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# Unit 1: Real Numbers. Mathematics 4th E.S.O.

AlbertoTeacher:
Lorenzo Miguel
Prieto Angel Hernández Lorenzo.

Sets of Numbers:

## Natural Numbers: ℕ={0,1,2 ,3 , 4,5, 6,...}

In English books of Maths, the set of natural numbers is {1,2 ,3 ,4 ,...} , while the set of whole
numbers is {0,1,2 ,3 ,4 , ...} , so there is a tiny difference between both sets, including or not the
number zero.

## Integers: ℤ={... ,−3,−2,−1,0 ,1 ,2,3 ,...}

The set of integers is formed by the natural numbers including zero and the negatives, the opposites
of the natural numbers.

## Rational Numbers: ℚ= {ab , where a , b∈ℤ , b≠0}

Rational numbers are the fractions. All number that can be written as a fraction is a rational number.
Every fraction, that is, every rational number, has a decimal expression ( we can get it dividing the
numerator by the denominator). The different types of the decimal expression of the rational
numbers are:

– An exact or terminating number is one which does not go on forever, so you can write
2
down all its digits. For example: =0,4
5
– A recurring, periodic or repeating decimal is a decimal number which does go on forever,
but where some of the digits are repeated over and over again. For example:
0,125252525...=0,1 25 
We can distinguish:
- Decimals that the repeating part or period starts just after the decimal point (pure periodic
2
or recurring decimal). For example: =0,6666...=0, 6
3
- Decimals that the repeating part or period does not start just after the decimal point (mixed
1
periodic or recurring decimal). For example: =0,16666...=0,1 6
6

Irrational Numbers: I . Irrational numbers have decimal expressions that neither terminate nor
become periodic.

Examples: 2 , 3 , 5 …
π=3,141592 …
1,030030003...
2,010011000111...

## Alberto Lorenzo Prieto

Unit 1: Real Numbers. Mathematics 4th E.S.O. Teacher: Miguel Angel Hernández Lorenzo.

## The real numbers include both rational numbers,

such as 24 or −43/127 , and irrational numbers
such as π or  7 .

Your
Turn
Classify the following numbers into the corresponding set:

## 7 -6 21 3,7373... 20  13 0,04343... 1,131331333... − 3 -8765

5 5 4
Natural
Numbers

Integers

Rational
Numbers

Irrational
Numbers
I
Real
Numbers

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Unit 1: Real Numbers. Mathematics 4th E.S.O. Teacher: Miguel Angel Hernández Lorenzo.

Rational Numbers:

As we know, the set of rational numbers is formed by all the numbers that can be written as a
a
fraction , where a and b are integers and b is not 0.
b

## To calculate the decimal expression of a fraction, we divide numerator by denominator. We can

obtain an integer (if the numerator is a multiple of the denominator) or a decimal number of the
following types:

An exact or terminating decimal, if after the simplification of the fraction the numerator only has
as prime factors either 2 or 5.

A pure periodic decimal, if after the simplification of the fraction, 2 and 5 are not factors of the
denominator.

A mixed periodic decimal, if after the simplification of the fraction, 2 and/or 5 are prime factors of
the denominator, and it has other prime factors.

Your
Turn
Without doing the division, try to say what kind of decimal the following fractions generate:

3 7 9
a) b) c)
20 3 2

5 3 16
d) e) f)
12 15 30

4 3 5
g) h) i)
25 75 21

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Unit 1: Real Numbers. Mathematics 4th E.S.O. Teacher: Miguel Angel Hernández Lorenzo.

## Converting decimal into a fraction:

• Exact or terminating decimals: Write on the numerator the number without decimal point
and on the denominator the unit followed by as many “zeroes” as decimal digits the number
has.

17 246 123
Examples: 0,017= 2,46= =
1000 100 50

• Pure periodic decimals: Write on the numerator the number without decimal point and
subtract the whole part of the number. Then, write on the denominator as many “nines” as
decimal digits the “repeating part” of the numbers has.

12−1 11 32−0 32
Examples: 1,2222...=1, 2 = = 0,323232...=0, 32= =
9 9 99 99

• Mixed periodic decimals: Write on the numerator the number without decimal point and
subtract the whole part of the number followed by the “non repeating part”. Then, write on
the denominator as many “nines” as decimal digits the “repeating part” of the number has,
followed by as many zeroes as decimal digits the “non repeating part” has.

1023−10 1013
Examples: 1,0232323...=1,0 
23= =
990 990

123−12 111 37
0,123333...=0,12 3= = =
900 900 300

Your
Turn
Convert into fractions the following decimal numbers:

a) 1,2 b) 0, 7 c) 0,66

d) 1,1 6 e) 1, 
72 f) 0,45

g) 0,1 
56 h) 2, 
795 i) 0,00 3

## Be careful with the numbers whose repeating part is 9:

2, 9 10, 9

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Unit 1: Real Numbers. Mathematics 4th E.S.O. Teacher: Miguel Angel Hernández Lorenzo.

## Irrational numbers: A number is irrational if it cannot be expressed as a fraction. Its decimal

expression has an infinite number of digits that are not regularly repeated.

d 1 cm

1 cm

## d) 1,232233... e) 1,11213213... f) 0,122333...

Real Numbers: The set of real numbers ℝ is formed by the set of rational numbers ℚ and
the set of irrational numbers I.

ℝ=ℚ∪I

Real numbers ℝ
{Racional numbers ℚ
{ {
Integers ℤ Natural Numbersℕ
Negative Integers
Terminating and Periodic decimals
Irrational Numbers I

Order in ℝ :

## • a is less than b, and we write ab , when b−a is positive.

• a is greater than b, and we write ab , when b−a is negative.

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Unit 1: Real Numbers. Mathematics 4th E.S.O. Teacher: Miguel Angel Hernández Lorenzo.

## Properties of real numbers:

Associative abc=abc a · b· c=a ·b · c 
Identity element a0=0a=a a ·1=1 · a=a
Opposite/Inverse element a−a=0
a·  1
a
=1

## Commutative ab=ba a ·b=b · a

Distributive a ·bc=a · ba · c

## Extracting common factor:

Using the distributivity of real numbers: a ·ba · c=a · bc , we can extract common factor to
do easily some operations:

a) 63+27

2 3 2 1 3 2
b) · − ·  ·
5 4 5 5 10 5

1 3 1 1 5
c) − · − ·
2 5 2 2 7

Your
Turn

b) 0,03 1 
0,0 31 0, 
031 0,031

## c) 7,33 5 7,3 5 7, 5 7,5 3 7, 3 7,3 ̂

35

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Unit 1: Real Numbers. Mathematics 4th E.S.O. Teacher: Miguel Angel Hernández Lorenzo.

## a) 3,475 3,447 3,744 3,444 3,457

b) 0,92 0,9 2 
0, 92 0, 2 0, 
922

c) 5,9 ̂
17 5,9 
71 5,97 1 5,91 7 5, 
917

## 3. Extract common factor and operate these expressions:

a) 102030405060708090

2 5 2
b) · 3− · 25·
7 7 7

1 3
c) · 7−7 · 27 ·
4 2

1 1 5 1 1 1 4
d) ·  · −  ·
3 2 6 3 3 3 3

Real Line:

The real numbers may be thought of as points on an infinitely long number line. Each point of the
real line corresponds to a real number, and each real number corresponds to a point of the real line.

## Representing rational numbers on the real line:

Examples:

3 5
7 3
−3 14
8 3
−5 −8
2 5

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Unit 1: Real Numbers. Mathematics 4th E.S.O. Teacher: Miguel Angel Hernández Lorenzo.

## Representing irrational numbers on the real line:

Examples:

2 5

 10 3

 13 6

Intervals:

A real interval is a subset of real numbers that corresponds to the points of a segment or a half-line
on the real line.

## INTERVAL NOTATION SET NOTATION GEOMETRIC CLASSIFICATION

PICTURE
a , b {x∈ℝ :a xb} Finite; open
a b
[a , b] {x∈ℝ : axb} Finite; closed
a b
a ,b] {x∈ℝ : axb} Finite; half-open
a b
[ a , b {x∈ℝ : axb} Finite; half-open
a b
a ,∞ {x∈ℝ : ax } Infinite; open
a
[ a ,∞  {x∈ℝ : ax } Infinite; closed
a
−∞ , b {x∈ℝ : x b} Infinite, open
b
−∞ ,b ] {x∈ℝ : x b} Infinite; closed
b
−∞ ,∞ ℝ Infinite; open and
closed

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Unit 1: Real Numbers. Mathematics 4th E.S.O. Teacher: Miguel Angel Hernández Lorenzo.

Examples: Write as intervals and represent on the real line the following set of numbers:

c) Less than 0.

## f) Greater or equal than -2 and less than 3.

Your
Turn
1. Represent on the real line and write as intervals the following set:

## a) ∣x∣2 b) ∣x∣2 c) ∣x∣2

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Unit 1: Real Numbers. Mathematics 4th E.S.O. Teacher: Miguel Angel Hernández Lorenzo.

Approximations:

An approximation of a number is a representation of this number that is not exact, but still close
enough to be useful.

Approximation Methods:

## Examples: Approximate by truncation to the hundredths the following numbers:

1,2345 0,03968 1, 
382 
0,0 53

Rounding: The figures are deleted from a considered order, and the last figure is increased by one
unit if the following digit is greater than or equal to 5.

## Examples: Rounding off to the nearest thousandths the following numbers:

1,2345 0,03968 1, 
382 
0,0 53

## Absolute Error and Relative Error:

The approximation error in some data is the discrepancy between an exact value and some
approximation to it; an approximation error can occur because

## 1. The measurement of the data is not precise (due to the instruments), or

2. approximations are used instead of the real data (3,14 instead of π).

One commonly distinguishes between the absolute error and the relative error. The absolute error
is the magnitude of the difference between the exact value and the approximation. The relative error
is the absolute error divided by the magnitude of the exact value.

## Absolute Error: E a =∣V Exact −V Approx.∣ Relative Error: Er=

∣ ∣
Ea
V Exact

Example:
a) The height of a house is 4,7 m. If we say the height of the house is 5 m, calculate the absolute
error and the relative error of this approximation.

b) The height of a skyscraper is 115,3 m. If we say the height of the skyscraper is 115 m, calculate
the absolute error and the relative error of this approximation.

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Unit 1: Real Numbers. Mathematics 4th E.S.O. Teacher: Miguel Angel Hernández Lorenzo.

Your
Turn
1. Skeeter, the dog, weighs exactly 36,5 pounds. When weighed on a defective scale, he
weighed 38 pounds.
a) What is the absolute error and the relative error in measurement of the defective scale?
b) If Millie, the cat , weighs 14 pounds on the same defective scale, what is Millie's actual
weight?

2. The actual length of this field is 500 feet. A measurement instrument shows the length to be
508 feet. Find:
a) The absolute error in the measured length of the field.
b) The relative error in the measured length of the field.
250 feet
c) The percentage error on the measured length of the field.

500 feet

3. Find the absolute and relative error of the approximation 3,14 to the value π.

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Unit 1: Real Numbers. Mathematics 4th E.S.O. Teacher: Miguel Angel Hernández Lorenzo.

Keywords:

subtraction / difference = resta, diferencia
multiplication / product = multiplicación, producto
division / quotient = división, cociente
set of numbers = conjunto numérico
Natural numbers = Números Naturales
Integers = Números Enteros
Rational Numbers = Números Racionales
fraction = fración
exact or terminating decimal = decimal exacto
pure periodic decimal= decimal periódico puro
mixed periodic decimal= decimal periódico mixto
Irrational numbers = Números Irracionales
Real numbers = Números Reales
to be included = estar incluido
factor / divisor = factor, divisor
multiple = múltiplo
Highest Common Factor (UK) / Greatest Common Factor (USA) = Máximo Común
Divisor
Lowest Common Multiple (UK) / Least Common Factor (USA) = Mínimo Común
Múltiplo
diagonal = diagonal
height = altura
weight = peso
to weigh = pesar
measurement = medida
to measure = medir
rectangle = rectángulo
triangle = triángulo
a is less than b ab = a es menor que b
a is less or equal than b ab = a es menor o igual que b
a is greatest than b ab = a es mayor que b
a is less or equal than b ab = a es mayor o igual que b
to order from lowest to highest (UK) = ordenar de menor a mayor
to order from least to greatest(USA) = ordenar de menor a mayor

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Unit 1: Real Numbers. Mathematics 4th E.S.O. Teacher: Miguel Angel Hernández Lorenzo.

## Associative property = Propiedad asociativa

Identity element = elemento neutro
Opposite element = elemento opuesto
Inverse element = elemento inverso
common factor = factor común
Real line = Recta real
Pythagoras' Theorem = Teorema de Pitágoras
Interval = intervalo
segment = segmento
half-line = semirrecta
Open interval = intervalo abierto
Half-open interval = intervalo semiabierto
Infinite = infinito
Absolute value = valor absoluto
approximation = aproximación
Truncation = truncamiento
to round off = redondear
absolute error = error absoluto
relative error = error relativo
percentage = porcentaje
place value of a digit / figure = valor posicional de una cifra