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Real Numbers 4º ESO

Real Numbers 4º ESO

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AlbertoTeacher:

Lorenzo Miguel

Prieto Angel Hernández Lorenzo.

Sets of Numbers:

In English books of Maths, the set of natural numbers is {1,2 ,3 ,4 ,...} , while the set of whole

numbers is {0,1,2 ,3 ,4 , ...} , so there is a tiny difference between both sets, including or not the

number zero.

The set of integers is formed by the natural numbers including zero and the negatives, the opposites

of the natural numbers.

Rational numbers are the fractions. All number that can be written as a fraction is a rational number.

Every fraction, that is, every rational number, has a decimal expression ( we can get it dividing the

numerator by the denominator). The different types of the decimal expression of the rational

numbers are:

– An exact or terminating number is one which does not go on forever, so you can write

2

down all its digits. For example: =0,4

5

– A recurring, periodic or repeating decimal is a decimal number which does go on forever,

but where some of the digits are repeated over and over again. For example:

0,125252525...=0,1 25

We can distinguish:

- Decimals that the repeating part or period starts just after the decimal point (pure periodic

2

or recurring decimal). For example: =0,6666...=0, 6

3

- Decimals that the repeating part or period does not start just after the decimal point (mixed

1

periodic or recurring decimal). For example: =0,16666...=0,1 6

6

Irrational Numbers: I . Irrational numbers have decimal expressions that neither terminate nor

become periodic.

Examples: 2 , 3 , 5 …

π=3,141592 …

1,030030003...

2,010011000111...

Unit 1: Real Numbers. Mathematics 4th E.S.O. Teacher: Miguel Angel Hernández Lorenzo.

such as 24 or −43/127 , and irrational numbers

such as π or 7 .

Your

Turn

Classify the following numbers into the corresponding set:

5 5 4

Natural

Numbers

ℕ

Integers

ℤ

Rational

Numbers

ℚ

Irrational

Numbers

I

Real

Numbers

ℝ

2

Unit 1: Real Numbers. Mathematics 4th E.S.O. Teacher: Miguel Angel Hernández Lorenzo.

Rational Numbers:

As we know, the set of rational numbers is formed by all the numbers that can be written as a

a

fraction , where a and b are integers and b is not 0.

b

obtain an integer (if the numerator is a multiple of the denominator) or a decimal number of the

following types:

An exact or terminating decimal, if after the simplification of the fraction the numerator only has

as prime factors either 2 or 5.

A pure periodic decimal, if after the simplification of the fraction, 2 and 5 are not factors of the

denominator.

A mixed periodic decimal, if after the simplification of the fraction, 2 and/or 5 are prime factors of

the denominator, and it has other prime factors.

Your

Turn

Without doing the division, try to say what kind of decimal the following fractions generate:

3 7 9

a) b) c)

20 3 2

5 3 16

d) e) f)

12 15 30

4 3 5

g) h) i)

25 75 21

3

Unit 1: Real Numbers. Mathematics 4th E.S.O. Teacher: Miguel Angel Hernández Lorenzo.

• Exact or terminating decimals: Write on the numerator the number without decimal point

and on the denominator the unit followed by as many “zeroes” as decimal digits the number

has.

17 246 123

Examples: 0,017= 2,46= =

1000 100 50

• Pure periodic decimals: Write on the numerator the number without decimal point and

subtract the whole part of the number. Then, write on the denominator as many “nines” as

decimal digits the “repeating part” of the numbers has.

12−1 11 32−0 32

Examples: 1,2222...=1, 2 = = 0,323232...=0, 32= =

9 9 99 99

• Mixed periodic decimals: Write on the numerator the number without decimal point and

subtract the whole part of the number followed by the “non repeating part”. Then, write on

the denominator as many “nines” as decimal digits the “repeating part” of the number has,

followed by as many zeroes as decimal digits the “non repeating part” has.

1023−10 1013

Examples: 1,0232323...=1,0

23= =

990 990

123−12 111 37

0,123333...=0,12 3= = =

900 900 300

Your

Turn

Convert into fractions the following decimal numbers:

a) 1,2 b) 0, 7 c) 0,66

d) 1,1 6 e) 1,

72 f) 0,45

g) 0,1

56 h) 2,

795 i) 0,00 3

2, 9 10, 9

4

Unit 1: Real Numbers. Mathematics 4th E.S.O. Teacher: Miguel Angel Hernández Lorenzo.

expression has an infinite number of digits that are not regularly repeated.

d 1 cm

1 cm

Real Numbers: The set of real numbers ℝ is formed by the set of rational numbers ℚ and

the set of irrational numbers I.

ℝ=ℚ∪I

Real numbers ℝ

{Racional numbers ℚ

{ {

Integers ℤ Natural Numbersℕ

Negative Integers

Terminating and Periodic decimals

Irrational Numbers I

Order in ℝ :

• a is greater than b, and we write ab , when b−a is negative.

5

Unit 1: Real Numbers. Mathematics 4th E.S.O. Teacher: Miguel Angel Hernández Lorenzo.

Associative abc=abc a · b· c=a ·b · c

Identity element a0=0a=a a ·1=1 · a=a

Opposite/Inverse element a−a=0

a· 1

a

=1

Distributive a ·bc=a · ba · c

Using the distributivity of real numbers: a ·ba · c=a · bc , we can extract common factor to

do easily some operations:

a) 63+27

2 3 2 1 3 2

b) · − · ·

5 4 5 5 10 5

1 3 1 1 5

c) − · − ·

2 5 2 2 7

Your

Turn

b) 0,03 1

0,0 31 0,

031 0,031

35

6

Unit 1: Real Numbers. Mathematics 4th E.S.O. Teacher: Miguel Angel Hernández Lorenzo.

b) 0,92 0,9 2

0, 92 0, 2 0,

922

c) 5,9 ̂

17 5,9

71 5,97 1 5,91 7 5,

917

a) 102030405060708090

2 5 2

b) · 3− · 25·

7 7 7

1 3

c) · 7−7 · 27 ·

4 2

1 1 5 1 1 1 4

d) · · − ·

3 2 6 3 3 3 3

Real Line:

The real numbers may be thought of as points on an infinitely long number line. Each point of the

real line corresponds to a real number, and each real number corresponds to a point of the real line.

Examples:

3 5

7 3

−3 14

8 3

−5 −8

2 5

7

Unit 1: Real Numbers. Mathematics 4th E.S.O. Teacher: Miguel Angel Hernández Lorenzo.

Examples:

2 5

10 3

13 6

Intervals:

A real interval is a subset of real numbers that corresponds to the points of a segment or a half-line

on the real line.

PICTURE

a , b {x∈ℝ :a xb} Finite; open

a b

[a , b] {x∈ℝ : axb} Finite; closed

a b

a ,b] {x∈ℝ : axb} Finite; half-open

a b

[ a , b {x∈ℝ : axb} Finite; half-open

a b

a ,∞ {x∈ℝ : ax } Infinite; open

a

[ a ,∞ {x∈ℝ : ax } Infinite; closed

a

−∞ , b {x∈ℝ : x b} Infinite, open

b

−∞ ,b ] {x∈ℝ : x b} Infinite; closed

b

−∞ ,∞ ℝ Infinite; open and

closed

8

Unit 1: Real Numbers. Mathematics 4th E.S.O. Teacher: Miguel Angel Hernández Lorenzo.

Examples: Write as intervals and represent on the real line the following set of numbers:

c) Less than 0.

Your

Turn

1. Represent on the real line and write as intervals the following set:

9

Unit 1: Real Numbers. Mathematics 4th E.S.O. Teacher: Miguel Angel Hernández Lorenzo.

Approximations:

An approximation of a number is a representation of this number that is not exact, but still close

enough to be useful.

Approximation Methods:

1,2345 0,03968 1,

382

0,0 53

Rounding: The figures are deleted from a considered order, and the last figure is increased by one

unit if the following digit is greater than or equal to 5.

1,2345 0,03968 1,

382

0,0 53

The approximation error in some data is the discrepancy between an exact value and some

approximation to it; an approximation error can occur because

2. approximations are used instead of the real data (3,14 instead of π).

One commonly distinguishes between the absolute error and the relative error. The absolute error

is the magnitude of the difference between the exact value and the approximation. The relative error

is the absolute error divided by the magnitude of the exact value.

∣ ∣

Ea

V Exact

Example:

a) The height of a house is 4,7 m. If we say the height of the house is 5 m, calculate the absolute

error and the relative error of this approximation.

b) The height of a skyscraper is 115,3 m. If we say the height of the skyscraper is 115 m, calculate

the absolute error and the relative error of this approximation.

10

Unit 1: Real Numbers. Mathematics 4th E.S.O. Teacher: Miguel Angel Hernández Lorenzo.

Your

Turn

1. Skeeter, the dog, weighs exactly 36,5 pounds. When weighed on a defective scale, he

weighed 38 pounds.

a) What is the absolute error and the relative error in measurement of the defective scale?

b) If Millie, the cat , weighs 14 pounds on the same defective scale, what is Millie's actual

weight?

2. The actual length of this field is 500 feet. A measurement instrument shows the length to be

508 feet. Find:

a) The absolute error in the measured length of the field.

b) The relative error in the measured length of the field.

250 feet

c) The percentage error on the measured length of the field.

500 feet

3. Find the absolute and relative error of the approximation 3,14 to the value π.

11

Unit 1: Real Numbers. Mathematics 4th E.S.O. Teacher: Miguel Angel Hernández Lorenzo.

Keywords:

subtraction / difference = resta, diferencia

multiplication / product = multiplicación, producto

division / quotient = división, cociente

set of numbers = conjunto numérico

Natural numbers = Números Naturales

Integers = Números Enteros

Rational Numbers = Números Racionales

fraction = fración

exact or terminating decimal = decimal exacto

pure periodic decimal= decimal periódico puro

mixed periodic decimal= decimal periódico mixto

Irrational numbers = Números Irracionales

Real numbers = Números Reales

to be included = estar incluido

factor / divisor = factor, divisor

multiple = múltiplo

Highest Common Factor (UK) / Greatest Common Factor (USA) = Máximo Común

Divisor

Lowest Common Multiple (UK) / Least Common Factor (USA) = Mínimo Común

Múltiplo

diagonal = diagonal

square = cuadrado

height = altura

weight = peso

to weigh = pesar

measurement = medida

to measure = medir

rectangle = rectángulo

triangle = triángulo

a is less than b ab = a es menor que b

a is less or equal than b ab = a es menor o igual que b

a is greatest than b ab = a es mayor que b

a is less or equal than b ab = a es mayor o igual que b

to order from lowest to highest (UK) = ordenar de menor a mayor

to order from least to greatest(USA) = ordenar de menor a mayor

12

Unit 1: Real Numbers. Mathematics 4th E.S.O. Teacher: Miguel Angel Hernández Lorenzo.

Commutative property = Propiedad conmutativa

Distributive property = Propiedad distributiva

Identity element = elemento neutro

Opposite element = elemento opuesto

Inverse element = elemento inverso

common factor = factor común

Real line = Recta real

Pythagoras' Theorem = Teorema de Pitágoras

Square root = Raiz cuadrada

Interval = intervalo

segment = segmento

half-line = semirrecta

Open interval = intervalo abierto

Closed interval = intervalo cerrado

Half-open interval = intervalo semiabierto

Half-closed interval = intervalo semicerrado

Infinite = infinito

Absolute value = valor absoluto

approximation = aproximación

Truncation = truncamiento

to round off = redondear

absolute error = error absoluto

relative error = error relativo

percentage = porcentaje

place value of a digit / figure = valor posicional de una cifra

ones or units = unidades

tens = decenas

hundreds = centenas

thousands = millares, unidades de mil

ten thousands = decenas de mil

...

tenths = décimas

hundredths= centésimas

thousandths = milésimas

ten thousandths = diezmilésimas

...

13

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