  y 2  2 z  c2 Hence the required solution is xz  F  .Vidyarthiplus. Solve: ( x  y  y z ) p  ( x  y  x z )q  z ( x  y ) 2 2 2 2 Sol. x 2  y 2  2 z   0  y  7. we have dy dz  2x y 2 z x www. are dx dy dz   x 2  y 2  z 2 2 xy 2 z x Take 2nd and 3rd ratio. we get x  y  z  c1 x dx  y dy x dx  y dy Each ratio   x( x  y  y z )  y ( x  y  x z ) x( x  y 2 )  y ( x 2  y 2 ) 2 2 2 2 2 x dx  y dy  ( x  y )(x 2  y 2 ) Equate this to 3rd ratio.e. A. are dx dy dz  2  x  y  y z x  y  x z z ( x  y) 2 2 2 dx  dy  dz Each ratio  x2  y2  y z  x2  y2  x z  x z  y z  dx  dy  dz  0 Integrating.Vidyarthiplus. we get x2 y2   z  c2 2 2 (i.)  c2 z2 Hence the required solution is  x2  y2  F  x  y  z.com 14 Integrating. A. E.com .

)  c2 y Hence the required solution is  y x2  y2  z 2  F  .com .Vidyarthiplus.Vidyarthiplus.e. A. we have x dx  y dy  z dz dy  x( x 2  y 2  z 2 ) 2 xy x dx  y dy  z dz dy   I  xdx  ydy  zdz x2  y2  z 2 2y x2  y2  z2 Integrating we get put x 2  y 2  z 2  t 1 1 2 xdx  2 ydy  2 zdz  dt log( x 2  y 2  z 2 )  log y  log c2 2 2 2( xdx  ydy  zdz )  dt log( x 2  y 2  z 2 )  log y  log c2 I  dt / 2 1 dt   t 2 t log( x 2  y 2  z 2 )  log y  log c2 1 1  log t  log( x 2  y 2  z 2 ) x2  y2  z 2 2 2 (i.)  c1 z x dx  y dy  z dz Each ratio  x( x  y 2  z 2 )  2 y 2 x  2 z 2 x 2 x dx  y dy  z dz  3 x  y2x  z2x x dx  y dy  z dz  x( x 2  y 2  z 2 ) Equate this to 2nd ratio.com 15 dy dz  y z Integrating.e. are dx dy dz   3z  4 y 4 x  2 z 2 y  3x 2dx  3dy  4dz Each ratio  6 z  8 y  12 x  6 z  8 y  12 x  2dx  3dy  4dz  0 Integrating we get 2 x  3 y  4 z  c1 x dx  y dy  z dz Each ratio  3 z x  4 xy  4 xy  2 yz  2 yz  3 z x  x dx  y dy  z dz  0 www. we get log y  log z  log c1 log y  log z  log c1 y (i. www. E. Solve: (3z  4 y) p  (4 x  2 z )q  2 y  3x Sol.   0  z y  9.

are dx dy dz   x2  y z y2  z x z 2  x y dx  dy d ( x  y) Each ratio   2 ( x  y z )  ( y  z x) ( x  y 2 )  ( z x  y z ) 2 2 d ( x  y)  ( x  y )(x  y )  z ( x  y ) d ( x  y)  ( x  y )(x  y  z ) dy  dz d ( y  z) Each ratio   ( y 2  z x)  ( z 2  x y ) ( y 2  z 2 )  ( x y  z x) d ( y  z)  ( y  z )( y  z )  x( y  z ) d ( y  z)  ( y  z )( x  y  z ) d ( x  y) d ( y  z)   ( x  y )( x  y  z ) ( y  z )( x  y  z ) d ( x  y) d ( y  z )   ( x  y) ( y  z) Integrating we get log( x  y )  log( y  z )  log c1 x y (i. E.com .) x 2  y 2  z 2  c2 Hence the required solution is F (2 x  3 y  4 z.e.Vidyarthiplus. www. x 2  y 2  z 2 )  0 10. A.e.)  c1 yz dx  dy  dz d ( x  y  z) Each ratio  2  x  y2  z 2  x y  y z  z x x2  y2  z 2  x y  y z  z x x dx  y dy  z dz Also each ratio  3 x  y 3  z 3  3x y z x dx  y dy  z dz  ( x  y  z )(x 2  y 2  z 2  x y  y z  z x) d ( x  y  z) x dx  y dy  z dz  2  x  y 2  z 2  x y  y z  z x ( x  y  z )( x 2  y 2  z 2  x y  y z  z x) ( x  y  z ) d ( x  y  z )  x dx  y dy  z dz Integrating we get ( x  y  z)2 x 2 y 2 z 2     c2 2 2 2 2 www. Solve: ( x  y z ) p  ( y  z x) q  z  x y 2 2 2 Sol.com 16 Integrating. we get x2 y2 z 2    c2 2 2 2 (i.Vidyarthiplus.

Vidyarthiplus. A.t. is m2 + 2m + 1 = 0 [Put D = m and D′ = 1] (m + 1)(m + 1) = 0 m = –1.com 17 ( x  y  z ) 2  x 2  y 2  z 2  c2 x 2  y 2  z 2  2( x y  y z  z x)  x 2  y 2  z 2  c2 2( x y  y z  z x)  c2 (i.r. and Diff.I1 + P. 2 2  1   1  C. www.I1 = 2 ex y D  2 DD  D 2 1  2 ex y Since the denominator = 0.e. Solve: ( D  2 DD  D ) z  x y  e 2 2 2 x y Sol.I2  1   1  1 1 (i.E. Solve: (4 D  4 DD  D ) z  e 3x  2 y 2 2  sin x 2 Sol.com .F = f1  y  x   x f 2  y  x   2   2  1 P. A.F = f1 ( y  x)  x f 2 ( y  x) 1 P. –1 C. is 4m – 4m + 1 = 0 [Put D = m and D′ = 1] 2 4m – 2m – 2m + 1 = 0 2m(2m – 1) – 1(2m – 1) = 0 (2m – 1)(2m – 1) = 0 1 1 m= . w.I2 = sin( x  0 y) 4 D  4 DD  D 2 2 1  sin( x  0 y ) 4( 1)  0  0 1   sin x 4  z = C.Vidyarthiplus.e.) x y  y z  z x  c2 Hence the required solution is x y  F  .) z  f1  y  x   x f 2  y  x   e 3 x  2 y  sin x  2   2  64 4 12.I1 = e3x  2 y 4 D  4 DD  D 2 2 1  e3x  2 y 4(3)  4(3)( 2)  (2) 2 2 1  e3x  2 y 64 1 P. x y  y z  z x   0  yz  11. we have to (1)  2(1)(1)  (1) 2 multiply x on Nr.F + P.‘D’ x  ex y 2 D  2 D x2 x y  e 2 www. Dr.E.

www.F + P.I2 = x2 y D  2 DD  D 2 2 1  x2 y  2 DD  D 2 D 2 1    D2  1 1   2 DD  D 2   2 1   2  x2 y D   D  1   2 DD  D 2  2  2 1   2  x y D   D  1  2 D  2  1  D  x y D2 1  2 2 D 2   ( x y )  D ( x y ) D2  2 1 2 2    x y  ( x ) D2 D  1  2 x3   2 x2 y  D  3  1  x3 y 2x 4     D 3 12  x 4 y x5   12 30  z = C.e. m2 = 1 m= 1  m = 1.com .F = f1 ( y  x)  f 2 ( y  x)  x f 3 ( y  x) 1 P. –1 C.) z  f1 ( y  x)  x f 2 ( y  x)  e   2 12 30 13. A. –1.I2 x 2 x  y x 4 y x5 (i.Vidyarthiplus. Solve: ( D  D D  DD  D ) z  e 2x  y 3 2 2 3  cos(x  y ) Sol.I1 + P. is m3 + m2 – m – 1 = 0 [Put D = m and D′ = 1] 2 m (m + 1) –1(m + 1) = 0 (m + 1)(m2 – 1) = 0 m = –1.I2 = 3 cos(x  y) D  D 2 D  DD 2  D3 D3 = D2D D′3 = D′2D′ 1  cos(x  y) = (–1)D = (–1)D′  D  D  D  D =–D = – D′ www.com 18 1 P.E.I1 = 3 e2x  y D  D D  DD  D 2 2 3 1  e2x  y (2)  (2) (1)  (2)(1)  (1) 3 2 2 3 1  e2x  y 9 1 P.Vidyarthiplus.

F = e f1 ( y  x)  e f 2 ( y  x) x 2x 1 P. we have to 3D  2 DD  D 2 2 multiply x on Nr.) z  e x f1 ( y  x)  e 2 x f 2 ( y  x)  e  e  e 20 3 3 15. www.F + P.I1 + P.I3 = 4 e3x  2 y ( D  D  1)( D  D  2) 1 4 e3x  2 y (3  2  1)( 3  2  2) 1  e3x  2 y 3  z = C.F = f1 ( y  x)  f 2 ( y  2 x)  f 3 ( y  3x) www. –2. Solve: ( D  7 DD  6 D ) z  e 2x y 3 2 3  sin( x  2 y ) 3 Sol.com .e.E. –2  m = –1.I2 = 4 e0 x  4 y ( D  D  1)( D  D  2) 1 4 e0x  4 y (0  4  1)( 0  4  2) 2  e 4 y 3 1 P.I2 + P. is m – 7m – 6 = 0 [Put D = m and D′ = 1] m = –1 is a root –1 1 0 –7 –6 The other roots are 0 –1 1 6 m2 – m – 6 = 0 1 –1 –6 0 (m – 3)(m + 2) = 0 m = 3.e.Vidyarthiplus.‘D’ x  cos(x  y ) 3(1)  2(1)  (1) x   cos(x  y ) 4  z = C.com 19 x  cos(x  y ) Since the denominator = 0. w.F + P. A.r. 3 C.I2 1 2x  y x (i.I1 = e6 x  0 y ( D  D  1)( D  D  2) 1  e6x  0 y (6  0  1)( 6  0  2) 1 6x  e 20 1 P. and Diff.Vidyarthiplus. The given equation is non-homogeneous and it can be written as ( D  D  1)( D  D  2) z  e 6 x  4 e  4 y  4 e 3 x  2 y C. Solve: ( D  2 DD  D  3D  3D  2) z  (e  2 e ) 2 2 3x 2y 2 Sol. Dr.I1 + P.I3 1 6 x 2  4 y 1 3x  2 y (i.t.) z  f1 ( y  x)  f 2 ( y  x)  x f 3 ( y  x)  e  cos(x  y) 9 4 14.

F = f1 ( y  2 x)  f 2 ( y  x) 1 P.I2 1 2x  y 1 (i.I1 + P. www.Vidyarthiplus.com .) z  f1 ( y  x)  f 2 ( y  2 x)  f 3 ( y  3x)  e  cos(x  2 y) 12 75 2 z 2 z 2 z 16. 1 C.E. is m2 + m – 2 = 0 [Put D = m and D′ = 1] (m + 2)(m – 1) = 0 m = –2. The given equation can be written as ( D  DD  2 D ) z  sinh( x  y )  xy 2 2 A.I1 = e2x  y D  7 DD  6 D 3 2 3 1  e2x  y (2)  7(2)(1)  6(1) 3 2 3 1   e2x  y 12 1 P.com 20 1 P.F + P. Solve:   2 2  sinh(x  y)  xy  x 2  xy y (or) r  s  2t  sinh(x  y)  xy Sol.Vidyarthiplus.I2 = 3 sin( x  2 y ) D  7 DD 2  6 D3 D3 = D2D D′3 = D′2D′ 1 = (–1)D = (–4)D′  sin( x  2 y ) =–D = – 4D′  D  7 D(4)  6(4 D) 1  sin( x  2 y ) 27 D  24D  1  sin( x  2 y ) 3(9 D  8 D ) 9 D  8D  sin( x  2 y ) 3(9 D  8 D )(9 D  8 D) 9 D  8D  sin( x  2 y ) 3(81D 2  64D  2 ) 9 D  8D  sin( x  2 y ) 3[81(1)  64(4)] 9 D[sin(x  2 y )]  8 D [sin(x  2 y )]  525 1  [9 cos(x  2 y )  16 cos(x  2 y )] 525 1  [7 cos(x  2 y )] 525 1  cos(x  2 y ) 75  z = C.e.I1 = 2 sinh( x  y) D  DD  2 D 2 1  e x y  e  ( x y )  e x  e x  2 sinh x  D  DD  2 D 2  2   2 1  1 x y 1  xy   e  e 2  D  DD  2 D 2 2 D  DD  2 D 2 2  www.

t.I2 x x  y x  x  y x3 y x 4 (i. www.‘D’ 1 x x    e x y  e x  y  2 2 1  2 1  x x  e x y  e  x  y 6 6 1 P.E.Vidyarthiplus.I1 + P.F + P.I2 = 2 xy D  DD  2 D2 1  xy  D D   2 D  2  D 2 1    D2  1 1   DD   2 D  2    2 1   2  xy D   D  1   DD   2 D  2    1    xy D2   D 2  1  D   1  D  xy D2 1  D    ( xy )  ( xy ) D2 D  1  1    xy  ( x )  D2 D 1  x2    xy  2  D2   1  x2 y x3      D 2 6 x3 y x 4   6 24  z = C.r.Vidyarthiplus. The given equation can be written as ( D  5DD  6 D ) z  y sin x 2 2 A. Dr.e. is m2 – 5m + 6 = 0 [Put D = m and D′ = 1] (m – 2)(m – 3) = 0 m = 2.) z  f1 ( y  2 x)  f 2 ( y  x)  e  e   6 6 6 24 2 z 2 z 2 z 17.com .F = f1 ( y  2 x)  f 2 ( y  3x) www.com 21 1  1 x y 1  xy    2  (1) 2  (1)(1)  2(1) 2  e e (1) 2  (1)(1)  2(1) 2  1 x x    e x y  e x  y  2  2 D  D 2 D  D  Since the denominator = 0. and Diff. w. we have to multiply x on Nr. 3 C. Solve: 5  6 2  y sin x  x2  xy y Sol.

The given equation is non-homogeneous and it can be written as ( D  D)(D  D  3) z  xy  7 C.Vidyarthiplus.Vidyarthiplus.com . Solve: ( D  D  3D  3D) z  xy  7 2 2 Sol.I = y sin x D  5DD  6 D 2 2 1  y sin x ( D  2 D) ( D  3D) 1  1    y sin x  D  2 D   D  3D   1 D  2 D   (c  3 x) sin x dx where y = c – 3x  1 (c  3x)( cos x)  (3)( sin x) D  2 D 1  [ y cos x  3 sin x] D  2 D   [(c  2 x) cos x  3 sin x] dx where y = c – 2x   [ (c  2 x)(sin x)  (2)( cos x)]  3( cos x)   y sin x  2 cos x  3 cos x  5 cos x  y sin x  z = C.I = ( xy  7) ( D  D)( D  D  3) 1 1  ( xy  7) ( D  D )  D  D   31    3  1 1   D  D    1   3  ( xy  7) 3( D  D)    1   D  D   D  D  2   1      ( xy  7) 3( D  D)   3   3   1  D D 2 DD    1  3  3  9  ( xy  7) 3( D  D) 1  D D 2 DD     ( xy  7 )  ( xy  7 )  ( xy  7 )  ( xy  7) 3( D  D)  3 3 9  1 y x 2   xy  7  3  3  9  3( D  D) 1  y x 65    xy      D  3D 1    3 3 9  D www.) z  f1 ( y  2 x)  f 2 ( y  3x)  5 cos x  y sin x 18.I (i. www.F + P.e.com 22 1 P.F = e f1 ( y  x)  e f 2 ( y  x) 0x 3x  f1 ( y  x )  e 3 x f 2 ( y  x ) 1 P.

) z  e  x f1 ( y  x)  xe  x f 2 ( y  x)  e 2 x y 16 20. www.E.com . A.I1 = 2 x D  3DD  4 D 2 1  x  3 DD   4 D  2  D 2 1    D2  1 1   3DD  4 D2   2 1   2  x D   D  www.e. Solve: ( D  D  2 DD  2 D  2 D  1) z  e 2 2 2 x y Sol.com 23 1  1  D   y x 65   1  xy    3D  D   3 3 9   1  D   y x 65   1  xy    3D  D   3 3 9   1  y x 65  D  y x 65    xy       xy     3D  3 3 9  D 3 3 9   1  y x 65  1  1    xy       x   3D  3 3 9  D 3   1  y x 65   x 2 x    xy         3D  3 3 9   2 3   1  x 2 y xy x 2 65 x x 3 x 2          3  2 3 6 9 6 6  1  x 2 y x 3 xy x 2 65 x         3  2 6 3 3 9   z = C.F + P. Solve: ( D  3DD  4 D ) z  x  sin y 2 2 Sol.F = f1 ( y  x)  f 2 ( y  4 x) 1 P.e.I 1 (i.Vidyarthiplus. – 4 C.F + P.) z  f1 ( y  x)  e f 2 ( y  x)   3x     3 2 6 3 3 9  19.I 1  x 2 y x 3 xy x 2 65x  (i. is m2 + 3m – 4 = 0 [Put D = m and D′ = 1] (m – 1)(m + 4) = 0 m = 1.Vidyarthiplus.I = 2 e2x  y D  D  2 DD  2 D  2 D  1 2 1  e2x  y (2)  (1)  2( 2)(1)  2(2)  2(1)  1 2 2 1  e2x  y 16  z = C.F = e f1 ( y  x)  xe f 2 ( y  x) 1 P. The given equation is non-homogeneous and it can be written as ( D  D  1)( D  D  1) z  e 2 x y x x C.

Given z  y  2 f   log y  -----------------. www. Eliminate the arbitrary function ‘f ’ from the relation z  y  2 f   log y  2 x  1  Sol.w.e.I2 = sin(0 x  y ) D  3DD  4 D 2 2 1  sin(0 x  y ) 0  0  4(1) 1  sin y 4  z = C.e.I1 + P.w.(1) Diff.com 24 1   3DD  4 D 2   2 1   2  x D   D   1 x  0 D2 1  x2     D2 x3  6 1 P. we get 2 x  0  2 z p   ( x  y  z ) (1  0  p) 2 x  2 z p   ( x  y  z ) (1  p)        (2) Diff.r.) ( y  z ) p  ( z  x) q  x  y 1  22. we get 1   1 p  0  2 f    log y   2         (2) x  x  www.F + P. x  y  z )  0 2 2 2 Sol. equation (1) p. x  y  z )  0 can also be written as 2 2 2 x 2  y 2  z 2   ( x  y  z ) ------------. we have 2 x  2 z p  ( x  y  z ) (1  p)  2 y  2 z q  ( x  y  z ) (1  q) x  z p (1  p)  y  z q (1  q) ( x  zp )(1  q)  ( y  zq )(1  p) x xq  z p  z pq  y  y p  zq  z pq (i.to y. equation (1) p.to x.(1) 2 x  Diff.to x.Vidyarthiplus. we get 0  2 y  2 z q   ( x  y  z ) (0  1  q) 2 y  2 z q   ( x  y  z ) (1  q)        (3) Dividing (2) by (3).I2 x3 1 (i.r. Eliminate the arbitrary function ‘f ’ from the relation f ( x  y  z .w. equation (1) p.) z  f1 ( y  x)  f 2 ( y  4 x)   sin y 6 4 21.r. The given relation f ( x  y  z .com .Vidyarthiplus.

we get 2z s   f ( x  y )  ( x  y )  f ( x  y )  ( x  y )  f ( x  y )  ( x  y ) xy  f ( x  y )  ( x  y ) s   f ( x  y )  ( x  y )  f ( x  y )  ( x  y )            (5) Diff.r. we get 2z t  2  f ( x  y )  ( x  y )  f ( x  y )  ( x  y )  f ( x  y )  ( x  y ) y  f ( x  y )  ( x  y ) t  f ( x  y ) ( x  y )  2 f ( x  y )  ( x  y )  f ( x  y )  ( x  y )        (6) www. we get 2 z r  2  f ( x  y )  ( x  y )  f ( x  y )  ( x  y )  f ( x  y )  ( x  y ) x  f ( x  y )  ( x  y ) r  f ( x  y )  ( x  y )  2 f ( x  y )  ( x  y )  f ( x  y )  ( x  y )        (4) Diff.to y.w.r. equation (3) p.e.r.r.(1) Diff. equation (2) p. www.w.Vidyarthiplus. equation (1) p.Vidyarthiplus. equation (1) p. equation (2) p.com .w.to y. we get z p  f ( x  y)  ( x  y)  f ( x  y)  ( x  y)        (2) x Diff.to y.w.w. we get z q  f ( x  y )  ( x  y )(1)  f ( x  y )  ( x  y ) y q   f ( x  y )  ( x  y )  f ( x  y )  ( x  y )        (3) Diff.w. equation (1) p.) x 2 p  y q  2 y 2 23.to y.r. Given z  f ( x  y)  ( x  y) -----------.to x. we get 1  1  q  2 y  2 f    log y    x  y  1  1  q  2 y  2 f    log y           (3) x  y  Dividing (2) by (3). Eliminate the arbitrary function ‘f ’ and ‘  ’ from the relation z  f ( x  y)  ( x  y) Sol.r.to x. we have 1   1 2 f    log y   2  p  x  x  q  2y 1  1  2 f    log y    x  y  p  1/ x2  q  2y 1/ y p y  2 q  2y x x 2 p   y (q  2 y ) (i.com 25 Diff.

) z  p x  q y  k p 2  q 2  1 25. Solve: ( D  D ) z  e sin(2 x  3 y ) 2 2 x y Sol. we get ac p 0  a   c p        ( 2) Diff.r.) p 2  q 2  4 z f ( x  y)  ( x  y ) -------------.e.t.com .e. (1) p.I = 2 e x  y sin(2 x  3 y) D  D 2 1  ex y sin(2 x  3 y ) ( D  1) 2  ( D  1) 2 1  ex y sin(2 x  3 y ) D  2 D  1  D 2  2 D  1 2 1  ex y sin(2 x  3 y ) D  2 D  D 2  2 D 2 1  ex y sin(2 x  3 y )  4  2 D  ( 9 )  2 D  1  ex y sin(2 x  3 y ) 2( D  D)  5 [2( D  D)  5]  ex y sin(2 x  3 y ) [2( D  D)  5][2( D  D)  5] [2( D  D)  5]  ex y sin(2 x  3 y ) 4( D  D) 2  25 www. The equation of the plane having constant distance ‘k’ from the origin is a x  b y  c z  k a 2  b 2  c 2  0 -----------------. is m2 – 1 = 0 [Put D = m and D′ = 1] 2 m =1  m= 1 C.(1) Diff. x.com 26 (2) + (3)  p  q  2 f ( x  y)  ( x  y) (2) – (3)  p  q  2 f ( x  y)  ( x  y)  ( p  q)( p  q)  4 f ( x  y)  ( x  y) f ( x  y)  ( x  y) (i. A. eqn.t. y. www.w.r. eqn.E. we get b  cq  0  b   c q        (3) Substitute (2) and (3) in equation (1).(7) (4) – (6)  r  t  4 f ( x  y) ( x  y)  (7)  p 2  q 2  z (r  t ) 24. (1) p. Sol.Vidyarthiplus.F = f1 ( y  x)  f 2 ( y  x) 1 P. Find the PDE of all planes which are at a constant distance ‘k’ from the origin.w. we have  c p x  c q y  c z  k c2 p2  c2q2  c2  0  p x  q y  z  k p2  q2 1  0 (i.Vidyarthiplus.

Vidyarthiplus.I = xe y 2 D  DD  D  6 D  3D 2 2 1 ey x 2 D  D( D  1)  ( D  1) 2  6 D  3( D  1) 2 1 ey x 2 D  DD  D  D  2 D  1  6 D  3D  3 2 2 1 ey x 2  2 D 2  DD  D 2  5 D  D 1 ey x  2 D 2  DD  D 2  5 D  D  2 1    2  1 ey  2 D 2  DD  D 2  5 D  D   1   x 2  2  e y   2 D 2  DD  D 2  5 D  D   1    x 2   2  www.e. m1  1 2  1  3 x C.F + P. m1   .Vidyarthiplus.  2  3. Solve: (2 D  DD  D  6 D  3D) z  x e 2 2 y Sol. www.I ex y (i. Given (2 D  DD  D  6 D  3D) z  x e 2 2 y (2 D  D)( D  D  3) z  x e y 1 Here  1  0.) z  f1 ( y  x)  f 2 ( y  x)  [sin( 2 x  3 y )  2 cos(2 x  3 y )] 25 26.com 27 [2( D  D)  5]  ex y sin(2 x  3 y ) 4( D  2 DD  D 2 )  25 2 [2( D  D )  5]  ex y sin(2 x  3 y ) 4[(4)  2(6)  (9)]  25 [2( D  D )  5]  ex y sin(2 x  3 y )  125 2 D[sin(2 x  3 y )]  2 D[sin(2 x  3 y )]  5 sin(2 x  3 y )  ex y  125 x y e  [4 cos(2 x  3 y )  6 cos(2 x  3 y )  5 sin(2 x  3 y )] 125 ex y  [10 cos(2 x  3 y )  5 sin(2 x  3 y )] 125 ex y  [sin(2 x  3 y )  2 cos(2 x  3 y )] 25  z = C.com .F = e f1  y  x   e f 2 ( y  x) 0x  2   1  3 x = f1  y  x   e f 2 ( y  x )  2  1 P.

Vidyarthiplus.F = e f1 ( y  x)  e f 2 ( y  2 x) 0x 2 x = f1 ( y  x )  e f 2 ( y  2 x ) 1 P. m1  2 2 x C.e.I1 = 2 ( x  y) D  3DD  2 D 2  2 D  2 D 1  ( x  y) ( D  D)(D  2 D  2) 1  ( x  y)  D   D  2 D  D1   21    D  2  1 1 1  D   D  2 D   1   1   ( x  y) 2D  D  2  D    D  2 D   D  2 D   2 1   1   1      ( x  y) 2D  D    2   2   1  1 D   D D2     2 2D D  1  2  D  4  DD ( x  y )   1  1 1 D D D D D        D  2   ( x  y) 2 D 2 D 4 D 2 D 4  1  1 1 D  D D  3D          ( x  y) 2  D 2 2D 4 D 2 4  11 x  y D( x  y ) D ( x  y ) D( x  y ) 3D( x  y )    ( x  y)       2 D 2 2D 4 D2 4 1  x2 x y x 1 x2 3    xy      2 2 2 2 2 4 2 4  1 2 y 1  x  x y   2  2 2  www.com 28 ey  5D    x  2 ( x) 2 ey  5   x  2 2  ey  (2 x  5) 4  z = C. m1  1. Solve: ( D  3DD  2 D  2 D  2 D) z  x  y  sin(2 x  y ) 2 2 Sol.) z  f1  y  x   e  3 x f 2 ( y  x)  (2 x  5)  2  4 27. Given ( D  3DD  2 D  2 D  2 D) z  x  y  sin(2 x  y ) 2 2 ( D  D)(D  2D  2) z  x  y  sin(2 x  y) Here 1  0.com .F + P. www.Vidyarthiplus.  2  2.I  1  y e (i.

I2 = sin(2 x  y) D  3DD  2 D 2  2 D  2 D 2 1  sin(2 x  y )  4  3( 2)  2(1)  2 D  2 D  1  sin(2 x  y ) 2 D  2 D 2 D  2 D  sin(2 x  y ) (2 D  2 D)(2 D  2 D) 2 D  2 D  sin(2 x  y ) 4 D 2  4 D 2 2 D  2 D  sin(2 x  y ) 4(4)  4(1) 2 D[sin(2 x  y )]  2 D[sin(2 x  y )]   12 1   [4 cos(2 x  y )  2 cos(2 x  y )] 12 1   [6 cos(2 x  y )] 12 1   cos(2 x  y ) 2  z = C. –2. 2 C.r.) z  f1 ( y  x)  f 2 ( y  2 x)  f 3 ( y  2 x)  cos(2 x  y) 12 www.F = f1 ( y  x)  f 2 ( y  2 x)  f 3 ( y  2 x) 1 P.Vidyarthiplus.I2 1 y 1 1 (i.Vidyarthiplus.com .) z  f1 ( y  x)  e 2 x f 2 ( y  2 x)   x 2  x y     cos(2 x  y ) 2 2 2 2 28.e.I x (i.E. www. A. is m3 + m2 – 4m – 4 = 0 [Put D = m and D′ = 1] 2 m (m + 1) – 4(m + 1) = 0 (m + 1)(m2 – 4) = 0 m = –1.‘D’  cos(2 x  y ) 3D  2 DD  4 D 2 2 x  cos(2 x  y ) 3(4)  2(2)  4(1) x   cos(2 x  y ) 12  z = C. Dr. m2 = 4 m=  2  m = –1.e. Solve: ( D  D D  4 DD  4 D ) z  cos(2 x  y ) 3 2 2 3 Sol.F + P.I = 3 cos(2 x  y ) D  D D  4 DD 2  4 D3 2 1  cos(2 x  y )  4 D  4 D  4 D  4 D Since the denominator = 0.F + P.I1 + P.com 29 1 P. w. we have to x multiply x on Nr. and Diff.t.

Vidyarthiplus. (2) p.(1) 2 2 The complete integral of equation (1) is z  ax  by  a 2b 2 ------------------. Given z  px  qy  2 pq ------------.e.com .(1) The complete integral of equation (1) is z  a x  b y  2 a b ------------. we get 0 = x + 2ab2  x = – 2ab2 --------. eqn.r. Given z  px  qy  p q ------------.2{ f (a)} f (a)  { f (a)}2 . (2) p. eqn.t. multiplying (3) and (4).(3) and 0 = y + 2a2b  y = – 2a2b --------.(7) 2 2 Diff. we get a x + by + 4a2b2 = 0 (a x + by + a2b2) + 3a2b2 = 0 (i. in turn. Diff.) z = – 3(ab)2 -------------.w.t.w. we get x y = 4a3b3 xy  ( a b) 3  4 1/ 3 xy  ab         (6)  4  Substitute (6) in equation (5) we have 2/3 xy z   3   4  2 xy z   27  3   4  (i. Solve: z  px  qy  p q 2 2 Sol. ‘a’. in turn.r.(4) Multiplying (3) × a + (4) × b. we get 2 0 x (b) 2 ab b  x       (3) a 2 and 0  y  (a) 2 ab a y       (4) b Multiplying (3) and (4) we get x y=1. 30. (7) p. Find the singular integral of z  px  qy  2 pq Sol. eqn.2a         (8) The eliminant of ‘a’ between equations (7) and (8) gives the general integral.(2) To find singular integral. ‘a’ and ‘b’.(5) Now.Vidyarthiplus.com 30 29.) 16 z 3  27 x 2 y 2  0 To find general integral.t.r.w.e. Diff. ‘a’ and ‘b’. www. we get 0  x  f (a) y  a 2 . which is the singular integral. assume b = f(a) Then equation (2) becomes z  a x  f (a) y  a { f (a)} -------------. www.(2) To find singular integral.

we get 1 0  x  f (a) y  [2a  2 f (a).(1) 2 2 The complete integral of equation (1) is z  ax  by  1  a 2  b 2 ------------.com 31 31. ‘a’. eqn. we get 1 0 x ( 2a ) 2 1 a  b 2 2 a  x        (3) 1 a  b 2 2 1 and 0  y  (2b) 2 1  a2  b2 b  y        (4) 1 a  b 2 2 Substitute (3) and (4) in equation (1). (6) p. in turn.(2) To find singular integral. eqn. (2) p.t.(6) 2 2 Diff.r.e.e. f (a).w.Vidyarthiplus. www.) x 2  y 2  z 2  1 which is the singular integral.w. ‘a’ and ‘b’.t. we get a2 b2 z   1  a2  b2 1  a2  b2 1  a2  b2  a2  b2  1  a2  b2  1  a2  b2 1  1  a2  b2 1 (i. assume b = f(a) Then equation (2) becomes z  a x  f (a) y  1  a  { f (a)} -------------.com . Diff. Given z  px  qy  1  p  q ------------------. Solve: z  px  qy  1  p  q 2 2 Sol. we have a2 b2 x y  2 2  1  a2  b2 1  a2  b2 (1  a 2  b 2 )  1  1  a2  b2 1 1 1  a2  b2 x2  y2  1  z2 [ u sin g (5) ] (i. To find general integral.1]         (7) 2 1  a  { f (a)} 2 2 The eliminant of ‘a’ between equations (6) and (7) gives the general integral.Vidyarthiplus. www.) z 2        (5) 1  a2  b2 Squaring and adding (3) and (4).r.

(2) p.   q  Sol. Diff.e. Given z  px  qy    p  ------------------.com . ‘a’ and ‘b’. www. q  a p  a z 1  a   a   a z 1 www.(1) p  The complete integral of equation (1) is b  z  ax  by    a  ------------. we get b x 1  2  1     y  x 1  b y2 x 1 b       (5) y2 Substitute (4) and (5) in equation (1).(2) a  To find singular integral.(1) Let q = ap Then equation (1) becomes p(1 + ap) = ap z 1 + ap = az a z 1  p a Now. Given p (1  q )  qz --------------.Vidyarthiplus.Vidyarthiplus.com 32 q  32.) y z  1  x which is the singular integral.t. we get b 0  x  2 1 a b  x 1  2       (3) a 1 and 0  y  a 1 1  y   a         ( 4) a y Substitute (4) in (3) .w. eqn. we have x  x  1   ( x  1) 1  z    y 2       y  y   y y  x  x  1  ( x  1)  1 z y (i. in turn. find the complete and singular solutions. Solve: p (1  q )  qz Sol.r. For the equation z  px  qy   p  p  . 33.

assume b = f(a) Then equation (2) becomes log(a z  1)  x  a y  f (a) -------------.t.com . To find singular integral. (2) p. ‘a’ and ‘b’.Vidyarthiplus. we get a y a z 1 and 0  1 The last equation is absurd and shows that there is no singular integral. Diff. www. (2) p. To find singular integral. eqn. eqn. we get x x  2a a2 1 1  x  0    2   sinh    .t. Diff.w.r.com 33 Substitute p and q in the relation dz = p dx + q dy a z 1 dz  d x  (a z  1) d y a dz dx  d y a z 1 a Integrating .e.(a)  2 2 y 2  a 2 2 ( x / a) 2  1  a 2  a  and 0  1 The last equation is absurd and shows that there is no singular integral.w.(a )  2 x  a 2 2 2 2 1  ( x / a)  2 a   a    y (2a)  y  a2 1 1  y       cosh  .Vidyarthiplus. we get a  y  f (a)         (4) a z 1 The eliminant of ‘a’ between equations (3) and (4) gives the general integral.t. ‘a’. in turn.w. Given p2 + q2 = x2 + y2  p2  x2  y2  q2 Let p  x  a  p   x2  a2 2 2 2 Also y  q  a  q   y  a 2 2 2 2 2 Substitute p and q in the relation dz = p dx + q dy dz   x 2  a 2 dx  y 2  a 2 dy Integrating we get x 2 a2 1  x   y a2  y  z  x  a  sinh     2 y  a  cosh1    b     (2) 2 2 2 2  a   2 2  a  which is the complete integral. we get log( a z  1) x   yb a a (i.r. in turn.r. Solve: p  q  x  y 2 2 2 2 Sol. To find general integral.(3) Diff. (3) p. www. 34.) log( a z  1)  x  a y  b       (2) which is the complete integral. ‘a’ and ‘b’. eqn.

assume b = f(a) Then equation (2) becomes x 2 a2 1  x   y a2  y  z    x  a  sinh     2 y  a  cosh1    f (a) -------. Put X  log x .w. 35.com 34 To find general integral. ‘a’.(a )  2 x  a 2 2 2 2 1  ( x / a) 2  a   a    y (2a )  y  a2 1 1  y     2   cosh  .r. Find the complete solution of pqxy  z 2 Given ( x p) ( y q)  z ---------.Vidyarthiplus.(1) 2 Sol. x X x z 1  X x z  xp X z (i. we get x x  2a a2 1 1  x  0    2   sinh   .(3) 2 2 2 2  a   2 2  a  Diff. (3) p.(a )  f  (a )    (4)  2 y  a 2 2 2 2 ( x / a)  1  a  2 a  The eliminant of ‘a’ between equations (3) and (4) gives the general integral.(2) Let Q = aP Then equation (2) becomes P.  y Y  y z 1  Y y z  yq  Y z (i. www.aP  z 2 z P a Now.com . Y  log y z z X p  .) x p  P where P  X  z  z Y q  .Vidyarthiplus.) y q  Q where Q  Y Equation (1) becomes P Q  z 2 ---------.t.e.e. eqn. Q  a P  z   a   a   a z Substitute P and Q in the relation dz = P dX + Q dY z dz  d X  a zdY a www.

in turn.Vidyarthiplus. Diff.) P 2  Q 2  4 ( x  y )  P2  4 x  4 y  Q2 Let P  4 x  a  P   4x  a 2 Also 4 y  Q  a  Q   4 y  a 2 Substitute p and q in the relation dz = p dx + q dy dz   4 x  a dx  4 y  a dy Integrating we get (4 x  a) 3 / 2 (4 y  a) 3 / 2 z  b 4(3 / 2) 4(3 / 2) (4 x  a) 3 / 2 (4 y  a) 3 / 2 z   b       (2) 6 6 which is the complete integral.t. Solve: z ( p  q )  x  y 2 2 2 Sol. 36. www. eqn.(1) 2 2 1 1 Put Z  z  z 2 Z z  2z x x P Z   z p where P  2 x Z z  2z y y Q Z   z q where Q  2 y Equation (1) becomes 2 2  P Q      x y 2 2 (i.com 35 dz a  d X a dY z Integrating . www.) a log z  log x  a log y  b which is the complete solution.r.w.w.t. (3) p. ‘a’ and ‘b’. ‘a’. Given ( z p)  ( z q)  x  y ----------.r. assume b = f(a) Then equation (2) becomes (4 x  a) 3 / 2 (4 y  a) 3 / 2 z   f (a) -------------. (2) p. we get 1 1 0   (4 x  a)1 / 2  (4 y  a)1/ 2 4 4 and 0  1 The last equation is absurd and shows that there is no singular integral.Vidyarthiplus. we get a log z  X  aY  b (i. To find singular integral. To find general integral.(3) 6 6 Diff. we get 1 1 0   (4 x  a)1 / 2  (4 y  a)1/ 2  f (a)      (4) 4 4 The eliminant of ‘a’ between equations (3) and (4) gives the general integral.com .e. eqn.e.

F [ x 2  y 2  z 2 . Solve: ( y  z ) p  ( z  x)q  ( x  y) 8.Vidyarthiplus. z  f1 ( y  x)  f 2 ( y  x)  [ 4 cos(2 x  y )  3 sin(2 x  y )] 50 ex  y 4. www. x y  z ]  0 yz  1 1 1  9.Vidyarthiplus. Eliminate the arbitrary function ‘ф’ from the relation  ( x  y  z . x 2  y 2  z 2   0 10 . z  f1 ( y  x)  x f 2 ( y  x)  sinh( x  y )  e x  2 y 4 9 1 2. z  f1 ( y  x)  f 2 ( y  x)  [ sin( x  2 y )  2 cos(x  2 y )] 15    5. Solve: ( D  D ) z  e sin( x  2 y ) 2 2 x y 5. Solve: ( y  xz ) p  ( yz  x ) q  ( x  y )( x  y ) 9. xyz )  0 2 2 2 14. z  f1 ( y  x)  e 2 x f 2 ( y  x)  [2 cos(x  2 y)  3 sin( x  2 y)] 39 x 2 y e 3. Find the general solution of p  xzq  y 2 x 11.com 36 Problems for practice 1. z  f1 y  (2  2 ) x  f 2 y  (2  2 ) x  e  x y  x2 2 1 1 6. Solve: ( D  D ) z  e x2 y 2 2 sin(2 x  y ) 4. Form the partial differential equation by eliminating arbitrary function f and ф from z  f ( x  ct )   ( x  ct ) 13. Solve: ( D  7 DD  6 D ) z  e 2x y 3 2 3  sin( x  2 y) 7.com . Form the partial differential equation by eliminating the arbitrary function ‘g’ from the relation g ( x  y  z . x 2  z 2 ]  0 x y z  11. r  4(s  t ) www. F    . Solve: ( D  4 DD  2 D ) z  e x y 2 2 1 6. ( y 2  z 2 ) p x  ( z 2  x 2 ) q y  ( x 2  y 2 ) z 14. T  c 2 r 13 . Solve: ( D  2 DD  D ) z  sinh( x  y )  e 2 2 x2y 2. F [ x 3  y 3 . (b z  c y) p  (c x  a z) q  a y  b x 12 . ax  by  cz )  0 2 2 2 12. ( x  y  z)(x  y) 2   0 8. Solve: ( D  2 DD  D  2 D  2 D) z  sin( x  2 y ) 2 2 3. z  f1 ( y  x)  f 2 ( y  2 x)  f 3 ( y  3x)  e 2 x  y  cos(x  2 y) 12 75 x  y  7. Solve: x ( y  z ) p  y ( z  x)q  z ( x  y ) 2 2 2 y2z 10. Form the partial differential equation by eliminating arbitrary functions ‘f’ and ‘g’ from z  xf ( 2 x  y )  g ( 2 x  y ) Answers 1 1 1. F  .