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conical tank identification with deadbeat controller

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1.Introduction

The control of nonlinear systems has been a significant research topic and many approaches have

been proposed. In most of the process industries controlling of level, flow, temperature and

pressure is an exigent one. They may be classified as linear and non-linear processes based on the

plant dynamics. Control of industrial processes is a challenging task for several reasons due to

their nonlinear behavior, uncertain and time varying parameters, constraints on manipulated

variable, interaction between manipulated and controlled variables, unmeasured and frequent

disturbances, dead time on input and measurements. The control of liquid level in tanks and flow

between the tanks is a basic crisis in process industries. In level control process, the tank systems

like cylindrical, cubical are linear one, but that type of tanks does not provides a complete drainage.

For complete drainage of fluids, a conical tank is used in some of the process industries, where its

nonlinearity might be at the bottom only in the case of conical bottom tank. The drainage

efficiency can be improved further if the tank is fully conical in shape. In many processes such as

distillation columns, evaporators, re-boilers and mixing tanks, the particular level of liquid in the

vessel is of great significance in process operation. A level that is too high may upset reaction

equilibrium, cause damage to equipment or result in spillage of valuable or hazardous material. If

the level is too low it may have bad consequences for the sequential operations. So control of liquid

level is an important and frequent task in process industries. Level of liquid is desired to

maintain at a constant value. This is achieved by controlling the input flow. The control variable

is the level in a tank and the manipulated variable is the inflow to the tank. Conical tanks find wide

applications in process industries, namely hydrometallurgical industries, food process industries,

concrete mixing industries and wastewater treatment industries.

The control of fluid level in tanks is an essential issues in process industries. The nonlinear system

show numerous testing control issues because of their nonlinear vibrant deeds and time changing

constraint. The conical tank shows its nonlinearity because of its shape. Design a controller for a

nonlinear process is perplexing and excessively hard to implement it. The principle assignment of

the controller configuration is to accomplish the preferred working conditions and to design the

controller to attain its optimum execution performance. There is a necessitate to control a Level

due to the fact that if the level is excessively high may annoy its reaction equilibrium of the entire

1

methodology which may cause harm to equipment, or bring out spillage of profitable or risky

material from the process. If the event that the level is excessively low, it may have terrible results

for the sequential operation completed by the process. Henceforth, control of fluid level is a

paramount and common chore in the methodology of process industries. Nonlinear models are

utilized where precision over a more extensive range of operation is obliged where they can be

specifically incorporated into control algorithms. Due to the innate nonlinearity most of the

chemical process industries are in need of innovative control techniques. The nonlinearity is

because of its change in shape. Their shape assures optimal rousing and mixing of ingredients and

provides a fast and hygienic cleaning. The flexibility of the digital computer, digital control

algorithms need not be restricted to discrete versions of analog designs. In particular, it is possible

to formulate controllers that, under ideal conditions, will produce desired closed loop response.

Basically, digital controllers are focused based on its process models, which will have very few

special cases, the design start with the determination of some desired closed loop properties.

Distinctive controllers of diverse complexities will result depending upon the criterion and the

form of the process model.

II.PROPOSED WORK

EXPERIMENTAL SETUP

The system used is a conical tank and is highly nonlinear due to the variation in area of cross

section. The controlling variable is inflow of the tank. The controlled variable is level of the

conical tank. Level sensor is used to sense the level in the process tank and fed into the signal

conditioning unit and the required signal is used for further processing.

The level process station used to perform the experiments and to collect the data. One of the

computer used as a controller. It consists of the software which is used to control the level process

station. The Fig 2 consists of a process tank, reservoir tank, control valve, I to P converter, level

sensor and pneumatic signals from the compressor. When the setup is switched on, level sensor

senses the actual level, initially the signal is converted to current signal in the range between 4 to

20mA. This signal is then given to the computer through data acquisition cord. Based on the

controller parameters and the set point value, the computer will take consequent control action

and the signal is sent to the I/P converter.

2

Then the signal is converted to pressure signal using I to P converter and the pressure signal acts

on a control valve which controls the inlet flow of water in to the tank. Capacitive type level sensor

is used to senses the level from the process and converts into electrical signal. Then the electrical

signal is fed to the I/V converter which in turn produces corresponding voltage signal to the

computer. The actual water level storage tank sensed by the level transmitter is feedback to the

level controller & compared with a desired level to produce the required control action that will

position the level control as needed to maintain the desired level. Now the controller decides the

control action & it is given to the V/I converter and then to I/P converter. The final control element

(pneumatic control valve) is now controlled by the resulting air pressure. This in turn control the

inflow to the conical tank & the level is maintained. The tank is made up of stainless steel body

and is mounted over a stand vertically. Water enters the tank from the top and leaves the bottom

to the storage tank. The System specifications of the tank are as follows chapter.

3

III. Mathematical Modelling

The mathematical model of the conical tank is deciding by considering two assumptions

(ii) Inflow to the tank as the manipulated variable. This is accomplished by controlling the

input flow into the tank. The Figure 1 shows the schematic diagram of the conical tank

system.

The Conical tank as shown in Fig. 1 represents a nonlinear process which can be described by the

following equation

𝑞𝐼

D

R

𝑞𝑂 = 𝐶𝐷 ℎ

𝑑𝑣

𝜌𝑞𝐼 + 𝜌𝑞𝑂 = 𝜌 𝑑𝑡 (1)

Volume at level h

ℎ𝜋𝑑 2 𝜋ℎ 𝐷ℎ 2

𝑣= = ( ) = 𝐾 ′′ ℎ3

12 12 𝐻

Then

ℎ 𝑑(ℎ3 )

𝑞𝐼 + = 𝐾 ′′

𝑅 𝑑𝑡

4

At steady state the above equation becomes

ℎ𝑠 𝑑(ℎ𝑠3 )

𝑞𝐼𝑠 + = 𝐾 ′′

𝑅 𝑑𝑡

Introducing the non-linearity in resistance and apply taylor’s expansion

𝐶 𝑑(ℎ−ℎ𝑠 )

(𝑞𝐼 − 𝑞𝐼𝑠 ) + 2 𝐷ℎ (ℎ − ℎ𝑠 ) = 3ℎ𝑠2 𝐾 ′′ (2)

𝑑𝑡

𝐶 𝑑𝐻

𝑄𝐼 + 2 𝐷ℎ 𝐻 = 3ℎ𝑠2 𝐾 ′′ (3)

𝑑𝑡

2√ℎ𝑠

𝐻(𝑠) 𝐶𝑑 𝐾

= =

𝑄𝐼 (𝑠) ℎ2 𝜋𝐷2 2√ℎ 𝜏𝑠 + 1

( 𝑠 2 ) ( 𝐶 𝑠) 𝑠 + 1

4𝐻 𝑑

Table 1: Transfer models of Conical tank at different operating point and IMC PI values

0.604724 0.378986

M1 = 364.0369𝑠+1 3.307292 364.0369 M7 = 57.0362𝑠+1 5.277247 57.0362

0.580019 0.326023

M2 = 293.3955𝑠+1 3.44816 293.3955 M8 = 34.0733𝑠+1 6.134529 34.0733

0.549444 0.299588

M3 = 229.6938𝑠+1 3.64004 229.6938 M9 = 20.03875𝑠+1 6.675824 20.03875

0.505294 0.24537

M4 = 171.1019𝑠+1 3.958091 171.1019 M10 = 9.231879𝑠+1 8.150943 9.231879

0.437148 0.185185

M5 = 116.959𝑠+1 4.575114 116.959 M11 = 3.096647𝑠+1 10.8 3.096647

0.415051 0.11111

M6 = 85.02027𝑠+1 4.818691 85.02027 M12 = 0.464497𝑠+1 18 0.464497

5

Table 2: Minimized model by using gap metric (Metric value 0.1)

Transfer Models Kp Ti

0.549444

M3 = 229.6938𝑠+1 3.64004 229.6938

0.378986

M7 = 57.0362𝑠+1 5.277247 57.0362

0.24537

M10 = 9.231879𝑠+1 8.150943 9.231879

Table 3: Weighting value based on gap metric for particular operating point

6

Chapetr 2

So far we have discussed the design methods which are extensions of continuous time design

techniques.

We will now deal with the dead beat response design of digital control system. We must distinguish

between the designs of deadbeat response for a digital control system, where all the components

are subject to only digital data, and a sampled data control system, where both continuous and

discrete components are present. An all digital control system is shown in Figure 3.

Deadbeat response design when the system poles and zeros are

inside the unit circle

Design criteria:

1) The system must have a zero steady state error at sampling instants.

2) The time to reach final output must be finite and minimum.

3) The controller should be physically realizable, i.e., it should be causal. We can write from

Figure1.

7

𝐶(𝑧) 𝐷𝑐(𝑧)𝐺𝑝(𝑧)

M(z) = =

𝑅(𝑧) 1+𝐷𝑐(𝑧)𝐺𝑝(𝑧)

where,

N: positive integer

A(z): polynomial in z-1 with no zeros at z = 1.

For unit ramp signal A(z) = T z-1 and N = 2.

To achieve zero steady state error

Since A(z) does not contain any zero at z = 1, necessary condition for zero steady state error

is that 1 - M(z) should contain (1 - z-1)N as a factor, i.e.,

where,

F(z) is a polynomial in z-1.

Q(z) is a polynomial in z.

8

Substituting M(z) in the expression of E(z), E(z) = A(z)F(z). Since A(z) and F(z) are both

polynomials of z-1, E(z) will have a finite number of terms in the power series in the inverse

power of z, i.e., the error will go to zero in a finite number of sampling periods.

Simulation is performed using MATLAB for the Deadbeat Algorithm to validate theperformance

Servo and regulatory response is determined for the setpoint of 30cm and 40cm to control the

level of the tank using deadbeat controller. The simulation is carried out by taking 60% and 80%

as the nominal value . It provides minimum settling time and very high stable output .In figure 4

and 5 gives the closed loop response of a deadbeat controller having the setpoint of 30 cm and

40cm correspondingly of the tank level .Figure 6 and 7 shows the Closed loop response of a

deadbeat controller having setpoint 30cm with the setpoint change of 32cm, and Closed loop

response of a deadbeat controller having setpoint 40cm with the setpoint change of 42cm, Figure

8 provides Servo and Regulatory response of Closed loop system with deadbeat controller

having setpoint 40cm , Figure 8 shows the Servo and Regulatory response of Closed loop system

with deadbeat controller having setpoint 40cm. Figure 9and 10 gives he output of Regulatory

response of Closed loop system with deadbeat controller having setpoint 40cm and 30 cm

respectively.

9

III. Simulation Results

10

Fig. 5 Closed loop response of a deadbeat controller having setpoint 30cm

11

Fig. 7 Closed loop response of a deadbeat controller having set point 30cm with the set point

change of 32cm

Fig. 8 Servo and Regulatory response of Closed loop system with deadbeat controller having

setpoint 40cm

12

IV. Conclusion and Future Enhancement

The first principle model of the variable area tank system has been determined using empirical

approach. A nonlinear model based control scheme have been designed and implemented on the

conical tank system. From the extensive experimental studies it can be inferred that the proposed

control scheme delivers satisfactory servo and regulatory responses than a gain scheduled IMC

based PI controller. The controlling of nonlinear process is a challenging task.

The Model Based controller is designed in such a way that the system is robust and physically

realizable. But due to the presence of dead time, the performance of the system may be affected.

Using advanced control schemes such as Model Predictive control better performance and

robustness can be obtained.

13

References

Marshiana. Da* , Thirusakthi murugan” 3rd International Conference on Recent Trends in

Computing 2015 (ICRTC-2015) Science Direct.

Bandopadhyay , Dr. Patranabis, ISA Transactions 40(2001) 255-266.

Variable area tank process” S. Kapil Arasu, Atanu Panda, J. Prakash IFAC-Papers OnLine

49-1 (2016) 030–034, Science Direct.

4) “Model based Controller Design for Conical Tank System” D.Angeline , K.Vivetha ,

International Journal of Computer Applications (0975 – 8887) Volume 85 – No 12,

January 2014

14

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