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Case 1:18-cv-00036-CW Document 41-1 Filed 04/19/18 Page 35 of 182

Barry G. Stratford (UT #15059) Donald J. Kula (pro hac vice forthcoming)
PERKINS COIE LLP PERKINS COIE LLP
2901 North Central Avenue, Suite 2000 1888 Century Park E., Suite 1700
Phoenix, Arizona 85012-2788 Los Angeles, CA 90067-1721
Phone: 602.351.8000 Phone: 310.788.9900
Email: BStratford@perkinscoie.com Email: DKula@perkinscoie.com

Attorneys for The Samoan Federation of America, Inc.

IN THE UNITED STATES DISTRICT COURT
DISTRICT OF UTAH, NORTHERN DIVISION

JOHN FITISEMANU; PALE TULI;
ROSAVITA TULI; and SOUTHERN
UTAH PACIFIC ISLANDER
COALITION;

Plaintiffs,
Case No. 1:18-cv-00036-CW
v.
SAMOAN FEDERATION OF
UNITED STATES OF AMERICA; AMERICA, INC.’S AMICUS BRIEF
U.S. DEPARTMENT OF STATE; APPENDIX OF EXHIBITS
JOHN J. SULLIVAN, in his official
capacity as Acting Secretary of the U.S. Honorable Judge Clark Waddoups
Department of State; and
CARL C. RISCH, in his official
capacity as Assistant Secretary of State
for Consular Affairs;

Defendants.

1
Case 1:18-cv-00036-CW Document 41-1 Filed 04/19/18 Page 36 of 182

BRIEF OF AMICUS CURIAE SAMOAN FEDERATION OF AMERICA, INC.
IN SUPPORT OF PLAINTIFFS’ MOTION FOR SUMMARY JUDGMENT

APPENDIX OF EXHIBITS

No. Description Page

1 Staff of S. Comm. on Interior & Insular Affairs, 86th Cong., 0001
Information on the Government, Economics, Public Health, and
Education of America (Eastern) Samoa (Comm. Print 1960)

2 Cession of Tutuila and Aunu’u (April 17, 1900), 0011
https://tinyurl.com/yaxd44nd

3 Cession of Manu’a Islands (Ju1y 14, 1904), 0023
https://tinyurl.com/ycpl7dz3

4 Reuel S. Moore and Joseph F. Farrington, The American Samoan 0031
Commission’s Visit to Samoa (1931)

5 American Samoa: Hearings Before the Comm’n Appointed by the 0057
President of the United States (1931)

6 David A. Chappell, The Forgotten Mau, 69 Pac. Hist. Rev. 217 0099
(2000)

7 Hearing on H.R. 3564 Before the Subcomm. on Territorial & Insular 0144
Possessions of the H. Comm. on Pub. Lands, 80th Cong. (June 2,
1947)

8 S. Doc. No. 71-249 (1931) 0150

9 A Bill to Provide a Government for American Samoa: Hearing on 0168
H.R. 9698 Before the H. Comm. on Insular Affairs, 72nd Cong.
(1932)

10 75 Cong. Rec. 4133 (1932) 0185

11 76 Cong. Rec. 4926 (1933) 0195

12 78 Cong. Rec. 4895 (1934) 0208
Case 1:18-cv-00036-CW Document 41-1 Filed 04/19/18 Page 37 of 182

No. Description Page

13 Harold L. Ickes, Opinion, Navy Withholds Samoan and Guam 0214
Petitions from Congress, Honolulu Star-Bulletin, Apr. 16, 1947.

14 Samoans Said Anxious for Citizenship, Honolulu Advertiser, Feb. 0218
28, 1947.

15 Study Mission to E. [Am.] Sam., S. Comm. on Interior & Insular 0222
Affairs, 86th Cong., Rep. of Senators Oren E. Long, of Hawaii, and
Ernest Gruening, of Alaska (Comm. Print 1961)

16 American Samoa Government, Report from the Second Temporary 0250
Future Political Status Study Commission (1979)

17 Am. Sam. Future Political Status Study Comm’n, Final Report 0257
(2007)

18 Statement of Daniel Aga at the Caribbean Regional Seminar on the 0279
Implementation of the Third International Decade for the
Eradication of Colonialism (May 16–18, 2017),
https://tinyurl.com/y9bkxbnp

19 U.S. Census Bureau, 2010 Census Summary File 1 F-45 (2012) 0297

20 U.S. Census Bureau, CB11-CN.177, U.S. Census Bureau Releases 0308
2010 Census Population Counts for American Samoa (2011)

21 EPIC & Asian Americans Advancing Justice, Native Hawaiians & 0311
Pacific Islanders: A Community of Contrasts in the United States
(2014), https://tinyurl.com/ycgt34t6

22 Constitution of American Samoa 0334

23 Brief of Amicus Curiae David B. Cohen in Support of Plaintiffs- 0368
Appellants, Tuaua v. United States, 788 F.3d 300 (D.C. Cir. 2015)
(No. 1492657).

24 Brief in Opposition by Respondents American Samoa Government 0410
& Office of Congressman Aumua Amata of American Samoa,
Tuaua v. United States, (U.S. May 11, 2016) (No. 15-981), petition
for cert. denied, (U.S. June 13, 2016), https://tinyurl.com/y922v9ht

-3-
Case 1:18-cv-00036-CW Document 41-1 Filed 04/19/18 Page 38 of 182

No. Description Page

25 Christina Duffy Ponsa, Opinion, Are American Samoans American? 0449
N.Y. Times (June 8, 2016), https://tinyurl.com/y9wtsvcm

26 Noah Feldman, Opinion, People of American Samoa Aren’t Fully 0453
American, Bloomberg View (March 13, 2016),
https://tinyurl.com/ya2zd62g

27 Rogers Smith, Differentiated Citizenship and Territorial Statuses, in 0458
Reconsidering the Insular Cases 124 (Gerald L. Neuman & Tomiko
Brown-Nagin eds., 2015)

-4-
Case 1:18-cv-00036-CW Document 41-1 Filed 04/19/18 Page 39 of 182

EXHIBIT 1

0001
Case 1:18-cv-00036-CW Document 41-1 Filed 04/19/18 Page 40 of 182

80t! Oonpou\
ld Sorrton I
ooruIrD! tEDt!

STAX'F STUDY ON AMERICAN SAIIOA

TNFOBMATTON ON THE GOVEnNMSNT, ECONOIIY,
PItBtrc IIEALTH, AI{D EDUCATION Or'
AMEnrCAlr (EAIITEBN) SAUOA

COMMITTEE ON.
AX'TAIRS
UNITED gTATES

ONEN
D. gUB.
COUUITTEE IN
880,

1, 1000

Pslndlbr tlc 0a htrrlorurl tuulmAfirln

UIIITD TEATII
oov'lnNMrT Pnnllno ol'rol
|llel f,ABENCIOtf r tlt0

o+61
0002
Case 1:18-cv-00036-CW Document 41-1 Filed 04/19/18 Page 41 of 182

OOUIilIIIDDP ON INTDBIOB AND lNt0IaAn AEtrAIng
JAMI8 E. MU8RAY, Monlmi Clohnrn
OrINION P. AND'RION, Now Mulo HENRY DWOBBIIAK ldrho
IIENRY M. IAOKSON' lVuhl[ton TIlOltAS lt. l(UOllDl,, Colllornlr
t0gnl ll O. O'llfAf,ONE& lVYonlol DABRY OOt DTVATAR, Arlrolt
ALAN tllELD, Novadr OOIIDON AlrLOTf, Colororlo
toHN A. OAnnOlL, Oolondo TllO8, E, IllARTtN, loro
IHANIC OllUllOllr ldrho gtllAM !. IONO,l{rwoll
ERNEBT OBUDNINO, Alnlo
rnANK t. MO8E, Uhh
OR$N R. l,ONOr llrwoll
llAl,!
8. l,Uf,K, Onlon
0UENTIN BUIDIOK, Nottb Drloh
Slcllrlo lr, Otnrorrr, &00 Dlnalf'
0uwrnl Fnlrcnr (tra,|lt Coutu,it
N&t D. McSnrrrr, C?ll

Surcouurmo! olr AnlmoAn tAuoA
OBRN E.lrONOr [owollr Chafinnn
IENEET OIUENINO, Alulo
'trmiloKAt{trrllBo, Eoqhl CVuilnN
ll

I

0003
Case 1:18-cv-00036-CW Document 41-1 Filed 04/19/18 Page 42 of 182

TETTEN OF TNANSMITTAT

Snrmuupn 28, 1000.

Youllt onnrv E.Iroso,
0 halrman, Bub commlttee on Amerie an S wnoa,
m

0004
Case 1:18-cv-00036-CW Document 41-1 Filed 04/19/18 Page 43 of 182

',.'": I iTl{I. )
q

I
00N[sNTs
lrlc
Mrn Of AmOflOftt EfmOO--...-..-t.-.r-. ....-.-....-..-- 2
6frht of Oovornmont of Amorloon &rmoo-.-.- I
: I: I I
.1, 1
Populotlon ond oultuts- I
;;
I
0
{ c
1l
0
't
{ 0
fi Enmoo--. r0
l0
: l1
1l
1l u
I 12
l8
ll
l6
tl
l0
l0
N
2l
22
,2
t8
omploytnont, woge ronlco---.. u
26
!0
I
2g
29
rcE0uroei nnd dovolopmont--.-. -. 80
morlno r(troufoor.- a1
s2
82
88
88
88
8l
8l
svy 8l
08
80
80
80
80
80
GStS l0
d0
provotrtlvo monturu!-.. --- - dl
v

0005
Case 1:18-cv-00036-CW Document 41-1 Filed 04/19/18 Page 44 of 182

vt ootsrDN'ls
lrn
{8 t,
{$
{i
l0
{[
{0
{0
{0
{0
Pnrhft'ntl. {0

LIST OF TABfJ,:g
Tnblo l. 2t
Trtblo 2, 1l
Tnhlo il. t0c
Tultlo .1. 2t:
'foltlo ll, ilo
Tnblo 0, iniiritiririt,
ill
Tnblo ?. Inttxrrl 3t
Ttblo 8. ltoilhll ,ll
Al'plNNt)IxlNg
I
.t0
r.
Il. {0
ln. flr,tuto cotrrrtlCtttlotr.. lr8
IV. Inrultr Alltltr
00

Dlbllortqilty 0l

0006
Case 1:18-cv-00036-CW Document 41-1 Filed 04/19/18 Page 45 of 182

AIIIFJBICAI{ gAMOA

I. INTNODUCTION
0l{l0RArrtI
Tlro $nnronn nrchhrelngo in locntod boCwoon l8og0' nnd 14089' south
lnt,it.rrrlo nnd oxtonrls for li00 milos from 108010' to l?2o4ll' wsgt longi.
irrrlo. 'l'lro totnl lntttl orou of tlro islond Sroup is ot'or tr2fi) sqpurt
nriltrs. tho qroolor un$ of I'hiolr tttrtkos up-Uptilu (480 squuro miloe)
nrrrt [lrrvni]i tfOO inurrc trrilor). tlrs prtnoipol islontlr irf l,ho Nori
Zoilrrrrd-uhnliristnrnil 'l'rust,'lbirritory bf lVrfutorn Stlntot, Sovgnty'
govon milos to tl$ omt of Upolu llos Tttult$ tlts lnrgort iglnnd (68
sounro rnll$s) of tho i$lnrrds t}nt mnko up Anr6ricnn Siinoo. Tlto un.
hicornomtod torritoriol Dossosgiotr of Amoricnn Snmoo consirts of
mvon'islnnds:'l'utuiln, rvlunu tlro copilnl nntl lrorbor of ltngo l'ogo
nrs lor:ntorl. Aunutu (l munro nrilo). tho ll'lnnrrto Orottp, wfrich in.
clualos Tntri (1? g{uui'o rrillor). Oloirogn (9 squnru nrllolr), rurd Ofu
(tl snrrnm milos).'nrrd tho cbinl otolln.'S$tins (1 aodure nrllo) I
rintl rinlnlrnbitod'Ikm. Tholr totnl lnnd'nron of ?0'sqrrdnq mift.n is-
lnrgor thon tlro 00 rquoro mllos
tili.$iill'litriitl,tffiiX1l;rtitttrtrv
.Anroricnn Sornrn in eontrnll.y locttotl withln tlro $Polynosinn tri-
nwlo" fonrrcd by llnrynii, Noiv Zcrlnnd, nld l,)uclor Islnnd. It is
9,:ft1 rnilts rrortt,liwonl, of llnnniir l,(10{) milon ttorllrcnxt of Norv Zon.
lnnrl. nnd 4.9(ru rrrilos snthnoet of tlro eotttlttcntnl llnltod fltotog.
l'onrirornllv.'thom rlirlnrur,s hnvo lnott gmrllv rorlttctrl by l,ho tnttts
of lrrrn Aiiioricrrn lVorlrl Airrvnys froin ltoholulu, rvhi[h irrcludos
g(hodlrlod ntopr nt,'futulln, Ilfnlrirrn llnom cnll ragulnrily obout 0v0ly
I mokg. '
llxcorrt for llono ntrd $n'nittn ntolln tho Anoricntt Snmonn lglnnds
nro of hoolodenll.y meotrt, r'olennio oirigin. Ilforrtrtnlns rino clrnrply
fr,on nilrroni'eonstnl tllnlnr to lreiflrtn-bf 2,141 foat on 'futuiln nnd
B0ttll foot, on l'n\r. Wlrilo ceanicrill.v ntrlkingr tho mountnln rnngor
lhnt tlomlnnto tlro lruulncnpo llrrrit nrirblo lnnrl to nbont' 20 lxrrcottt of
llro totrrl lnnd rttr,n, llntironn roilu nm lnrgoly bnrrnhio blrry n'ith
fortilo nlluvlnl rloposltn in tfto nnrrorv vnlloyri nritl nurtl.y lonm-constg,
'Ilro clhnnto in iroplenl n,itlr nrr ntrttunl t-otnpornturo'rnngitrg fi'om
?0o to 00o lfnrcnlrnit.orrrl lrigh.hrtrnldlty nvornging obout Q0 porcont
lhrlnfnll ln nbrrntlnnt buc vnrlnblo from yonr to yonr ond avernlol
900 lnelros onntrnllv. Tho rnot nrrnffon is hotn'oon Novornbor nntl Mnnch
with n lous rvst sriirgon fmm Anril to October. Ilurriennas nro not
unknorvn nnrl hnvo mmotlnron innrltgrl in dnlrngo !0v0no onorqh to
rqulro nitl frorn tlro Arnorlcnrr Bod Crou nnd tlis Oovornmont.'
I
r Oetr8rnDhlenllt, lot ln Ennrorn $tnD but lo llolclrur hlnndr.

0007
Case 1:18-cv-00036-CW Document 41-1 Filed 04/19/18 Page 46 of 182

gTAFF gTUDY ON AMENICAN SAMOA I
'lllD I'SOt|l,U: l{)BI[rtTlON AND CItLTItnE

Ths populntlon of lrtrorienn gtmoe is 20'000 2 of rvhom obout 1,600
nro rxut-Snrtrolnr nnd lt00 non-Sonlonlrs. In 1880 tlrs populotion wos
estiir&ted nt nlnut, 10,000. , Dopollulntiott tttntked tlrd ronoinder of
ths l0tlr cout,ttt'y us o'rcsult of ndrv disunses, worfom, ond ftreorms.
.Birlh eontrol rins prncticod throudr'nbortiotrg indrrcod b.y tttugilge
' nnd'kneodinn nnd i[ wns bslievedtli-abtwaa. if chowed irr lni'90 enouglr
i' nunntitios. cituld nct ns urr nbortifnciont. In 1881 Chs nopulntion wus
o'stimntorlht ?.000: tnd in 1000 it had droppcrl furthrir. to 6,0?0.
Ihrrlsr tlre riubllc honlth pnrlarm of the-U.$. ndministnltlon. de-
!' rronnlntion ri'ns ohochotl nnil tmpulntion incrorsos ltnve slnce
i l"irr tlrs rrrle. Tho popnlntion rvni 7,2llL ln l0l2i 8006 in 1020i
I 10.0ltlt in lDil0i l2.00tliri l0t0i nnrl 18,08? in 1000. In the lnst cotn.
I nlet,o ccr$nn of Sarfornbor 2S. 10110. tlro nonulotion rvos 20.164 dis-
i iributgtl ns follou'ri: l?,1107 od TntriilnrL?fiI irr the l{nnuh Gruup'
' nnd 80 on $trnins lnlnnd. (.Seo npp. I.)- IYith n totnl of 10'107 molos
to 10O4? femnlos. therc is ho siqhiflennt imbolnnce in ths sox rotioi
oxcorit thut ln tho 26 to 20 yooic aso srouD with 688 tnnlos to ?06
; femrileos thone ir o aigniffcorit propbhtilrnni:e of fonrnlesao dispro-
nortion'to bc oceountitl for bv tho grontor oDlrortunities for msir to
amillrnts, ioln the Arnrod Fordeg, nnd study-un abi'otd.
The Adrsricon Somonu nondlution is erhtmely youn( ono.
Of tlre 1060 uonulotion. d8'norcont nns under 16'orid 8[ ner-
cunt urdor 40.' t'rom td{c to'lDlll. Anuieon Samor hod r cfuds
birth rote ol 42,0 nor 1.000 ponulntion. nB comDnred to 24.4 for tlro
Unltntl Stutos nnd-20.2 for Nsiv Zonlo,titl. Its brude deoth rnts Dor
1.0fi) rnnulntion wns 0.1. rvhieh is comnnrnble to tlte U,S. rnte-of
9.7 onrl the New Zeolnrrd i'nts of 0.2. Tlie ortrcmely youthfnl poDu- -o
lotion eouplotl with one of tho n'orltl's highos0 birth intee ond low
denth rntri ougor soriorrr lWnltlursion nrnisuros for tlrs territory.
Snmoo beloriirs eulturnlly to the n'astorn division of ths Polvnininn
culturn orsn. It is not eorfnin rvlnther Tonqo or Somoo rvns the oriq.
lnol noint of tlignomol of the onrly Polynonian* but the linquist Sorii.
nst filbort nuqrftsts thnt ths foimer.-rvith tlie mors coiiinlex ond
orohnio lonqriii. rrns sottled fftst. After ovor 126 yeort ol contnct
with ryos0or.-n iriflienceg. Somonrr sociol orqnnizr*lon sfilll mtnins muoh
of its trnditionol struodure with the oxteilded fnmily ns the moat im.
nortnnt sooiol lmoutr ond ths villnqs the bnsio torritbrial unit. Chre-
inony nnrl rcoiirrodrl oxehnnqs oi'i hiqhlv volued tnoits of Somonn
nociril life ond hove beon vitril forrcos iii tho nrosorvotion of much of
f a'n Sanwo (the Snnronn woy). Rolidon wni not ns hlahly develonsd
in Somoo ni in othor Dnrtsbl Polvn6eioi ond. imnrudetl'bv the irn"
teriol Dorvor ond weilth of westbrrolrr $ouiouns rcndilv- nocontod
Chrigtionity. wlilch is now rcDrngontart bv sevoml dendminotfonr.
Thoso inolfide the lonrlon llidiorrnry Society (Connwrtionolist).
Somnn Ootholicq lWothodigtg ll'formoris, Sovottth'dov Adi''ontists. nnd
o loonllv orrronkid Somonn Conqroqrttionnl Chureh. Chrrrrh nctlvi.
tles norl plily rn importnrrt roki'irivillngo orgnnizntion and notivi.
ties.
rPx'llnhrart t000 ccnrur totrl lr !0,010.

0u02-00-8

0008
Case 1:18-cv-00036-CW Document 41-1 Filed 04/19/18 Page 47 of 182

4 gTAEtr ETUDY ON AMENICAN SAMOA

tnSTonY

The Snmonn Islnnds n'et'e visited irr the 18th nnd lOth centuries bv
llossevesrt (11221. Ilouminvills (1708). Lo Peroues (1787). Ed.
rvniilb (1?01). nrril'I(otz-ebue (1824). A U.g. exnlorlns exnidition
under Lt Clirirlee Wilkes visitid thb iglnnde in 18'88. 1ilre ihflusnos
of rvhite merl rros slisht, howeven boforc 1880 when mlssionow anCivl.
tiee bv the Inrrdorr-Missiorrnrv'societv commenced. Bv tliis dnh.
Howoii hnd olrendy aohieved ntiliticrul uriitv and llowoiionoulturu nori
underqoinc qrcnt dhnnqe thuriuah the inflirence of missionories. trad.
ers, ot'cl whi,iem. flnfion, ryitli'eonstnnt internnl strife nnd wirrfnro
ond o reputntion for inhognitnble receptlon of trodina ard whnlinq
ships, wni lorsely ovolded.
'La Peroum. nftor lonina 11 inon in n clnef,
with l\tullnril riotlecl t\em "perhnpe tlie most fordciouo people to bs
met with in ths South Sens.tt'
Eorlv Eurcpern nctivity conterecl lnrqolv oround the nort ton'n of
Anio in Unohi. lVhalershnd nrlventurnfu bnrticinototl hi thelnternnl
etrussles fthlch fiovo couso for occnsionnf visits'by rvouhine of the
n'eoli-Dowsrc. AE eorly ns l8B0'teommerolnl rrcquloiionstt wdro drown
b,v Bfitieh ond Amortonn novol commnnderg f,o control the nort of
dpio nnd the ncCivltiegof whltog. nlthough these oqrcemente wsh lnef.
feirtive. The locol Somonn counbil wnglrcntod nriihe qovornmen0nnd
ths Tofotifo. or cercmoninl hend. ng o ttkinq.tt Cdnsuls $0[0 oD.
pgi_qted-by lritnil in 1947, by the Urlitod-stntes in 18U8, by the oi0y
irf Hombrirq in 1801. ond loter-bv o unified Glermrnv.
Thore wils little'stnbllity, fiorvevor, to the Shmonn 'tkinsdom.t
lVorfnre wns recument lrct'frben the tritlitiorrnll.y rivol Mnliet'tin ond
Tupuo families thnt controlled the hishest ohieflv titlos in lVestprn
Sofuoo. fn their inrolvsment in lodul conflict5, the British nnd
Americons gsnsrolly supported ths formsr. ths Germons the lot0er.
An ottempFwas mide in tho 1870ts to forin a nn0iontl qovernment
with o cohstitution nnd o code of lorve under rvhite suiilnnco. nar.
nomed Steinbergen Thi g toti orumbki.l- un.
h5l$#Jl{,T.,A,merieon

tlon

og o $noutrol territorrrtt nrrder o municinol
-onfoy
where whites wero to extrderritofiol
The
tlonol
o! Ho

0009
Case 1:18-cv-00036-CW Document 41-1 Filed 04/19/18 Page 48 of 182

ITAFT gfi'DT ON AMDnIOAN IAMOA 6

tl

WESTDNN IAITOA

t

0010
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EXHIBIT 2

0011
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0012
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0013
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0014
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0015
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0016
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0017
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0018
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0019
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0020
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0021
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0022
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EXHIBIT 3

0023
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0024
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0025
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0026
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0027
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0028
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0029
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0030
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EXHIBIT 4

0031
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:.! -.
:l.fr -. I

0032
Case 1:18-cv-00036-CW Document 41-1 Filed 04/19/18 Page 71 of 182

THE AMERICAN SAMOAN COMMISSION'S
VISIT TO SAMOA

SEPTEMBER-OCTOBER
. t930

BY

REUEL S. M0ORE rnd JOSEPH R. FARRINGTON

UNITED STATES
GOVERNMEI{T PRINTINC OFF'ICE
VtlltllNGTON r l9]l

r_rft0lr..tl ltir:,
rr sirr.',-.r,, COt )gle I JNJIVFRiITY' tIF Mi(-HIbAhI

0033
Case 1:18-cv-00036-CW Document 41-1 Filed 04/19/18 Page 72 of 182

uil'r$Hi'i:roj;'IfiE r.

PRI.]ITACE

'I'lrc ttnrrnt,ive rvlriclr follorvs wit$ l,l'(,1)ll'r.tI tl the lrrlut,st of Sr:nr-
tot Hirtrttr Ilitrghlrnr, r:f Corrlrr.r'liriut,'r,lrrrit'lrtrrrr of flrc .\rrrt,r'it:trrl
Sttntotttt (.'ont lrrission, lr.y the trvo_ nr!\,r'$ptlrerrllcn who. n,rronrpnlt icr l
tlte colrttnis$ion otr its,trip frotn lIrrtrulttlu trr Snrrxn. It,s pru'1rosc is
ttot so much to reconl the rvork of thc rorrrtrrissiorr frrrrn ihe stanr.l-
point of rvhat nray have beelr accornplishotl, but to reuorrrrt all tht
cssentinl rlotails of what transpirerl rlurirrg the visit of the cornmis-
sion to Samou. It is the story of horv the rvork of thc commirlsiorr
rvar conclueterl, nnd in addit,ir'lr to preserrting the high points of thc
testimony given in fornrul hearings it recites m&ny inbidents of inter-
est and some of importoncc rvhich would rrot be rccordorl otlrerwis€
in ony oflicial rlocument. It rnrkes no pretelrse at bcing n histor-v of
the events rvhich led up to the visit of fhe cornrnissirrn io Samoa.- ft
is not n criticol estimntC of the rvork of the conrmisslion, but tr, whonr-
ever this task tnny fall in the future this recortl may be rrsefrrl. The
accorurt mey not 6e a finistrecl piece of lil,crnr-v work] brrt it shorrlil br,
rceurnte, ns'it ho* pnsserl tlrroirgh the lranrlsbf set'eral of thr*p wlr,,
rvere vitnessm of the events teeoutrletl lrerein.
Rut'r:r, S. llri,rn.
'losl:Plr R. I,'.rnnr.*r;'rr,r.
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0034
Case 1:18-cv-00036-CW Document 41-1 Filed 04/19/18 Page 73 of 182

THE VISIT OF THE AMERICAN SAMOAN COMMISSION
TO SAMOA

of Amerienn Sanrot the arrivsl of ships of
Alwoys in the lristory'motttent.
rur. rnai'kerl events of Tlrey rvere ttre powerful harid of
the sreat white rreotrle of the north reat'lting far into the South
Itncific, sornetime; a mailed fist stretching ouf for the riches of the
'Iropici and sometimes o palm of goodlrill ertending a clasp of
friendshin snd of helnfulness.
In 1880 the ships 6f three powers lay in menacing proximity in
Apia Harbor of western Samoa only to be destroyed or driven oway
bv the historic lturricane. The treaty of Berlin came in consequence
o-f this visit, dividing the islands into the western group under the
contml of Gernrony ind the eastern group under th-e coirtrol of the
United States.
In 1900 an American warship orrived at Pngo Pago and anehored
in its harbor. At this time the chiefs of the lsland of Tutuila vol-
untarilv ceded their diminutive domain to the United Stotes. In
f904 tlie chiefs of the three tiny islands, the Manur group which
lnv 65 miles fartlter east. follorved suit.
"The alfairs of American Sorrtor proceeded sertnely under the ad-
ministrntion of the Unitotl Stutes Navy l)cpartment for trvo dceades,
but n series of unfortunate events at the close of that peniotl brouglrt
anothsr Ameriean rvarship to Pago Pugo. This was in the fall
of 1920.
The events which resulted in the visit of this warship were to have
their echoes in the decade that followed. The reoiganization of
the personnel of the naval administretion, the disrnissals alrd de-
portitions which rvere ordered following the arrival of this vessel
were but the immediate result. More important, as subsequent events
disclosed. was the swelling tliscontent of the native Samolns with
ths navai administration.* It rose to a determination to ltave I
ehsnse. which found extrression in the formation of the Mau, an
n'ot*st, anrl enuglrt the sympntlretic eur of white
::llfTlr$;t.*?,1
'fhere Nere mony ittfluencss nt work drrring this period, tlto even-
tual result of thern nll being the amival in Pago Pago Harbor eally
on the morning of Friday, Septtrnrber 2$' 1930, of another wonship,
tlre light cruisCr Omdw,-commnnded by Ctpt. John Downes.
fhi Omaho come in consequence of the ailoption by Congress on
X'ebruary 20, 1929, of a resolution accepting the cession of the islands
of Tutuila o'nd Manua and crenting I commission to reeommend an
orsanic act for the qovernment of American Samoa.
Sittce 1900 Congiess, otlter than appr_opriating.the funds to the
Navy Department, under which tho ndministration of American
I

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Case 1:18-cv-00036-CW Document 41-1 Filed 04/19/18 Page 74 of 182

2 TlrI,: corlr\ilsstoN's vlsrr ro sAlfoA

Snmor hud been conductetl, had given littlc tlrouglrt nnd less ttten-
tion to Atnericuls main Soutlr Sea 1ns:":ession.
F ifteen degrees below the Equntur, more than 2,000 miles from
Honolulu nnd ?,000 miles fi'om the seat of governnrent at Washing-
ton, the 10,0u) l'olynesiurr ;rcople of Atnericun Samoa had continued
to gather their copru and live in prinritive sinrplicity under the coru-
plete control of the naval adntinistration. I'he islands had been
,. governed as a naval station. In native affairs there was no appeal
from the authority of the naval governr)r. fn executive, legislative,
and judicial dccisions his word rvas absolrtte. 'I'he governmentnl life
of American Somoa, so far as it concerned the Saruoan people, not
only bcgnn but ended within the gtograplrical lirnits of the 00 sluartr
nriles of juggo.l, tlr.nsel.v overgrown islands wltich werr force<l ubove
the level of tbe Pncitic Ocetn by volconic uction centuries ugo.
'I'he task of the wus tltrt of usr:u'tuining the resulLs of
of tlris isolatcd lxrsv,ssiorr by the Ntvy Depurt-
lhe administratiutr"uu,rrrissir-rn
ment. rvhat r:hulrgrs the 1rcople tlesilerl, nntl lrorv tlre.y cuuld best be
l.rrouglrt nlput.
SenRtor Hirurn llingharu, of Connect,icut, choirman of the Senate
Committee on Territories and Insular Affairs, served ns chairman of
the conrmission.
Others on the comtnission wcre:
Senator Joseph 'I'. Robinson, of Arknnsus, Demoerat, the leader of
his nartv in the Senate.
*prelentatite Carroll L. Beedy, of Muine, Reprrblican, mernber
of the Committce on Insulrr Afrnirs.
Representative (iuinn Williarns, of 'fexas, I)enr61p1'u1, mernbtr of
the Conrmittec on Irrsttlar AlInirs.
IJpurr arrivul itt l'ago Pago thestr four nretrrbet's were joined b.y
three natite ehiefs rvho hatl been uprlxrilte.rl to tlre eolrrnii*siolr by
President Onlvin Coolitlue. 'l'lrey rvere:
HiSh Chief Muugq ilistrict f,wcrnor of the eastern district of
Tutuila. Americrn Somoa. rnd one of the chiefs rvho sicned the
original document under which the island of Tutuilr had ffin ceded
to the Unitnd Stahs.
High Ctrief Tufele, district governor of the Manua district.
Chief Magalei, from the wt'stern tlistrict, rvho rvus counted a
rcpresentative of the Mau.
Consressionnl rrrernlrel's of thc commission be[an their inouirv into
the St'rnoan lttrrlrlenr, prior to being joirrerl by'the nutive'chidfs, in
rlaily rnrlctings on the (hnufut. rvhik en route ft'orrr Srn Pedro to
Pago Pngo.
At tlrrsc rrreetings rvas ('upt. !V. R. I,'urlong, chief of the office of
rslund governnlcnts of tlrt Nav.y l)r.lrrr0rrrrrrt. 'l'he utlnrinistlatiorr
of Atneriuul Sutrrrxr, the Virgirr Islntrrls, nnd Gunrn fall.s under this
olfice.
As the officer in clrnt'ge, Captain Furlrrng, had at his conrnrand all
available informution rcgnrding the prevliling administration of
Americon Samoa, but his prescrrce nro.unt, too, that the naval lroint of
view rvns constuntly and efticientl.l' represerrl.etl. Thus the naval
administrntion ahvays had a defender.
At the same time Ctptuirr Furlong wns in thc positiol of naval
aide to the commission antl had bceh designotetl by the President

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0036
Case 1:18-cv-00036-CW Document 41-1 Filed 04/19/18 Page 75 of 182

A ROAO ON 'T UTUILA AND A WALL OF NATIVE MASONEY _LI ME SSCURED
FROM CORAL
3

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Case 1:18-cv-00036-CW Document 41-1 Filed 04/19/18 Page 76 of 182

a

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I 1
AMERIGAN MEMEER6OF THECOMMISSION OECORATED WITH LEISAN ARRIVAL
AT HONOLULU
Itoirrrruutttlr'o Uuiun \\'illi[nrs; l(,lrul,ur lIiralrl Illngllrl.rn..(']tnlrttrrur; larflrrrxr.ols!11o ('truoll L,
llr'rrly: nlnl Son$lor Josol)h 'I'. ltobirrurn

I

COMM'SsION RETURNS ON BOARO "OMAHA" AFTER CALLING ON GOVERNOR
JUDD AT HONOLULU

Co,'glc 1,,--

0038
Case 1:18-cv-00036-CW Document 41-1 Filed 04/19/18 Page 77 of 182

TEE coMMIssIoN's vIsIT To sAMoA 5

as its disbursing officer. He also ssrved as liaison officer betweett
the comnrission and the comurand of tho ship.
For the studv of the cornmission this officer nsscmbled documents
important in tle history of American Samonl o cornplete record
of -its governnrent, its personnel and their functions, its costs of
operati6n and the'laws-under which it was ntlministcretll recom-
rriendntions sent to the President and to tho Navy Department by
irrdividuals who lud interestod themselves in Samorn affairs; the
draft of a proposetl organic act drawn qp_py a b_oald _consisting of
former goferrrors, Henry F. Br1'an ond Ddward S. Kellogg, antl
Judge tI. p. lYood, the-secrettry of natice affairs; and drafts of
tlrrei other organic acts prepared individually by former Gov.
Stephen V. Grahani, Gov.-Gatewootl S. Lincolrt, and by Coptain
F-urlong.
The iibrarv of the eommission also included what had been writ-
ten about the'Srmoen people by Commodore Cherles Wilkes, Robert
Louis Stevenson, and iri cuirenf publications by individuals inlerested
in Samoa.
With the depnrture of the Oma.ha from San Pedro, on_ Septem-
ber 11, the commissioners, in meetings each morning'and re-tr,ding
eaeh afternoon, attempted to absorb as nruch information as possible.
Although some members of the cornmission were visitgd by
Samoans-rvho were residents of the Pacific coast prior to the de-
rrarture of the comnrission from San Pedro, forrnal testimony was
irot taken until the conrrnissioners arrived in Honolulu.
EONOLULU

At obout 8 otclock on the morning of September 17, a bright, hot
dav, the Om,aha was welcomod to Honoluhi with the mttsic, flowers,
anil'friendliness characteristic of the Hawaiians. 'fhe cdming of
the Omnha was considered an event of importance and general pub-
lic interest I first, because of the lively interest in the Samontr prob-
lem of prominent men of llonolulu; second, because between 200
and 300- Samoans were resiclents of the comnrunity; and, third,
bccause Senator Binghnm wm born in Honolulu and is afrectionately
referred to bv the people of the territory cs " Ilswaii's Senator.)'
-cordial
Besides, Hinoluld's irature rvas to be to visitors. 'Wel'
coming shitrs was & ceremony which the people of the city enjoyetl
and niacti6ed with the sanre sentiment that the successful conclu-
sion bf long nnd arduous voysgcs by sniling vessels stirred a gell-
eration rgo I'ho Royal Howaiian Brnd, a,n _ organizetion maitt-
tnined bi the municipal government, e'xtended its greeting irr
Hawniiari tunes ns the'Omala was moored to the dock.- As n ges-
ture of their npnreciation members of the comnrission later draped
on the necks oi'the brndsmen ma,ny of the flower rvreoths, calied
t'in Hawaii, rvl ich rvere brouglit to them by friends and officinls
" leis
rvho sreeted therri. The latter included represehtntives of the temi-
toriaf governrnent, civic organizntions, and tho Army and Nnr.y;
many fiionds, prominent local politicians boing emong thent, hurried
aboaid tlte Oritnlw Bs soon as'lter garrgplonk rvas lowered to place
leis about the necb of the visitors-leis bf mony flowers-plrrmtria,
the sweet-scsnted yellow ginger, red roses, pink carnations, and
others abounding in the islands.

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0039
Case 1:18-cv-00036-CW Document 41-1 Filed 04/19/18 Page 78 of 182

/ 6 rttlr corll]rftssroN's vrslT To gAMoA

'fhe commission was joirrerl in Honolulu by Albert F. Judd, an
of that city, who had previorrsly been appointcd legal ad-
attornoy-Mr.
visor. Judd rvas presirlent of the Bishop I\luseum and had
been activoly identified in the elTorts to bring about a modification
of the Sarndan Oovernment. He was a boyhbod friend of Senstor
llinghorn.
The first mornins in Honolulu rvas devoted to official ealls. In
tho afternoon the c"ommission visited Bishop Museum and hearrl u
talk on Sanroan customs and culture by Dr. P. H. Iluck, who, fol-
lorving extensive res'earch in the Satnonrr Islands, had recently com-
grletecL an important book entitled " S&tnotn llloterial Culturc."
Copies of this book rvere given nrembers of the comnrission by
trustees of the tnuseunr.
In March, 1929, Herbert E. Gregory, chairrnan of the comnrittee
orr lracifir: investigatiotrs of the Natiorrnl llesenreh ('outtcil, inviterl
the comurission to tuke nrlvnntage of the facilities of the Bishop
Mrrseunr, of which he wns director. F)thrrologists of thet museurir
hnd made several trips to Sutnoa, ontl one of the nbjects of the
lrturings iu Honolulrt ivas to obtain their tcstimotry.
On the nrorning of September 1? public henrings were begun il
the Territorinl office building in Honolulu. Ilecleen 30 and 40 per-
sons were able to crorvd into the roorn to hear the testimony. A
larse nart of them were Sanrorns.
fit iroott of that day the nrembers of the comnrission rvere suest,s
of honor at n eonrnruriity luncheon on the roof garrlerr of the tr.lex-
onder Young Hotel in Honolulu. They were welc:ornocl by Gov.
Lawrenec M. .Iurkl. 'l'he prrryrartr included Hawaiiarr songs b.v
native girls urrd the lloyul lluu'uiirrn lland nnd talks by Senutors
IlirrElrurrr tnrl ltobitrson.
Oir tlre tlo sttcctrerling rrornings tlrc conrnrissir.rnels lretrtl wirlel.t'
vuryirrg poittts of vierv ott tlttr 'Sunloutr ptrrblrlrr. 'l'lre lrenrirrgs
brouglrt before the conrmissioners lJrttce (lurtrvright, trssociute in
trthnology of thc Bishop Muscum, ond L. A. Thurslon, publisher of
I. the Iloirolulu Advertisor, of Honolulu, trvo white lnen who had
visited Samoo on scientific espeditiorrs. f3oth men were in s.ym-
pathy with natives opposing thi naval adnrinist,ration. Their iug-
gestiorrs, rather than being specific, rvere that the comnrission direct
its inquiry into means of providing the Srrnonln greater opportu-
nities for rlovelopmcnt by nrodifying existing land larvs undei which
cotttrol is eorttttruntl ttttder tlre lteutls of fanrilis.s and is eorrfinerl
txclrtsivt.lv to full-blootlcrl Sartruulrs.
I)r. D.'b. I{trrrtl.y, trtlutologist of the l}ishop Museunr, pointerl out
that tlra Pol.vncsirurr,s _vorc not pruperll' rlescribetl ns o " prue l.Dce,"
being u nriitute of Mongoloid arid eaucssoid elements', and thit
discrimiuatiurr btrtn'eerr full-bloorletl tnd port-blooded Samoans was
unsound. On the other hand, he strongly defended such steps os
had been taken to preserve native customS rnd ursed that bsiriers
bs raiserl ag*inst tlie intrusion of white troders ani[ tourists.
Opposition to the naval adnrinistration tvas voiced by three
Sumoans, the first of whom, K. Su'a, had been a resident of Honolulu
for several years. Suta rvas followed by a young Somoan, Nelson
Tuitele, emfloyed by Theo. H. Davies &- Co., a la"rge firm iir Hono-

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Case 1:18-cv-00036-CW Document 41-1 Filed 04/19/18 Page 79 of 182

TUTUILA VIEWED FROM EASTERN END

HAHAON OF PAGO PAOO SHOWING CRUISER "OMAHA'' AND NAVAL STAI'ION
7

,-rl I lit rl !t rit
[' r.i, I r '., I
Go, 'gle tl ll i VER 5l T i' (_)F i,! l': r1l (r i\ l'J

0041
Case 1:18-cv-00036-CW Document 41-1 Filed 04/19/18 Page 80 of 182

ENTFANCE TO THE HARAOR OF PAGO PAGO

NAVAL STAYION AT PAGO PAGO AND SEAT OF GOVERNMENT
E

r-rli!lr rl:l',f
l_,r,; t1. , 1
Go. )gle l-il,ltVIRSlI r i]F :,,:tt: Fli'rir,f,l

0042
Case 1:18-cv-00036-CW Document 41-1 Filed 04/19/18 Page 81 of 182

TgE co![u$sroNts vIsIT To saMoA I
lulu. os o stotisticirn and aeeountont, who appeored for the Samontt
Civi'c Club. an orqanization of about ll0 Somoans in Honolulu.
: He had ilrrfteif a plan for a civilinn government for Samoa. [n
this hc had had tho nssistuncc of Art,lrttr Greette, o ncwNPspcl' lrrull
of Honolulrr who wns deporterl fronr Suntoo by thc navol adminis-
tprtion in 1920 follorving-n naval irrrluiry into lottrces_of oppositiorr
, to the naval governtttenl. Mrs. Greene, n melttlrcr of o promiltent
rnrt-sumoan iumily. wtrs Dresetrt et thc heorings. 'fhe witness in'
ituded in his lrlans''a budg'et covering the cost_ot.govcrnment which
led to sharp ^.ross-extnrinution by Senator Rofinson, developing
the thought'that the Samoan people were paying and wero able to
pav onlv-a small share of the-cosl of theii govelnment, the major
iroition beins naid bv the Federal Governrneirt.
^ Soi*it"d ciiticism 6f certain incidents of tho naval administrution
.o-t f.o* a vouthful Sarnoen named Napoleon Samoa Tuitelelea.
paga who wm'in Honolulu strrdying at theTerritorial normel school
int the Universit.y of Hawaii. He-obiected to the supreme authorit,v I

of the naval goveinor but asked that native cttstoms, escepting denth
feasts whichivere n hertv-y drqin on fanrily resollrces, be perpetuntetl.
'l'he comnrission heard also of the ca-se of n Samoan who harl
servorl in the Navy for ntore than 10 years and sttbsequently rvas nd'
rnitted to the nav-al l'esel've but whos-e opplicaiion for u positiolr in
the civil servico was denied because he was classified as &Il t'&lien.t'
TIIE TRIP SOUTH

The commissioners tlren turned to the problem of drafting a bill
-of rishts for the SarnoRns. It was asre'ed on the basis of-the in-
formition available at this point that t-o extend all the provisions of
the Constitution to American Somor would urrset customs which
had been in practice for yerrs. Notable among-these rvas the right

C.r 8lc
0043
Case 1:18-cv-00036-CW Document 41-1 Filed 04/19/18 Page 82 of 182

10 TrrE comMrssloN's yIsIT To saMoA

,of trial b.y jur.y. The Saruonn prnctice for generations had boen
to bring .inend"ers to trial before chiefs. To-adopt the Americpn
systom tn the face of this cttstom and in the absettce of any experience
or conception of the Anrericalt systrm of trial by jury appeared to
be extrernelv unwise.
'l'he corninissiones, l11l1vevcr, rcservetl all tlecisions until being
joirred b.y the Suttrontr tttembers in I'ago Pago. Nevertheless, it wtus
.irrbseouoirtlv founcl that thcv rvere c"orrect"in this conclttsion. Of
ull th'e mnriy rvitnesses who-testifietl in Samoa not one asked for
trial by ju"y; those who spoke of the judicial system expressed
satisfsiti6n with '( trial by chiefs,t' but asked that an appeal from
the decisions of the hishGt court in Sarnoa be ellowed.
Considenrtion of a tiitt of rights rvas continued ott the following
tlav. The conrmissioners took- the first eielrt ntttendntents to the
Co'nstitutiotr attd studierl thern with relati6n to tlre possihilit.y of
incorJ;oratirrg thettt in n bill of rigtrk for the S$,ttrotns. A tentative
tlraft of n biJl of riglrts rvrrs broright rrJr fot' tliscussiott.
t' We shnll reuclr rro cortclrtsion now,tt Sertntor Ringlrun Bltttotutcetl.
" \Vc shall ask the Snrnorn rnenrbers of the eotrrttrission for their
srrgge.stiotrs first. 'l'hen rve will offer out's;. We are not goilg to
Suliioo with n platfornr in our ptrkots with orders to siglt."
On this poiui of view Senatoi Robinson, rvho broughf n higlrly
trained legol nrind to the commission, was especially insistent. This
rvas his fiist visit to Samoa. Of the eongressional pnrty only Selr-
ator BinEhnm had visited the islands before. Senator Robinsorr
wanted tb hear from the Sarnoans thenuelves before reaching con'
clusiorrs. His se.arching cross-exnminations on m&ny occasions vexed
nrore than one rvit,ness 6ut ndroitl.y unfolded infornintion and points
of view valuable to the commission.
As the Onwha approached the Equator that afternoon the conr-
nrissioncrs. togetlrci-rvith rnerrrbers bf the ('rtw, surl'enrlereel their'
irrlerest in Salnon to ptry hornage to King Neptune in e.eretttotties
rvhich eorrtittuerl until troott the next rlny.
On tlrrr tla.y follorving the eonunissioncts tttrned ottctt lttot'e tt-r
tlreir study of the Snrnoiiir problem. In executive session on 'I'hur.s-
,lny ruorning they tlit'er:tetl'their inrltir'.v into some of tlte clrtr;,'es
'Sairon,
agirinst the'navai administrntiotr of brorrglrt by lreople otr
the mainland in lctters to officials of the Navy l)epartnrettt, to the
r:onmission, and in magazirte articles. Man.v of them showed only
t,hc rnost rerrrote conception of the Samonn problellt and malty con-
tained misstatements, Sttch os the allegntion-that the Samonns rvere
rleprived of the benefit of wharf and h-orbor fees. Senntor Binghnrn
nrr-nounced that rccorcls showecl all funds rcceived from these sotlrces
und custurns revenues rvere used tlirer:tly for the SamoRn people.
Senator Ringhnrn announced at this-yroint that inqrriry hal con-
vincetl him thdre rvas rto truth to the chnrges that the Nav'y was
rlestroying Sanroan custonts. On tho contrlry, he said. tlre Nlvy
t'
had sei up rieid bamiers against " atnbitious rvhite tnctl by restrict'
irrg owneishin of lanrl to the natives, limiting leases to 40 ye&r's'
tn'd prohibiting rvhitc trntlers from t'xtending cretlit to ttativcs
bcyoritl $2!"r under' pcnrlty of cancellation of dcbts whero they ex'
ceoclctl tliis anrount.

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Case 1:18-cv-00036-CW Document 41-1 Filed 04/19/18 Page 83 of 182

HAFIBOR OF PAGO PAGO

VILI.AGES ON A BAY OF TUTUILA
808{6-ill-.2 il

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0045
Case 1:18-cv-00036-CW Document 41-1 Filed 04/19/18 Page 84 of 182

I
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I
*
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THE SAMoAN AND /qMERICAN MEMBERS OF.COMMISSION ON BOARD THE
.'OMAHA''

POYEF SCHOOL, PAGO PAGO. WHERE MO5T OF THS HEARINGS WERE HELD
BY THE CoMMISSIoN

)
Grt,'glc lt.-,-'-, ,,1 i. '1 I

0046
Case 1:18-cv-00036-CW Document 41-1 Filed 04/19/18 Page 85 of 182

TEE COMItttSStONrs VIfiIt TO SAMOA 13

lhus. n wide field had alread-y been coverod by the congressional
rnembcis of the commission pribr to the morning of September pG
rvhel tlro islands of Americ-an Samoc appeared to thoso on the
O;n?nlw through e drizzling rain. The coin-missionsrs had reld all
[[e recsnt refork of the -naval government; stu-died the costs of
ihe naval ndririnistration; read thi proceodings of several meetingt
of the fono. the council'of chiefsf heard authorities talk on the
eustonrs of the Samoan people; onil inquired into chorges against
the
-Theexistins svst€m of government.
nro"srim for l-i davs in Samoo was complete. Arrange-
ments liad"been msde to liold hearings in all important villeges.
(.'lose to ?5 DeoDle. most of them Sumorn chiefs, had responded
to the generdl iirvitation to appear before the commission to ofier
their silsaestions for the fuiure government and to voice any
grievandJthat they might have against the naval rdministration.
PAOO PAOO

Ilv 8 o'clock the Ornalw had come to anchor in the deep, quiet
rvat6rs of Paeo Paso Harbor. Thc prevailing wind, a light south-
east trade, d'&s frim the n&rrow mouph of !-he b+y.- High o1 thg
east side o? the entrance was the towering bulk of " the rcinmoksrr"
rvhose wide, level top broke the low cloulls carrying-moisture frorn
the south. 'The gathering of clouds about thii peak foretold fre-
ouent showers,
' tr'rom this point the ridce dropped to lower levels, then rose agein
to a steep pr6tecting barrier whjch extended irregularly for soveral
miles to^tfie north."then turned sharply to the south-to surround
the bay on three sides. On the prombn-tory at the west side of the
cnt,rante, facing the winds of the south, was the residenee of the
qovernor.
" D"nt", dark green foliage eovered the landseape, nrude hazy by t5e
rrrorning sfiowdrs. ]'rorn-the ridge surrounding tho bay -tho larlrl
'and stretch of ground,
tlroorreii sharplv from the clouds tda narrow,level
in sbine placei iinly wide enough for a road a few houses at the
wrterts edge.
On the "rvestern side of the bav. close to the entranee, rvas tlte
naval station. the colorless wharf. wsrehouscs, radio towetts, oil stor-
ase tank6 of western civilization,'and the weli'kept yards of officerst
h6mes. all of uniform frame coristruction. On tho-east side Poyer
School. a low, e.oncrcte sCrttcture, once altnost white, stood out ploinly.
lVhere werb the notiye homes! Set beneath the coconut trees thet
rose olong the shoro line ond bravely pushed their tops abovs the
-slhost
t,rorrical ftxurisnce, &t some point^s halfway up the steell
clifrs. wene m&.Irv Samoan houses. Of dried sugilreons leaves, the
browh of whichblendert into dominating green df the picture, the.v
could scorcely be seen. Onlv here and fhers a clearing revenled
a native hebiiation. Many ofhers, hemmed in by the dense growth
of hot. domp tronicol dovs. wert invisible.
The'natural nestrictioni of isolotion and lirnited stretches of arable
land wero mauifest, but frorn the standpoint of shipping, the bay rvas
one of the most niotected aEainst hurricanes in the South Pacific'
Throughout thtiir stoy in Sirmot tho congressional mentbers of tho
commission mads theirhome on the Omalw.

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l4 TttE coMlrttssloNts vIBIt To BAMoA

ADrrcarnttce of the Onaha in t[e hnrbor brought nlu,tl.y ne[ive boats
nlon's;ide corryirtg the brown people of Somorl all of ihem frientlly
and Eurious. Sorn'e came in drleortts less than 10 feet long nnd otheis
in Iong rowboats which cerrieil Bs nr&tly as 24 oars, t?.gl oaclr:icltr,
nnd half egain ss rn&ny crccupants, men, women, and children. They
crme with-baskets and buntlles of native protlucts, tape cloths, kavn
bowls. grass skirts, matsr war clubs, nrodel wor c&noes, and a multi-
tude of,other trirrkets for truding purpos.cs. Within less than an
hour between 25 and 30 of these- sinoll craft were gathered about
the stern of the Onnhq whers the exchangs of their wares for the
white man's clothes coritinued almost without interruption during
the entire visit of the Omaha.
The Oma,ln. however. rvas bent on o tnore serious mission. At the
navnl station'in the distnnce the conrmissioners caught their first
slimnse of the Fita Fita guard as it approac[ed the govet'npr's
fandihg on the rvestern side df tlre bny, mur-ching in quick step behintl
its band.
The Fita Fita gunrd is n eotttparry of Samoslts, tlte_men of whiclr
arr selecte{ for their fihysictl fitness, ond maintained as e regttltr
pnrt of the navnl estaLrlislunetrt to lrcrform the rlrrties of tttarines.
its costunre is ttnitrue in the liavv, consisting of a brirnless cap of
r.erl cloth nboui 3 i1c[es lrigh, n-Nar'.y rngrilation undershirt, and
n lava lava of black broadcloih nrouncl the Fottom of which nre fronr
two to four red stripe.s, the nunrber of stripes ilepending upon service
or rank. The feet and'legs arc bare, according to the wise prevailing
custom of the countrv.
At the foot of tho-governor's landing the guard came to a halt.
Streins of the Star-SFangled Banner resouncled acnrss the bly and
members of the comrnissidn, interested spectators on the bridge deck
of the Omn'ha, came to attention.
Shortlv ofi,erwartls the Satnonn chiefs, Marrga (pronounced
I[auns-a). Tufslc. alrtl Magulei (pronouncerl M.ang-alay), came
abouril |,lte Omnhn' rvitlr trvo'interpiiters, (ieorgc Poters and Cross-
lield Hunkin. 'fho three chiefs airlnared on the rnain deck of t'he
Onaha. rrenrittg rvhite linen coats, t6ttorr skirts (" lava.lavas ") r3nll
bnrefootetl. to'ioin the other ntentbers of the contntissiotr. llaeh
earried & cane.' only Magalei rvore e hat, his headpiece boing a
Irrse. white pith helfiet common in the Tropics.
Mausa and Maealei rvere elderlv men of wrinkled cortntenences,
spare 6i body,_.ollcmn and dignified in nr'nner. Tufele was heavy
set, young, and vtgorous.
f6eir &rstunre #as the accepted dress of the natives. The skirt,
or lava lnva, rvrts a rvide pieed o!-g!o-th swung Sbgut tho wsist and
estenclilrg ju,st belorv the k:nees. With some variations it is worn by
rrrost ureil, woutell, nnrl chiltlrett of tho islrnds. 'lhe tnen At work
11rul in thbir hortres oftett leuve tlte llpper portiotts of their botlies
bnre. Occasiotrnll-V thev rveur undershirts but rnrely-stritnble
hats artd shoes,
tlie absence of bolh sliirts and sltoes being nrore to their
wa,rm. rninv climote.
The Snnl-onn chiefs rvere ttslterod into the admiral's querters where
other menrbers of the contttrission arvaited tlteltt. Magblei presented
the visiting cotttmissioners with o kavn root, atl espression of friend'
ship comlnon in tho islands.

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SAMOAN WOMEN BRINGING GIFTS OF FINE MATS AND TAPAS TO THE COM-
MlsgloN

FITA FITA GUARD
l6

-r,.i; l,r
Go*'gle
i

lii'l r.rifl',ri ' rti .'l{ -1 r-i',iJ

0049
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COMMISSION AT THE GUEST HOUSE OF HIGH CHIEF MAUGA
l0

{.r Co,'gle
0050
Case 1:18-cv-00036-CW Document 41-1 Filed 04/19/18 Page 89 of 182

TED coMMISsIoN
ts vtslt ro sAMoA L7

With e thousht to the sienificonce which the Samoans attached to
thiJ event, tho-organizatio-n of the conunission wa-s nttended with
considerable coretionf. Senator llinghnrn presented eoch member
-medal.
with en anpropriate struck oE in the United Statss mint.
His sueees'tion ihat it be woin whenever the commission rvas on duty
rvas fa"if,hfully followotl. Each commi*sioner received -alsg, as tn
e Malscca c&ns on which was B
odclitional baiEe of his position,."American
siiver bancl beiring the rrords Samonn Commission,
l930.tt In Samoa iiis the custom for nearly all chiefs to carry c&nesr.
Mr. Judd read the act of Congress approved February 20r 1029'
which accented the cession of the islands and ruthorized the appoint-
ment of thi conrmission. Senator Binghtm carefully explainerl the
work of the congressional lnonrbers ol the commission up to.that
rrcint. He then.aeclarins that all decisions had been reservetl fot'
hnal action bv the full cdnrrrrission, asked for the approvll of the
uooointment 6f Mr. Judd as legsl advisor-
^Chiefs T\rfele and Magalei rs[ented but Maugn objected. He sritl
that Mr. Jucld had beeri-in correspondence wifh t[6 Mau and in s
low, quiet voice exprcssed the opinion that a legal advisor was
untrecessatY.
'3The L,6rd in heeven will be the advisor for the commission," he
soid. but added that in as far as the other two chiefs agreed to the ap-
pointment. he, too, would agree. He espressed the hope that Mr.
Iudd wouid pbrfoim his duty without.partinlit-y'
- Risins
" to'a point of nerSonal privilege,' Mr. Judd denied that
he had Eeen in dorrespondence with the Mnu, with whose s,ctivities
Mausa was not in sYmPathY.
Mi'galei, a memb6r 6f th_e Mau,.responded-that this rvas true rnd
that n"o coirespondence had passe,l belween Mr. .Iudd and the Mau.
Senator Bingham then unllertook to explain in detail the reosons
for the selecti;n of Mr. Judd. He said-that his grandfather and
Mr. Judd's mandfather had lived near each othei ond had been
amons the frrst missionaries to Howaii; that their fsthers were
frienfs. his father soins to the Gilbert Islnnds us a missionary and
id.-J"he;; i;6;; Bu..o'*iur chief iustice of Hawaii, and thal Mr.
Juddts iuterest in seeing tftiit iustice be done the Sanioatrs had been
so sreat and his insistEnce tliat steps be taken so strong that he,
Sen-ator Bingham, had introdr{ed- in the Senate the resolution
crertinc the iomnrission tlren in Sumoa.
As ltrh. Judd's grandfather had been legal advisor to the Ha-
waiians, Senator Bingham said, it was approprryte that the present
Mr. Judd should act iir a similar capacity to the Samosn comtnission.
old Mauga's wrinklcd face brighfencd. He said that he knew therr
that Mr. .l-uaa rvas his friend o-nd rvas perfectly satisfied with thtr
tofffiilaT:t""*ption
of rufolo, o henvy'scl, powerful man of 83
veors. who had his
r-ec'eivetl educution in the Hilo Borrding School
6f Hilo, Hawaii, the chiefs did not speak English. Tlte conver-
-sation ahd proce6dings, therefotv, had [o be conducted through the
nredium of t-hs Samorin ltnguage. Three ilrterpreters, George Peters,
Alex T.'Willis, and George Reid, subsequently sat with the comnis-
sion at its public hearings, olterlrattrly interpreting tfie testitnony
and occasionally disputing onrong themselves the propol' translntiotr.

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18 TIIE collMlltstoN's vIsIT To sAMoA

willis and Reid rvere both port.somoans who had .received their
-otfrut
-a"riiiiii-in .ou"itiot, whifq Peters w&s a fu!-bloodeil Sa-
;;-;;iil ir"a Ueer-*au"ntia They had been
in _British Samoa.
*ii.*t"a os representing different factions to eliminate any charges
- ;f;;"tl"titv
as to their translstions'
"^.fh;"$;'doi itt"."uricy
.tti"ti, h,a"ving approved the work of th.e commission
th;'f;";'i;ft'trte;;amirat% .dobin," had wearing his medal and
.u""Iexplaiq.ei
.*r.ui*'fris cane. SJnator Binghnin the precedence
that'rvai to be follorved; the choirmsn first' then Senator l(obnson.
-Cbngrers*an
tfrnrur.^un n*uAy, _Williains, Mqugr, Tufele, and
M;;1i;i:ild oider throughout the visit to Samon
"-iE-;; ti.u this wa*s observed
cummi."ion's first duty to cdll on Governor Lincoln.
A|it l"ft iiu Orr*n" a salute of 1? luns reverberatetl through.Pago
Puso Hutbor. 'fhe conrntissioners went ushore in tlte capteln's grg
irri,Tnft.. being formoll.t' t'eceived were escorted to the island admin-
;;i;-ii;; uuit,Iing. A'second his
salute rvns fired as tlte commissiott
--With-it*
calletl on the govErnor at office.
i6rmalities eourpleted the commission returned to the
O;;i;.*-trur* it receir.ed a ieturn call frorn Got'ernor Irincoln and
J"ae;-H.-P. Iv'tnrl, seeretary of native nfrairs, who were invited
to st'ay for lunch at noon'
IIDANINOS AT POTER SCH@T,

That sfternoon the fornral hearings were begun at Poyer School,
tocncga ocross the bay from tlre naval stltion. Poyer School wos
irurnua after Commnritler Jolrn M. Poyer, tl. S. Nq"y,.who serverl
i; S;;; or Gunu.n,rr fr.orn lDlD to 1910. It is u srnall, single-.storie{
*t.ucturu of eonct'ete, set btek ulxrut 100 feet from the rvater's edge
and above t[e road whi<.h elrcin'les the bay. It is surrounded by an
oDen yer&ntlr nnd, irr otltlition to tha maih rrxrttr, which is about ?5
fiet in wiatl nud 50 fcet in deptlr, hus sntall elassrooms no both sides.
On o raised platfornr at thd buck of tlte assembly roorn and look-
ins out on Paio Paso Boy a long table was orralrged with chairs
foi the sevcn irrernbErs of- the coirmissiott. Settator Binghnm sat
rn the center. Abore o blaekboard back of Senator Binghann rn
American flag harl been drawn in croyott colors on tlre- white wall
and at soute-rlistrtnce on either side wele pictrtres of Washington
nnd Lineohr. stanrlord portraits in half t<rhes. High on the left
wall rvus the'fnrniliar etigrrrvittg slrtrtriltg the rsignirrg of the Decla-
r.ation of Irtrlept'ltrlt'lt,.e. On- tlre leff wnll hrtltg a llicture of
Woodrow lVil.srn.
ft was lrtrc thgt ttttxt of tlte lr'slittx)lr1'lvuri ltett'rl. T[c first hear-
irrs rvus uttclrtlctl lrv ubottl l'rl) trrtlivcs. tttost of tlteur r:hiefs. The
titTe of c[ief is ttot' ttttt'ottttttolt itt Atttt't'it:ttrt Sutttou, bUt therc ura
tlegrees in rank. With ferv est'eplions tltose rvho testitied were
ut"least tttutais. A rnutui is the heatl of n furnily grollp, some of
which contain os ferv as 17 and othem tnore than 100 persons' judg-
('tnlkingIncltiefs.tt
ing from statentents of witnesses.
chTefs, cottnty chiefs. and
additiol to tnatais rvere village
Of ihe tolking cliiefs the comiirission henrcl nrony. l]ach hig]r
r:[ief had his tolking chief. 'I'hey rvere their slxrkestrttttt und literally
lived up to t,heir rrriiqrre titles by rkrirrg tlrr l,ulkirrg fol tlreir chie{s.

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TlrE coMMIEsIoN t$ vlstr ro sAMoA 45

cnrrtuin l'urlong, short of stnture, w&s less of o ploblern and
stredtled the bnc[ of t Samuttn who thrust an artrr under each
rrf the cantailtts ltss atrd carried him onto the beach while tho cnp-
tain hetd on to hil bearer's neck. Ent'lt ttternbor of the llnrty wus
currietl nsltore by otte or trvo Sttttrontts, tlependitrg ttpon the sizc nntl
rvcishi of the burdcn.
'Itre village of Tau, renlly made up of twin yill-uges, rvus the realm
'fnu
of Tufcle. in'a grovtt o1 lralnrs which stretchetl for hun-
allns the coial beach. A hard path was terraced
dreds of vartls "olro*ed
' ofr near the water. wide enoush for s road- ThCre were, howov€r,
- no vehicles on Tau. A similar-roarlway
_ was markod off by n curbing
of rocks in rcar of the houses. At intelvals were holes in tho ground
in rear of the village wherc rubbish was burned. Everything was
orderlv attd clean.
Huriclreds of nren, wonten, and children greeted the comrnissioners.
The melr rvere bare to the hips, eround which werc wrapped tapa
lava lavas. Many wore strinp'of seeds, florvers, a1{ .shells rround
their necks. Moit of t[e woiiort, too, rvtle betlccked in their tapn'
cloth sarmerrts which covered thiir bodies frorn their necks to their
knees.- Their arnrs and lower legs rvere ba-re, as were their feet.
Children ran about witb lava laias of cloth around their rvaists,
while smaller tots appeared with nothing on at all.
The primitive. bi'6rvn throng rvandered about under tall, green
palms. ^ Above was a blue shi sprinkled contrastingly wittr fleecy
blouds while beyond a bluer sea swlshed gently along the sandy beach
in a shimmerins silver surf. Picturesque foles stood on every srde.
Children plaved in tho shellow water on the rmf. Hers was o real
life pictuie inote enchanting than ever ptiltcrl by authors' words
o. aitists' brush, too magriifiecnt to be- reproduced in any other
medium save realitY.
Tufele- district dovurtto". walked rrrotrrll-v etecc at tho head of his
rrconle. His leade.Tshin unrl the toil'of his'brvlr hands had uratle this
'He
iittiso what it rvns. had extcnclcd the cocottut pnlms fultlter'
,,r, tfr* mouptain sitle. He rvas striying to increuse his people's
and bring thetrr wealth frorn biggcr coplo crops.
'ui'operty
The clriefs nsserribled in a, flle for the [enrings. lllals rvcre sprcatl
over the coral floor, rvhere all sat cross-legged exeellt the conrlnis-
sioners, rvho were given the cortrtesy of chairs.
i fn T'su the peoi'le rvere pretty 'ivell satisfied with the naval gov'
r ernrlont. The fir;t witness. a liich chief, told the comntission that
Samoans understood first tha't annexdtion by the United Stltes
'the
mea;t the people-leai'netlwould rective Ameriean citlzenship. Since the
j pcople ftad tlrrorrgh tltc conrtnissiqn that thid ftnd^not yet
' b*; crnnted he asketl that the ro('onlrtlentl to Congress
. that Sa.nroRtts be givcn tlris "ur,rrnilisir)n
stutrts.
'I'hr.ee others rc.iterrtetl this desire utttl tslicd likervise for t t'ept'e-
sentative government, sayittg they spoke, for the entire Jllatrua gl'otlP'
l" Anothef chief brotisht up the-qrrestion of old So.ntorn titles. He
, asked that Samoans b6 perriittcd to retain old chieftain names, nten-
. tionins specifically the'title of 'I'uinranua. In 1924 the peoplo of
Tou n"amed Hieh Chief ChristtT. Yorrng, of Laloalon, a querter'
white Somoanrlfuimanua, or I(ing of- Manua'tt Governor l(el'
logg ordered that Young should nof hold this title because under

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46 'rltn cottMtssluli's vlslT To sAMoA

the Amerit:utt flag there could be lro kings. thr9.e-rlnys later, to
ovoid confliet bef*'ecn ditferent faetiolrs for the title, Mr. Young
rvrs orderetl banishetl from l\Ianrra to Pngo Pago, rvhere he was
obliged to rentain in exile until early in 10301rvhen-Governor L,incoln
rai6d the balislrttrent attd infornred Young he would cgnsider his
reouest for the title if lte uttderstootl that if would me&n nothing in
goi'*rn-entnl matters, rvhich was ogreeable to Yqrtg and-his peoplg.
" Then, in accorclnnce with the Samosn law, Young filed for his
title wiih the secretory of natiye afrairs. However, Tufele and his
followers contested th6 claim, moking it necessary to corry the title
case to court for triol.
Mr. Young himself appeared to tell his story, but the commis'
-invoh'ed
sioners refuJetl to hear ihis testimony since it a disprrte
rlmlv in court.
IXsiite the rivalrv between Mr. Young. who rvas alreatly selecled
for tlie title by hii foilowers,'ofterand Tufele, rvlto conteS€a it, Mr-
Youns visited'Tufele's ltouse the heurings nnd participnterl
- in the"feast. The trvo treatetl each other, ap1>nr+lrtly, with cordial-
it.y. Otlrer Srruorns explained it was the- iustotrr to forget sttch
cdntroversies rvltett visitirie at otte attotherts homes.
'Ihe afternoon wus spei-t witnessing a series of tlances and enter'
tainnrents. School chil?lren sang and drilletl'
Some trvo dozen bo.ys stoged a siva siva which lasted about 30
ruinutes, during which-time [heir arms, legs, bodios, ond heads were
constend,ly actiie in rhythmic motion. Ttie movements of the entire
tj",llj:"" ind executed with o staccato characteristic of
fifgffi:girls, clacl in skirts of fine mots, with- garlends nround
Prett-v
their neckE nnil in their hnir', sottte of thenr'bare from the waist up,
dantred in the olrl Sutnoatt stvle. Srv<rrrl dancers provitled u variety.
O1e latl kelrt his knife rrhirliug for 10 rttittttttrs, seenriltgly with the
y6piditv of an ttirpltttte propelk'r. Not ottce tlrtring that time, in
w6i"h he execrrted'all tlia tl'icks of n skillcrd drum'mu,jor with s
baton, tlid the boy tlrop his klrife.
At bne time hi prtrgioselv whirlotl the blatle under Senator Bing-
ham's nose, but so ikillfut liatl been his perfornrance that the Senator
had full confitlenes and never blinketl en e.ye.
In the meontime tlte Ornnha had been steaming about ofi shore
between Tau Islnnd and the twin islands of Ofu and Olosega, which
loomed, mountainous and rugged, &cross a channel some 8 miles
rvide.
'I'wo airplanes, piloted by Lieutsnant Allison nnd Lieut. P. H.
froni the deck of lhe Ontaha nnd after cir-
'-l'trz,o. were catntiult.o,l
clinq'thc islandi depurterl for Pago Pago Harbor, some 00 miles
rrwa-v. 'I'hev covered thc tlistntrce in 35 ittitrutes atttl rvere believetl
to lrive beerithe first to mrke tho flielrt.
The native"s, most of rvhom had* never seen ttn airplane- befor,o
watched with i<een interest as the airplanes disnppcared high in the
blue skv.
-procession
The of tlto nrorning wls relnnted as the commission
and its bnrtv nroceeded to the landing.
In t[i mc-aritinre tho rising tide nnd rvintl harl createtl a high surf
which broke over the reef. Experiencerl eves sun'c.vul the situation
and it rvas dec,ided o boat could snfely ernbark.

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TIIE gouMlsstoN ts vlslr ro sAMo^ 53

me I lntroduced a resolqtlon wlrlclr passed tlre Congress ln 1029 rvhlelt dld fttr
Stmoa what the orlslnal oeceptsuce of the cesslon of Hawall dld for Hawall.
'Ihe words were Yerli much the some'
*e accepted the ee-sslou of these islande lW t1e chlefc of Tutulla and Manua.
We set astde any publle lands tbat may be ln Tutulls and Manua for the sake
of educttlon trr ifrerlcno Samoa, We dld not graut Aulerlcan cltlzenghlp' but
rve autborized u eourulsslon to come here untl studJ tlle sltuation and to rec'
ommend to tlre Oongress the necessary lawB to establlsh lI perlDtrngn! Sqvern'
ment ln Amerlcan Simoa. The Corrgress passed thlg r€olutlgn and the Presl'
dent stgned tt. In accorrlaucs wltlr that law and by dlrectlon of the Preetdent
ive navi come hert to inv€stlgote and to recommend to Congress the necessary
organle larv fOr a governnerlt, -Just -as--the conrtnlsslgn appolnted under the
Ilirtallau aeceptqoci of cesstotr had stmllar dutlel to perform.
'Ihe l\Ilu Eppeerail wel_l__ organized and pr€sented testimon,y
tfirous[ three iriokesnren. 'fheir testimony wtrs coherent nnd colt'
structTve und stobd out &s rcpresentitrg lppliently the only organized
ctfort before tltc cottttttission.
Chief ltanette, o lreovy.set ntrrtt, strikilrgly lttrtrdsonte, wus the first
srrcnker. IIe stirke witli deep etttr.rtiotr ts lre snid that he 1't'p1'ssetttt'rl
t;1000 Somoens] 'I'he Sturs oird Sttipes lturl pt'ovtrtl rr blessiirg to the
Srrmonn p€ople, he saitl'
" lYe hi,vo-achieved otle of our obiectives in onnexstiont &ltd now
we desire citizenship," he declared.
Chief Lui. of Vaiirisi, wfft next on ths wittless stond.
The peop[e of Samii yere,hqppyr I31ri said, until Lieut. Com-
mendef C.- H. Boucher, Uniteil Stai€s N""y, came about a decads
before and told them that Americnn Samoa w&s not annsxed to
it e UniteA States and that they were not American citizens. After
the Amenictn firg wrs raicod in lgm tho peoplo thought they wsre
citizcoe
IAmericon
The statenrents of lloucher tnd otlters were enlightening, he
snid. arrd the Mtu wus fortncrl to obtuin annexution, citizenship, onrl
g rebresentotive govertrtttertt. Since the President of the United
Statis hrd eppoiited the eontnrissiotr the l![au was satisfied, Lui
ssid.
Ohiaf Geleni, one of the two chairmen of the Mau, Magalei being
the other. then appeored to describe the wishes of tho MBu.
The Mau, he'iaid, wanted citizenship. It desirtd thot part
Samoans of 2n per cent or more Somoon blood be given the right to
buv lends and that persons with any percentage of Samonn blood
- he-siven the rieht tolnherit lands.
.[t thls poinl the commission produced a document sub-mitted by
the Mau siotine that tho orgnniiation wns in favor of n low lilnit-
ing inheritance-of lantl to iiorsons of of leost 25 per ccnt Sotttotttt
blfrd, oftering u slight tliseiepultcv with Gtloai's testinrony.
Thd docurnEnt rclertrl to ivns rvritterr by Sam Ripley' of Rich'
rnold, Cnlif., atttl sigtrctl b.y munv chiefs. (io,lsai tnstificd that t[o
Ilfur sent Ripley $1,?70 florn 1025 to 1028 for use in atlvnnciTg tl.re
c&use of tho Si.ttrootts, nnd loter sent anothar $800 to Ripley in
1928 to rxr.y the erpenses of hirnself and Mrs. Ripley, his wife, to
Samoa s'u fhev misht testify before the commission.
ft rvas brought-out that-the tliscrepancy wts due to the round-
about wav in -wtrictr tho paper had been drawn qp for the eortt-
'somoans
nrission. wrote a numbor of letters to Riplby, all of which
outlined their desireg und Ripley then drew up the document which
rvas submitted to th6 conrmissii,n. A was sent to the Mlu.
"opy

Clo glc
0055
Case 1:18-cv-00036-CW Document 41-1 Filed 04/19/18 Page 94 of 182

54 THn coMMtssloN ts vlstr ro sAMoA

A translatiorr wus made in Satnonn for the bonefit of pensons sigrt-
ing the documont.
Galeai told how each comrnitteenran w&s rcsiponsible for the sig-
natures in his respective villnge and that Somontrs signing the
documenb were supposed to have first read the translation.
'Ihe paper also ituted that the Mau wus in favor of n low limiting
the arnbuht of money whieh persons might pay churches to 10 pei
cent of their incomes.
The commission questioned Gnleai, who said that this was the
belief of the Mau. benator Binghnni said that in Arnerican Gov-
ernment it rvas not the custotn to limit {r person in his contribution
to such c&usos. He asked Galeai wltether he knew the story from
the Bible of the widow's mite. She gove her all and was blessed,
Ilinshnnr recalletl.
" Yes," replied Galeai, '( Ilut she gove of her own free will.tt
"'fhe'Sarioen," lre contittuetl. " seeks to otrtgivo his rreighbor, rvitlr
the result that t.lre t)ool'nl&n l)ovs nlol'e thun he is oble."
Again there wns'the Surnorinicast for the contntissiorrers, followed
by entertainnrent.
-Tho feature of this rvas a singing contest between four groups of
about 30 voices each. 'Ihe singens were dressed in tapo lava lavns.
The Samoans, naturally nrusical, rvere at their best, and each group
perfornred so well that Senator Bingham, who was to award prizes
to the winner, decided to call it a draw all around. As a iesult,
each sroup was given $10 bv the cornmission.
In'ihe3amoin custom gifts of tapa cloth, fine mats, coconuLs,
and beads were presented to the rrtembers of the comrnission.
A grorrp of Boy Seruts stnged a drill, after which one boy recited
the scout law and anotlter the scout oath.
Chief Tuitelo, district goverllor of tho rvestern tlistrict, told nn
allesoricrl story of how 6-rst tho Sanroans were fed bv the sods of
the iea. Then, when they tteedetl more food, the.y weie fcd-by the
sods of the land, who gave thenr fruits tnd vegetablos.
" The conrparisott, ns-dra-wn by this chief, sho,wed- how,_first the
Nayv goveinment of the finitetl States came like the sods of the
sua.' ihu time was at hand, Tuitele continued, when Sanr6ans needed
a new govornmenC-civilinn governmetrt.
Senutor Binghnnr replierl, thankirrg the chief for his remarks, nnd
stating that hC, personally, rvould do all in his powcr to persuode
Clonsr-ess to Eririt Arneriian Sanroatrs American bitizenshid.
Iiwas theErst tlefinite pronouncement from the commission, indi-
t,nting the trentl of the lricrtrbers' thrtttghts, rtt<l rvus receivecl witli
grttilit:ution try the chiefs.
lIu.{RrN(;rJ cLOSE

S:rlrrrclny, Ortc,lxrr 4. tltt' cottttttissiun tttot'etl bnck to Poyer School
at Pago Pugu to urtttlrlete tlreir lrerrrirtgs.
Mr. Willi.s, the interpt'eter rvltose relttsrks were previously inter-
rrrptetl because of lack of time, eotttinued. He soid that chiefs
wdrkirrg under government pny alrvnys tried to please the goverttor
so they"would iot be tlischdrgied, nnil that often the govcrnor w&s
rrot inftrtnretl of the renl rvisltes of the people.

CLr gle
0056
Case 1:18-cv-00036-CW Document 41-1 Filed 04/19/18 Page 95 of 182

EXHIBIT 5

0057
Case 1:18-cv-00036-CW Document 41-1 Filed 04/19/18 Page 96 of 182

ùu
3l?
.At

râ?
,lJ
AIIIERICAN SAMOA
HEARINGS
BI'OBE
THE COMMISSION APPOINTED BY TEE
PBEÉIIDENT OF TEE UI\TITED STATFÉI
IN AOfX}B¡'ÀNCI F¡IE
PIIBLIO BE8OLUTION No. 8Ð, 70th CONGBE88
PIIBLICBESOLUT¡ON^l{D
No. E, ?rd CONGBE98

1930

I i I'ii,, iÈ I

0058
Case 1:18-cv-00036-CW Document 41-1 Filed 04/19/18 Page 97 of 182

-.(.
¿/¿'l ¡") fr "' (+1"' lt ¡.. tt t' ,' ? ,
íft'-tr-¿i-¿ | ¡l t¡ ^
FL

AMERICAN SAMOA

HEARINGS
DEIOf,E

TIIE COMMISSION APPOINTED BY TIIE
PRESIDENÎ OF THE UI\IITED STATES
]N ACCOBDAI{CE WITII

PUBLIC RESOLUÎION No. 89, 70th CONGBESS

A rcsolution scceptlng the ceeclon of certain l¡l¡nd¡ of tbc Samo¡n
grouD ¡nd Drovldlng for ¡ cornrnitBion to roeomnrBnd to
Congreee leglslatlon corcernlng thoae lelrnds

AND PUBLIC RESOLUTION No. Ð, Tlst CONGRESS

agPTEMBßn lq 19,20, t9¡0-AT ¡tONol¡IJt¡t¡
rl8FtEMBER rß,2f,n, tû, OCTOBEB 1.2. t, I, lsÞlN SAMOÀ
^MEBIC^N

UNITEII STATES
GOYEBNDÍENT PBINTING
WÂSEINOfON: 1981
'ìp

i:I"
T I
)-r. ;Å tl

0059
Case 1:18-cv-00036-CW Document 41-1 Filed 04/19/18 Page 98 of 182

EU
3rq
.A\
A5
lq 3,0

AMERTCAN SAMOAN COMM.ISSION
EIBAII BINCE.II¡. ße¡ator, Coaneetlcut, ehoçnø{/t,
JOE T. BOBIN$ON, Scnator, ,{rù¡D¡a!.
CARROI¡L L. BEEDT, Beprere¡tstlve, Malne.
GUINN W¡LLlá,!lË, Èepreteutatlve, Ílerar,
EICE CETEF IIAUOÀ, Dl¡trlst Ooveûor, Ea¡tc¡u lxrtrtot, AEerlcsD Bomo¡-
EIOE C8IIF ltrUFELE, Dlrtrtet Gloyeraor, t¡¡u¿ Dtetrlet Auerle¡u ßatÍoa.
CEIEÍ' ¡ÍAOALII, lfutulla, Àoe¡lcan Saoo¡.
I

f ,'l ,,i ,

I tlJìr,rFt,: lTl ¡rl l.rii-iiiiri,f'¡

0060
Case 1:18-cv-00036-CW Document 41-1 Filed 04/19/18 Page 99 of 182

l:'ll:liv JO S¡lVrS O3ilNfl
lHr À¡ o¡lllio¿¡o
6-"t -+I

AMERICÄN SÀUOÄ

tr.OBEWOBI)

the of
PubIic
Paso on
anà ¿ on
October 2; an dat Nuu
Thø OmaÃa left on October 7 and arrived at
Eonolulu, Hawaii, on 13 ¡nd on October 14.
The Omnlw ¡rrived at San Pedro, on October 19, when the
courmission disembnrked.
1

\

0061
Case 1:18-cv-00036-CW Document 41-1 Filed 04/19/18 Page 100 of 182

EEI'DAT¡AÏ, 8EP1[EüEE! 18, lgflo

-A,r¡n¡c¡r S.er¡orx Courcseror,
Eorwlul,u, Euoaåå.
Congress, the Presi-
ur lVfembárs of Con-
conditions in Samoa.
-' to be passed by the
ssion to hear oll psrìsons who have
e, os well as those who have fault,
ment.

orTl'#;,Xi:"t'åïi'XtT,,ffåtllì,îÏtä
ondtoMr.carrwrighrron."*u'f
morning. f understand tliat Mr. Thurston is not well and is unable
be present; accordingly, the first witness to be called is Mr. Bruce
t_o
Cartwright.
ST.ATEÜE1qT OF EBIICE CABTVBIOET

Chairmon Bnvorr¿rr. fs there ony statement you çould liko to
mrke to the commission. further thnn the letters snd documents
which vou have sent us N

Mr. Õ¡nrwRrcnT. No, sir.
Chaiiman Brxar¡r¡. One of
which we Ðre confronted is the

Samoa
of the
onv ch
Ífr. I do not believe thot fee-simplo
ts of Semo¿. I think the land
ssme ns they are under the naval
s not look'nt land the sûmo as
t is the territorv is not verv exten-
wns siven to þolvnesirnð. there
to liíe on. They äow loolr upon
3

0062
Case 1:18-cv-00036-CW Document 41-1 Filed 04/19/18 Page 101 of 182

76 ÂMEBICAN SAJUOÀ

same couse and when this chief hesrd the verdict of the court he

Mr. Turrn the ease the young
men who we mad, if they c'ould
do onything in and fight.
Sen-ator R ce?

ir. il., r;

l.lf'll,','EF:':,|.l'r'., t ,q"ilr" Hl,;,1 I,l

0063
Case 1:18-cv-00036-CW Document 41-1 Filed 04/19/18 Page 102 of 182

AMERICAN S¡IUOA 77

commission should try to get the people of S¿moa to get the iden
out of their heads the distinction between the Samoan people anrl
the half-castes. Some of the half-castes are in Honolulu here rtow.

0064
Case 1:18-cv-00036-CW Document 41-1 Filed 04/19/18 Page 103 of 182

78 A}ÍEBICAIÍ SAMOA

registered under the name of his wife. To help the commission,
Itll mention the nomc of Sau-Mrs, Sau Pritchard under whose

't:;:it I

l-l f,l l';' tF:'-.l T't',,t F l"rrl t" U l,.:,: l'l

0065
Case 1:18-cv-00036-CW Document 41-1 Filed 04/19/18 Page 104 of 182

AUEBICÀ!Í BATÍOA 7s

0066
Case 1:18-cv-00036-CW Document 41-1 Filed 04/19/18 Page 105 of 182

80 Aì'ÍERICAN SÀMOA

kindness and benevolence.

.'lt,¡lr,'liiiri
l.ll'll,;'EF::,,|
- t.r,lt- H lrl:.É, t,l
I't' | )

0067
Case 1:18-cv-00036-CW Document 41-1 Filed 04/19/18 Page 106 of 182

Âtf,ErRrc^lf sal[oA 8l
tle iust died. f-etts
the'Gorernor. Il'Ìro
think is capuble of
he mule br¡neh rrill
old the title." The other brunch
title.t'

conclusion " lYe are willing thnt
title." As a result of that. f assure the commission that for many
vears thev nre soins to be the h rr¡liest familv in the worltl. The
'not If the
ìnen hold"the tiile bi ttre r¡nanim iri cleeisio¡r ôt tt¡e familv.
Ur["i sûys " You gò and kill a man't (of eourse thnt is going
to happeñ), but he.says " You go and do so and so,tt it will be done-
the ôivicó'is rende"äd. But'if the governo" sa-vs to the Samorn
people, ßYou got to do thisl t'who is goingto takethat. - Ho-ving
t\eþvernor settle without the members of the family and nobody
is happy.
Chãirman Brsos.r¡¡. You surel

years and when it came to the day of the trial the people said, " \Yo
have come to unanimous decision of the family and bv these rights
man to hold the title. We know thtt
rward and he loves the Samoan
n. ff you go to Samoa, at the
the case. Another esse we tried.
nside of six or seren months the
ed on who shoulcl hold the title.
tried only ono c&se; and the
their owir cnse. 'fhev l<norv
e olden davs no rnattär horv
ind and the mdn who knows the
holds the title. Nowadays tl -

l
l:irf ìì, i i

l-ll,ll';'tF:'ill î' i"tF f{lr. H l': ¿r ll

0068
Case 1:18-cv-00036-CW Document 41-1 Filed 04/19/18 Page 107 of 182

^trEBroAN
s iloA 215

lfi¡. Bsorn¡. Yea. ¡ir..
Cb¿inn¡n B¡xosir¡. Änd Wellington will eventually not hsrc to
Dav anv dutvl
' f,fr. huo¡in. No.

(Recess was taken for lunch und an adjournrnent hter, without
further he.ering to-day, )
(Adjournul.)

TErrnsD.Aï, ocToBEB 2, l9go
.{unt¡c¡¡r Selrolx Corrurssrox,
T mt, Ii[ a,nunr,Sornna.
Chsirman B¡xcrrnu. 'We are assembled at Tau, Manua, but on

0069
Case 1:18-cv-00036-CW Document 41-1 Filed 04/19/18 Page 108 of 182

2t6 s^úoa
^xERrca¡t
Congæs
a oesilon
nd Ofu-to the United St¡t¿s in
of ùhe islands and give "#Iffi
governor rppointcd by
- tr'or neaily 80 years dirsc'
tion of the Prcsident
the l¡w-moking body, taking
chiefe. It has not been the c

pocsessod
nexed the
n¿tives of
citizens.

as the Congress should pass u¡
mmission was creeted to recom-

g of the presont situltion, or why
we are here.

t
s

2. Às to whether they wont
3. As to whether they have
as possible.
1ür. Juon. Mr. Chairman,I have been given to
County Chief Sotoa sons who have
their intention to ap reecl that three
sent them. in a writ tion.
Chairmín BrNc¡¡l ter read the communication?
Tho fNrænrnsræn. It is the una decision of the tootoo (trlk'
ine chiefs) that three witnesses sufficient m the representa'
tivls of th'e tootoo to appear bef conrmission; ntmely, Sotoa,
Taliut
Hig he conrmission's information, whnt he
me&ns not the whole island.
Cha do you understand. to be the meaning
of the communication I

0070
Case 1:18-cv-00036-CW Document 41-1 Filed 04/19/18 Page 109 of 182

¡rrrctr aâ.roÀ 217

Higb Ctief lurur Wh.ù bc mrnsr ¡nd he mer¡rs tbe whole
tootoos.
Sen¡tor Rom¡sor. Tgill the¡e l¡e other witnæ begidæ thes
th¡cel
Hish Chief Tu¡m.¿ I tåi¡k so.
ChËirm¡n f,¡¡or¡rr. IIow nrny rvitnessee, all together, do we hetr
te.deyl
Ilich Chie
Juoo.
Mrî the Islends of llenurr.
Ch¡irmsn ness.
Mr. Jrmo. Sotoe.
8ÎÂTEIEf,T OE CEIEF gOlOÄ
Ctr¡irman B¡xo¡r¡x. Your nsmel
llfr. Soroe. Sotos.
Chairmnn Brr¡os¿x. Your residencel
Mr. Solor. Tsu.
Choirnran Brxcs¡x. Your rankl
Mr. Soror. Mctri.
Ch¡irm¡n Br¡rcrr¡x. Ifow many people do ¡'ou speak for here
to-day?
Mr. Som¡. plg.of. rny village of Tau.
Chairman rs that?
Mr. Soror. ndred.

lil;,,'11,: ;ìr i r',i,,lll',j.ll

0071
Case 1:18-cv-00036-CW Document 41-1 Filed 04/19/18 Page 110 of 182

2t8 stlo^
^¡¡rB¡o^f

Chairman lìrxorr¿¡r. Anv questions? If not, thank vou.
lìIr. Junn. The nextwitnesri is Chris Youlg.'

STATEUEIÍT O3 CEßIS î, YOÛilo

Chairman BrNcxeu. Your name ?

Mr. YouNo. Christopher Trliutafa Young.
Chairman Brrvorr¿u. Your resic'lence ?
Mr. You¡ro. Tau.
Chairmsn Brxc¡r¡u. You have been asked to come before ua by
the people of your villnge t
Mi. Your¡o. Yes, sir.
Chairman BrNoÉl¡¡. You are the person referred to by the lcst
witness as laying claim to the title Tilìmanus.
Mr.
Chn Proceed. As f unde¡stand it, this case is
going Judge TV'ood next week?
Mr.
Chrirnan BrNos¿u. Yerv well.
Mr. You¡¡o. f wish to exþress in Samoan so that my people cen
hear. me.
Chairman B¡rvoslu. T9ill you talk in Samoan first and then in
English?
Mr, Youxo. Mr. Peters can do the interpreting better.
Ch¿irman Brwor¡m¡. Very well.
Mr. Youro. That the chiêfs of the islond of Manua rre all well

0072
Case 1:18-cv-00036-CW Document 41-1 Filed 04/19/18 Page 111 of 182

lrrc¡t ¡lro^ 219

connisE¡txr to oome down he¡e to Srmor ¡nd enrble us to b¡vc

nor¡ble
to h¡ve
is ¿ll I
gratitude of the pcople of
different m¡tters. This con
orable com.misBion h¡ve eome do

rested in the story if we l¡¡d
ct this matter is now bofore
et that it is not the custom of ¡
ers thot are before the SuPrcme
it would be mott in aeeordance

hieh court is abouü to trv the case.
Mr. Youxo. f stated ihrt it is true that this case is now before the
in the verv netr future. Horv'
commissiõn would like to hesr
e to tell vou the storv. in order
ll informätion of the-matter for

thie,
¡ ¡nd¡
Any

8IÂTTTE¡ÍT OI CEIEF IATIA,IuII
Ch¡irmsn Brxosrx. Your n¡mel
Mr. Tru¡xsu. T¡u¡nuu.
Ch¡iln¡û B¡ranrx. Your roeidenool
Mr. î¿u¡rnu. T¡u.
Ch¡irmen Bnrosru. ïor¡r r¡nl or titlå$ .t
Mr. lrr¡¡¡ruu. M¡it¡i. '

0073
Case 1:18-cv-00036-CW Document 41-1 Filed 04/19/18 Page 112 of 182

^Érm.rcar
8¡.Ioa aLt
Cbeimrn to ua, I do not think it
to
neæss¡rv r. Tte commission fullv
understöds their customs interferreìl
with, whatever govemment we put up. Th¡t is ¡ æasonable request,
and we th¡nk hÏ¡n for bringinf it td our attention. Haye J¡ort sny
further sucsestionsl
Mr. T¡ul-xus. No, sir.
Ch¿irman B¡xos¡i¡. Tb¡nk you.
ifr. Jupp. At the request of Õomn¡issioner T\¡fele I call Nua.
SlAtEXXtm 0r 0EIEF mta
Ch¡irman Brxcurr Your namel
Mr. l[u¡. Nue.
Chairmrn Brxas-rr Your residenctl
Mr. Nur. Tau.
Chairman Brxos¿u Your renkl
Mr. Nor. Metai.
Ch¡irman B¡¡crr¡u. For how msny people úo you speak this
morningl .
Mr. Ncr. The people of my f¡mil-v aud elso my village.
Chairman B¡xcs¡u. How mrn¡rl
Mr. Nsr. å,bout õ0.
-rs what you ane goirg to give us the untb.
i arnily and villagel
. Verv well.
DIr. Nur. f would like tö state before 1¡s ç6mmission nl¡out the
opposition side ¡n tnesses testified criticiz-
ing the governor
wh¡t f know, eve

le themselres to pltnt
as well of such criti-
this particulor thing
t to obtain in Manun;

çith the ün¡o Am csn.
High Chief Turer.¿ Hrve equal right"s?
Chìíirman B¡¡¡o¡¡.ru. Any quästionrii If not, thank you. Call the
ne¡t witness,
Mr. Jrron. Siva.
High Chief Turur,r. l'his nt¡n t¿stified in Tutuil¡.
Mf. Junn. Salu.
High Chief Tur¿r,s, This man conles under the firs0 witnees.
Ùfr. Juoo. Moetului; lugateta¡' [No responre.] f,'asmruÊili.
[No response.] lau¡li.

0074
Case 1:18-cv-00036-CW Document 41-1 Filed 04/19/18 Page 113 of 182

n2 ATEAIOÀ!Í SATOA

Eratltltr otr rauå¡a
Chsirman B¡uosn . Your n¡mel
Mr. T¡ur¡¿. T¡uela.
Chairman B¡xss¡u. Your villogel
!f¡. !¡¡rrr,r. Tau.
Ch¡irman B¡non.ru, Your rrnkl
Mr. T¿urr,r. Matoi.
Chairman B¡xos¡x. For bow msny people do you speak?
Mr. T¡urr,r. Äbouü 200.
your people. un¿nimous in this m¿tte¡
or nion among them?

presen
Mr.
Cha tve you_a¡ry zuggestioTq o
Mr. ke to ask the commission
as he has at the
to the honorable
d President for the annexation ol

ú"Tåii."ff or",îfJå"iff i;
Chairman Brxortnr. To take ¡ctionl
Mr. T¿u¿r,¡. Yes.
Chairman Bruoxru. ,A.ny questionst Nol Thank yorr.
Mr. Juno. Mator.
8TAIDTDTT OP OEIEF XATOA
Chairman BrxoRlr¡. Your nanre?
Mr. M¡ro¡. Mator.
Chairman Br¡¡cslu. Your residerrrt ?
Mr. M.+ror. Tau.
Chairman Br¡vcsru. Your rankt
Mr. Mero¡. Matri.
Chairman Brr,rcslu. For how mony people do you speak this
morningl
Mr.lñ¡me. The people of my family, my village, and my district.
One thousand odd.
the
Pto
1.000 Deople. but he onl r
'HighforCtrief
sueak
furnr,D. He is a ths
district.
Chrirman Br¡os¡u. He wrs selected by the districô to speak for
them.

0075
Case 1:18-cv-00036-CW Document 41-1 Filed 04/19/18 Page 114 of 182

AMERICÀÑ sÀIfiOA 228

Mr. M¡mr. Yes. But they are worn out.
Chsirman B¡xon¡u. Recese of Êve minutcs.
AFTTN RECE88

Chcirman B¡¡vos¿¡¡. The Êession is now in order.

Con Is th¡t for ¿ rounil trip t
Mr, w&y.
Ch¡ !fo"w much clo they eharge for eerrying eopra ?
Ur. know.
. lligh Chief Torn¡r¡. For the information of the comüission, it
is $0 ihe ton.
2$81-S1-1õ

0076
Case 1:18-cv-00036-CW Document 41-1 Filed 04/19/18 Page 115 of 182

228 AMENIC.II{ gÀMOA

in explanation of something that f have said that he does not
und.erstand ?
(Àfter a peuse, no one having askecl eny questions, the ehairman
said:)
If not. we shall proceed with the hearing, and I will ask Laloifr
to cnll the first wilness.
rcception commit-
ining three names,
selected to ap¡æur
her and have agreed that these
g to oct as their representatives'
rstsnd that these three men who
hsve been selected src to speak fo
Chairman Bruos¿u. fn order

hot this Beorns to bê o simple rnd
ll be holpful to us to have you go
Mr. Juoo. X'anene.

STAIEüEI{î OT CEIDF trATTEIYE

Chairman Brxon¿¡¡.'lVhat is your name?
Mr. F-nr.rt¡lr- F'anene. 'Where
Chairman BrNcH^o.ûr. do you live9
Mr. Frxuxn. Pago Pago,
Chairman Brwos¿l¡. Your rank?
Mr. Fer¡p¡vn. Matai.
Chairman B¡wcruu. A.re you one of the three who has been
chosen to sperk for ¿ll the rest?
J\fr. Frrxn¡tn, Yes.
Chairnran Brwcu¿u. Very well.
IlIr. F¡xnrye. Gentlemen Cnd ladie
chairnran of the commission and ¿ll
that
1&S A,

All of the chiefs, talking chiofs,
t it is the Lord that has led the
the dangerous seos. It is ¡oü
or us that are in Samoa thst
the will of the Lord. That is the

tosether and has made
úhË people that are i
fnmilies to the number
their th¿nks to tbe
me to ofrer'We c
morning. know the
s the Stars and Sùripes t

0077
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ar¡rnrcÀ^\ s^t¡o^ 229

'We
¿ru th¡t is we wish to become loyal
¡nd pe¡rco tlnit¿il
f Ëave ave to s¡v befo¡s the commissions¡s but
thers is one of our membere rho will-erplein the few tbingr thrt wo
hsve a,nd wish for.
Chdrm¿n Bnroaeu. Any qucstionel Thore being nom, we th¡¡lt
you.
SEAIXIß¡ÍÎ gF SEIEF TIIT

Chcirman Bnrox¡x, What is your n¡mel
Ùtr.'Lru. Liu.
Chairman Bnro¡¡¡r¡. Where do you livel
Mr. Lru. Y¡itosi.
Chairman Brroärr. What is your r¡nkl
l[r. Lru. M¡tai.
Chairman Br¡rouru. Are vou one of the thræ who have boen
eelectÆd to present the views,i't att the restl
Mr. L,ru. Yes.
d.
yC
the
bG

ited Stetes.
ere two different voice¡ in Tutuílo
¡nd Menu¿. Th¡t dov which
is somethingnew, l,Gu were
when
not s¿úigfied was not ¡
pert of theUnited re have been ststeme¡¡ts
m¡de to th and to the Con¡¡rers of
the big Glo hat wlr¡t we haíe heen
trying for use the Prerident of the United
States has to inveatigate to find a way for

0078
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230 ÀMEnrcÀñ sAMoÄ

the Government to handle the affairs of Samoa' ft is for this thaü

Congress.tt
Tñere is going to be ¿ person who has been eppointnd by our peo-
ole to state" befóre the c'ommission our views bÏ whrt we are ¡ot
Ëotisfied with.

I than-k the commissioners snal wish them the best of luck. That
is aU I have to say.
Chairman BrNos¡u. I would like to ask him what he means by
e. What he me¿ns is that the people of Samo¡
of the civil government, he moañs citizens ol
Chairmen Brxaslu. Do oll of the interpreters sgreo to that
interoretation ?
Intirpreter P¿rnne. f do not.
Commissioner Turtr,n. He wants the Samoans to have a civil gov'
grnment.

r(
said Yes.t'

citizen.
Interpreter ÏV'rr,r,¡s. The wav hs made the statement at first, I
think tñat was it. IVhat I eiplained first-I didn't get the real
meanins of this question.
Chaiíman B¡xo'ulu. Has ths witness anything more to offer in
t
nk you very much.
the"next wltness is Clgleai.

0079
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AIVIEAICAN õÀMOÂ 23L
STATEUEIÍÎ OE IIIOE CEIEF S. T. OAI.EAI
Chairman Brxcul¡¡.'Whet is your namel
Mr. G¡r¡¿¡. Galeai.
Chairman Br¡ra¡¡¡rc. You have written us some lotters, I think.
Mr. G¡r,pu. Yes.
Chairman Brxorr¡u. Do you generally sign your letters t'S. T.
aleait'?
Mr. Ger,nlr. Yes.
Chairman B¡xono¡. For the sake of the record, will you please
ùl us what is meant bv the'¡ S. T."l
Mr. Gar.n¡r. My bíptismal usme is Samuel-Samuel Tulele-
i'c,nuel Tulele Galeoi. 'Where
Chairmen B¡rcou¡r. do you livel
Mr. Ger¿¡r. X'itiuta.

difrerent meanins. Hawaii is a Torritorv.
Mr. G¿r nr,r. Tlet is what f mean-tliot Samoa hsd b€en t¿ken a¡

Interpreter'lT'rr.¡,rs. Ife says :
\Ve wish it to be left to tlre Presldent aud Congress of the Ueitèd States to
appolnt our gpYenror.

0080
Case 1:18-cv-00036-CW Document 41-1 Filed 04/19/18 Page 119 of 182

232 AMERICÅN SA]VTOA

Chairman Brxouelt. fs that the way you understand it' IÚr.
Petersl
a
i-, lt". Willis, that no
w States to-day under the

Samoa that is not satisf¿ctory, that an appeal may be made to l{ono-
lulu or úo the United States.

commßslon.
Chairman B¡r¡os¡rt. I didntt understsnd that.
Interpreter'W'u¿rs. A few of their views have been presented to
the commissioners, if it bo of any help üo the cnommissioners in that
work.
that the letter presented by Hunkinl
to Hunkin to give to the commission.
this the letter ?
Mr. Grr,p¡r. Yes.
Choirm¿n BrNosr¡¡. Ths letter referred to will be inserted in the
record at this point.
To the Amerloon Eumaøn Oønwnìaaion, Amer'loan Flønwd.
Gpnrr,pr¡un: fn setting forth the deslres of the majority of the Samoan
¡reople, we wlsb to reml¡d you that the ceseioue of these lslanals to the United
States-a¡d åcæpted by your Oovernment-provlde that our terrltory is cetled
" to erect tbe same lnto a separate dlstrlct to l¡e an¡exed to the sakl
GoYernne¡t."
fn accordance wlth the terms of the cesslons, lt ls our wisb that a ejvil
governnent with separation of executlve, leglslatlve. and judlcial funcùlons
be establl,sbed tu Amerlcau Sumoa. We appreclate tl¡at the Department ot
tle Navy will wlsh to control certain waters of tbe isìands and that portion
of tand uow called the ntvy yard, but ¡t ls our wlsh thÈt the governmeDt of
tbat portion of amerlcan Samoa set aside for tl¡e Depariment of tbe Navy
sbould bear the eame relation to the governmeut of tbe remalnlng portlon
of the lglands as l Þor¡e by tbe goverument of navul statlons ln the U¡lteil
ßtates to tbe clvll governu)ent tÈere.
It is our wlsh that a clvil goyernor be appolnted for ¡re¡icnn Samoa by
the P¡esident of the Unlted States, by and wtth ttre consent of the Seuate, and
thathe shall be under the State Depsrtment of the Unftecl States; tlat he ehall
have the rlght, but noü the eole rlght, to propose legielatioa to the duly eleeted
legislature, and tbat blg tpproval sball be necessåry to make lts en¡cbneuts
Iaw, exeept thtt, lf be sball not aign any enactment, the legislature may
¡econslder lt aud may psee lt by vote of twothlrds of lts memlrerslrip, when
It sball be referred to the Sec¡etary of State of the United ñtutes for flnel
determination.
ft ls our rvlsh thnt tbe la¡v-making powers be vestecl ln a leglslature to be
duly elected by the Samoan people and to couvene annuûlly, and thnt the
conseot of the leE¡slature rhall be neeesssry to conñrm sppolntme¡ls of the
goternor; and that tbe legtslûture shall elect È Delegate to represent tbe
-oan people iu Washlngton.

0081
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AMERICAN SAMOA 233
[t ie our n'leh tbat tbe Judlcial alepartmeDt lunctlou nnder tbe IÞparturent ol
stlce of the Unlteil Statee wltù a Judgþ of the couú of record to be Damed
the á.ttortrey C€neral of tbe Unlted St¿te¡; that thts court of record try all
onles for whlch tbe penalty le mo¡e than elx Eonths' lmprlsonmeot; that
lerlor courte sbnll try all mlsdemenoore a.nd mattere ln\'olyitr5 Sõ0 or less.
ts our wloh tbat every two yearg, or oftener, the Clrcutt Court of Åppeata
Ea\f,ait meet ln Ämertcsn Sauoa wltù at le¡st two Judgps preridlug. It la
r degl¡e that any pe¡'8on bavlng fi grlevüuce ûgalnst the ßol'€ru¡Iìeni, or any
¡lartment of lt, or agalnst, any offclal, shall have tù€ rigbt to ûte a e<¡mplalnt,
rd that all clril rights ßutl'tnteed b¡'lhe Constitut.on rf the Untterl Stnteg
e¡tended to Samoen¡ and the federal lawe of tùe Unlted State¡ be made
rplleable to the¡n. It is our n'l¡h to bc subJeet to mllitsry dutJ' ot tlre United
¿tes Goverrment, but only lD tbe wrter¡ of the PaclÊc end ¡D ûsrg of i¡rvasion
aggreðalon agalnst the Unltcd Btateg.
ft ls our wigh that eneh (llstrlcù. each countf, ¡nd eael¡ villnge lq åmerlcan
¡moa ehoose lts own offeere and Judgee of lnferlor ooult¡ wlthout lnterference
'those uot reÊldetrts of ßåld dlgtrlct, county, or vlllage.
It la aleo our requeat, In ord ebenglng and developing
rpulttlon, thnt, begtnntng wlth ehall present to the Con'
:esg of the Unitetl States, wlth overDor, every ñte yearå,
E Fec$mlleDdatlo¡¡ for auy changer deemed deslrable ln the goverlmcntsl 8y8'

the Bureau of Publlc Eealth of the Unlted Sbates recommend sultüble hends for
the departmer¡t of Dubllc wellare to the legislature,
It ls our slsh that an erperlmental stotton of the Depûrtment of Agrlculture
of the Unlterl Stntee be estabilshed ln Amerlcan S¡tmofl so thnt rye antl future
generations may be euabled to açold food shortagea nnd make tlte best r¡ae
ol the resources of our country. \Ye ssk ûBsisttnce aud encourlìgemellt in

fadlitleã, and that all toll and docknge fees ehall belong to tlte Eroçernment

lssue or bond issues of ntr¡' kintl
perty of the Samoan Peonle. \!e
be taxed, and that when n Per
than .S10 per crrpitu, antl tllat lf
Àù Incoms tar ls levied it ehatl not be greater thau 5 per' ce¡¡t, ûntl tlì¿ìt t\vo
0r nore t¡'pes of taxûtiotr shult not l¡e used concurreiltly.

0082
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234 AMENICAN SÂMOA

To neet the expenses of thls flrofxle€d gore¡nme¡t, and for tle egtabllehuent
trnd maitrtennnce of schools, publle welfirr.e. nud ¡tublle lttlnrovement.s, we asÈ
tbnt tbe sum of $10,üm,00O be eet aelde lu the lDreaeury of tl¡e Uuited States in
returr¡ for the prlrilages and uee of the l¡nrl¡nr of PaSo Pago and surroundi¡8
terrltol:v b.v tbe Goverumeut of the Untted Stste¡, aud tbat the sald sum shall
be l¡vested in l¡onds of the Utrited States Governrnent, and the lneome der¡ueal
therefrom sball be used for the oDe¡ation of our goverument, and tlte edueu'
tional. publle welfare, anrl publlc ¡Dprovenent rtystems of Amerlcnn Samoa, and
tl¡st the atl¡¡lnlstrntlon of sueh lneome eb¡ll r+st ln the legislnturg whlch shall
coDsult $tth tlre goÏernor regtrrtllDg tbe 888e.
\1'e nlso nt tlte pruent tlme aud untll n elvll ßovernment is put lnùo efieet lo
Amerlcnn Samoa, wisb tùe ¡{gbt to name lnd eelect our repregentstlre or reDre
aeutatlres to aÞpear before the Con8rees of the UDlted Bt¡tcs wlthout tùe arlvlae,
suggestion or l¡rterterence ssve and
exeeJrt the mnJority of the e Unlted
Statee acoept the represent toritl' of
the Saurorn people, as repre*rted by thelr ebfeûc ln a lono whosc nemberehlp
shall not be ehoseu by tbe goverr¡or but lu the auclent S¡moan fashlon rt'ithout
hls lnterferenee.
Ver¡. res¡eetfully youre,
TE! Uau c Arrrc¡¡v Slror
Date(l tn Ämerleon Sûmon, Oetober l, 180.

såme.
Chairmrn ons.
You spoke ssports. Arr
you satisfied th-e passpor[s
üetrveen Wes
lIr. Ger,u.lr. Yes.
Chairnran Brxcrr¡u, Are you satisfied?
jllr. G.tr,n¡r. Yes.
Chairman Br o1L2, eonsistins of
3 to be select€d he wristern distiict.
Rnd 3 white or TVhat potvers snd
tluties do you d

0083
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ÀMERIOÂN EAMOA 235

lecision.

lou mean, or that they would pass the laws subject to the veto of the

Chairrnnn Brxcn¡.u. I don't think he understood me. He snid
he was not satisfied with the way in which the 10 delegates rvere
seleeted from his distriet to the föno. He suid he rvns nõt satisfiecl

0084
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aMDBrcÀtf êÂuo 267.

have to ssv boforo the commission
ourselves, Ëratters that have been
body who is perfect and who does
bo-with us,^and help us in the
ou Yery mueh.

STAIEIEI{T OF EIGE CEIEF TIIFET,E

Hieh Chief T\rt¡¡. Mr. Chailmau, f have not much to say nt
rcseñt because our time is short ¿nd we have another tims to tolk

I me¿nt I
vhat
Chairman Br¡ros¡x. Yes; very well, thank you.
STÄTEEITT OF úgIUF IAqAI.EI
tI just wish to ¡dd
ecrtify to all what
that from all these
the commission has

0085
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268 Â.UEBIOA¡Í 8AüOA

DECISION OF' COMMISSION
. Porpn Scnoor,, October 7r 1930.

rnent.

I rl.tl',,[1- _,1
j ; i. ri. ',/.¡i"¡lri1,rl;

0086
Case 1:18-cv-00036-CW Document 41-1 Filed 04/19/18 Page 125 of 182

ÂxtBrcÀtf 8Âxoa 269

Neither slavery nor involuntarv servitude. exeept asâ punishment
for crime wherelof the party shäll have been rlúly eon victerl, shull
exist in American Samoa.

0087
Case 1:18-cv-00036-CW Document 41-1 Filed 04/19/18 Page 126 of 182

I
no al.nBlc ¡s Êaxo¡
Dxcessive b¡il shell not be ruquired, nor excessive fines bc imposed,
nor cruel and unusuel punishments inflicted'
rr¡n¡x Brxon¡u,
Jou T. Ronrxæ¡r.
C¡n¡o¡¿ L. Bmr.
Gu¡xx T[lr r-r¡ud.
M^uor.
Torsr.E"
Dflorr nr.

will proceed to the mainland of
nk you again for your courteous
Tofa. L'ma.

Tn¡xsr,Ár'roN rN Sruo^r¡c or Duc¡erox
Fagaloa matagofie
o e faofi o le Komisi
A Fripule. Ua taofi
Ie iua ia l¿uiloa ai e
tegato uma lenei faamatalgr o le ituga un teunutu i ai le sutesutega a
Aiii Komisi. 'Ou te fu¡ali atu m¡ lè fisfia ia te outou otr& o le itu i
nei Komisi e to'e fitu uo loto faatasi lave ma rnelie i ri i lstou uma i
rnata'upu uma ua tusis i lenei faaaligr ma ua tusin ai uma o latou
suafa.

løgata ma t*gaún Sn¡no¿ moni; ¡te le X'oni i le faiga o lan¡ pule, o le

0088
Case 1:18-cv-00036-CW Document 41-1 Filed 04/19/18 Page 127 of 182

AMENIOAN SÀMOA 827
to a l¡urrùca¡e ou Jruutry 1, l0il6. I¡"r¡r 1fP7 ¡rroduetlon slll be between 1õ
¡*r cent nnd 20 fier úrtrt (rl on st'e'rûfte yflr, sil¡ th'¡ fut{ter. deora¡e etrn rnt
ìe entlrelt do¿ to the burlorn+, It ,lõ rtrc ùo Ðoßleat nnd trlln¡e to srncrllsê
tùå ¡ntlse In pDodueör,tl. In lflOl tntrer+ re¡e å1 per heod lo ee¿û tnbablte¡t
{p 81, goyer.Itdo rcport) ; to.day,the tax tr $e pør bcrrrl. In tÐOt od yrloFcÐ
d¡t.v was 2 per ecnt en lmportntlon (tl. Ol. Êovellor'E roDort). To-dny tt
is 1ã per cent. Ilr 19Ol labor rvns pul<l 80 ßrr¡tg ntrd Ç1 pcr day, ül¡e nue
rate belng pald to{ay (l¡rhor on n recerrt ceurent lrrrllrllng'n tbe aety ynrd wa¡
pdd 80 oeutel. Oonslrlêrlnß tl¡ese nßures. the fnet tbnt everyttrlnß the nstlve
brya b¡s lncrusod lo lundetl eort nbout 3lJ0 frer cent nn¡l the dteline lû prû
drrction. one :s puzzted to underetnnd fust how tlre l-r8.? per eent lneresgô
(clatmed ln the goverlor'B r€port) ed¡ts.
On page 81 of tìe governor'B report ws t¡d that " desplte manJ¡ Dtteo¡¡
rppeals " (reierrln5 to ecboolr) tle Secætary ol tbe Navy on September 14,
1042, wrote " Government alal Bhonld be dtscouraged as f¿r as poaslble end
ttre Deople encoun¡god to do Eüe lor tlems€lveß.il Gondderhg that the
D¡lverstqy of Eawalt ba¡ for matry teErs recelved tõ0.000 per yert lrou the
Íede¡al Gfovemment nnd tbat Eawall n¡hs ¿s one of tbe wealthl¡st cm-
munltlee of lts slre. lt ¡ee¡ns safe to ¡tate tù¡t the Untted Statea has reglected
Itslvard.
It ls true tùat we gtve the nattvs a lot of free govelnment, but we do not
goyenr. A few .tderllete wDo tDow notùlng of eondlttons herê çectlon
whelber o¡ not etlueatlon and prroçerlty arc ßood lor the natlve. llhe natlvq
llte all buman¡, ls decldtng for hlmself, and, llte bls wìlte brothe¿ lB desltous
of ættt¡g all he ean. Wùetìer he çts lt througb hoacst labor or otherwka
tlll be the ¡esult of tle Daüner ln whleb be l¡ ßovernetl, Chtldren mu¡t be
taugùt to eomD¿te a¡d hold tüelr own l¡ ¡oclal relattoas or lt ean sdely be
nssumed that tle number of tllegftlmatee left behlnd by whltes çtll cot¡ttnue
to l¡erease. It l¡ conËnu¡lly mal¡talned tlat the Samoan wtll not ùelp hlm-
scE Ee doen Eot Lnow Dow' Neltber does he derlve the benelt of hls labor.
Sine we have take¡ lar{atlctlo theh
ùarbor, whteh we tetn " lle Pttd
uotùlng. tbe least we osn do lE d {he
yonnger gÉneratlon tnto wùat at{on,
for he must elther go aleail or degʡerate rapldly. Slnce we havq aesoned
tùe wa¡dehtp the naüve has not gone ahead, etther 0¡¡nelally, uentally, ol
Dmally.
'lgbetber legklrtlod places lhmoa urder a depa¡hent other than the Navy
ts a matter of t¡Otter.e¡ee to Def,rly eyslfone ln Bamot. Mort whltep ¿¡tl hell
mstpe feel tt verT rlsþ to attempt ofÌatlDg tùe Clovet¡rent urileF e ctvlHan
vhlle a rwal oñoer of substa.nttal raDk (snd thle çmld alweys be tie

e, aud whoelrr taket
lso unl€ßr Êlamoa lc
ßa¡noa ls a tllsgraæ
o De well auil tnlt
Justtfetl.
.Yours very Erly,
B. tr. KrrEdsutL

Errmr No. 8?
NrYr l)æ¡¡nrlw'
Wa¡lwt¡* D, O., Atvwl ,8, 1080'
Ilon. ãnex BrrorÄx, U. B. E,
OilæW, Ifl.
Ur D¡¡¿ 8ur¡ro¡: In compltance wlth your requect to the NavI Deprrhent
to itraw up a pFopos€d organlc act for Amerlcan Samoa, th ra are foiryarileû
heæwlth ¿ propæed organlc act by Oapt. W. R. hrlong, IIDlted States NaW,
dcer ln elatEc of oûcs of lslatrd gwemments, end a propoeed orgunle aet
by the boartl eonelsHng of fornet goverüolg, Capt, g. D. Bryan, Udt€il Btots

0089
Case 1:18-cv-00036-CW Document 41-1 Filed 04/19/18 Page 128 of 182

328 AÙÍDüIOAN SAM(IA

Navy, and Capt. E. 8, Kellogg, Ilulted SLates Navy, aud a former Juilge cl
the hlgh court of Amerlcan Bamoa, Earry P. Wood.
O¡pt¡l¡ Fu¡long, wbo l5 to atmmpany tùe eomnlrelon to Samoa, slll lay
befo¡e tìe c.omml¡ulol tùe conunentg uade by t¡e last ûvs governorg of .Ànerlca¡
Sanoa and tle la¡t two Judges of tìe hlgb cturt of Ame¡lca¡ Sanoa. Es
has b€en dl¡ected to æslst the commls$lon tn maklng tåe ûnal il¡aft of tùe
orgaalc act lor A¡nerle¡n 8euoa.
ßlnce'ety yotrsr
s¡n¡sr r,u Jrs¡ccr*E,
Tln Acthtq veora?ar1¡ of ttû NaoU.

PROPOSED OBGÅNIO ACT COSTATNING A BILL OI'NTOHTS T1OR' T.rE
GOYERNI¡ENT OÍ' ÅMERICAN SÅDIOÀ
(By O¡pt. II. F. Bryuu, Uutted Stutes lfuvy; Capt. E. S. Kellogg, Unlted BtÂtçs
Navy; and llarry P. Wood, lormer Judge of the Eigh Oourt of {r¡erlcan
Sanoa)
f, Ier,exno fncr,unm Uxou rsr Nar¡u A¡ru¡cr¡c S¡uor
The Brovtetone of tlrle åct Èhail apply to the ielands acquired Þy the Uult¿d
Stût€E under an act of Congress entltled 't Jolnt resolutlcü to Drovìile for ae
cqrthg, ratlfyi¡t, and couflrmlng the cesclous of certnln lslands of the Eamoa¡
group to the tlnlted Etates, and lor otJrer purposes," üppror'ed f,'ebn¡ary Ð0,
1020, a¡d under an act of Congrers entltled " Jotut ¡e¡olution erþndlng the
soverelgnty of the ünlted gtetee over Swelns fslund. and maklng the lsla¡d
¡r ÞBrt of Âms¡¡s6t Sqmor." approyed ùInreh 4, LgAi rvhl<:h lelonala ¡hall be
Inow¡ as ÂDerlcan Eamo¿,

II, Oovnnxt¡rr or Äxæro¡n S¡¡or
Å gpvernment le hereby establisb€d over ü¡e eald fetrnds rvitn lte eapltal
at Fugatogo in the lsland of Tutuila,
III. 8¡r¿ or Rfosrs
The Constttutlon and Lawe oû the United Btates of .A-merlee, ln so far a¡
tley arc locally applicable, aud so much of the co¡¡mon law of England as le
locally appllcable anil not repugrtsDt to snd ineonsistent witb the Constitutlon
nnrl Laws of the Uníted Steies of Ämerlca, Bnd Buch laws and regulatlons qe
shall, fron tlme to tlne, be proruþated by the Governor of {merlean Samoa,
subrect to the provlaions of thls aet, Ere bereby declared to be lu fuU force
ln ¡{merleau Samoa,
Tl¡e " Codtûcation of Regulatlons lnd Orders for the Goveru¡rent ot Âmeri-
cau Somoa " nort ln force sbrll eontlnue Iu full force and effect, nubjeet to ¡uclr
adilltlo¡al laws and regulatÍone as shall be made by t,be Governor of .Amerlea¡
Samoa.
The customÈ of the Ëiüoroan¡, lot ln conflict witb tJ¡e larvs of Anrerlca¡
Samoa and the laws of tbe Uulted Êltates coneernlng Anerlcan ¡lamoq, or wlth
publlc morality or publlc decency, ehall be preserverl, uuless otbervlse rcquested
by the rep¡esentatlves of tbe people.
lte euetomary rlghts of the chiefe lu thelr separate vlllages, lf sueb rights
are fu accmd rvitt the laws of Amerlean Samoa aod the lawg of the Unlted
Êltates of A,merlea relatlng to .A,nericau Samoa, a¡il if tbey are not obstructive
to'the peaee of tbe people and to tlre fldvanc.enent of the welfate of tbe Beople,
sball be reeog¡tzed, subject to tl¡e eupervl¡to'n and lnetructton of the ssld
governrnents.
llhe lndlvldual rlghte of tbe people of Amerlcan Samoa to tlelr landn ¡¡d
other propetty ¡hall be resDected; but lf the Glovernmeut of tùe Uulted Etates
or tbe goyemnent of Äme¡lcan Samoa nhall regulre a-uy land or other Droperty
for government uses the goverTment noy take the Eame, upon paynent of r
falr price to'the owner or owtrers, In uo case shall the alienatlon of naüve
lands to E nonDatlve be permítted wtthis the Umlts of american Samoa. The
term " ¡atlve land " shall ¡neatr snd lncluile l¡nds owued, by an aborlglu¡l
natlve.

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AMEHI('àl S.ìlUrr^ 329
I T. C¡rrr,rxsl¡ l¡'
ìùoDe but tborlEtnnl Dttlr?È of Atllerlmu Snn¡o¡¡, r[t(l rtlxirl8lttlt¡ lllltl\'elr rrf
'the Otbet Ssmotn f¡l¡nds who harc ¡esldetl lu Åurcrlc¡ll¡ Snruort for u ¡ttrlxl
r¡or to Jur <rl ¿lnlet'lc't¡l Slllnoü,
lndtvlduat but rrho \ì'l¡$ n t'cgu'
uatal of ar¡' 1, lllil0, ütrrl rtttY
u('h mstal r('d llrl rt r:ltlzett tl¡tott
¡ppllcatton.
.å,u persoue entltled to cltizel¡xl¡l¡) urlrrt Ð reglttt'led n-ltl¡ln oue ¡'oltr lll'lor'
lbe p¡omulgstlon of tùlg ¡et lu A.uerlean lJomoo.
!É¡e but, regletered cttt¡cne m*f' l¡¡¡kl puhllc o6re lu At¡rcrlqru Srlùlolr. ert'e¡rt
¡ueb oñclals as lre prcrlded by the Ur¡ited Statcs Gover¡ltrtel¡t rl$ st't frlrlll
elæwbere l¡ thl¡ ssf.

etrtltled to a coI¡Y of enth order.
Cttlaens ol A¡¡erlcan ß¡n¡oa ebnll have the prtvlleeie of vlsttlng, reãl(lh¡U.
and dolng busln.ess ln tbe Terrltorlea' end, lf deslrouo
of dot¡g-so, may beeonte Statea by naturollzatlor¡ lu
tùe esmã manner tt otl¡er hey *hnlt ceaF€ to be clìlzelt:*
of .Ame¡lc¡n Samoa.
V. Àorrxren¡Tlt¡ SuPravrgrox
Í'or general arlmlnlstrullre p{¡rpìsci tbe goletument of À¡uetlcurt Sr¡utt¡¡ ls
dacerl under tbe euperrlelon of ll¡e lí*'retart of the Navy.
VI. Govn¡ron
Tbe tltle of the cl¡lef e¡ecutLve ufrrer shalt be " lhe Gotet'nor of á'l¡¡c¡lc¡tn
SrDoå." He ¡hall be appolnted
- by the Pl€sideut, Þy and witlì tht' lìdvice tn(l
cousent of the Seutte. Be sh¡U be a llne ofrcer of the Noçy of the tjulted
States, of or above tbe rank of comru¡rnder. He shnll l¡oltl hls olllte utltll ltl¡r
sr¡cT€ssor ls ehoseu and bAs qu¡llfled, utlless Eooner renroì'ed by tl¡e President'
Ee shall re*Ide l¡ Amerlcrn Samoa rlurlog his oflcial lncuurbelt'y, liurl sl¡nll
nalntain hls of,c€ at the uent of g:rrl'e'rtrEen1.
Ee sball be responuible for tl¡e fattt¡ful executlou of the larvs of ¡luletlcnu

can Samoa for ment
He sball not decl elfare rrf the
pcople of Ame cons dlstrlct gov'

sùntl,on, l.utulla.
IIe ¡'naU by prOclnmatlon qrll âu anngal atlvlnOry "fgtlo" (ße¡rtrUl nl¡el-
t¡S) of reprôreìtnttves ol tbe pe¡rÞle of An¡erlco¡t Somoa, r¡r'ur whlul ùe
ehull preelde.
Eacù dlstrlet shr¡ll he reprerentetl trl': (a) The tllxtrlrt ß()vel'rrr'¡', (D) ttll
coEnly eblef¡ of tbs dletrlct. (e) nll rllstrlcf Jurlßes of the rllrtrl<:t, (d) 10 re,{-
Inte¡ed mntals slr rlelegates to lre up¡rolnted ¡tt a tllstrlct mettl¡ri

,iJ :,'l
i
t,l,

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3Ít0 ÀMEEICAN BÀMOÂ

llneh delegate mu¡t be a reglrtered matal; thnt le, a reglntered head of tbe
fo¡¡tly or group of fnmtlles, Ä dlst¡tet meeHog ¡hall be held l¡ eacb dlt-
ttlct, at the tlme and ln the pl,nce deglEl¡ated by the gìoyerrroÌ, nt wbleh the
dl¡trtct delegate.s shnll be appolnted, and at wblch sbail be foruul¡ted the
questlons n'hlch the people deslre to have dloeusßed at the annu¿l fono, and
at¡o trre dlstrlet'e tentatlve ånarver to the questlona whlch the goyernor
deeires to bave dlscueËed.
I'he govcrnor rihall anuually, aud at sucl¡ otber times aE may be requtred,
mnke offclal re¡rort of the tra¡gnctlons of the governrueut of Anerle¿¡ Êlnmol
to tl¡e necretary of the Navy.
ÌIe shull takê tne oath präscrlbei? by law before assumlng ofrce.
TII. Dsp.rnrlruNTa AND OFlrcEs
(1t Def¡artment of uative aüairs.
(2) JutU(.tal deparùee[t.
l3) Deparlment of publle healtù.
(4) De¡lrrtment of publle works,
(5) Denartment of education.
(0) Departnent of custom&
(7) Department of the treasury.
(8) Departmeut of cumm-'nlcatlon¡.
1. DEATTl(trÀÍT OF NÂTTYE APTANA
A ñecrctar')' of uatlve aÍalrs shall be f,ppolrltett tty the Secretttry of tl¡e Navy.
The se(tetaty of rratlve afialrs appolnted by the Becretary of the Navy ehatl b,e
a civitian ritlzt,r¡ of tbe Unlterl Fltatee not less thln 30 yearu ol age wbo sball
l¡nye beeu ad¡nittctl to tl¡e lrractlce of law f n the hl¡Ûreet court of tbe Etate or
rlt¡t¡lct l¡r wl¡ich he han reeelved bis certlfleate or llcense und rvho ltas beelt
udr¡ritte{ to ¡lrurtlee nt lenet flve yent's prlor to l¡le appotutuent as secretarJ
of natlve nffairs.
'Ibe dulles ol the s+cretary o( uutlçe afialrs sbull l¡c:
(r¡) To hove supervislor¡ over and lnspect nll work of tbe natlve officlals,
rüi IIt.shnll aôt ulrtler the lnntructlcus of tbo goveñror, end.ihall nlake
reguiar repo¡'ts ou all natlve ofialrs to the Governor, EIe shall tqke t¡e oath
crlDerl LJ l¡rrv before ansunlrg ofüce,
-¡rre,('lçr'tc lo ihe aen'ql.nrv ol ¡ttlíoe øffuirt.-A' clerk to the seeretury of nottve
affnire shatl l¡e apÞotnted by fbe SeerÞtar¡' of tbe NavJ'. Ee shnll be a clrlllan
cltizen of tl¡e t'nÍtetl States.
Hlx dutles sholl be such as ma5' lte nsslgneil to him (by the goYernor of
Arrrerlr.¡n S¡rm(u arrtl) by the secretûr¡' of natlve afialrt.-
IIe shnll lnke tbe oatlr-¡rrererlbetl b)' low lletorc aasumlng ofrcre.
2, JÍ;DÎCI.{L Dtr^nf,ùtgÑT
À chlef Justlre shnll be n
Justire u¡rpolutld lly the 'Sec
fr¡rited Sttttes, ¡tot lese thau
lire of lun' tr¡ the hlghest
lect'lyetì his t'et'tiflcatc or I
leust ffve Jeflt's trtlor to hh appotntmÊnt ilñ chief Justlce'
The clrtcf Just¡ce shnll lre:
(n) The ehlefJudge of the hlgh eourt.
(à) I'reçrftllug Judge of tbe tllstrlet corrrt.
(c) P on.
sh
tlcl lun' befrlre nssumlng ofüee-
Clerk he lr'gh court shnll be ap¡rclnted b¡' tlte
ue(.retut elrillirn cltlzcn ol tlre U¡rlterl Êtetes.
llls rlutles sball be:
(n) To act us elerk of the hlgtr, dlstriet, and prob¡te co.ur-t¡'. -
i¿i no &et ils the ofrelal steñographer of the hlgh eourt, dlstrlet eorrrt No. L
--("iprohate
and eourt.
Clrrortnrìi such other düttes as mry be asslgrretl to hlm by the eblef
- He shnll take tlte oath prescrlbetl by law belore assuttrlug oËee'
Jnntiee.

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AMERICAN SAMOâ 331
3. DEpABTT¡E¡fr Or ÞrtBLfc gß LltI
The departtêht ol ptìllc lrmlth shdll hare flrIrervlElrrD over, fntl be dlre('tly
responslble to the goveruor, for ull uattere relntlug to the publlc henlth,
'Ihe senior medlcal ofrcer cl tÁc Uultet fJtatç ¡¡tval stttlotl, Tutullil, Eùûll
be tbe head o! the aleprtment ol publle health wltlt tlte tltle " Dublic hedtlt
odcsr." Ëuch other persons attsehed to the metlteal depailmertt of the Unltetl
Etatce naval station, Tutullu, ae nrûy be found necessnr¡', mny lre oßslgned to
duty unalêr the deptttuert of ¡rubllc healtlr Ùy the ßoYurnor.
fte pnblle healtb ofiter eball perform Bnch dutles ûÉ u¡uy bc asslgned to ltlln
btr tìe gr¡vernor and ¡hall male to ttre govetnor guch n'frurt¡ aã may be requit'etl.
Ee eùaü take the oatb preaerlbetl by law hefore nssunrlng rtfÉce.
4. DEA-STxÊnT OF PUBI¡C türt
The departnent of publle wofkg shntl have ¡uperylgton ov€r, and be directly
rerponstble to the governor, for sll mûtters pertalnlng tu lhe const¡uctl¡rn a¡t¡l
leDair of all lnsular, dlstrlet, e{)trnty, and village publlc works, lneludlrtg rttnd*,
liigbways, culverts, bufltlings, darng, water leorks, and pltÊ Unes.
lfte public worf,¡ offctr of tl¡e Unlted Stutes ¡uyul stutlon, lfutuil¡r, shall lre
the head of the depf,rtment of publle rvorks of America¡r Sa¡¡ou. He slrr1ll
perform ¡iuch dotles-ss uay be neslsned to btm by the governor r¡¡d shnll mulie
to the gorernor sueh reports as mal, be requlred.
Ec sball take fhe (,ath prescrlltetl by larv before aesuming offiee.
6, DE^BTllE^-l Or lÐUCÀT¡otl
The department of educntlun ¡lrnll hnve ru¡r.rvlalon over, nnd bc dlrectl¡'
reeponslble t0 the Bover¡ror, lor all matterü pertuluhrg to crlut'fltlon.
The chaplaln of the Unlted States nav¡l statlon, Tutulla, or such other per,
son 8s may be apFfnted lly tl¡e gnternor, xl¡nll lp the F¡lperlntt,nrient rrf ctìur:¡t-
tion, He ¡hell lr€rforur lrttch dutlts ns may be asslgtred to hlm bJ tl¡e goÌertrlr
¡rnd shull mtrke such reportr to fhe governor riß nra¡i be requlred.
Ee shall tal¡e tbe oatlr ¡rreær:berl b.v law before assunrlng offce.
0, DEP,ìßTI¡EN'T OF CttgIrOMS
1['he department of ostoüs shall have eupervlcton nver, and be dlrectly re.
rpoucíble to the goveruo¡, for all matters pertalalng to Igland cuðtoms, and the
tr'Ueetion clf all revenues derlved therefrom.
The chlef rn¡atoms ofreer sùall he nn oÍñcer of the Unlted Stntes nåval stfltíon,
Tttulla, appoluted by the goverD(rr'. He nhall perform sneh duties ns may bc
to hlm by the governor anrl shall make such reports to the governor
nsaigned
rsbay be requtred.
Ee shall tatse tùe oafb prescrlbed by law before assumlng ofEce,
7. DEPASIIiE\T Of' TftE TT,EÀ8IJBÍ

lte
depa¡tmeut of the tretsury ehall havc supcrivlslon orer, aud Lle dlrecll¡'
reeponsitrle to tbe goyerr¡or for, ûll mntters lrcrtulning to the custody of und
tbe dlsbursement¡ of publlc funds.
Tte treasurer shalt bo an ofrcer of the Suplrly Corps of (he ñnvy nob lrelort'
tbe rank of lieutensnù. IIe eball l¡c appolnted bJ' the Secratary of the linv¡.
He ehall perform such dutles as rnoy be usstg¡ed to bi¡n by the Boyènror'
¡nd sbull make sucb reports to the iíoyer¡ror os rnsy be requlretì.
Ee shaì'I take the
":::ï^ï:::i:: offce
::J,:."ii.:rns
The deuartment of
comrnrtniratíonu shall h¡ve, strlen'i.sftrn over, In(ì lxf
dircctly reslronsible to tl¡e gover:uor for, all m¿rtlers ¡reltuluilig to cr.rurnu,¡i-
e¡tions.
The heutl of tbe depo¡tme¡rt sl¡¡ll lre an ofBcer of tl¡e Uu¡ted St¡tte¡ n¡rvnt
¡tutir¡n, Tutull¡r, ¡ppolnted bJ the goyernor. Ee sl¡nlì bave tbe title of " ct'¡q-
trrunleation offeer."

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382 ÂMEnr('ÅN s¡lro,r

Ee_slrrrll ¡lerf dgned to hlm by the Boveruor
a¡tl ¡hall male uay be requlmù-
Ee shaU tale ¡e ¡i¡gumlnl ofrce.
TIII. OI'ED Ar¡rcrn

"
u "'3,s",
üiÏiËfË,iti'fl;l,lifriillu"î1"il,i
Ereh of thene officials shall p,erforur sueh <luties r¡!ì may be aËEig¡ed to lrlm
by tle -goveruor, n¡d ghall muLe euclr le¡rorts to tbe governor -as may be
requiretl.
fhe audltor, comptroller. aod shertü sball seve¡ally take the oath DrescrlH
by law before ¡agunt¡g oûco.
IX, Terro¡¡rr Onr¡o¡l¡¡
fn the event of the alrsencc, dlsablllty, or death ol an¡ oËciul appointe<l by
tùs Secretary of the Navy, the governor may rppotÉt n sûbsfltute prã tem¡nrÈ.
X. II¡cu l,'ouRr
Tb9 higlr court ¡hal..l lre couposed of tùe chlef Jurtice, uud, rrurmalll, of Ëwo
a¡eoclate Judgee who shall be uattve distrlct Judgee.
Tbe hlgl¡ cour.t ehall be l¡eld at such times rnrl places us the goyernor
may deem essentla¡ to tbe promotlon of Justk:e.
' Tbe hlgh cuurt shall hnve a Eetrl and be a su¡nrior court of record aual ¡
eourt of l¿rrr Rud equlty.
l'he lriglr court .shnll bave orlglual Jurtsdlctlotr over'-
(õ) á,ll clçil suits concetrrlng real ¡roperty iu J,ruerleuu Samoa nnd all
l'lglrts aller-'ting the saure.
(D) -A.ll cfrll Buits between forelgners n'ltcn tl¡e artrount in dlrpute excred¡
the sum of $2õtJ.
(c) Àll crirues ntld ofre¡tses commlttt'd h¡' fotetgners lvhen tbe peualty $Uclt
may be inflÍcted exc('€ds a tìne of $2õ{), or iurprlrouureut ìvith hard tåbor for å
tenn exceqllng slx u¡olrtl¡s.
(d) Àll charges of treasou ot murder.
(e) Àll r'r'in¡t's autl nfienses eom¡ultterl ìry urrtlve oûieials, ln their ofreial
capaelty.
(f, All Jutlicial Jurisdietlo¡ exereigùble withln the UmltÈ ot Ar\erlcån Sroou
¡ìot hereûftel provided for.
The htgh court rhall lre uu aplrellåte eou¡'t for all causes appealed from tlre
tllstrlct court.
XI. .å,ppuers FBolf rf¡Þ Erorr Counrs
Tbe Jurlg¡uellts, decre€s, and ordert of tlle hlglr court slrrrlt be flnal e¡c"ept
thåt a pårt.f to un tctlon or proeeed¡Dg in whlcù tbe higl¡ court has orlgtnal
Jurlsdlctlon, rlho is not satlsted wltlt tlte flnal Jurlgment, decree, or order of
the court, n¡ay trlthln seveu doys aftel tlte hanillng down of sutd Jud$uent,
decte.e, or order, at¡d the serylce upon him of a certlfled colty thereof, appeal
therefrom tr¡ tlre Governor of Amerlean Samoa,
Such apDeul shall be ln wrltlng, slguerl b¡' the fl|tp€llsut sntl directed to tbe
Goterno¡ ef American Samoa,
' It slìaU state brlefly the grounda of appeal.
UÞou suclr apDeal belng tnhen, the goter¡¡or shall notlf,v tlre <:lerÈ of thu
üigh court of tbe nnpeal aud the clerk ¡hall prr¡nptly furnish tr¡ the gorerrìor
û record of tlte cafe flppealed from, lncludlng-
(c) A lrt'tef Etntement of the case.
(D) A coltl' uf tl¡e pleadlugs' lf auy.
(cì À cop.v of tlre testlmony.
((l) A cotry of the Judgu¡ent. deelee, or ordel sÞpeqled froul.
'l)he govet'rrol sbnll, wlthlu a reason¡rhle perlod of ti¡ue, reutler a rlecl¡iorr in
tlle c¡r"r(., eitber ltlx,¡l tlro lccord of the lrigh court or ulrorr testtntr)¡¡y of rrll-
Desxes rumrnonerl by hln, or botb.
Tlte govetnor's declr,lon sball be in n'tltlng and sl¡all elther a6nn, turxllfy,
or lererse tltc decl¡¡lon of llrp lrlgh corrrt.

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AMERICÀN SAMOA 3:Ì3
XIL Dran¡ûT Cousr
lltê rll^qtrlct (!urt shall be compose<l of tl¡e chlef Justlce atrd a tratlye dl8trlet
lodæ end sh¡l¡ be helal not leaa tban ouce ln eacù mooth in each r.lfetrict.
If oo the hearlng ol a caute, therre ls a dlfiercnce of oplnl.on between the
ùlef Justlce a¡d the E¡ttve dletrlet Judge Elttlng wtth hlu, tbe oplnlon of tbe
cùtef Ju¡dee shall prevall, but thls sball not f¡reclude atr appeal to tbe higb
eourt
ll/beu cU'c¡rm¡t¡nc.ea prevent tle chlef ,ustlce from eittlng wltl¡ a ¡attve dlc-
¡¡lct Judge, tbe latte¡ sball lorward to the cblef Justlce a conplete reco¡d of the
caæ together wlth bls oplnlon, and the ñnal declslon of the eblef Juatlce shall
either nfrrnr, modlfy, or reveme the optulon of the nrtlve dl¡trlct Judge.
The dlstriet eourt Bho.ll have Juriedletlon or-er-
(o) å,ll clvil matters between natlvee aod forelgnera, Rnd betrveen natlvet,
tu'h.:n the amount in dlepute does not efcÈed tbe ¡um of $26O.
(ô) AII eivll mattprs betÌveen forelgnerc u,heu tl¡e amotrnt ln dlspute does
not erceed the eur of $250.
(c) Afl crlmes and olTens€s commltted by natives exeept srlch o¡ ere under
the Jurts¿llcüon of tbe htgh court,
(d) All crlmes snd ofieng€¡ commltted l¡y fi¡relg¡erx wl¡en tl¡e.perralt$ whlclr
nay be lnfllcted doeg not erceed a 0ne of $25t1 or lmprleonment u¡lth ltirrd
labor for a term not erceedlng slr DoDthr.
(ø) Dfstrict Court No. I shoU bave furirdletlon of tll matter'B rvlthln the
tngulza¡ce of probate eourta, and the el¡lef Justlce shall l)e the pr<lbate Judge.
The dlEtrlct court ltray cEuse to þ npprehended nntl brought before lt nny
per¡on, s'lthln aud subJect to tl¡e turlsdletloo of the conrt, ånd charged *'lth
hrvlng commttted s crlme or olfense trluble by the eourt, lVhere llre erlme
is tri¡ble and [s to be trled by the lrlgh court, the dl¡trl:t court nrüy tn]¡e the
preìlmlnary examlnatlon and ¡hall eommlt the actuced to tnke lrls trlnl nt the
next elttlnß of the hlglt eourt, and ¡hall admlt the accu¡ed to ltall, lf tlre clrurge
ls bailable, upon euffelent Br¡retles helng granted, or elrall dlsm¡ss the occuted.
The dlstrlet court may at tbe dtscretlon of the ehlef Jurtlce nppolnù nssescora
t0 üdst the oourt bnt ï¡tthout volee ln the declslonB.
Âny perron tllsssttsûed wltb the Judgment of the dlstrlct, court may appeal
to the hlgh cuurt upou tucb terns tB msy be lmposed by the dlstrlct court,
but be shall lDform tbe court of ble lutentlotr to oppesl wltll 48 hours from
the day of tbe Jud¡rment, and ln erlmlnal mttters the eourt ghall then deelde
shether the prlsoner is to be lleld ln cugtod!' or sent to l¡ls orvn vlllage under
tbe supervlslon ol the Inllee, or relea¡ed o¡ hall, to he brought up at thp next
úttlng of the hlgh court.
Thls eourt shall be n c.ourt of reeord and a court of larv antl e¡lulty nnd shnll
hare a seal.
XIII. S.r¡.rs¡sa
The annual sslaries of the clvlllan oEclals ap¡>rrlnted by the Secretury of
tbe Nnvy shall be-
$ecretary of ¡¡atlve afralrs------ $5, 000
Cblef Justlce 5, (X]0
Clerl of the sPcretary of natlve afinlre------ 2.4m
Cle¡b of the hlgh court 2,4t0
Iu ¡dditlon to tbelr ealarles the secret¿ry of natlve aûalre and the chtef
Jutlee ehall each be entltletl to e furnlsheil house beloDglng to the Navy
of the Unlted States, wlth the neces$¡ry fuel antì llght,
The sal¡rrlee of tlre clvlllan officfals nppolnted by the Seeretary of the Navy
sh¡ìl be pald fronr the revenue¡ of the Ilnlted States out of tlre annual uppro-
priationa for tlte Department of the Navy.
All civlllan rrffir'lnl¡ appolnted by the Secretary of the Navy shall be erltltlefi
t0 traD8port8tlon for them¡elyee, thelr lmmedlate famllles, and tlrelr hoüselìold
effeet.s, from thelr homee ln the Unltetl Etntes to Àmerlcûn Snmon on lrclng
ordere¡l to duty. uDd frot¡l Amerlcan Samoa to thelr honres ln the Ul¡lterl Stntes,
uI}on tbe comDledon of thelr tlutles.
No officer of tlre l{nry of the Url'te<l Stnte¡ slrnll ¡eeelve eomponsntion ¡¡bove
or beyonrì hln pny Rnd nllowurx? f,s an officer r¡f the Nar'-r for any servlce
rendered u¡ au ofrlcirrl of the Bovernrnent of Amerlcrrn Snmoa.

/

0095
Case 1:18-cv-00036-CW Document 41-1 Filed 04/19/18 Page 134 of 182

¡t34 B¡iüOA
^ì¡TBICAN
oou¡fEnÎ8 ()F P¡{llotE o¡oÂ"lrc Acl
l, flhe llltt
"Amøricz'¡ Bonl¿û".-fiteee l¡l¡nds havc beeu knorr¡ oñelally
" ever slnc? the Pre¡ldc¡rt of the Unlted gt¡tnð ls¡u€d ¡
es "A.merlc¡o Samoa
ner eomml¡do¡ to Glovemor Creæ tr¡ " G¡overnc of Amedeen Samoln" dated
October 2+ 1:gl2.
The fotot rerolutlou of C¡ngr¿¡¡, ap0roved Debrsary ãr, lmr aaeeptl¡g ùhe
oesslons of the telande, uses tbe tltle " Eastern 8tmo8." f ean see no goocl
hc¡ãon lor tb¡s srcepi that perhape lt res not tbopgbt tdvlmDle ûo uee tbe
dtle "Amerlean Snmoa " ln a Jolnt ttsolutlon the putpore of wlrleh wn¡ to pake
tbe lelands legiaDy Amerlenn Congre¡e haa; however, aeverul tlmcg' ln botlt
act nnd Jolnt ¡emtutlon, ueed tbe Utlê "Atrl"llcan Samü-"
îlle remalnder of the Sanloan !Foüp, locsted to the westwatd of Amerlean'
Sümoa, now adrninletered åË a Eandüted terrltor¡r of the Lengue ot Nåtious
by New Zealand, through Great Brltoln, lc eolled " VYeEtcr¡¡ S[rnoa." Theae
lele^nde b¡d prevlously been knowtr, ¡lnee Febru¡¡y, 19(X), !¡ " Gerìmsn Samoa."
the Samonn people are accußtomed Èo the naltrc "Amellel¡ Samot," and t
feel sure that they do not deslre sny change.
The u¡e of tùe tltle " terrltory of Amer{can Snmou " would be most mlð-
leadlog and d¡ngeroue. Tlrc phrase " terrltoÌy of the Unlted Stttes " brlngs
to mlnd a type of gnverumentr aDd a ¡nlnt of vler, whlch bnve a.bsolutely no
p¡ace in the rllser¡ssio¡¡ of fl golerumeut lor tlte peoËe of Amerleau Earpoa.
The altnatlon ln Sau¡on h unlque. The people are prlnltlvc, but very amlable:
durlng our y to lnclte sny latent såysge lnstlneL They are ll[e.
of all, to be let alooe. Thertfore, il terrltorhl ty¡re of govemmenh aE we
understoBd lt, wor¡ltl ¡€sult onl.v ln rìisneter to ltotb governtd and governons.
Z Oooe,nmenf.-Ia the deeds of eeaslon, fbtulla (1000) a¡d M¡nu¡ (19û4),
thè Unlted Stateg (lovernment assumed certeln very plah reaponalbilttlea
towa¡d the people of Ameriean Ssmoa. The ecsslon of Masur was delayed
because the betch-combenr resldlng lr¡ ùlnnua had ûlle<I the Tulnanua (Kltrg
of Manu¿) wlth tbe fenr that, lf tbe iglonde ws¡e ceded, the oetlvea woold'
losc their lnnd.
VÍe have earefully reapeeted tle b¡lef " blll¡ of rl¡lta " contrlaed ln the two
deeds of cesslon:
(1) fVe have pregerted tlrc eustons of tl¡e Sauoaus whlcb were not violatlone
of publle morallty or Þubllc deeency.
(2) We have recrgalzed the rlghte of the chlefs in tlreir BeptrÌate villages,
(S) We baye respected ând protected the indlvldual ¡lgbt¡ of the people
to their lands and other Inoperty. l¡Fe have forbldden tbe alleuatlon of natlve
lands to nonnatlres.
It le perfectl.v enfe to say tbat l¡r cenyit¡g or¡t the c'ondlttons made by tbe
chlefe ln tbe c€ss¡otrs of the l-slands rve have been mo¡r thorougb than the
Srmoans thenrselvee would have been. Tbe Samoaus rre easlly nrleled, aatt
there ls no stablllty ln their vlewe on any suhJect.
the motto of the government of Amerlean Samoa bas always been: Amerl-
ean Samo¡ for the Auerlcan Samogns, We have refueerl to permlt the penple
to be erplolted by the rvhftee and hnlf easter+ The same ¡ollcy ox¡.sts ln
Western Snrroa, where lt has been publtely pmelalmerl, with tbe epproval of
the Governtnent of New Zealantl, thot. when tbe interests of tbe ¡attves alril
of the whltes are ln conûlet, the whltes must ylelal, as they are ln eueh n
surull miuorlty.
The small nurulrer of ¡ualconteutc l,ho now co¡nI¡ose the ', Mau," or ,' Unlo¡¡,"
are little more than moutbpleeen for outsiders, wbore sole desire lE not to
beltr tùe Samotn people but to explolt theln to thelr own proflt.
If the principle be aeeepted that ÊlûEo¡r Lq for the SonloBus, tben the ûuiteû
States Gover¡¡¡ent has bullt I monument of. 3nd workr hr Amerlc¡n Samoa.
The livlng conditloltr¡ antl tl¡e bealth of tbe people l¡ave betn lmproved ¡ tbe
populati<ln ls lnereacing; the c{rut¡tr!'is, ln tàe tna¡tr, uore tlran satisôed.
nnd ls prosDerous. llbe nattvee of the F'lJt Ielands are ilytug out, to tbe
Joy of tbe ¡ulers who n¡e exploitlng them ln favor of tbe tr)sat Indlaos. îbe
Marquesans, whonr n(,b€rt Louis Etevenson e¿lled .'eertalnly the rnogt beau-
tiful of human raees," hnve been enfeebled by epldernte diseaa€. lVeste¡u
Slanron sho\rrs an iucrease fu¡ p0pul¡t:on.å¡t(l un lmprovement lu the qualttv
|,f the Santoaus, and tl¡e Dollcy of \\testern Samon lE now: Srmoa fo¡ the
Snmoan¡.

0096
Case 1:18-cv-00036-CW Document 41-1 Filed 04/19/18 Page 135 of 182

A}ÍDBTC^N SÀXOA 3¡tõ
Tte hud questlon pr€æntß the mort aerlos¡ problem lu Amerlc¡o Srmoû, I
prroblem rphleù toc¡ b.Drl ln h¡nd wltl tltet of cltizeuhlp. If htlf-crsstec
¡¡d wbitca arc permttted to own t¡ud, it wlll not be long beforo thc aborl;inal
rtAle o'f â-ærleto flaror wllt be ôeDrlÌ€d of tlelr lnnd, eftet wblch tDett
ertldion rllt be orly r D¡tter of dmc.
l¡ my oplulor¡ tbe SaEosB¡ lre the haple* peopþ ln the world. Neture
h¡l bc€û gpoO to tbc¡, of, ee tåey tùeBsclYcr ßtV, " Ood l¡ Sood to Sam6."
ltey arìe ro far from tle tug¡oll ol so+tlted e¡vlll.¡aÜo¡ tbat ttey å6cE to
lire ln a c¡rèfree rrortd <¡f tùelr otn. Thelr lela¡ûr lre small lnd very
uo¡¡t¡lnou+-rlurnt oo end¡+o t¡st there l¡ llttle cultlvrble lnnd. Outeldere
cvuld galn ¡ltt¡c by erplottiog tùe ¡¡tlvt,e, bEt the ltadvol wt¡uld loee t"belr rll.
I l¡mly belleve th¡t tle Samoa¡s h¡ve the bËt Ddslblc Edeernm¿s¡. îbe
rmlù nlnority coæpat¡g tåe " Xou," or " lJûlü," lay thst thy rant etvll
goverumeut, but tl¡ey cn¡ not re¡lly tell Juðt what tùey tent, or wày they want
¡L It ls phin that iE rddlHon to beJng tbe Eo¡thp¡ecu¡ of selGscettng out-
sftlera, ttey hoDc tùat, vlth clvll lioyenrnent (?), tley wlll ¡tt more frum tlc
Utrl¡ed 8t¡tes than tl¡cy are nor Betlt¡9. Wlth t[e brr¡ let Öown, tbe out-
sftlera e¡pcct to hold the oflceo and own tbe l¡od, The people of Amerlcan
ßemoa blrre now the be6t pcelble toy€tDEe¡t bccu¡¡e tÈey tre govomlD; tùeo-
selveÊ. lfhe [ret n¡val tumma¡dqDt, ln 10(Þ, ras wlse enough to aæeDt the
tùen eristlug co¡dltloaa, wbleD he EFtduallJ¡ embodled lnto law. Changes bave
come ¡Imoet €ntlrcly lrcm tfte Samoaus theu¡elves. Tbey now have civll
goverment; t[at lß, aelf-rulq urder tùe Navy DsDrrtmeßL They govera; tùe
Navy l)epartment Eerely ad.olnlatera.
8. CitieauhÍp.{ltlzen¡hlp and the land queatlon are lntlnstely bound to-
¡etùeÌ. Abortginal natives alone are to be cltlzeus because the govern¡neut of

Äotldity by law to llYe perDanently lrr the Unlted States, ll they go choose,
wlll puve tJle way to Aruerlean cltlseunhlp for those so minded.
L Qoser¡or.-Some of tbe agltators shrlek thtt the Oover¡or of amerlc¡B
8a.moa le e despot, and th¡t Do ¡¡rtn ls good e¡ougb to l¡e ltis brotlter's keeper.
The gorernor ls not an absolute despob becûuse be ls responstble to tle Secre-
tåry ot the Navy and to the Presldent of tÀe Unlted St¿tee. Els montùþ and
an¡ual rcIþrts leep tbe Navy DeBartment fully l¡foruerl of nll eventa and ol
all ehanges ln tbe lan'. IIe mnles the larvs, but be uust obey tbcll oB long ar
tbe.v are lawe. Au e¡an¡inRtl¡ru ol tbe " Codlôcation of the RegulaUonr¡ and
0rders for the Governme¡rt of ¡Iruerlcon Srm<¡a " wlll prove tüat the changee
n¡de slnee 19fi) have been largely admlnlstr¡tlve, due to the gradually ln-
prored orgÊDtzst¡on of tbe govenlmcrt, rud tbat the tmdlt¡onal customs ol the
people have been bardly touehed exct¡rt at the request of the Samoans tlrem-
selres, aud also when lt wus nece*sûry to suppress wanto¡ eustonary destruc-
tiou of prope¡ty, snd lnde(.eÌ('y. No better ¡rroof could be glveu thut tbelr
o¡ston¡E üave been protected, aud thnt tùeir rþhts, lndlvltluai aad collective,
baye been r$pected altrl ¡lroteetctl.
Aoy weakenlng ol the ¡rower of lht' governor would be dlÈustrous. The r¡n-
fortu¡nte unrest rvlrlch l¡ns existetl ln lVcstern Enmoa lor nrore tbau three
yeura .ie due to the atl€n¡¡)t on the ¡rat't of the threc electe¡l rueurbcle (one llrlf-
nrste aad trvo rvlrltes) of the leglslatlre ebuucil, aud tl¡eir supporters, to erplolt
tbe Samoan¡ for their own seltlrl¡ entls, whlle, of eourse, claimlng to be s'or)ring
for tbe geueral go(}<1. It sho|s rvhnt a legtslatiye couûeil cun rlo, not for, but
to Samrnns. Somewbnt oyeÌ two l'eûrË ago. one wltlte aod one hrrlf-.r:uste
oe¡nber of tùe legislatit'e council and rnothel'white agitutor \1ere banlsl¡ctl for
perlods oî. 2, 6, and 3 Jeurs, re€pectively. At tbe end ol ltrst Decetrlber, tbe
wùlte member wDo bad been bantsbed for two year¡¡ FÊturned to western Samoa,
Ilu perlod of exlle having exlrlrerl. the " ùInu " l¡eld n grrnt ¡rurade ru culellra-
tion of hls returtr. Certalu l{irnroan¡. rvnnted by pollcc, took part ln the ¡rrrlcle.
though tbey had been wnrned b.t' tbe pollce not to do so. Tl¡e pollce atteupted
to arreÊt thenl. In tbe ensulDg riot u wl¡ite coDstrble rvus tilled o¡¡r.l ulso
serel¡ nrrtlre*. rimotrg whom was Tütrt8scse, the beorer of q roy¡l nûue, who
had ret'ently relurned froul iurprlsoument iu lìerv Zealund.
Wherr I wtr gotertto¡ r¡f .lnlelieun S¡¡nroa, tbe ad¡ninlstrutor of l{este¡'n
Samon lnforued me ln ¡ret'son thtrt hls ttifleultles were ¡lue to luck of l)ower.
He s'¡rs all :r¡r¡rolnttne of lhe Govcrnor Ge¡eral of ñew Zt,rrllultlr to whom hc wl¡s
res¡urslble; he was ulso rcs¡ronsihlc to tl¡e Secretury of lr)xterior AfÌnlrs. lterv
Zealanrl, and to tbe L+ra.gue of Natlons to whleb he harl to ¡¡nke un uuuuul
2083r-31-22

0097
Case 1:18-cv-00036-CW Document 41-1 Filed 04/19/18 Page 136 of 182

336 arfnnlcaN'sauoa
report iu rcply to tleûnlte questlon¡. Tbe adntnlstrator ssld to Ee, ln a tone
of €Dvy and regtet: " If I had your lxrwer I could etratgùtea thingig out
lmmedlatcly."
An ereeutlve counell (e¡ctpt ¡s a me¡ely odvl¡ory body) and aD electßfl
legielatlve assembly, would be worte than absnrd tn Amerlcan Samoe. Gover-
nor Moore (19Or10()E) trled to lnstitute electlons; he abandoned tle eúlort a¡
hopelees, The inûue¡¡cp of the chiefs l¡ ¡o Breat, even ro,w, that a vote¡ would
be a vote¡ ln name only; the ehlef would declde..
No vlcp governor le provlded for. None ls needed. If a peruauent vtce gov-
ernor were to be appolnted he would be the captaln of the yard of the n¿val
etatlon, who ls the llne ofrcpr nert ln rank to the governor. Ee would tate
pennanent precedence over the secretary of natlve afialrs, who l¡ the tnter-
Eedlary between the governor and tlte people of Anertea¡ Samoa. Noruall¡
the captrln of tùe yard hae no ofielal ¡elatlons, ofl tùe naval statloD, wltb tbe
Deople of Anericla¡ Samoa; hls appointment as vlee governor would lessen tle
prestige of the s€cretary of naytl atrairs wttù the people of Ameriean Sa¡noa.
It would õerve no useful purF)se. ln t92A and 10!6, two eaptain¡ of tùe yard
demanded tb¿t tbey be gfven thls precedence ln Isla.ud goveranent afialrs. In
1026 the queetlon war settl€d by the Navy Deparheot ln favor ol the edsttng
custom of havlng the s€cretary of natlve aÍairs follow the govemor ln preee
tleuce ln all matter¡ connected wlth lsland goverñment afalrs.
E. F. Bnren,
Qtuernor of Ameriæn Samoû lrom March 18, 1925 to BeptenÒer 9, 19ll
Approved Febroary 24, 1930.
E. g. I(rr¡so,
Aøptuít Aúled $totc. Naoy, RritltctL
Tf^nst.p. Wooo.
BDIÍ^NKs Olf ATBICTÑ AAIÍOA IN OONNEqrION WITII PBOFOAIID OBCA¡TIO AGE

amertcan Samoa ls a problem qulte dlûereut from tùat of any of or¡¡ other
lsleud possesstons. thls ls due pri-marily to the faet that the lslands were not
obtalned b
aborlglnal
poþulatlon
element ls
Our clvlllz¿tlon has obtalnetl very llttle hold upon Americtn Samoa and lt
should uot be foreed upon lt. The populatlon is raelally, und the country geo
graphieally, topo'E¡aphieally, and eltmatteally unsulted to our elvlllzation; whlle
on the other hand the n¡tlve elvllization and general ctmmunlstlc rysten, s
development of hundreds of years, le a.lmirably sulted to the erlsttug cpndltlons
and the very llmlted natursl resources of the country and should be fostered.
llbe total wortlng ¡ropulatlon does not elceed 3,(XX) men, approrlmttely 1,0{X)
to eaeh of the tùree dl¡trlets l¡to whlch the country l¡ dlvtded. thls forúr
provldes food, gathers the copra crop (whlch has uever erceeded 1,8O0 tons),
does a small amount of work on the naval stritldn, lncludlng the loadlng aud
unloadlng of ¿ll eargoes, bullds the natlve housea and nattve boats, and does all
the worl, of bulldlng and malntalning tbe rtads. It ls not capable of doi¡g
much mo¡e.
lfhe area of land srltable for cultlvation ls very small; uot much more than
sufrclent to maintain the preeent populatton.
hrther economlc development must be along the llnes of lncreaslng produe
tlon to meet the needs of tbe rapldly lncreaslng populatlou, but ghould uot be
along the llues of erploitatlon.
Erplôttatton could not posslbly be carried on proûtably wltùout the lm¡¡orts-
tton of allen labor; and lt ls nost probable that any attempt at erploltatlou
of Amerlcan Samoa le doomed to fallure even with lmporteil labor because of
the e¡tremely small seale upon whlch such operattons would have to be con-
dueted. X'urthermore, by the tlme thls fact has been estabüsbed to the satlv
factlon of those engaglng ln erploltutlon, the aborlglnal natlve population wlll
{'lthout questlon, have been ettermlnated
The poþulatlon, ercept for R very small group, ls contented, bappy, nnd satl*
ûed wlth eristlng condltlons anal the rnnnnel' ln wblch tDe government has bee¡
conducted for the past 30 years.
The dlscontented group ls but tìe mouthplece of a group of nonnattves llvlug
ln Samoa, Honolulu, nnd the Unlted States wbose malu obJectlve ls the e¡-
ploltatlou of Ame¡lean Sam<ia at the €rl¡€nre of the aboriglnal ¡ìutlver.

, ;,:ll;t.l ,, l

l"l I'l l',r tf::,lT'T' irF [{lr- H li;¿ tl

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EXHIBIT 6

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Case 1:18-cv-00036-CW Document 41-1 Filed 04/19/18 Page 182 of 182

CERTIFICATE OF SERVICE
I hereby certify that on April 19, 2018, the foregoing was served by filing a

copy using the Court’s ECF filing system, which will send notice of the filing to all

counsel of record.

/S/ Barry G. Stratford
Barry G. Stratford

28
Case 1:18-cv-00036-CW Document 41-2 Filed 04/19/18 Page 1 of 136

EXHIBIT A
to Motion for Leave to File Amicus Brief
(Part 2 of 3)
Case 1:18-cv-00036-CW Document 41-2 Filed 04/19/18 Page 2 of 136

EXHIBIT 7

0144
Case 1:18-cv-00036-CW Document 41-2 Filed 04/19/18 Page 3 of 136

cott:lt8
Iondryr Jutrc 31 19b7

Etrturnt oft Pegr

Eerol0 lro fohrl Fornrrlt Srorotery of tho
Intrrlorr hrhbltonl D. C. 2t9
John B. Eltdrtag, lrrlttrnt Scorotmy
o? ttetr for 0oouplc0 Atmt. a83

a

0145
Case 1:18-cv-00036-CW Document 41-2 Filed 04/19/18 Page 4 of 136
e39
.D.
0oohrl!
g1 notrr
f. t. Flt. 70

lsi$[rr, Ju]I; 2, t9l7
[ortso of lctporcntattnt,
&tboogrlttor oo lerrttotll end
Irrutrr ?orlcrrlmr of ttr
OonrC.ttrc m [\Dll,o tsadt
Urablnata, D, O,

lftrr rr$oe$ltto. lot et IO|OO orolool srror l! tic oor
rlttr. roor cf tb 0mlttce ou }\Dllo tandt, 8o[. nFrd 0rrrfcli/
(oufrrru of th. .uDocnttt .)r plutdlng.
Ir..Orovford (ohllrnn of tbp rubomlttoc) tll btr. p3
for tba fintlhrn ooorld.rrtlan of l.il, TO rnd oortdl otbt bllll
hovfng to do d.th tb. obrl|€p tn tb. 0rennlo Actr rrtrudllC
oortotn trlvllrgil to thr DoCpl. ot Gran raA tcsor. E

Ttrtr Hr.nlng rn htvc vlth ut lb.. tr3rol.d lobr, fu tor
rlny, r.eg tarr. sr orr vnlurble Eeonrtrry of tbc Intollo!
ouat hr tr eppoutag hon lrr thr lntcrcetr of aoDr of tboro blll!.

!h rrtll bo veny Bll{t to borr f!il 3ron, b. Iobr.
ffrfiflss qt IAT0ID lI. ImE,
Dm&ur sasrBl ot 8Er lmuffi,
YAeErrSll D' O'
tlr. fobr. lhlr ocuLttco lrr I hopr, sbout to leoomld
tlnt vo tlo Jurttoc to tho Dooplt of Cunr rld .erorlEon SxEi., I
Juatloo that htt bocu too loag 6al.clcd.
Vr toots Gpr frs 8!.f$ 1B 1896. Dt tJrc troott of lallo
vo obltgpted oulcolvcr to ootnbllch, by Aot of Ootqrorl, 'tho

, ( .l
lr ilr clrl i ilDllt
0146
Case 1:18-cv-00036-CW Document 41-2 Filed 04/19/18 Page 5 of 136

elo

6tvtt ltthtr and pollitoel etaturr cf tho ,eoDlt of OuE' fltb
roh:J of 6!ort y.dlc, trorill,rnt Folfnfry bmohrC tb bvrl
gpvrrmnt of tb ltLeli. hrt 3errranng, F.lld.at I$nlr
fcoolrtnr,tlr nuld rlnrulr tbrt n[U, D1ru!. of t-ndlvldurl
llfhtl eod ltb*tloo rlrloh tr tbr horltagp ol 1!oo praglmrt
lt Fal0 row to tb. Ornnntror thrt rth. d,nlot af tb trlba
Etrtar ls 06r of borvolrnt rrrhdlrtloa, aubrDlhdn3 thr dll
rny of tuttoa ud rlrht for arbttnry nill,r
tttl nr qu. lrclsc, W S2-: E-at 'ri'roa re DoiloUno?
flthta u tccn of tD.o Orto of thlr Dlonr stttlonoo by trol-
dcrt Hlntllr tbr lrvel ggvmat lrntl rboltrb{ elll ef t*r
rrry ourldrnblr bm tdo rlblob Gtf,r bril onJotrd tndet qn!r.
8y tho yru l9o2r teo Gsrrnl,enr nrc DotltloofnS nor'
tsoso rol.vl! rllbstr erd ghrt 0oagrosrtoorlly d.iLs{ toUtloaf
rtrturr rtloh th. trort' of lrrle hrrl prntl.od tbr6. fray rso
Ftttlos!€ rtttrl, rftor noerly hrl.? e oeatruy, Gf,thowb th,
Xrr:f trlr rFvr! pomtgtoll ltrcll to fnot about 1t aDd 8.otlrt$ry
Forroetlllrr pltt rcoont ortltdltlon hot&d ty Dr. Ila.eat d.
BoDklnr, wrdoubto{Ut aftrtr tho roct ttltlglnt .nd ort trlln
rou.ob, sr aot rbL t{t tLdl a .fnEb Qllftsnlrn rlo rontcd
olr1l rule . In tt'otr st le.o ctbil to bcllrvr bt gb. Eoptslur
neport thrt tln .vcr-!*elcnt fea:r of tbc otultuttrnr nr t&lt
tbr XoW ohouf,O rro longan tc ta t'bc porltJ'on of e bourvoba?
dilDot, and rmtl.rmo not too bottovolont aii tbDt.
A toall o! tnD beforc UE vlr tJnst DooPlrr out of tbob

rtr I T r*iT n 'w|I . t-ft [rlFErl
0147
Case 1:18-cv-00036-CW Document 41-2 Filed 04/19/18 I Page 6 of 136

rlr

our nlgore lF.rourorr, acnttro !.ltr c.atrtturr to lh$ln8t6
to bof oul rdrmor.tlor apnrrrroat to.llfl tfn dfotrtofr[ hni
ot tb lnrt,o.s FW ftc cff o! Onr rno to Df!o. 13r fuli-
{lotto6 rlthln tb bprtnat of tbr lntorlc.
ldl trt, Srcptnrf Fsa'rt*ltr od,tt o of tbcol
rofretrrlr tntmr dld lotrrl cilftbo ttnd ony r$urlcrr ol
dmlro to bc Fmrrd fra undm tb rurDloor of tha byt . . .r
A tpo0 r!!6, tbt rrurptoor.i
I roila! It tbr od,tt . oolilll hoeE' th. thwlt* rbr
'olll
thr tEop(orl ctorrr orn t
lot ur tabr . lcol rt iqna hlotor17. lhr &p|Ir otn
roluntotly 'nd.! &tt d ttrter rowrotgnt, I\ t8t9t on tb
b$lr ol an oscm undrrrtrndtng i&rt tby rodd br dru
otrtl alms rnd 8 rnrl,c of ltr. tr6 f899 rp to rnd bolrdlrt8
todry, taroru 1:l.:3c hm bcon l:lycd utrd.! lrvrl cbrolutlon. ht
llbe Scnoanr arql e bm Fttont fol'l thrn thr Otrlrrrlro, rnd
f$ th. oult 192013 tbet! DcttttonlnS lor tltrll ilraLd ra$tr
n
t
bcoslo trr qgrior,l, rltbough nlthout Dhwloal tlobnoc. llhrtrs-
Wlon, thr$ lrrdnr rcnr rckcd bl th livtl gpy.lulrt rd
obrrpd rltb tosnrplstoy. r
tbry rutro tbrorE tnto Jrff ana b.Dt tborc tor r nrpbeir of
!nrr!r. But non of thc outsoge r$.oboll Urctrlngton, .o tbrt ltr
l930r lrerldoat toorer, tlurrumt to . rololutloa of tlr
0m6rora, opolntod I Jolnt Osrcloalor to atudy thc tsoon
cltustlon. 3rr oomlrllon rrt b.tdoll by latato lfmr &t$ln

a -l l trts " r 5 f vi6rq'
! ' i 0148
\ Filed 04/19/18 Page 7 of 136
Case 1:18-cv-00036-CW Document 41-2
A

rlc

of ocamottofg etrd tt rent to 6aaFc to ds ttr tct oll
tsosdt tb
'lEr &Socl,6 unrnlreutly ooolr*rd thrt tbr thornr ootft
to b. 5tva lnrltrr oltllcnbll, o b{[l of r.tghtr rld oi
GatE.a rat. tt ttr ttllltnff to tba erro$l.ttt
rasurscd
hooonrl ory haf,D, aad porod fol t!. Fenf.od loglllr?dm.
S!. aonat perd e$ .tFqpt to blll rd thc Frrye trcbA, t
ngnrt to rcy bt tfr ttatr ErDq*rnot, ouolcilC ltr hoillc tt
llUcl tr thr toulo.
brcuf! ell of tlr ruooordlrg grrrt n hrrr b.fi ltr
defbntt of oup yrrnlcor to tb. D.qplil of ersu eui lurtoan
tatnr
ln tlt r you ago thlr rroll I ttotcd tbrs. .!d otbrl
ftota ln c rporob boferc thc ltstltutc of ltbato AfthlF rnd
tb, Inrtttstc of laotfto lrbtlonr brc tn y.obl^nEta.
ttr t oil.ct E'' of t&r bry lott no ttr ln olar.plft D
rltb rtn.sDotrlblpr oelttota tn r lsrf odmlootton to tb
Hrv lot.l mall ovlr. hlc orm clgnrtrre, a omrtostlon thrt
rol!9e0 no rtaglc hot.
llbon Erorotrt? tblnuftotts chawp of lrrccpoarlbtl rrl9t-
olsn growd to br tbo &tt trlr8t it r*gr lo hlrl$tly rr.rlrlugtl o
drrr Dr$rd. totn of thc hottto lrlandr fo a ornfttlV
aolpotod lruqp of rrutrlpr oonnrqlo.fratr gro wrc 6trrn t*r
hor1rftnl'f$ $or $h,llob tbr }rvy lc ftBur.
f,ernvor, tho hopcd fon rllto rtrsb by t&c aorrrcrnoudpntl
tle$'od to E$tetblllo.. tte Tr,ryrr grnrtr rroto otorl6 p6otgt

'!- I iw I F,T I'al ":" ,|fl 0149
Case 1:18-cv-00036-CW Document 41-2 Filed 04/19/18 Page 8 of 136

EXHIBIT 8

0150
Case 1:18-cv-00036-CW Document 41-2 Filed 04/19/18 Page 9 of 136

7lm Coror¡¡r gENATÞ f Doou¡¡¡r¡
Cil Sqúon ) 1 uo. ze

AMERICAN SAMOAN COMMISSION

M ESSA GE
rBOI TEE

PRESIDENT OF THE UNITED STATES
fBANÊI¡¡lllNO
TBE REPONT OT' THE AMERICAN SAMOAN COM.
MISSION APPOINTÐD PURSUANT TO PUBLIO
NESOLUTION NO. 89, gEVENîUETIT CON.
CRESS, AND PIIBLIC RESOLUTION
NO. 8, SEVENTY-FIRST
CONGREES

JANU^BI õ (cdeudar day, JtmltRr g), 1981.-Read; relerrcd to thc
Comrtittê€ on 'Ierritoriea ¿nd In¡ul¡r Affal¡t
and ordered to be prlnted

UNITED 8TATE8
oovEn¡¡u¡¡rr PRrNrINo oF8¡oI
WA8EINOTON I 1¡11

0151
Case 1:18-cv-00036-CW Document 41-2 Filed 04/19/18 Page 10 of 136

MESSAGE
Anüed, ir:) ii j j rì'
' I

Ts¡ IV'hrlo Éous¡.
J@narti 9, 19t1.
E

0152
Case 1:18-cv-00036-CW Document 41-2 Filed 04/19/18 Page 11 of 136

I,UTTER OF TA.trNSMITI'AI,

U¡v¡ruo Srrms Sr¡¡lr¡.
VuWtgt'orù, D, 0, Jønrørg 6r'19t1.
To the Prrsm¡Nt;

Ernru BrNorn¡, 0ânirmøt
tv

0153
Case 1:18-cv-00036-CW Document 41-2 Filed 04/19/18 Page 12 of 136

THE AMERICAN SAMOAN COMMISSION REPORT

[P¡¡slo R¡ro¡.unon-No. 8O-70,r¡{'Oorolu¡l
tS. J, Bes, 11Ol
JO¡N10 BE.SOI,IITION To nrovl¡le for' ¡eccptl¡¡. ratllyln¡. ¡nd co¡!¡nl¡r tb cdo¡
of ceitola l¡la¡d¡ ofthe S¡moor¡ ¡roup to thc UDltoû 8t-fcr, ¡¡d fot ot$õr
gnrpoçr
''. I ri (( -!i l:ir1
Whereas certal¡ chlefs of tl¡e lsl ands of Sutulla antt l,tinug a¡al criúlil othor
lclands of the ñamoun group lylug betweeù the tblrteèntli and ltteentù rtùribü
ol latltude south of the Equator autl betwern the

, ìrlbtr,dl
frppD

oee¡lo¡¡ I

llRc€S$ÊtX.:Or ProPel,',
Brt

A¡,Drovod,feþrt¡sry m, IV,o.
g'D_?1_g_vt¡r,14_8g I

0154
Case 1:18-cv-00036-CW Document 41-2 Filed 04/19/18 Page 13 of 136

2 :rE! E uoar ooutfr88lo¡t BEPoBT
^uDBroarÍ
rnd in pumusnco of Public Rosolution No. I of the ?1st Congooq
epproved Mry 22r1:gàg, ¿s follows:
[Pwrro B¡to¿mrox-No. 8-71s1 Cororuas]
f8. J. Bes 801
JO¡rlT iö¿öô'ní Ñuioborqt go. gcve¡tletl Co¡grort
'Fcbrolry ed ¡'Jolnt rejolutlo¡ to provldo foi
co¡ílrml¡ir certalo lolaud¡ of tbo É¡moaa Sroup
¡.nd lor.ot[cr

gú cartern Sqq¡oa, who,ehall, as ßoon us.r€a¡ouably Draetlcable, recommend Þ
Congregs'¡ueh'legfslatlr)n coneernlng the lrlandr of eagtern Samo¡ a¡ tbey ¡ball
tlçm 19çcmry o! proper."
.Approied, M.gy 2,,102s.

0155
Case 1:18-cv-00036-CW Document 41-2 Filed 04/19/18 Page 14 of 136

.¡l¡i I ir¡niôit: åirorr,, OoXlgmfi:tryO[E

'head;, IIis.
as he

0156
Case 1:18-cv-00036-CW Document 41-2 Filed 04/19/18 Page 15 of 136

s r'Et i4}ftqô tÍ ÉaxolF ì'oor¡m¡¡ror ¡cro¡n

0157
Case 1:18-cv-00036-CW Document 41-2 Filed 04/19/18 Page 16 of 136

EIt rÊtttrDl0rÍ¿r EllOn,',OÛflr'nßúü i nãf¡ ü

0158
Case 1:18-cv-00036-CW Document 41-2 Filed 04/19/18 Page 17 of 136

6 fEl r AütrBIOAtf , EAUOÂ!/ rg0tf tf¡3SIOf ,'n¡¡OAI

three, Samoon corr¡rnissioners asked the choirmon on:¿þsi¡.r[,¿þ6lf :þ
proceed to an early completion of the report, requesting that they bc
eonsulted by radio in any importont devieüión from this basis. This
haa been däne.
The oreliminorv nortion of th
of the hve iel¿ndð ôf Amerieon

0159
Case 1:18-cv-00036-CW Document 41-2 Filed 04/19/18 Page 18 of 136

¡a¡ r¡rrqrl,ilrxo¡It;.ooÜlryT[l!(til n

artd
tion
chief
all
eri

tection'to the indi
estdblished naüive

as di

lcotlor¡ tr
qh

,r¡ I

thoso n¿tives of
or the m¡inlond
olsewhere, to píreerve evidencs of their

0160
Case 1:18-cv-00036-CW Document 41-2 Filed 04/19/18 Page 19 of 136

I ÍEr'¡l¡l¡@¡t.' f'/\úO¡ll, Oof,ü¡8dtlJ tgFtlt!

lcotlor &

0161
Case 1:18-cv-00036-CW Document 41-2 Filed 04/19/18 Page 20 of 136

fþ Xtrfttoilr' ¡attoarf,'Oôrtüfltt' Eìp'otlt
:
0
tr¡d¡¡ rr

leetlc¡ tù

0162
Case 1:18-cv-00036-CW Document 41-2 Filed 04/19/18 Page 21 of 136

t0 !B'AUPB¡Oâ![: &ÀtoAN, @üMISEIOIÍ ' EDPoBi!

!octlolr
2t-2t

lcctlon 81.

deemodito have been reo
lcollon õ4.

leotlor 81.

lcctlor Ee.

Êeotlon 8õ.

lcctlon E{.

I
lcollon 8ü

0163
Case 1:18-cv-00036-CW Document 41-2 Filed 04/19/18 Page 22 of 136

ÍE! Â.¡[EBIO¿ltf'.EÀIIOÀN OOMDÙISBIoñ',EEFoD! tl
P Piesidentr the Pror- tcctlor rr'
es octibg governor

Scctloü 41.

er tho upper court on
Sectlon 41.

e of discord. .ì ,g'f,

Ctges in the COUrt scctlon 4õ.
to the united
Dbil#:l
eppe¡ls to be heord,in.Stmo¡ to avoid
nãñse to the parties litisanü. It is bol
'recornmendatiôn will be]not onlv stimulatins to the
administration of the low in thd courts of Ãmerican
Samoa-buü.Blso. as a tonqiblo eyidence to the people of
A-mericon Samóa of theií now status, be'helpfuI io the
:sener¿l atlministr¿tion of thuü
That the Federal Government ùÌre. saleries tectron 60
q chlef ju+
in the case
laries suggested.E_ny
st¿nt from the mirin-
be filled by the best
ther intelesis will be

in the future is to'be e suceessful one.

m¡intenance to the end th¡ü res
¡nd thç ide¡,of local gover¡¡¡nonü

0164
Case 1:18-cv-00036-CW Document 41-2 Filed 04/19/18 Page 23 of 136

t2 ¡g¡ .r¡rgsroir gr.¡roalf Gouu¡sslon nmpo¡lì
¡cctloû¡ 48.

loctlor .tle.

0w.
5r:ctlon õ1. tions of American Samoa
Government and that
the Public Health Service be extended to .{.merican
Samoa.
lcaúlor õ2.

growth, production, or m&nufacturo of Âmèric¡n
Ë::"tlr:
lcotlo¡ õ& That noturalization matters be triable in the courts of
American Samoa undor:the natura,lization laws of ,t¡o
United States, buü that those laws be amended so as not
to deny thefu beneûüs to persons of Polynesian blood

0165
Case 1:18-cv-00036-CW Document 41-2 Filed 04/19/18 Page 24 of 136

!E!' .AXIBIOAIr Ë^![pArV.@r[t[rgFror tilpo¡,! 1Ð

solely on thc ground of their, rncestri. lhe record'as
Amdrican citiz-ene now,for ovor;80 yea-rs.which hos bæn
are.of the, samç racg rå
eation for this r€con-
tho m¿tured conclusions
a.' :. ,

¿mor be relieved of ,oll lccrtor &
vernmenü of the Unitod
nue ond income to¡ l¡we

relativos ond, kindred of the i
and probably alwoys
een tñe two äiyisroue
only by the aecidenü
tcchnicblities evolvod

tootlo¡ Á

States, except ¡s otherwi* lcotlon ù.
mended, shrll be extended

0166
Case 1:18-cv-00036-CW Document 41-2 Filed 04/19/18 Page 25 of 136

l4 8¡t! {rrætort gatÍoÁr,ootlurSgror D,!poDl!

Eur¡u B¡rvor¡r¡.
Jor T. Ro¡rxeor.
Cr¡gor¡ I-¿. Buor¡
Glu¡¡r¡r Wr¡¡¿¡¡*
Mluo^.
Tgrn¿
lfl¿rr-,

0167
Case 1:18-cv-00036-CW Document 41-2 Filed 04/19/18 Page 26 of 136

EXHIBIT 9

0168
Case 1:18-cv-00036-CW Document 41-2 Filed 04/19/18 Page 27 of 136

Provide a Government for American Samoa

HEARING
BEE'úBB ÍIIE

COMMITTDD ON INSUI,AR AFX'AIRS
HOUSE OX' BDPRF,TIENTATIYDS
SDVENIT.SECOND CONGNDSS
r'¡BST SDggrON
ON

rr. R, 969g
A BILL 1() PNOVIDD A GOVERNMENT TOR
AMERIOAN SAMOA

MAY 20 AND 22, tggz

#
UNITED 8NAÎEE
OOYEANIûENI PßINÎINO O'E¡C!
B t$türc WASEINOTON:1988

0169
Case 1:18-cv-00036-CW Document 41-2 Filed 04/19/18 Page 28 of 136

4

COMUTTæEO ON IN8Uf,IIR AFFAINS
BUILEB B. EABE, Sottb C.Ìolll,¡, Otulnno¡t
OOtlfN W¡[ifrfA.U8, Tet¡t EABO¿D ßNU¡EON, tll¡¡e¡otr.
JOE f^ 8X¡T4 Wc.t Vlt8þh. CABBOI'I, fr, BBBDY, tllloc.
JOEN tfcDUFFlE, âl¡b¡ne. CEÂBI¡8 L. UNDBBEItfi Ut¡¡¡chuællt.
BAûPE F. ¡f)ZtEB' lll¡¡ourl. l.f.OfD ÎEtB8f,ìON' Iora.
BOI.IVA"B ¿ EBIúP' Ia¡l¡l¡oa. 1l¡OUÀ8 A. ¡BNflNq Oùþ.
ml,LìUBN CABÎWB¡OET, Oll¡bor¡. FBEDEICE W. IûAOBADY, Pcaurvlvlotù
O. lt. C8Og8, ?&¡a¡. JO8EPE 1,. HOOPBB, Utcblllo.
BOBEßT & EÀf,Iâ Ilrdæt991, BICEA¡D J. WEIÆE øUlor¡b.
BAI¿PE OILBEBT, Ecotocll. OEOBOB f. BBIIUÚ, Pcaolylveala.
JOEN E, llfLf,EB, Arl¡o¡tl,
W¡l,LIAl¡ E t¿ABBAAEE, l¡dl¡¡¡.
rosr g rr¡.jgea&r,$¿fg Bto.
tl

0170
Case 1:18-cv-00036-CW Document 41-2 Filed 04/19/18 Page 29 of 136
w

PBOVIDE A GOVEBNUENT EOB AUEBICAN SAUOA

EBIDAY, tÀg go, r99g

Hougs o¡' ßBrn¡eENTATtl:Eot
Couu¡rzns ox fxsul,tn l\runs,
lVaùingtton, D. C,

H
mi

me will bs placed in the hearings

lE. 8. 0008, Sevc¡t¡rccoail Go¡gæaq ûmt leælobl
A ElLr¡ To Drovlite e tplcrnreat fol Aocrlc¡n Srmo¡
Be l0 anttoîe¡, út tfte Senale anil E_o_ate ol Ropætenlallæe o1 tltc AnileO
Sla|c¿ ol Amerlco lr Oan0ræc øÃeemþþù.
Ose¡tr I-GErB.¡r, Pmrng¡oss
DEr¡Ñlrroll8
Swt¡or t
ect rütthout
on the 10tb
llbe stotu

the 'r Codtflrttlon " and " Ct¡stoms Begulatlo¡s " ore hereby reDealed.
Sæ. 2. îhat the lglands atqul¡ed hy the Unltcd Stntes of Amerlea under thç

I

0171
Case 1:18-cv-00036-CW Document 41-2 Filed 04/19/18 Page 30I of 136
ø'

a

PROVIDE .û, G()YEBNITENT FOB AUBBIOAN SÄUOA

SATUEDA?, tAÍ 21, 1998
HoueB or RBpnr¡¡NfArrvDg.
CoüurîEE ox frsur¡n A¡r¡rns,
'JVonhùryton, D, 0.

- Tl¡e committee met at 10 otclock o. îr.¡ Hon. Butler B. Ha¡t
(ehairman) presiding.
'lhe Crrirñuex. Gôntlemen, rivo ruill eontinùe this morning con-
sideration of 9. 417 and H. R. 9698.
lVe have rnith us Sen¡tor Binqham. 'who was chairman'ot the
eommission th¡t went to the Sarñoan lstanals in 1980. The com.
mittee rrould bo very glail to hear from the Senator at this time.
ErarBuElfr or Eoty. núru DnÍoEâu, Â 8EilaroB rBot rEE
slarE 0F corff,E0ÎIguq, ailn oEarBuail auBBr0a¡f gauoart
corurs8r0r
Senator B¡xomrr. Dfn Chairman and sentlernen. I hove apneared
before your comrnittee onco he¡rtoforpr"aftcr tvo camo badk- from
Sanloo.'

I

ilies in lVestern Samon.

Zealand.

IN 0172
Case 1:18-cv-00036-CW Document 41-2 Filed 04/19/18 Page 31 of 136
It

% pnovrDp a oovuBruprr roB atûBBroalr gauoÀ
trvinq to come under the United
ttãn ñe about iü and I h¡ve told
mo¡o tenritory. nor annex-
ü it, belonged idthe Leagrro
las had Ëen mandated-to
oncs declined to acceDü s
think they tried to !¡ive
ould know more ol¡ouü it
thon I would.
Senator lì¡¡ror¡¿u. There is ve
of th¡t kind. I think iü is feir

tlon wbich sent the eo¡nu¡is-
sitr¡ation. The com¡rtissiorr

er:f do not nlean the rrrc.sent
o'situntion. whieh er¡ninins a
oflicer
r, bttt
had ¡
there
t was
n lnwt
f hing
know. the Polvnesian peoule a¡p
ieve tliey are väry largôly'Cauc¡-

0173
Case 1:18-cv-00036-CW Document 41-2 Filed 04/19/18 Page 32 of 136

# PBOV¡DE A OOVUBNIIENT TOB AIIEBIOA}Î 8AIûOA TT

Snmoo for a long time, and I
I the committeo would like me
to go
The Crr.unlrAN. lVoulcl you. in
mittee wlrat rvoultl be thd .lifter

ont or any civilian to act as
it would be cntirely
t, but
to continue the Navy os o

But Pason
it ¡voutdaô
borts

'¡..'

0174
Case 1:18-cv-00036-CW Document 41-2 Filed 04/19/18 Page
t 33 of 136
:
A OOVEBNUENî ÀIIEBIOAN SAIIOÀ
ls PEOVTDE TOTg

It is somewh¡ü like the patriarcha
less f¡millan
the Crr¡n!f,arÌ. Thene is no rsdieal change to be made ln that

umber of mixed bloorls is increas-

h¡ve so muelr Tonge
Íg a noüive Samoan.

ere quíüe e number of families
en dÍeinherít€d because of their

rrould bo to let the Samoan ['ono
íne the etandord of citizenshinl
is the provision as wo wroto it in
the bi'.
The Cmrnr¡rr. Bather th¡n to have that fi¡ed by an rcü of
Congress.

0175
t
Case 1:18-cv-00036-CW Document 41-2 Filed 04/19/18 Page 34 of 136
,Ff

PBOYTDE A (X)YEBNUBNI TIOB SAXOA tÐ
^I'ÍDBIOA¡Í
ñlen¡tor B¡xosru. For Srmos

nd. îhot would be o mstter left
matler þ bo det¿rmÍned by thc
I bv the sovernor end the
subjecü tõ change by thc

the iileo thet their londs ÌrenE

but rathe
of o fami
the cases
I
a white msn and he becane o m
drcn or his oldest child would
tle to th
fù wou
he governor has ¡
veto
t to-pass an act over his
by ühe hesident¡ oûher.
Senator B¡roneu. Therc is sn
goYernorts Yeto. Of course, as
ã'rnor there the chences a¡e thaü

äß 0176
I
Case 1:18-cv-00036-CW Document 41-2 Filed 04/19/18 Page 35 of 136

80 DBovrDE a ooypnrtrgN:r roB atÍERrcaN gar'roa

and thers wero o ferv mixed. of
Senator Brron,rr¡. Outside o wero verv few.
Mn B¡uo¿ There werp two on ex-na'val ofreer
entertained at their
ry ltle pqoplg and ever¡
mething in the_heari4gs,
white pôople. f recollir-cù
_ M¡. Iltry,r,re¡r¡. the gentleman here says 108. You were righü;
I did noü think thene wõ¡s thaù n
Mn BBSDY. The bill ¡reoqnízes
that of r3Americnn citizen r onrl

Mr. BsEDy. Now. the divergence of testintony as to the rieht of
ths half-bloods to ïnheriü under the olcl Polynesian custom--from
the mother so thaü they would beeome entitlerd to an allotment or
uso of a nortion of the lomilv l¡nds. bv ths hoad of the familv. wes
quiüe maiked. I can noü sof deftnifc$' aü this time, bec¡use õi the

0177
Case 1:18-cv-00036-CW Document 41-2 Filed 04/19/18 Page 36 of 136

P8OVTDE A OOYEBNUBNT I'Oß AUBBIOAN SArfOÀ 81

trfr. lV¡¡¿r¡ue. Thaù is r:orrect.
Senntor D¡¡rorr¡nr. And thnt c
¡'e
hi
It
thernselves. Thev ¡eelized thaü t
therefore when rie drafted this c
to the legi.slature, it ryas provitled
¡¡re¡nber õf the fono.
chiefs. thev orp not
to be radical in their
ms. the old l¡ren haYe
I""iif ifil Llï'blii#if;l,Tåi
o means of giving the people e
t620îrÌ--98-3

0178
Case 1:18-cv-00036-CW Document 41-2 Filed 04/19/18 Page 37 of 136
F
¡
.r:

bz PNOVIDE A OOVBRNIIENT TOB AIIENIOAN 8AI'TOA I

' Ilfn Ltztw,lVhat, is the stotus of the Senote bíll, hns it passod
the Senete nt this sesslon?
d. ft'is tho second tinro thnt it

f
now hnrrc nssu¡no thev havo
uü the Nary. they hai'e had

0179
Case 1:18-cv-00036-CW Document 41-2 Filed 04/19/18 Page 38 of 136

,g - PROVIDE A OOVEBN}IDÑT FOB AIIEBICAN SAI|ÍOA 38
in Britieh Samoa¡ that
sre some Catholics artd

a'

lfn Br¡ov. ff the Sbn¡tor will

ttltÌ:ti"irr,
Yps. precisely. r thor¡slrt r'e ¡nrrst keon faith with tlre
Senate and introdirircd thelsomo bill iyithor¡t chanse,äs thaü bill hnd
l¡ecnlr the lmt session. llthãd the Houso com-
¡r¡itteô bill, thcru rv¡ls ¡r srrggasted amendment
the
-.ilr:
to ownershi¡r of or theïghü to hold land.
scctionl'
Sen¡tor Br¡¡o¡Hrr. On
lfr. BseD¿ l1'o crossetl ir¡nina ruith line l8 on
llage 28. fn other sords. $e cros{ f sectíon 4?. Then we
h¡ìl section 48 to denl rvith.tt Ilte thereupon renurnlrcred it {7. We
struck out the rrord '3 public and inseltõtl the rvords rß com¡nt¡nal or
famjl.y group¡ that thõ communtl or farnily group tt in line 1 of this
-sgctlon,
Thau is on page 29, and in your copics n'oulcl l¡e line 1 of section 48.
Conti nuing, tle-secti'on readð :
lfbey shall be admlnlstered unrþr sueh lasg ng lhe fono shrll ennct z Prcaldeii,
Tbot all ner?Dueo from or proctede of tl¡e Eams¡ except . . .
And we cut out the words 16 as regards t'as surplusage-
snch pnrt thereof ris may be used or occupleû for the clvll, mllltnr!', or ¡aval
Dur|þse8 of tbe Unlted States, or may be aeslgued for tho uso of thc government
ol Amerlean Samoa, ¡boll be uæd eolely for the bene0t ol the lnbobltants of
.{merlc¡¡ Snmo¡ lor edueatlonol nnil other publlc ¡rurposes.
And then we insert¿d this provisc:
Provldeitr olro, That the¡e shall l¡e no restrlctlon r¡il the cnnreynnce of free.
hol¡l ¡¡o6t e¡cept as hereln prorkled,

^lfn
Br¡or, Before the subcom
And rre macle, ! figure here, somo-
rt this ehange conccrning lantl
tlre notes. I.tl¡inl¡ yori aro correct
in what you s¡yi f ¡m noü qrrastioning that.

0180
Case 1:18-cv-00036-CW Document 41-2 Filed 04/19/18 Page 39 of 136

'.lt

84 pnorrDp a ooyDßNuENt ron .lrtpnrcar BAttoÀ

The Cn¡rnra¡r. M¡y f remind the qentlemen of the committpe
lh¡t the Senate meets-at 11 otcloek, anìl the Senator would like to
le¡ve.
Senator B
ôs iü stcnds i
of H¡wail.
kin¡¡. About 184õ. ectins und
his-forpisn advisors. he"sran
Howaii oÍd divided ihe t¡nds
the e
allYt
o the rnpublie, of course, overy-
passed
'UnitedtôStates'one.third
the ienublie. aríd whòn
of the
ands. - And it rvas prorided thaü
beneftt of Hsrrnii foï educational

lfn Brsor. I do noü think there is any vital chonge in this bill
exent this.
tfi. Kxunsor. The¡e is one rrith resp€
which the Bureau of Naturalization collõd
îhe billas it was introdueetl cortld be cons
Bureou of as conferring
nesian rega er he lived in
We had Mr
IUn B¿zDY. He cam , I remember. There
rvas somo question, bu
Senntorblxoser¡. changed.
Dfr. lV¡l.¿rlvs. Tlrot
think
llfr. Bnsov. I ch¡nged.
The Cn¡¡auAN. lVe thank yot¡ very ntrtch, Sennt-or, for yortr pre.s.
encp here this nrorning.
¡\ow I believe rye hlvs I reprsentatiue
-
fro t the Nary l)epartment
ruho nottld like to bq heard.
Conrmantlel L¡¡ruuRB. Yes, sir.
The Cr¡¡tRuAN. Just giye yout nnme nntl the copacity in rvhich
you appetn
gîATEf,EtrT OI COUTA¡rDEB EOWABD U. Î,II3rrEN8, trf
oEânoB 0r rEE orEI0E 0F lgl,arD oovEnruDllr!, f,a\rr
DEPABflDTT
Comnander L¡ur¡nne. Co¡ltntattder. Horv
clnrgo of the offics of islond got'ernmente,
lllri wfio h¡ve come he¡e fronr the Nav
inspired by Dfn Beedy s tolk yestertlay, in
0181
Case 1:18-cv-00036-CW Document 41-2 Filed 04/19/18 Page 40 of 136
I

-.!

PaOVIDE A OOYßINXDNT I10B ÂIíBßIOAN S¿IllOA 4l
STAIEIIÛ! 0F OOIIAIDEB 0EA¡üß8 t. I008B,l 4{!t!Alll
--0EIEr¡ o8xfIOE 0F lgtâ¡lD oov.EBilEtr8, raw IIBPABÎ-
IBTS

fow minutos.
StarDtEm 0F cof,ra¡IDEB counÎúÄÍD 0. BalfoEËAtr, orFIoE
OP I8Tâ¡TD OOTID¡TUEilTT, lfÀYÍ DBPABTTBIÍI
Cr¡tuluarrtler B.ruonuå¡s. llr. r
Ihedy ycsterdoy gôvo vcr.y nico
de.scri¡ttir¡n of the thilrfrs donl¡ there-u¡irl r¡f their ahnost ro¡llantio
orrtlrxik anrl of tho sntiì{faetiorr rv.itl¡ the rnndilionn thut exi¡t theru,
Y€aÞr. Oonseouentlv there hae
leh wor¡ld ¡¡ecä^*sitatìe rr drnstic
itr accortl¡ncg
, the g9vernor
hers ¡ns three

in l0;lt¡. h¡vinß lrren ¡krnn the¡e
uo¡'nor'. I rrus chnirnrnn of the

lõ2ffrÞ-93-{

0182
Case 1:18-cv-00036-CW Document 41-2 Filed 04/19/18 Page 41 of 136
'-tr¡ I
rli

48 pnoyrDr A ooYBBñxBNr roB aurBroa¡r Eauoa

¡
0183
.;
Case 1:18-cv-00036-CW Document 41-2 Filed 04/19/18 Page 42 of 136

DSOYID! A OOI/IBNIEIÍT SOB ATIBIOA¡Í 8¡XOA 49
I .
:
{
a
r,

i

'Yettt.
Di;: L¡¡Ãtr.,In other wo¡ds, you thinE tùe qspirotio¡ of the.ppople
¡s.to h¡ve ¡ he¡d chief ¡nd hó is noÛ must b0 8n
to be o'S¡mo¡n, buü

a

x

0184
Case 1:18-cv-00036-CW Document 41-2 Filed 04/19/18 Page 43 of 136

EXHIBIT 10

0185
Case 1:18-cv-00036-CW Document 41-2 Filed 04/19/18 Page 44 of 136

HeinOnline -- 75 Cong. Rec. 4129 1932 0186
Case 1:18-cv-00036-CW Document 41-2 Filed 04/19/18 Page 45 of 136

HeinOnline -- 75 Cong. Rec. 4130 1932 0187
Case 1:18-cv-00036-CW Document 41-2 Filed 04/19/18 Page 46 of 136

HeinOnline -- 75 Cong. Rec. 4131 1932 0188
Case 1:18-cv-00036-CW Document 41-2 Filed 04/19/18 Page 47 of 136

HeinOnline -- 75 Cong. Rec. 4132 1932 0189
Case 1:18-cv-00036-CW Document 41-2 Filed 04/19/18 Page 48 of 136

HeinOnline -- 75 Cong. Rec. 4133 1932 0190
Case 1:18-cv-00036-CW Document 41-2 Filed 04/19/18 Page 49 of 136

0191
Case 1:18-cv-00036-CW Document 41-2 Filed 04/19/18 Page 50 of 136

0192
Case 1:18-cv-00036-CW Document 41-2 Filed 04/19/18 Page 51 of 136

0193
Case 1:18-cv-00036-CW Document 41-2 Filed 04/19/18 Page 52 of 136

0194
Case 1:18-cv-00036-CW Document 41-2 Filed 04/19/18 Page 53 of 136

EXHIBIT 11

0195
Case 1:18-cv-00036-CW Document 41-2 Filed 04/19/18 Page 54 of 136

HeinOnline -- 76 Cong. Rec. 4926 1933 0196
Case 1:18-cv-00036-CW Document 41-2 Filed 04/19/18 Page 55 of 136

HeinOnline -- 76 Cong. Rec. 4927 1933 0197
Case 1:18-cv-00036-CW Document 41-2 Filed 04/19/18 Page 56 of 136

HeinOnline -- 76 Cong. Rec. 4928 1933 0198
Case 1:18-cv-00036-CW Document 41-2 Filed 04/19/18 Page 57 of 136

HeinOnline -- 76 Cong. Rec. 4929 1933 0199
Case 1:18-cv-00036-CW Document 41-2 Filed 04/19/18 Page 58 of 136

HeinOnline -- 76 Cong. Rec. 4930 1933 0200
Case 1:18-cv-00036-CW Document 41-2 Filed 04/19/18 Page 59 of 136

HeinOnline -- 76 Cong. Rec. 4931 1933 0201
Case 1:18-cv-00036-CW Document 41-2 Filed 04/19/18 Page 60 of 136

HeinOnline -- 76 Cong. Rec. 4932 1933 0202
Case 1:18-cv-00036-CW Document 41-2 Filed 04/19/18 Page 61 of 136

HeinOnline -- 76 Cong. Rec. 4933 1933 0203
Case 1:18-cv-00036-CW Document 41-2 Filed 04/19/18 Page 62 of 136

HeinOnline -- 76 Cong. Rec. 4934 1933 0204
Case 1:18-cv-00036-CW Document 41-2 Filed 04/19/18 Page 63 of 136

HeinOnline -- 76 Cong. Rec. 4935 1933 0205
Case 1:18-cv-00036-CW Document 41-2 Filed 04/19/18 Page 64 of 136

HeinOnline -- 76 Cong. Rec. 4936 1933 0206
Case 1:18-cv-00036-CW Document 41-2 Filed 04/19/18 Page 65 of 136

HeinOnline -- 76 Cong. Rec. 4937 1933 0207
Case 1:18-cv-00036-CW Document 41-2 Filed 04/19/18 Page 66 of 136

EXHIBIT 12

0208
Case 1:18-cv-00036-CW Document 41-2 Filed 04/19/18 Page 67 of 136

0209
Case 1:18-cv-00036-CW Document 41-2 Filed 04/19/18 Page 68 of 136

0210
Case 1:18-cv-00036-CW Document 41-2 Filed 04/19/18 Page 69 of 136

0211
Case 1:18-cv-00036-CW Document 41-2 Filed 04/19/18 Page 70 of 136

0212
Case 1:18-cv-00036-CW Document 41-2 Filed 04/19/18 Page 71 of 136

0213
Case 1:18-cv-00036-CW Document 41-2 Filed 04/19/18 Page 72 of 136

EXHIBIT 13

0214
Case 1:18-cv-00036-CW Document 41-2 Filed 04/19/18 Page 73 of 136

0215
Case 1:18-cv-00036-CW Document 41-2 Filed 04/19/18 Page 74 of 136

0216
Case 1:18-cv-00036-CW Document 41-2 Filed 04/19/18 Page 75 of 136

0217
Case 1:18-cv-00036-CW Document 41-2 Filed 04/19/18 Page 76 of 136

EXHIBIT 14

0218
Case 1:18-cv-00036-CW Document 41-2 Filed 04/19/18 Page 77 of 136

0219
Case 1:18-cv-00036-CW Document 41-2 Filed 04/19/18 Page 78 of 136

0220
Case 1:18-cv-00036-CW Document 41-2 Filed 04/19/18 Page 79 of 136

0221
Case 1:18-cv-00036-CW Document 41-2 Filed 04/19/18 Page 80 of 136

EXHIBIT 15

0222
Case 1:18-cv-00036-CW Document 41-2 Filed 04/19/18 Page 81 of 136

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Case 1:18-cv-00036-CW Document 41-2 Filed 04/19/18 Page 82 of 136

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0225
Case 1:18-cv-00036-CW Document 41-2 Filed 04/19/18 Page 84 of 136

V N T N T

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Case 1:18-cv-00036-CW Document 41-2 Filed 04/19/18 Page 86 of 136

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Case 1:18-cv-00036-CW Document 41-2 Filed 04/19/18 Page 87 of 136

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Case 1:18-cv-00036-CW Document 41-2 Filed 04/19/18 Page 88 of 136

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Case 1:18-cv-00036-CW Document 41-2 Filed 04/19/18 Page 89 of 136

T D N T T RN

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Case 1:18-cv-00036-CW Document 41-2 Filed 04/19/18 Page 90 of 136

2 T D N T T RN ( R N

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Case 1:18-cv-00036-CW Document 41-2 Filed 04/19/18 Page 91 of 136

T D N T T RN ( R N

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Case 1:18-cv-00036-CW Document 41-2 Filed 04/19/18 Page 92 of 136

4

T D N T T RN ( R N

n n t th l f th r f l l nd n p rt nt p l

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p l t t nt nt n :

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nt l r p n blt .

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t t b , nd h ld b , t n nt n d r t n n n t nt n

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Case 1:18-cv-00036-CW Document 41-2 Filed 04/19/18 Page 93 of 136

T D N T T RN ( R N

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0235
Case 1:18-cv-00036-CW Document 41-2 Filed 04/19/18 Page 94 of 136

6

T D N T T RN ( R N

n rd r t lv th t pr bl , th b t n tb d

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Case 1:18-cv-00036-CW Document 41-2 Filed 04/19/18 Page 95 of 136

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Case 1:18-cv-00036-CW Document 41-2 Filed 04/19/18 Page 96 of 136

8 T D N T T RN ( R N

TH L L T R

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Case 1:18-cv-00036-CW Document 41-2 Filed 04/19/18 Page 97 of 136

T D N T T RN ( R N

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Case 1:18-cv-00036-CW Document 41-2 Filed 04/19/18 Page 98 of 136

0 T D N T T RN ( R N

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Case 1:18-cv-00036-CW Document 41-2 Filed 04/19/18 Page 99 of 136

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Case 1:18-cv-00036-CW Document 41-2 Filed 04/19/18 Page 100 of 136

2 T D N T T RN ( R N

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Case 1:18-cv-00036-CW Document 41-2 Filed 04/19/18 Page 101 of 136

T D N T T RN ( R N

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Case 1:18-cv-00036-CW Document 41-2 Filed 04/19/18 Page 106 of 136

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Case 1:18-cv-00036-CW Document 41-2 Filed 04/19/18 Page 107 of 136

0249
Case 1:18-cv-00036-CW Document 41-2 Filed 04/19/18 Page 108 of 136

EXHIBIT 16

0250
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0251
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0252
Case 1:18-cv-00036-CW Document 41-2 Filed 04/19/18 Page 111 of 136

0253
Case 1:18-cv-00036-CW Document 41-2 Filed 04/19/18 Page 112 of 136

0254
Case 1:18-cv-00036-CW Document 41-2 Filed 04/19/18 Page 113 of 136

0255
Case 1:18-cv-00036-CW Document 41-2 Filed 04/19/18 Page 114 of 136

0256
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EXHIBIT 17

0257
Case 1:18-cv-00036-CW Document 41-2 Filed 04/19/18 Page 116 of 136

FINAL REPORT

The Future Political Status Study Commission
of American Samoa

January 2nd, 2007

0258
Case 1:18-cv-00036-CW Document 41-2 Filed 04/19/18 Page 117 of 136

For presentation to the Governor of American Samoa, the
Legislature, the Chief Justice and the general public, as
per P. L. 29-6; P. L. 29 – 24; and P. L. 29 – 25.

ii

0259
Case 1:18-cv-00036-CW Document 41-2 Filed 04/19/18 Page 118 of 136

HON. TUFELE F. LI’AMTUA FUTURE POLITICAL STATUS STUDY COMMISSION HTC. FOFO I.F. SUNIA
Chairman Executive Director
<+)98/:+,C)+9/1*/3-!+)43*1446
Utulei, American Samoa 96799
HON. TUAOLO M. FRUEAN TAPAAU DR. DANIEL MAGEO AGA
Vice Chairman Assistant Executive Director

December 31, 2006

Pursuant to the requirements of Public Law 29-6, as amended by P.L. 29-24 and P.L. 29-25,
the American Samoa Future Political Status Study Commission is pleased to present on this day its
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of this Report are deposited at the Feleti Barstow Foundation Public Library, and the Library of the
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Case 1:18-cv-00036-CW Document 41-2 Filed 04/19/18 Page 119 of 136

Staff Members

". F=F# -LE@8 Executive Director

.8G88LI 8E@<C'8><F>8 Assistant Executive Director

'8I:<CCLJ.8C8@D8CF/@8>8C<C<@ Legal Counsel

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Administrative Assistants

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iv

0261
Case 1:18-cv-00036-CW Document 41-2 Filed 04/19/18 Page 120 of 136

CONTENTS

*I<J<EK<;.F ................................................................................................................................. ii
Letter of Submittal ........................................................................................................................... iii
Staff ................................................................................................................................................... iv
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Creation ........................................................................................................................................ 9
.?<FDD@JJ@FE<IJ .................................................................................................................. 9
Staff ............................................................................................................................................... 10
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 #E:FIGFI8K<;8E;/E@E:FIGFI8K<; ..................................................................................... 14
"@JKFIPF=*FC@K@:8C<M<CFGD<EK ............................................................................................. 16
D<I@:8E-8DF88K88E;#E=FID8K@FE ............................................................................... 16
.<II@KFI@8C!FM<IED<EK/E;<IK?<*I<J<EK-K8KLJ .................................................................... 16
Consultants .................................................................................................................................... 17
*?8J<.NF-KL;PF=CK<IE8K@M<*FC@K@:8C-K8KLJ<J .................................................................... 18
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<[E@K@FE .................................................................................................................................... 20
;M8EK8><J8E;@J8;M8EK8><JVFDG8I@JFEJKFD<I@:8E-8DF8 ................................... 21
 #E;<G<E;<E:< ........................................................................................................... 21
2. Special Protections ..................................................................................................... 21
3. Financial Aid ............................................................................................................ 22
 :FEFD@:<M<CFGD<EK ......................................................................................... 23
 .?<*8C8LJF:@<KP .................................................................................................... 24
6. Defense ......................................................................................................................... 24
!<E<I8C:FDD<EKJ ...................................................................................................................... 24
2. THE COMMONWEALTH OF THE NORTHERN MARIANA ISLANDS
+C3/8/434,78'897'3*5+451+ .................................................................................................... 25
*:'38'-+7'3*/7'*:'38'-+7?425'6/743;/8.2+6/)'3!'24' ........................................... 28
".+6-'3/))8'3*!5+)/'1648+)8/:+64:/7/437 ............................................................. 28

#!/8/>+37./5 ................................................................................................................... 28
3. Federal Court and General Federal Presence ....................................................................... 29
4. Government Finance ............................................................................................................ 29
5. Defense Presence ................................................................................................................... 29
General Observations ...................................................................................................................... 29
3. THE TERRITORY OF GUAM
Political Status .......................................................................................................................... 30
History ........................................................................................................................................ 30
Economy ..................................................................................................................................... 30
Political Concerns ...................................................................................................................... 31
*:'38'-+7'3*/7'*:'38'-+7 ........................................................................................................ 32
6-'3/))8 ........................................................................................................................... 32
2. Economy ............................................................................................................................... 33
General Observations .................................................................................................................. 33
4. THE AMERICAN INDIANS ............................................................................................................ 34
5. THE HAWAIIAN NATION ............................................................................................................ 34
6. THE INDEPENDENT STATE OF SAMOA ................................................................................... 36
*:'38'-+7'3*/7'*:'38'-+7?425'6/743;/8.2+6/)'3!'24' ............................................... 37
3*+5+3*+3)+ .......................................................................................................................... 37

46+/-3'77/78'3)+ ................................................................................................................... 37

v

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CONTENTS
3. Pride of Nationality ............................................................................................................... 38
4. Education .............................................................................................................................. 38 
"?#  !
,,/71'3*!89*= +7+'6)."496 ..................................................................................................... 39
371'3*!89*=+'6/3-7 ............................................................................................................ 41 
"$? "!
Introduction ........................................................................................................................................ 41
(A) MAIN RECOMMENDATION (#1) .............................................................................................. 43 
!# " "!?# " .................................................................... 43
22/-6'8/43 .................................................................................................................................. 43
')0-6493*'3*41/)/+7 ................................................................................................................ 43
**/8/43'1/3*/3-7 ....................................................................................................................... 45
+)422+3*'8/43  
.......................................................................................................... 45
2. Cultural Preservation ................................................................................................................... 46
Coordination of Efforts .................................................................................................................. 46
Recommendation (#4) ................................................................................................................. 46
3*/:/*9'1/>'8/43'3* +786/)8/:+'3*;3+67./5 ........................................................................ 47
Recommendation (#5) .................................................................................................................. 47
The Matai System ....................................................................................................................... 48
Recommendation (#6) ................................................................................................................. 48
3. Public Education ....................................................................................................................... 49
+)422+3*'8/43 ......................................................................................................... 50
4. The Economy ....................................................................................................................... 50
+)422+3*'8/43  
.................................................................................................... 51
(C) CONSTITUTIONAL ISSUES ......................................................................................................... 52
+-/71'8/:+ +'55468/432+38 ........................................................................................................ 52
Constitutionality of Present Senate Selections ............................................................................... 52
Recommendation (#13) ............................................................................................................... 53
Senate Seats ................................................................................................................................. 53
Recommendation (#14) .............................................................................................................. 54
Matai Only Requirement ............................................................................................................... 54
+)422+3*'8/43   ....................................................................................................... 55
497+4, +56+7+38'8/:+7 +'55468/432+38 .................................................................................. 55
Recommendation (#17) .............................................................................................................. 56
#3/)'2+6'1+-/71'896+ ................................................................................................................... 56
*:'38'-+7 ..................................................................................................................................... 57
/7'*:'38'-+7 ................................................................................................................................. 57 
# ! .................................................................................................................. 57
#3/8+*'8/437'3*8.+4143=+7/-3'8/43 ...................................................................................... 57
Recommendation (#18) .................................................................................................................. 57
Public Education on Political Status ................................................................................................. 58
Recommendation (#19) .................................................................................................................. 58
(E) SUPPORTING RECOMMENDATIONS THAT REQUIRE
NEGOTIATIONS WITH THE DEPARTMENT OF INTERIOR .................................................. 58
Recommendation (#20) .................................................................................................................. 59
+:/+;4,4968+)/7/4374,8.+/-.49684,2+6/)'3!'24'................................................... 60
Recommendation (#21) .................................................................................................................. 61
The Territory and the Federal Court System ...................................................................................... 61
".++-/71'8/:+$+84:+66/*+64)+77 ............................................................................................. 61
Recommendation (#22) ................................................................................................................. 62
(F) ISSUES FOR NEGOTIATIONS WITH CONGRESS
U. S. Nationality .............................................................................................................................. 62
Recommendation (#23) .................................................................................................................. 63

vi

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#!/8/>+37./5 ................................................................................................................................. 64
Recommendation (#24) ................................................................................................................... 66 
"$?""!!"#&
A. DEEDS OF CESSION ................................................................................................................... 66
Introduction ........................................................................................................................................ 66
Recommendation (#25) .................................................................................................................. 68 
!%!! .......................................................................................................................... 69
+4-6'5.='3*/7846= ....................................................................................................................... 69
+)422+3*'8/43  

.......................................................................................................... 70

RIPOTI FAASAMOA ……………………………………………………………………………………………………. 71
VAEGA MUAMUA FAATOMUAGA ………………………………………………………………………….… 72
88M8< ……………………………………………………………………………….…………………………….…. 72
Komesina ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………... 73
L 8@>8CL<>8 ……………………………………………………………………………………………………..... 73
'@J@FE8 ………………………………………………………………………………..……………………………… 74
88>8F@F@>8  88J8C8C8L>8 …………………………………………………………………………………….. 74
$#"B#!#!# …………………………………………………….… 75
#KLDL8DL8-L<JL<>8FD<I@B8-8DF8 ………………………………………………………………... 75
8/@>8FC<KLC8>8=88D8CF …………………………………………………………………………….… 75
<.8C88>8FC<8K@E8<=88D8CF ………………………………………………………………………….… 78
@D<I@B8-8DF8.8C8@KLC8>8<J<<J< ………………………………………………………………... 79
F*LC<>8FC<'8CF@C8CFFCFE8KLC8>8=88D8CFFCFF@8@E<@ ………………………………... 79
(u) Fautua ………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 80
#KL<&L8-L<JL<>8F@J@KLC8>8=88D8CF ……………………………………………………………….… 80
@C@[C@>8FKLC8>8=88D8CFDFC<JL<JL<>8 ………………………………………………………… 80  
'&))*&/ ………………………………………………………………………………………………….… 82
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088@>8&8LK<C< ………………………………………………………………………………………………………... 86  
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/@>8FC<KLC8>8=88D8CFD8K8>8K8 …………………………………………………………………………… 87
#KLC<C<@D8M8@M8@>8 
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088@>8&8LK<C< ……………………………………………………………………………………………………... 95
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 '&))"1## …………………………………………………………………………………………….… 96
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&<C<@D8 88C<KFELV 88KLJ8KLJ8>8D8D<I@B8-8DF8 ………………………………………..… 99
0!.)&/ 
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-L<JL<>8K88D@CF@=8=F ……………………………………………………………………………………………... 100
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0! V /./! ………………………………………………………………………………………… 102
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 /./!&!)&!) (.#(.# …………………………………………………….… 104
  <D8C8>88Z@>8 …………………………………………………………………………………………………… 104
8LKL8>8 ……………………………………………………………………………………………… 106
 *L@GL@>8F>8ELL …………………………………………………………………………………………… 106
8LKL8>8 ……………………………………………………………………………………………………… 107

vii

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CONTENTS
Faaliu fanua totino fanua faitele …………………………………………………………………………..…..… 107
8LKL8>8 ……………………………………………………………………………………………………......... 108
)C< 88D8K8@ ………………………………………………………………………………………………………....... 108
8LKL8>8 ………………………………………………………………………………..………………………... 109
ZF>8DFC<C8LK<C< …………………………………………………………………………………………………... 109
8LKL8>8 
………………………………………………………………………………………………...… 110
)C<.8D8F8@>8 …………………………………………………………………………………………………….….. 110
8LKL8>8 
……………………………………………………………………………………………….. 111
8LKL8>8 ……………………………………………………………………………………………………... 112
# './*/./& 0 ………………………………………………………………………………...... 112
 .F<=88KLC8>8>8F8F=8Z@FJL@ ………………………………………………………………………………...... 112
8LKL8>8 ……………………………………………………………………………………………………… 113
Faapito i matai le Senate …………………………………………………………………………………………… 113
8LKL8>8 
………………………………………………………………………………………………... 114
.F<=88KLC8>8@E8FEF=F8FC<'8FK8F-L@ …………………………………………………………………… 114
8LKL8>8 …………………………………………………………………………….………………………... 115
.8J@C<'8FK8 FEF …………………………………………………………………………….…………………...... 115
) './*/&!#(&&/.& …………………………………………………………………..... 116
 '8CFYL=88K8J@D8C<K8ZL%FCFE< ………………………………………………………………………..… 116
8LKL8>8 …………………………………………………………………………………………………….… 116
 F8F>8FC<&8LK<C<@C<'8K8LGLFC<.LC8>8=88D8CF …………………………………………….... 116
8LKL8>8 …………………………………………………………………………………………………….… 116
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8LKL8>8 ……………………………………………………………………………………………………... 118
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8LKL8>8  ……………………………………………………………………………………………………… 119
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-FGFZ@8FC<0@KF<C< FEF 8@KLC8=FEF …………………………………………………………………….… 120
8LKL8>8 ……………………………………………………………………………………………………... 120
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8LKL8>8 …………………………………………………………………………………………………….... 122
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8LKL8>8 ……………………………………………………………………………….……………………... 123
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8LKL8>8 ………………………………………………………………………………..…………………….. 126
-1#(-#-&( …………………………………………………………………………………………………..… 127
8LKL8>8 
……………………………………………………………………………………………..… 128
Photos …………………………………………………………………………………………….…………………………… 129
+,+6+3)+7'3*%4607/8+* …………………………………………………………………………………………….. 169
+,+6+3)+7'3*%4607437918+* ……………………………………………………………………………………… 170 
)034;1+*-+2+387 ……………………………………………………………………………………………………..… 174
".+422/77/43/4-6'5./+7 ……………………………………………………………………………………... 176
APPENDIX A:  ! ……………………………………………………………………………………... 176

viii

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".+2+6/)'3!'24'9896+41/8/)'1!8'897!89*=422/77/43 +5468

PART I – INTRODUCTION
Creation 

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9

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".+2+6/)'3!'24'9896+41/8/)'1!8'897!89*=422/77/43 +5468

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10

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".+2+6/)'3!'24'9896+41/8/)'1!8'897!89*=422/77/43 +5468

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determination, and report.

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11

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".+2+6/)'3!'24'9896+41/8/)'1!8'897!89*=422/77/43 +5468

PART III – PUBLIC OPINION AND PREFERENCES

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-K8K<J8::FI;@E>KFK?</-LI<8LF=<EJLJ@E 8C@=FIE@8?8J -8DF8EJFI  

1?@C<"8N8@@?8J -8DF8EJFI

.?<FDD@JJ@FE;<:@;<;KFJ<<BK?<@EGLKF=K?@JC8I><>IFLG=FIK?<=FCCFN@E>

I<8JFEJ

1. American Samoans who reside off-island are still American Samoans.

.?<@IFI@>@E8C?FD<@J@E-8DF8 "8N8@@8E;K?<D8@EC8E;8I<

J<:FE;?FD<JN?<I<K?<PJK8PN?@C<<;L:8K@E>K?<@I:?@C;I<E NFIB

8K9<KK<IAF9J FIKFJ@DGCPJG<E;K@D<M@J@K@E>:?@C;I<EFII<C8K@M<J .?<

F==
@JC8E;-8DF8EJ?8M<8M@K8C@EK<I<JK@EN?8K>F<JFE8K?FD<8E;

=<<CJKIFE>CP89FLKK?<@II@>?KKF9<@EMFCM<; 

 D<I@:8E-8DF8EJ?8M<K8B<EK?<@IKI8;@K@FEJ8E;KI<8JLI<JF=?<I@K8><

KFK?<@IJ<:FE;?FD<J @E:CL;@E>K?<@II<C@>@FLJE<JJ -8DF8E:?LI:?<J

off-island continue the pattern of close ties and formal association

with mother churches in Samoa and maintain an atmosphere of

39

0269
Case 1:18-cv-00036-CW Document 41-2 Filed 04/19/18 Page 128 of 136

".+2+6/)'3!'24'9896+41/8/)'1!8'897!89*=422/77/43 +5468

Samoan worship.

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@JC8E;JFCFE>K?8KK?<P?8M<J<:FE;

 8E;K?@I;><E<I8K@FEJ '8EP8I<N<CC<;L:8K<;8E;JB@CC<; 

 .?<K?@EB@E>F=D8EPCF:8CI<J@;<EKJFEGL9C@:@JJL<J@J@E=CL<E:<;

 9P=8D@CPD<D9<IJC@M@E>F==
@JC8E;

5. Some mataisF=I8EBC@M<F==
@JC8E;8E;M@J@K?FD<FECPFEF::8J@FEJ

 FI8CCK?<J<I<8JFEJ8E;DFI< K?<FDD@JJ@FE=<CKF9C@>8K<;KF

 J<<BFLKK?<@IM@<NJ >@M<K?<DK?<=<<C@E>F=@E:CLJ@FE 8E;@EK?<

 GIF:<JJ;<M<CFG8I<GFIKK?8KI<=C<:K<;K?<K?@EB@E>F=8CC

American Samoans. 

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@JC8E;8I<FM<IN?<CD@E>CP@E

 =8MFIF=I<D8@E@E>8K<II@KFIPF=K?</E@K<;-K8K<J

2. Samoans off-island want to be assured that the culture of Samoa

 V 
:LJKFDJ D8K8@JPJK<D 8E;K?<-8DF8EC8E>L8><-- will not be

 8;M<IJ<CP@DG8:K<;9P8:?8E><@EGFC@K@:8CJK8KLJ .?@JGI@;<

 @EK?<@IW-8DF8EE<JJXN8JJKIFE><M<EN@K?K?<J<:FE;8E;

 K?@I;><E<I8K@FEJ

3. @K@Q<EJ?@G .?<I<@JLE:<IK8@EKP8E;:FE=LJ@FE8JKFK?<GIF:<JJ

 F=E8KLI8C@Q8K@FE8E;K?<@DGFIK8E:<F=9<@E>/ - :@K@Q<EJ -FD<8JB<;

 =FI89@CCK?8KNFLC;D8B<K?<>I8EKF=/ - :@K@Q<EJ?@G8LKFD8K@:

 =FID<I@:8E-8DF8EJ8II@M@E>@EK?</ - =<N=<CK@KN8JK@D<KFJ<<B

40

0270
Case 1:18-cv-00036-CW Document 41-2 Filed 04/19/18 Page 129 of 136

".+2+6/)'3!'24'9896+41/8/)'1!8'897!89*=422/77/43 +5468

 K?<JK8KLJF=/ - :@K@Q<EJ?@G 8J@E!L8D

4. @M@:*8IK@:@G8K@FE D<I@:8E-8DF8EJ@E8CCK?<J<D8AFI:@K@<J?8M<

 =FID<;8JJF:@8K@FEJKFD8@EK8@E:FEK8:KJ8E;:FEK@EL<KF<O<I:@J<

and promote customs, to help each other, and attract attention

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 8I<I<:F>E@Q<;9P:@KP8E;JK8K<8LK?FI@K@<J 8K<JK@DFEPKFK?<@I

 8>>I<JJ@M<C<8;<IJ?@G 

 .?<PI<:F>E@Q<;K?<?@JKFI@:8CJ@>E@=@:8E:<F=K?<FDD@JJ@FEZJD@JJ@FE

 8E;N<I<;<<GCP8GGI<:@8K@M<F=9<@E>@E:CL;<;  

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)E
#JC8E;-KL;P"<8I@E>J 

ELD9<IF=GL9C@:?<8I@E>JN<I<?<C;FE@JC8E; -G<:@8C?<8I@E>JN<I<FI>8E@Q<;

=FIK?<KI8;@K@FE8CC<8;<IJ8E;K?<CF:8C>FM<IED<EKLE;<IK?<8LJG@:<JF=K?<)=[:<F=

-8DF8E==8@IJ '<D9<IJF=K?<C<>8CGIF=<JJ@FE8GG<8I<;8J8>IFLG ?<8I@E>N8J

also held especially for faifeaus 5-<<GG<E;@:<J=FI:FDGC<K<C@JK@E> 6

PART IV – RECOMMENDATIONS

#EKIF;L:K@FE 

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#JJL<JF=*L9C@:FE:<IEV-F:@8C#JJL<J

41

0271
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".+2+6/)'3!'24'9896+41/8/)'1!8'897!89*=422/77/43 +5468

#JJL<J=FI(<>FK@8K@FEJN@K?K?<<G8IKD<EKF=K?<#EK<I@FI
 ,<:FDD<E;8K@FEJ=FI(<>FK@8K@FEJN@K?K?</ - FE>I<JJ

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.NF @E8C*F@EKJF=#EKIF;L:K@FE

 .FGIF;L:<@KJI<:FDD<E;8K@FEJ K?<FDD@JJ@FE:FDG@C<; I<M@<N<;

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JK8==GI<J<EK8K@FEJ K<JK@DFE@<J I<GFIKJ9P>FM<IED<EK8><E:@<J 8E;

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K?<G<FGC<=<<C89FLKK?<<==<:K@M<E<JJF=>FM<IED<EKLE;<IK?<

present political status.

 #E=FID@E>K?<@II<:FDD<E;8K@FEJ K?<FDD@JJ@FEI<:F>E@Q<;K?<M8CL<

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P .?<-8DF8EGL9C@: =IFDC<8;<IJKFK?<I8EB8E;=@C< 9FK?FE
K?<I<9P .?<-8DF8EGL9C@: =IFDC<8;<IJKFK?<I8EB8E;=@C< 9FK?FE
8E;F==
@JC8E; FM<IN?<CD@E><DG?8J@Q<;K
8E;F==
@JC8E; FM<IN?<CD@E><DG?8J@Q<;KNFD8AFIGF@EKJ

(a) American Samoa must remain part of the
D<I@:8E=8D@CPF=JK8K<J8E;K<II@KFI@<J
D<I@:8E=8D@CPF=JK8K<J8E;K<II@KFI@<J
(b) be certain that a chosen status will not
8;M<IJ<CP8==<:K:LJKFDJ8E;:LCKLI< 8E;
K?<G<IG<KL8K@FEF=K?<-8DF8EC8E>L8><

42

0272
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".+2+6/)'3!'24'9896+41/8/)'1!8'897!89*=422/77/43 +5468

A. MAIN RECOMMENDATION

 0)4-'%1%02%5,%//'216-17)%57124+%1-;)(%1(

71-1'24324%6)(6)44-624:%1(6,%6%342')552*1)+26-%6-219-6,
71-1'24324%6)(6)44-624:%1(6,%6%342')552*1)+26-%6-219-6,  

6,)!21+4)55*24%3)40%1)1632/-6-'%/56%675&)-1-6-%6)(
6,)!21+4)55*24%3)40%1)1632/-6-'%/56%675&)-1-6-%6)(

*F@EKJ

@  JG<:@8CCPK8@CFI<;:KF=FE>I<JJ@JE<<;<;KFI<8==@IDK?<

JG<:@8CGIFK<:K@M<GIFM@J@FEJ=FIC8E;J8E;K@KC<J@EK?<FEJK@KLK@FE

of American Samoa.

@@  -L:?8E:KD8P9<G8JJ<;N@K?FLK:?8E>@E>K?<GI<J<EK

political status.

@@@  <;<I8C:FLIKJ?8M<LG?<C;J@D@C8IJG<:@8CGIFK<:K@FEJGIFM@J@FE

@EK?<:FE>I<JJ@FE8CCP8GGIFM<;FM<E8EKF=('# 

!  <!

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GI<J<IM<FGGFIKLE@K@<J=FIGI<J<EK8E;=LKLI<><E<I8K@FEJ

00-+4%6-21 

8:B>IFLE;8E;*FC@:@<J

D<I@:8E -8DF8 @J EFK @E:CL;<; @E K?< ;<[E@K@FE F= K?< /E@K<; -K8K<J =FI /  - 

@DD@>I8K@FEC8NGLIGFJ<J/- 8 .?<>FM<IE@E>JK8KLK<J8I<GIFM@;<;@E

Sections 41.0202 et seq. of the American Samoa Code Annotated.

43

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".+2+6/)'3!'24'9896+41/8/)'1!8'897!89*=422/77/43 +5468 

.?<&<>@JC8KLI<8I>L<JK?8KK?@JGIFM@J@FED8P?8M<9<<E8JFLE;GFC@:P8KK?<

<8ICPJK8><JF=CF:8CC<>@JC8K@M<<OG<I@<E:< =K<I P<8IJ @K?8J:<IK8@ECP:FD<F=8><8E;

@JJL=[:@<EKCP<OG<I@<E:<;8E;D8KLI<;KF?8E;C<8CCCF:8CC<>@JC8K@FE EFK@E:FE\@:KN@K?

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GFC@K@:8CJPJK<D 1?PEFKD<I@:8E-8DF8.F8CCFNK?<D<I@:8E-8DF8&<>@JC8KLI<

K?<GFN<IKFFM<II@;<@J8JK<GKFN8I;98C8E:<K?<GFN<I8DFE>K?<K?I<<9I8E:?<JF=

>FM<IED<EK 8E;8JK<G=FIN8I;@EK?<D8I:?KFN8I;JKIL<J<C=
>FM<IED<EK

RECOMMENDATION

22. (<>FK@8K<N@K?)#KF8CCFNK?< FEFZJM<KF
FM<II@;<KFJK8E;=@E8C 

!  #  
.?< FDD@JJ@FE @J 8N8I< K?8K FECP K?< / -  FE>I<JJ ?8J GFN<I @E D8KK<IJ F=

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issues.

/ - (8K@FE8C@KP 

M<IPFE< 9FIE @E D<I@:8E -8DF8 @J 8 / -  (8K@FE8C   .?@J @E:CL;<J :?@C;I<E

9FIE KF EFE
/ -  (8K@FE8CJ 8E; EFE
/ -  :@K@Q<EJ   .?<I< @J 8 >IFN@E> :FE:<IE 8DFE>

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62

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".+2+6/)'3!'24'9896+41/8/)'1!8'897!89*=422/77/43 +5468

<M<E9<>FM<IEFI #=K?<GI<J<EKKI<E;:FEK@EL<J K?<:?@C;I<EF=K?<E8K@M<D<I@:8E

-8DF8EJ D8P JFFE 9<:FD< 8 D@EFI@KP @E K?<@I FNE ?FD<   .?< GIF9C<D :I@<J =FI 8E

LI><EKJFCLK@FE 

Parental Birthplace: 2000

Parental Total Both parents born in Only one parent born Neither parent born
Birthplace American Samoa in American Samoa in American Samoa

57, 291 10,996 15,086 31,209

100% 19.3% 26.3% 54.4%

Source:
US Bureau of Census, American Samoa 2000 Census ASG Department of Commerce 

FE>I<JJE<<;JKF9<@E=FID<;89FLKK?<<==<:KJF=K?<GI<J<EK>IFN@E>J@KL8K@FE

on limited land and absence of natural resources, and the need to protect the customs and

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#DD<;@8K<8:K@FE@JE<:<JJ8IP FE>I<JJ:8EG8JJ89@CC 

J<G8I8K<8E;@E;<G<E;<EKF=8E

)I>8E@:C<>@JC8K@FE=FID<I@:8E-8DF8
VKF8;;I<JJK?<@DD<;@8K<J<I@FLJGIF9C<D 

RECOMMENDATION

23. .?<FDD@JJ@FELI><JK?<<C<>8K<KFFE>I<JJKF@EKIF;L:<8E;

;@C@><EKCPGLIJL<G8JJ8><F=89@CCK?8KI<JKI@:KJK?<JK8KLJF=/ -

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N<I<I<J@;<EKJF=K?<.<II@KFIP@E 8E;-N8@EJ#JC8E;@E

63

0275
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".+2+6/)'3!'24'9896+41/8/)'1!8'897!89*=422/77/43 +5468

/ - @K@Q<EJ?@G

To become or not to become?  .?@J @J K?< HL<JK@FE D<I@:8E -8DF8 ?8J ;<98K<;

=FI8?LE;I<;P<8IJ KJ<M<I8CGF@EKJ;LI@E>@KJ8JJF:@8K@FEN@K?K?</E@K<;-K8K<J 8

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-8DF8EJ " ,  N8JK?<C8JKJ<I@FLJ<==FIK #KN8JJGFEJFI<;9PK?<<G8IKD<EKF=

K?<#EK<I@FI@E8J@KN8JGI<G8I@E>KF8JJLD<K?<8;D@E@JKI8K@FEF=K?@J.<II@KFIP5-<< 

GG<E;@:<J6 .?<9@CCGFC8I@Q<;K?<:FDDLE@KP8E;C<;KFJ<I@FLJGFC@K@:8C=8:K@FE8C@JD  

)#J<EK8EF=[:<IKFJLIM<PK?<CF:8CC<8;<IJ8E;=<<CK?<GLCJ<F=K?<.<II@KFIPFEK?<

@JJL<!I8P   "@JI<GFIKC<;KFK?<N@K?;I8N8CF=K?<9@CC

.?< KI8;@K@FE8C F9A<:K@FEJ ?8; 8CN8PJ 9<<E  [IJK  D<I@:8E -8DF8EJ NFLC; 9<

JL9A<:K<;KF=<;<I8CK8O8K@FE9<:8LJ<8CC:@K@Q<EJDLJKG8PK8O<JJ<:FE; FLKJ@;<IJNFLC;

buy up all Samoa lands.

1<BEFNEFNK?8KK8O<J8I<98J<;FE@E:FD< EFKFEE8K@FE8C@KP CJF N<BEFN

EFNK?8KC8E;@JJFC;FECP9P8>I<<D<EKF=K?<FNE<I 8E;K?8KFM<I G<I:<EKF=C8E;
EFNK?8KC8E;@JJFC;FECP9P8>I<<D<EKF=K?<FNE<I 8E;K?8KFM<I G<I:<EKF=C8E;

in American Samoa is communally owned and may not be alienated without consent

F= K?< <EK@I< =8D@CP   #E 8;;@K@FE  K?<I< @J M<IP C@KKC< C8E; 8M8@C89C< =FI J8C<  8E; DFJK
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EXHIBIT A
to Motion for Leave to File Amicus Brief
(Part 3 of 3)
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EXHIBIT 18

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EXHIBIT 19

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2010 Census Summary File 1 Issued September 2012

2010 Census of Population and Housing
SF1/10-4 (RV)

Technical Documentation

U.S. Department of Commerce
Economics and Statistics Administration
U.S. CENSUS BUREAU

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For additional information concerning the files, contact the Customer Liaison and Marketing
Services Office, Customer Services Center, U.S. Census Bureau, Washington, DC 20233, or phone
301-763-INFO (4636).

For additional information concerning the technical documentation, contact the Administrative
and Customer Services Division, Electronic Products Development Branch, U.S. Census Bureau,
Washington, DC 20233, or phone 301-763-8004.

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2010 Census Summary File 1 Issued September 2012

2010 Census of Population and Housing
SF1/10-4 (RV)

Technical Documentation

U.S. Department of Commerce
Rebecca M. Blank,
Acting Secretary
Rebecca M. Blank,
Deputy Secretary

Economics and Statistics Administration
Vacant,
Under Secretary
for Economic Affairs

U.S. CENSUS BUREAU
Thomas L. Mesenbourg,
Acting Director

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SUGGESTED CITATION

FILES:
2010 Census Summary File 1—
(name of state or United States)
[machine-readable data files]/
prepared by the
U.S. Census Bureau, 2011.

TECHNICAL DOCUMENTATION:
2010 Census Summary File 1—
Technical Documentation/prepared by the
U.S. Census Bureau, Revised 2012.
ECONOMICS
AND STATISTICS
ADMINISTRATION

Economics
and Statistics
Administration

Vacant,
Under Secretary for
Economic Affairs

U.S. CENSUS BUREAU

Thomas L. Mesenbourg,
Acting Director

Nancy A. Potok,
Deputy Director and
Chief Operating Officer

Frank A. Vitrano,
Acting Associate Director
for Decennial Census

Enrique J. Lamas,
Associate Director
for Demographic Programs

Brian Monaghan,
Acting Associate Director
for Field Operations

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CONTENTS

CHAPTERS

1. Abstract . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-1
2. How to Use This Product . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-1
3. Subject Locator . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-1
4. Summary Level Sequence Chart . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-1
5. List of Tables (Matrices) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-1
6. Data Dictionary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6-1
7. 2010 Census: Operational Overview and Accuracy of the Data . . . . . . 7-1
8. User Updates . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8-1

APPENDIXES

A. Geographic Terms and Concepts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . A-1
B. Definitions of Subject Characteristics. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . B-1
C. Data Collection and Processing Procedures . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . C-1
D. Questionnaire . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . D-1
E. Maps . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . E-1
F. Code Lists . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . F-1
G. Residence Rule and Residence Situations for the 2010 Census
of the United States . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . G-1

v

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Appendix F.
Code Lists
CONTENTS
Group Quarters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . F-1
Hispanic or Latino Origin . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . F-2
Race . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . F-4

GROUP QUARTERS

INSTITUTIONAL GROUP QUARTERS

Correctional Facilities for Adults
101 Federal Detention Centers
102 Federal Prisons
103 State Prisons
104 Local Jails and Other Municipal Confinement Facilities
105 Correctional Residential Facilities
106 Military Disciplinary Barracks and Jails

Juvenile Facilities
201 Group Homes for Juveniles (Non-Correctional)
202 Residential Treatment Centers (Non-Correctional)
203 Correctional Facilities Intended for Juveniles

Nursing Facilities/Skilled-Nursing Facilities
301 Nursing Facilities/Skilled-Nursing Facilities

Other Institutional Facilities
401 Mental (Psychiatric) Hospitals and Psychiatric Units in Other Hospitals
402 Hospitals With Patients Who Have No Usual Home Elsewhere
403 In-Patient Hospice Facilities
404 Military Treatment Facilities With Assigned Patients
405 Residential Schools for People With Disabilities

NONINSTITUTIONAL GROUP QUARTERS

College/University Student Housing
501 College/University Student Housing

Military Quarters
601 Military Quarters
602 Military Ships

Other Noninstitutional Facilities
701 Emergency and Transitional Shelters (With Sleeping Facilities) for People
Experiencing Homelessness
702 Soup Kitchens
704 Regularly Scheduled Mobile Food Vans
706 Targeted Non-Sheltered Outdoor Locations
801 Group Homes Intended for Adults
802 Residential Treatment Centers for Adults

Code Lists F-1
U.S. Census Bureau, 2010 Census Summary File 1

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RACE—Con.

300–399, A01–Z99 AMERICAN INDIAN AND ALASKA NATIVE—Con.

CANADIAN AND LATIN AMERICAN INDIAN—Con.

South American Indian—Con.
W81 Tehuelche
W82 Tupi
W83 Zaporo
W84 Argentinean Indian
W85 Bolivian Indian
W86 Brazilian Indian
W87 Chilean Indian
W88 Colombian Indian
W89 Ecuadorian Indian
W90 Guyanese South American Indian
W91 Paraguayan Indian
W92 Peruvian Indian
W93 Not Used
W94 Uruguayan Indian
W95 Venezuelan Indian
W96 South American Indian, not elsewhere classified
W97–X24 Not Used

Spanish American Indian
X25 Spanish American Indian
X26–Z99 Not Used

400–499 ASIAN

400 Asian Indian (Checkbox)
401 Asian Indian
402 Bangladeshi
403 Bhutanese
404 Burmese
405 Cambodian
406–409 Not Used
410 Chinese (Checkbox)
411 Chinese
412 Taiwanese
413–419 Not Used
420 Filipino (Checkbox)
421 Filipino
422 Hmong
423 Indonesian
424–429 Not Used
430 Japanese (Checkbox)
431 Japanese
432–439 Not Used
440 Korean (Checkbox)
441 Korean
442 Laotian
443 Malaysian
444 Okinawan

F-44 Code Lists
U.S. Census Bureau, 2010 Census Summary File 1

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RACE—Con.

400–499 ASIAN—Con.

445 Pakistani
446 Sri Lankan
447 Thai
448–449 Not Used
450 Vietnamese (Checkbox)
451 Vietnamese
452–459 Not Used
460 Other Asian (Checkbox)
461 Not Used
462 Asian
463 Asiatic
464 Not Used
465 Mongolian
466 Oriental
467 Whello
468 Yellow
469 Indo-Chinese
470 Iwo Jiman
471 Maldivian
472 Nepalese
473 Singaporean
474–479 Not Used
480 Multiple ASIAN responses
481–499 Not Used

500–599 NATIVE HAWAIIAN AND OTHER PACIFIC ISLANDER

Polynesian
500 Native Hawaiian (Checkbox)
501 Native Hawaiian
502 Hawaiian
503 Part Hawaiian
504–509 Not Used
510 Samoan (Checkbox)
511 Samoan
512 Tahitian
513 Tongan
514 Polynesian
515 Tokelauan
516–519 Not Used

Micronesian
520 Guamanian or Chamorro (Checkbox)
521 Guamanian
522 Chamorro
523–529 Not Used
530 (see under Other Pacific Islander)
531 Mariana Islander
532 Marshallese
533 Palauan
534 Carolinian

Code Lists F-45
U.S. Census Bureau, 2010 Census Summary File 1

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RACE—Con.

500–599 NATIVE HAWAIIAN AND OTHER PACIFIC ISLANDER—Con.
Micronesian—Con.
535 Kosraean
536 Micronesian
537 Pohnpeian
538 Saipanese
539 I-Kiribati
540 Chuukese
541 Yapese

Melanesian
542 Fijian
543 Melanesian
544 Papua New Guinean
545 Solomon Islander
546 Ni-Vanuatu (New Hebrides Islander)

Other Pacific Islander
530 Other Pacific Islander (Checkbox)
547 Pacific Islander
548–549 Not Used
550 Multiple NATIVE HAWAIIAN and OTHER PACIFIC ISLANDER responses
551–599 Not Used

600–999 SOME OTHER RACE

600 Some Other Race (Checkbox)
601 Argentinean
602 Bolivian
603 Californio
604 Central American
605 Chicano
606 Chilean
607 Colombian
608 Costa Rican
609 Cuban
610 Ecuadorian
611 Salvadoran
612 Guatemalan
613 Hispanic
614 Honduran
615 Latin American
616 Mestizo
617 Mexican
618 Nicaraguan
619 Panamanian
620 Paraguayan
621 Peruvian
622 Puerto Rican
623 Morena
624 South American
625 Spanish
626 Spanish-American

F-46 Code Lists
U.S. Census Bureau, 2010 Census Summary File 1

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RACE—Con.

600–999 SOME OTHER RACE—Con.

627 Sudamericano
628 Uruguayan
629 Venezuelan
630 Spaniard
631 Tejano
632 Cayman Islander
633–639 Not Used
640 Dominican/Dominican Republic
641 Not Used
642 Belizean
643 Bermudan
644 Aruba Islander
645 Not Used
646 Guyanese
647 Surinamer
648 Sudanese
649 Amerasian
650 Eurasian
651 Brazilian
652 Brown
653 Bushwacker
654 Not Used
655 Cape Verdean
656 Chocolate
657 Coe Clan
658 Coffee
659 Cosmopolitan
660 Issues
661 Jackson White
662 Melungeon
663 Mixed
664 Ramp
665 Wesort
666 Mulatto
667 Moor
668 Biracial
669 Creole
670 Indian
671 Turk
672 Half-Breed
673 Rainbow
674 Octoroon
675 Quadroon
676 Multiracial
677 Interracial
678 Multiethnic
679 Multinational
680–689 Not Used
690 Multiple SOME OTHER RACE responses
691–698 Not Used
699 Other race, not elsewhere classified
700–999 Not Used

Code Lists F-47
U.S. Census Bureau, 2010 Census Summary File 1

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EXHIBIT 20

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FOR IMMEDIATE RELEASE: WEDNESDAY, AUG. 24, 2011

U.S. Census Bureau Releases 2010 Census
Population Counts for American Samoa
CB11-CN.177
Public Information Office
301-763-3030

Table
Map: Reference (PDF|JPEG)
Map: Population Totals (PDF|JPEG)
Map: Population Change (PDF|JPEG)
Press Kit
2010 Census Block Map Series
2010 TIGER/Line Shapefiles

The U.S. Census Bureau todayy released the 2010 Census population counts for American
Samoa. On April 1, 2010, the population was 55,519. This represented a decrease of 3.1
percent from the 2000 Census population of 57,291. The population counts have been
provided to the governor.

The accompanying data table shows population totals and percent changes from 2000 to
2010 for American Samoa as well as several lower-level geographies. The attached
custom maps include a reference map and maps showing the population by county and
percent change in population by county.

As part of the 2010 Census, the Census Bureau worked with the American Samoa
government to enumerate and gather detailed data on population and housing
characteristics. Next year, more 2010 Census statistics will be available for American
Samoa in a demographic profile. The demographic profile will show a set of basic
demographic, social, economic and housing characteristics for the Island Area and lower
levels of geography.

Additional Geographic Resources

Two key geographic resources have been released for American Samoa this summer: a
series of maps showing the 2010 Census blocks and 2010 TIGER/Line Shapefiles. The
series of large-scale block maps provide a reference guide for geographic entities down to
the census block level and display the boundaries and numbers for all census blocks. The
2010 Census TIGER/Line Shapefiles provide a base layer for mapping and contain the

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location and relationship of streets, rivers and other features to one another. The shapefiles
also show the numerous geographic entities for which Census Bureau statistics are
available.

-X-

Follow @uscensusbureau on Twitter, Facebook, Flickr, YouTube and Ustream.

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EXHIBIT 21

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CONTENTS ORGANIZATIONAL DESCRIPTIONS
Welcome 1 Empowering Pacific Islander Communities
Introduction 2 (EPIC) was founded in 2009 by a group
Acknowledgements 4 of young Native Hawaiian and Pacific
Executive Summary 5 Islander (NHPI) professionals based in
UNITED STATES 7 Southern California. EPIC’s mission is to promote social justice
Demographics 7 by fostering opportunities that empower the NHPI community
Education 11 through culturally relevant advocacy, research, and develop-
Health 14 ment. Since then, EPIC serves the community through its
Economic Justice & Housing 17 development of an NHPI Policy Platform, leadership empower- r
Immigration 21 ment programs, nonpartisan civic engagement campaigns,
Civic Engagement 25 and continued advocacy at the local and national level.
Civil Rights 26
BAY AREA, CA CSA 27 Asian Americans Advancing Justice is
HONOLULU, HI MSA 33 a national affiliation of four leading
LOS ANGELES, CA CSA 39 organizations advocating for the civil
SEATTLE, WA CSA 45 and human rights of Asian Americans
SALT LAKE CITY, UT CSA 51 and other underserved communities to promote a fair and
FAYETTEVILLE, AR MSA 55 equitable society for all. The affiliation’s members are:
Policy Recommendations 59 Advancing Justice - AAJC (Washington, D.C.), Advancing
Glossary 62 Justice - Asian Law Caucus (San Francisco), Advancing
Appendix A: Population, Population Growth 63 Justice - Chicago, and Advancing Justice - Los Angeles.
Appendix B: Selected Population Characteristics 64
Appendix C: NHPI by State 66
Appendix D: NHPI Ethnic Groups by State 67
Appendix E: Leading Causes of Death 68
COVER & INTERIOR ARTWORK
Technical Notes 69 Jason Pereira of JP Design Company was given the difficult
task of designing a cover that combined a celebration of the
diversity of Native Hawaiians and Pacific Islanders with the
connective theme of traditional seafaring. He achieved this by
using a wood-grained background, reminiscent of materials
used in traditional canoes, set in hues of blue that recall the
deep waters of the Pacific Ocean. The lettering bears a texture
similar to traditional tapa cloth. The top horizontal pattern,
accompanied by lines and dots, is Melanesian. The linear
horizontal pattern at the base of the cover is Micronesian.
The triangular pattern above Communityy is Native Hawaiian.
The remaining patterns surrounding the title are Polynesian.
The interior artwork extends the celebration of diversity by
featuring Melanesian, Micronesian, and Polynesian patterns.

Photographs were taken by M. Jamie Watson, Daniel Naha-
Ve‘evalu, Melody Seanoa, and Kelani Silk. Data design and
layout were provided by Michael Sund of SunDried Penguin.

Please e-mail any questions regarding the report
to demographics@empoweredpi.org or
askdemographics@advancingjustice-la.org.

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WELCOME

In 2009, a group of young Native Hawaiian and Pacific Islander (NHPI) leaders came together to discuss the development
of the next generation of community advocates. These leaders, through their various capacities in community service,
recognized the need to prepare young advocates for supporting the work of existing community-based organizations and
entities by building partnerships and encouraging collaborative efforts. This group formed Empowering Pacific Islander
Communities (EPIC), whose mission is to foster opportunities that empower the NHPI community and promote social justice
through culturally relevant advocacy, research, and development.

Over the past five years, EPIC and Asian Americans Advancing Justice (Advancing Justice) have partnered on statewide
policy advocacy, local voter engagement, college student leadership training, and most recently, demographic research.
A Community of Contrasts: Native Hawaiians and Pacific Islanders in the United States, 2014 is the latest collaborative
effort between our organizations. The report was conceptualized nearly a decade ago after Advancing Justice released
the first A Community of Contrasts report featuring rich disaggregated ethnic data on Asian Americans, Native Hawaiians,
and Pacific Islanders from the U.S. Census Bureau. While our communities share common ground, we recognized the
importance of producing a report focused on NHPI communities. A report focused primarily on NHPI data would provide a
more accurate and sophisticated picture of the NHPI community that is often rendered invisible under the broader “Asian
Pacific Islander” umbrella.

We hope this report serves as an additional tool for the NHPI community and others who seek to better understand and
serve this diverse community. This report is the result of countless hours of collaboration with many NHPI community
leaders from across the country. EPIC and Advancing Justice extend a heartfelt thanks to all of its community partners
from Alaska, Arizona, Arkansas, California, Hawai‘i, Nevada, New Mexico, Oregon, Utah, Washington, Virginia, and
Washington, DC, for providing crucial input and feedback. We also extend our gratitude to the Wallace H. Coulter Foundation,
Cyrus Chung Ying Tang Foundation, and Bank of America for making this report possible.

Tana Lepule Stewart Kwoh
Executive Director Executive Director
Empowering Pacific Islander Communities Asian Americans Advancing Justice - Los Angeles

A Community of Contrasts 1
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INTRODUCTION

The journey of Native Hawaiians and Pacific Islanders agencies and organizations rely on default labels, like the
(NHPI) began centuries ago with ancestors who navigated overly broad Asian Pacific Islander (API) racial category, in
between islands and across an ocean so vast it could their collection and publication of data. Such labels mask
encompass every land mass on Earth. Skilled in seafaring, significant disparities between NHPI and Asian Americans
they mastered the science of environmental observa- across key socioeconomic characteristics. Since 1997,
tion and were guided by celestial patterns, ocean swells, the Office of Management and Budget (OMB), the federal
and habits of birds and sea creatures. They planted the agency that provides standards for how race and ethnic-
seeds of Pacific Islander communities across more than ity should be reported and collected, has required federal
20,000 Pacific islands thousands of years before European agencies to collect and report data on NHPI as a separate
explorers landed there. During the 18th and 19th centu- racial category. This policy is mandated by OMB Statistical
ries, European explorers divided those communities into Policy Directive No. 15 (OMB 15), which was revised to
three regions now known as Melanesia, Micronesia, and disaggregate NHPI data from the API category as a result
Polynesia. Today there are more than 1.2 million NHPI from of advocacy efforts by the NHPI community. In 2000, the
over 20 distinct cultural groups living in the United States, Census Bureau began disaggregating NHPI data from Asian
some among the fastest-growing groups nationwide. American data to comply with OMB 15. Unfortunately OMB
15 has not been fully implemented in all facets of fed-
Although every NHPI ethnic group has its own distinct eral data collection and reporting, and the needs of NHPI
traditions and language, the groups also share many remain masked in too many critical areas, inflicting harm on
commonalities unique to island cultures like having a and perpetuating myths about the NHPI community.
strong oral tradition, placing great importance on family
and community, and having profound respect for elders. In this context, A Community of Contrasts: Native Hawaiians
Understanding and acknowledging both the overlapping and and Pacific Islanders in the United States, 2014 is a useful
diverging characteristics of NHPI communities are critical tool for navigating a broad array of pressing issues facing
to finding ways to better understand, respect, and effec- the NHPI community while encouraging meaningful partner-
tively serve these populations. In the United States, the ships to address those issues. The authors acknowledge
NHPI label encompasses at least 20 distinct communities, that many of the issues deserve more in-depth treatment
including larger communities such as Native Hawaiians, than is possible to give in this report. The goals of this
Samoans, Chamorros, Fijians, Tongans, and smaller com- report are threefold.
munities such as Marshallese, Chuukese, and Tahitians,
First, this report presents data that disaggregate NHPI
just to name a few. Cultural values, linguistic needs, and
groups to the extent possible. Consistent with OMB 15,
governmental relationships are complex strands woven into
NHPI data by race are presented separately from Asian
every issue faced by NHPI, making the need for data that
American data in this report. In addition, NHPI ethnic group
reflect these distinctions vital. For example, the particular
disaggregation is provided for a limited set of ethnic groups
relationship between Pacific Islander entities and the U.S.
based on data availability. For example, this report includes
government must be considered. These relationships, the
national population counts for 20 NHPI ethnic groups and
majority defined by wars and colonization, vary greatly and
more in-depth social and economic characteristic data for
include statehood; territorial status; sovereignty; special
7 of these NHPI ethnic groups, though there are many more
relationships by treaties, such as with Compact of Free
Pacific Islander ethnic groups for which data are not avail-
Association countries; and indigenous rights. The specific
able both nationally and in local areas.
relationships often determine whether their members are
considered citizens, immigrants, or migrants in the United Second, this report is a user-friendly reference for com-
States and if their families are eligible for U.S. resources munity organizations, government officials and agencies,
and programs. foundations, and businesses that wish to partner meaning-
fully with the NHPI community. We hope that providing data
The difficulty of addressing the challenges faced by
in an accessible format will unpack the complexities of the
small populations like NHPI is further compounded when

2 Empowering Pacific Islander Communities & Asian Americans Advancing Justice
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INTRODUCTION

challenges facing the NHPI community. Though not compre- The statements and recommendations expressed in this
hensive, this report provides general demographic data as report are solely the responsibility of the authors.
well as data highlighting some of the critical issues facing
NHPI such as education, health, economic justice and hous-
ing, immigration, civic engagement, and civil rights.

Third, while a majority of the report features national
data, this report also attempts to provide local data by
highlighting a few areas within the United States with siz-
able populations of NHPI. Using data obtained by the U.S.
Census Bureau, we selected six regions that are home to
large populations of Native Hawaiians and Samoan, Tongan,
Chamorro, Fijian, and Marshallese Americans: Arkansas,
Los Angeles, O‘ahu, Salt Lake City, San Francisco, and
Seattle. While we recognize that NHPI live in every state in
the nation, space constraints limited the number of local
communities we could include.

This demographic profile relies on data from numerous
federal, state, and local agencies. Much of the data come
from the U.S. Census Bureau, including the 2010 Census,
American Community Survey, and Current Population
Survey. However, because these data are not compre-
hensive, this profile also utilizes data from other sources
including the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention,
Office of Hawaiian Affairs, U.S. Department of Homeland
Security, U.S. Department of Justice, U.S. State Department,
the National Center for Education Statistics, Transactional
Records Access Clearinghouse at Syracuse University, and
many others.

In 1976, faced with steeply declining interest in traditional
seafaring techniques, Satawalan master navigator Mau
Piailug broke with centuries of tradition and shared closely
guarded way-finding secrets with the crew of the Hōkūle‘a.
However, the significance of Mau’s decision went beyond
simply assisting Native Hawaiians. He considered his
students and himself as members of a larger Pacific
Islander family that transcended political boundaries and
geographic borders. In his eyes, the ocean did not divide
Pacific Islander communities as much as it connected
them. The authors thank our elders for inspiring us to
continue advocating for the diverse needs of the NHPI
community while moving forward in the same spirit of
mutual support and family. NHPI: Native Hawaiian(s) and Pacific Islander(s)

A Community of Contrasts 3
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EXECUTIVE SUMMARY

A Community of Contrasts: Native Hawaiians and Pacific Islanders in the United States, 2014 compiles the latest data on
Native Hawaiians and Pacific Islanders (NHPI) at the national level and includes highlights from a few local regions with large
numbers of NHPI. Produced in collaboration with Empowering Pacific Islander Communities (EPIC) and Asian Americans
Advancing Justice - Los Angeles, this report is a resource for community organizations, elected and appointed officials,
government agencies, foundations, corporations, and others looking to better understand and serve one of the country’s
fastest-growing and most-diverse racial groups. While this report features rich disaggregated data on Native Hawaiians and
many Pacific Islander ethnic groups, there are still more Pacific Islander groups that are not captured due to data limitations.
Some of the key findings are the following:

Native Hawaiians and Pacific Islanders are one of the said that no political party or campaign contacted them
fastest-growing racial groups in the United States and about the election. Increasing civic participation through
are incredibly diverse. voter registration, outreach, and education and increasing
The NHPI population grew 40% between 2000 and 2010, a entrepreneurship through effective, culturally appropriate
rate that approached that of Asian Americans and Latinos. small-business development programs are important in
Now over 1.2 million NHPI live in the United States. Though engaging this growing racial group.
about 43% of the population is Native Hawaiian, the NHPI
Native Hawaiians and Pacific Islanders face challenges
racial group is incredibly diverse and includes over 20
with higher-education access and retention.
distinct ethnic groups, all of which are growing at a faster
About 18% of NHPI adults have a bachelor’s degree, a rate
pace than the total population. Micronesian groups such
identical to Blacks or African Americans. Marshallese and
as Chuukese, Kosraean, Marshallese, Carolinian, and
Samoan American adults are less likely to hold a bachelor’s
Pohnpeian are some of the fastest-growing NHPI ethnic
degree than those from any racial group. About 38% of
groups. NHPI live in every state in the country, with a majority
NHPI college-aged youth were enrolled in college in 2011, a
residing in Hawai‘i and California. Arkansas, Nevada,
rate lower than average. Disaggregated ethnic data pro-
and Alaska had the fastest-growing populations over the
vided by the University of California Office of the President
decade. The majority of NHPI are multiracial (56%). As the
shows that 2011 admission rates for NHPI freshman and
population grows and becomes more diverse, it is critical
transfers are similar to and even below the rate of admis-
that NHPI data be collected and available to the public by
sion for other underrepresented groups. Tongan American,
racial group and by distinct ethnic group.
Samoan American, and Native Hawaiian freshmen had
Native Hawaiians and Pacific Islanders are contributing lower admission rates than average. Educational data
to the economic and political fabric of American life. on NHPI are often aggregated with Asian American data,
The growth in NHPI is reflected in every aspect of civic which masks the distinct challenges that many NHPI face in
life. NHPI are contributing to the economy; the number of the area of education. For example, according to National
NHPI-owned businesses increased 30% between 2002 Center for Education Statistics data, only 23% of NHPI
and 2007, a growth rate higher than average (18%). One undergraduates completed a degree within four years, com-
in 10 NHPI-owned businesses is a small business. NHPI pared with the aggregate figure of 45% for API students.1
are active in America’s labor force and most likely to work Disaggregating NHPI data by race and ethnic group is the
in retail, health care, and accommodation and food ser- first step toward understanding how to improve educational
vices industries. About 1 in 8 NHPI are veterans, a rate opportunities. Promoting equal opportunity and diversity
higher than average. Though a small community, there is in public education are important steps toward addressing
also considerable untapped potential in the NHPI com- disparities. Institutions of higher education can support
munity to influence the political process. About a quarter those goals by developing and funding culturally relevant
of a million NHPI voted in the November 2012 election. higher-education retention programs and youth programs
However, according to a postelection survey, three-quarters that encourage enrollment in higher-education institutions.
1
National Center for Education Statistics. Digest of Education Statistics: 2011. Table 376.
Figures derived from Integrated Postsecondary Education Data System. Note: Students are
first-time, full-time bachelor’s degree–seeking students at four-year institutions.

A Community of Contrasts 5
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EXECUTIVE SUMMARY

Certain diseases disproportionately impact Native Pacific Islanders face diverse and distinct immigration
Hawaiians and Pacific Islanders, yet many lack access challenges that can affect their ability to access
to affordable and culturally appropriate health care. critical services.
Heart disease is the leading cause of death for NHPI. Cancer Immigration is a complex but critical issue for Pacific
is the fastest-growing cause of death among many NHPI Islanders. While Native Hawaiians and many Pacific Islanders
groups including Native Hawaiians, Samoan Americans, are U.S. citizens, some Pacific Islanders are foreign-born and,
and Guamanian or Chamorro1 Americans. NHPI have higher depending on their country of birth, hold different types of
rates of diabetes and obesity than average. The number of immigration statuses. Many immigrants come from islands
suicide deaths among NHPI increased 170% between 2005 that have political relationships with the United States due to
and 2010. Despite these challenges, many NHPI experi- the colonization and militarization of their home islands. For
ence barriers to care. About 1 in 7 NHPI do not have health example, some Pacific Islanders are considered U.S. nation-
insurance. Immigration status, language barriers, and cost als because they come from U.S. territories, while some may
are barriers to care for NHPI. Nearly 253,000 NHPI speak a be migrants from countries that entered into a Compact of
language other than English at home. Marshallese, Fijian, Free Association (COFA) agreement with the United States.
Palauan, Tongan, and Samoan Americans have higher- In other cases, many Pacific Islanders are foreign nation-
than-average rates of limited English proficiency. About als from countries with no U.S. association and must apply
18% of NHPI did not see a doctor because of cost in 2012. for legal permanent resident status to move to the United
Government, foundation, and private funding are needed States. Many undocumented Pacific Islanders also live in
to support culturally and linguistically appropriate outreach, the United States, similar to other immigrant communities.
education, and preventive services to NHPI communities These unique distinctions create a host of challenges once
through avenues such as federally qualified health clinics. immigrants arrive in the United States. For example, U.S.
nationals and COFA migrants are free to live and work in the
Native Hawaiians and Pacific Islanders have been United States but do not immediately qualify for many public
impacted by the economic crisis and many struggle benefits. The lack of in-language and culturally competent
to find affordable housing. programs compounds the difficulty Pacific Islander immi-
Between 2007 and 2011, the number of unemployed NHPI grants face when navigating a complex immigration system
increased 123%, a rate higher than any other racial group. and accessing critical services. Policy makers and service
During the same time, the number of NHPI who were living providers need to understand these diverse immigrant expe-
in poverty increased 56%, a rate higher than any other racial riences in order to address the needs of Pacific Islanders and
group. Today NHPI fare worse than the national average work toward developing comprehensive and compassionate
across multiple measures of income. NHPI have a higher immigration reform, including a pathway to citizenship.
poverty rate, a greater proportion who are low-income,
and a lower per capita income than average. Marshallese, A disproportionate number of NHPI are being incarcerated.
Tongan, Samoan, and Palauan Americans, for example, In 2010, about 12,000 NHPI were under the supervision
have higher-than-average poverty rates and lower per capita of the U.S. correctional system. The number of NHPI prison-
incomes than any racial group. A larger-than-average propor- ers in custody increased 144% between 2002 and 2010,
tion of Marshallese, Tongan, and Samoan Americans are a rate higher than average. California and Utah had dis-
rent burdened, spending more than 30% of their income on proportionate growth in the number of incarcerated NHPI.
rent. NHPI have lower-than-average rates of homeownership Disproportionate numbers of Native Hawaiian prisoners
and larger-than-average household sizes. Increasing social from Hawai‘i are being sent to out-of-state private facilities.
safety nets, creating living-wage jobs, and funding programs Publishing disaggregated data on the number of incarcer-
to address homeownership, small-business ownership and ated NHPI is critical in understanding the criminal justice
employment disparities can aid in helping many NHPI get system’s disproportionate impact on NHPI. Culturally compe-
back on their feet after the economic downturn. tent training for law enforcement about NHPI communities is
1
“Guamanian or Chamorro” may include individuals who identify as being Chamorro and
critical in addressing civil rights violations against NHPI.
individuals from Guam who are not Chamorro.

6 Empowering Pacific Islander Communities & Asian Americans Advancing Justice
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United States
DEMOGRAPHICS

Washington
70,322

Nevada
32,848

Utah
36,777
California
286,145
Arizona
25,106 Arkansas
7,849

Texas
47,646

Alabama
5,914

Florida
39,914

Alaska Hawai‘i
11,154 355,816
N

U.S. Census Bureau, 2010 Census SF1, Table P6. Note: Population figures are shown for states with largest, fastest-growing, or highest percentage of NHPI population. Alaska and Hawai‘i are
not to scale.

AIAN: Native American(s) or Alaska Native(s)
Population Growth by Race & Hispanic Origin NHPI: Native Hawaiian(s) and Pacific Islander(s)
United States 2000 to 2010
„
There are over 1.2 million NHPI
Asian American 46%
living in the United States.2
Latino 43%
„
NHPI make up about 0.4% of the
NHPI 40% nation’s total population.3

„
The NHPI population grew 40%
AIAN 27%
between 2000 and 2010, a rate that
Black or African American 15% rivals those of Latinos and Asian
Americans.
Total Population 10%
„
By 2030, the U.S. NHPI population
White 1% is expected to be over 2 million.4
2
U.S. Census Bureau, 2010 Census SF1, Table P6.
3
U.S. Census Bureau, 2000 Census SF1, Tables P8 and P9; 2010 Census SF1, Tables P5 and P6. Ibid., Tables P5 and P6.
4
Note: Figures for each racial group include both single race/ethnicity and multiracial/multiethnic people, except for White, U.S. Census Bureau, 2012 National Population
which is single race, non-Latino. Projections, Table 4.

A Community of Contrasts 7
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United States
DEMOGRAPHICS

NHPI Population NHPI Population Growth „
Hawai‘i’s and California’s NHPI
by Top Five States by Top Five States populations remain the largest among
United States 2010, United States 2000 to 2010, all states. Over 355,000 NHPI live
Ranked by Population Ranked by Percent Growth
in Hawai‘i while over 286,000 live
State Number % Growth in California.
State Number 2000 to
Hawai‘i 355,816 2010 „
NHPI comprise more than one-
California 286,145 Arkansas 7,849 151% quarter of Hawai‘i’s population.
Washington 70,322 Nevada 32,848 102%
Texas 47,646 „
Though still relatively small in
Alaska 11,154 102%
Florida 39,914 number, NHPI populations grew
Arizona 25,106 87%
Alabama 5,914 87%
the fastest in Arkansas, Nevada, and
Alaska, with populations that more
than doubled over the decade.
NHPI Population
NHPI Population as a Percent of
Total Population
by Top Five States, United States 2010,
Ranked by Percent of State Population

State Number Percent
Hawai‘i 355,816 26.16%
There are over
Alaska
Utah
11,154
36,777
1.57%
1.33%
1.2 million NHPI
Nevada 32,848 1.22%
Washington 70,322 1.05% living in the United States.
U.S. Census Bureau, 2000 Census SF1, Tables P8 and P9;
2010 Census SF1, Tables P5 and P6.

Photo by Daniel Naha-Ve‘evalu

8 Empowering Pacific Islander Communities & Asian Americans Advancing Justice
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United States
DEMOGRAPHICS

Population by Ethnic Group Population Growth by Ethnic Group
United States 2010 United States 2000 to 2010

Ethnic Group Number Chuukese 544%
Native Hawaiian 527,077
Samoan 184,440 Solomon Islander 388%
Guamanian or Chamorro 147,798
Kosraean 301%
Tongan 57,183
Fijian 32,304
Marshallese 237%
Marshallese 22,434
Palauan 7,450 Carolinian 201%
Tahitian 5,062
Chuukese 4,211 Pohnpeian 194%
Pohnpeian 2,060
Mariana Islander 177%
Saipanese 1,031
Yapese 1,018
Yapese 177%
Tokelauan 925
Kosraean 906 Fijian 138%
Carolinian 521
Papua New Guinean 416 I-Kiribati 129%
I-Kiribati 401
Mariana Islander 391 Saipanese 117%

Solomon Islander 122
Palauan 115%
Ni-Vanuatu 91

U.S. Census Bureau, 2010 Census SF1, Table PCT10; 2010 Papua New Guinean 86%
Census SF2, Table PCT1. Figure for Ni-Vanuatu from U.S.
Census Bureau, 2010 Census Special Tabulation. Note:
Figures are based on self-reporting. In some cases, individuals Tokelauan 61%
may report a national origin. For example, the “Guamanian
or Chamorro” category may include individuals who identify
as being Chamorro and individuals from Guam who are not Guamanian or Chamorro 60% „ There are over 20 NHPI ethnic
Chamorro. Approximately 20% of NHPI did not report an
ethnicity in the 2010 Census. Some Pacific Islander groups
are not included if the population was less than 90 in 2010. groups living in the United States.
Tongan 55%
„ Native Hawaiians are the nation’s
Tahitian 53%
ETHNIC GROUP REPORTING largest NHPI ethnic group, number-
IN THE U.S. CENSUS Samoan
ing over 527,000; they are followed
38%
Census Bureau develops ethnic in size by Samoan and Guamanian or
group names based on respondent Native Hawaiian 31% Chamorro Americans.
self-reporting. In some cases,
respondents reported a national „ All NHPI ethnic groups grew faster
Total Population 10%
origin rather than an ethnic group. For than the total population between
example, because “Mariana Islander” U.S. Census Bureau, 2000 Census SF1, Tables P1 and 2000 and 2010.
PCT10; 2010 Census SF1, Tables P1 and PCT10; 2010
is a national origin and not an ethnic Census SF2, Table PCT1; 2010 Census Special Tabulation.
group, the category may include Note: Figures for ethnic groups excluded if (1) groups did „ Micronesian and Melanesian ethnic
not meet 2000 Census population threshold for reporting
some who are not NHPI. Given these or (2) number less than 100 in 2010. groups, though smaller in number,
complications, some ethnic group grew significantly over the decade.
names may not be wholly accurate
Among the larger groups, the
but are included in this report to stay
consistent with Census terminology.
number of Marshallese and Fijian
Americans grew 237% and 138%
over the decade, respectively.

A Community of Contrasts 9
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United States
DEMOGRAPHICS

Multiracial Population „
The majority of NHPI are multi-
by Race, Hispanic Origin, and Ethnic Group, United States 2010 racial (56%). All NHPI ethnic groups
are proportionally more multiracial
Native Hawaiian 69%
than average (3%).1 Over two-thirds
of Native Hawaiians are multi-
NHPI 56%
racial (69%). One in 10 Marshallese
AIAN 44% Americans are multiracial.

„
The median age for NHPI is 26.5,
Guamanian or Chamorro 38%
the lowest among racial groups.
Samoan 35% Median ages for all NHPI ethnic
groups are far below the national
Fijian 22% average (37.2). The median age for
Marshallese Americans is 19.5.2
Tongan 20%
„
Over one in three NHPI are youth
Asian American 15%
under the age of 18 (34%). Among
NHPI ethnic groups, Marshallese
Marshallese 10%
(48%), Tongan (43%), and Samoan
Black or African American 7% American (42%) populations have the
highest proportion of youth.3
Latino 6%
„
Among racial groups, the NHPI
White 3% population is disproportionately
college-aged youth, ages 18 to 24
U.S. Census Bureau, 2010 Census SF1, Tables QT-P3, QT-P6, QT-P9, P8, and P9. Given significant diversity among ethnic
groups, data on Asian Americans should only be used to illustrate differences or similarities between NHPI and Asian (13%, compared to 10% on average).4
Americans. For data on Asian Americans, refer to A Community of Contrasts: Asian Americans in the United States, 2011
at advancingjustice.org.
Photo by M. Jamie Watson

1
U.S. Census Bureau, 2010 Census SF1, Table QT-P3.
2
U.S. Census Bureau, 2010 Census SF2, Table DP-1.
3
Ibid.
4
Ibid., Table PCT3.

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Bay Area CSA
INTRODUCTION

Napa County
820

Sonoma County
3,244
Solano County
7,727

Fairfield

CALIFORNIA
Marin County
1,132 Vallejo
Contra Costa County
10,153

Oakland

San Francisco County Alameda County
Hayward
6,173 22,322

San Mateo Fremont

East Palo Alto
Santa Clara County
San Mateo County San Jose 14,468
15,069

Santa Cruz County
1,213

San Benito County
255

N

U.S. Census Bureau, 2010 Census SF1, Table P6.

Native Hawaiians and Pacific Islanders (NHPI) have a rich history in the San Francisco Bay Area. The first wave of
NHPI migrating to northern California occurred during the California Gold Rush in the mid-1800s and in 1885 featured
the first account of surfing in the continental United States in Santa Cruz. The next large wave of NHPI migrating to
the area occurred after World War II and included many who had joined the United States military and settled close
to local bases. Today the Bay Area is home to the Tongan consulate general’s office. Significant Samoan and Tongan
American communities have been established in East Palo Alto, San Mateo, San Bruno, and Redwood City.

A Community of Contrasts 27
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Bay Area CSA
DEMOGRAPHICS

Population, Growth by Race & Ethnic Group
Bay Area CSA 2000 to 2010,
Ranked by 2010 Population

Ethnic Group 2000 2010 Growth

Photo by M. Jamie Watson
Native Hawaiian 17,901 20,072 12%
Samoan 12,509 14,928 19%
Tongan 8,155 12,110 48%
Guamanian or Chamorro 9,494 11,446 21%
Fijian 5,071 10,180 101%
Palauan NR 368 NR
Tahitian NR 240 NR
Marshallese NR 99 NR
Total NHPI Population 67,878 82,576 22%
Total Bay Area CSA Population 7,092,596 7,468,390 5%

U.S. Census Bureau, 2000 Census SF1, Tables P8, P9, and PCT10; 2010 Census SF1, Tables P5, P6, and PCT10; 2010
Census SF2, Table PCT1. Figures for NHPI and each ethnic group include both single race/ethnicity and multiracial/
multiethnic people, except for White, which is single race, non-Latino. Approximately 17% of NHPI in this region did not report
an ethnicity in the 2010 Census. Figures do not sum to total. NR = Not reported.

„
The number of NHPI living in the „
Fijian Americans are the region’s
Bay Area Combined Statistical Area fastest-growing NHPI ethnic group,
(CSA)1 grew 22% between 2000 and doubling over the decade. The Tongan The Bay Area CSA
2010, a rate higher than the regional American population grew 48% over
average (5%). There are now about the decade. Both rates were higher
has the
83,000 NHPI living in the 11-county than any racial group.4
Bay Area CSA, about 1% of the
region’s population.2
„
Alameda County has 22,322 NHPI second-
„
The Bay Area CSA has the second-
largest number of NHPI of any CSA
residents, the largest number among
Bay Area counties; 15,069 NHPI live
in San Mateo County, and 14,468 live
largest
in the continental United States. The in Santa Clara County.5 NHPI population
region also has the largest number of
„
East Palo Alto and Oakland have the
Tongan and Fijian Americans, the
second-largest number of Native
fourth- and fifth-largest populations of any on
of Tongan Americans among U.S
Hawaiians, and the third-largest popu-
lation of Guamanian or Chamorro
cities (1,526 and 1,463, respectively).6 the continent.
and Samoan Americans of any CSA.3

1
The Bay Area CSA includes Alameda, Contra Costa, Marin, Napa, San Benito, San Francisco, San Mateo, Santa Clara,
Santa Cruz, Solano, and Sonoma Counties. Combined statistical areas are groupings of metropolitan areas defined by
the U.S. Office of Management and Budget.
2
U.S. Census Bureau, 2000 Census SF1, Tables P8 and P9; 2010 Census SF1, Tables P5 and P6.
3
U.S. Census Bureau, 2010 Census SF1, Tables P6 and PCT10.
4
U.S. Census Bureau, 2000 Census SF1, Tables P8, P9, and PCT10; 2010 Census SF1, Tables P5, P6, and PCT10.
5
U.S. Census Bureau, 2000 Census SF1, Tables P8 and P9; 2010 Census SF1, Tables P5 and P6.
6
U.S. Census Bureau, 2010 Census SF1, Table PCT10.

28 Empowering Pacific Islander Communities & Asian Americans Advancing Justice
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Honolulu MSA
INTRODUCTION

Kahuku
HAWAI‘I 1,589

Laie
3,139

Honolulu MSA
233,637

Wai‘anae
9,141 Kāne‘ohe
Mākaha 11,509
5,616
Mililani
9,796
Pearl City
9,078
Waipahu
9,072

Nānākuli
10,276 Waimānalo
6,843

Makakilo
5,581

‘Ewa Honolulu
13,468 68,605

N

U.S. Census Bureau, 2010 Census SF1, Table P6. Note: Population data for ‘Ewa, Honolulu, Mākaha, Mililani, and Waimānalo are aggregated figures that combined at least two Census-
designated places (CDP) that are considered to be the same town or city. (For example, Waimānalo CDP and Waimānalo Beach CDP are labeled as “Waimānalo.”)

The Honolulu Metropolitan Statistical Area (MSA) encompasses the entire island of Oahu. While Oahu includes
Honolulu, the state capital, almost twice as many people reside in surrounding communities including rural areas.
Many of the issues faced by NHPI on Oahu must be seen in the context of the overthrow of the Hawaiian Kingdom in
1893 by American colonists and current efforts to return Native Hawaiians to their land.1 Oahu is also home to over
70% of the state of Hawai‘i’s diverse population, with no single racial group comprising a majority. While Oahu has a
deep history in the agriculture industry, many Oahu residents are currently attracted by job opportunities provided by
the tourist industry which attracts an estimated four million tourists each year.

1
More information on this topic is available at the Department of Hawaiian Home Lands, http://dhhl.hawaii.gov.

A Community of Contrasts 33
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Honolulu MSA
DEMOGRAPHICS

Population, Growth by Race & Ethnic Group „
The number of NHPI living in the
Honolulu MSA 2000 to 2010, Honolulu MSA1 grew 23% between
Ranked by 2010 Population 2000 and 2010, a rate higher than
the regional average (9%). There are
Ethnic Group 2000 2010 Growth
now over 230,000 NHPI living in the
Native Hawaiian 153,117 182,120 19%
Samoan 25,856 33,272 29%
Honolulu MSA, about one-quarter of
Guamanian or Chamorro 3,493 5,455 56%
the island’s population.2
Tongan 4,021 5,263 31% „
Native
Hawaiians are the largest
Marshallese NR 4,173 NR NHPI group living in the Honolulu
Chuukese NR 2,086 NR MSA, comprising about 78% of the
Tahitian NR 1,741 NR NHPI population.3
Palauan NR 987 NR
Fijian 357 562 57% „
The Micronesian population in the
Tokelauan NR 518 NR Honolulu MSA grew 130% between
Pohnpeian NR 390 NR 2000 and 2010.4
Kosraean NR 319 NR
„
There are 12 cities in the Honolulu
Yapese NR 123 NR
MSA with majority NHPI popula-
Total NHPI Population 189,292 233,637 23%
tions. While the city of Honolulu
Total Honolulu MSA Population 876,156 953,207 9%
has the highest number of NHPI,
U.S. Census Bureau, 2000 Census SF1, Tables P8, P9, and PCT10; 2010 Census SF1, Tables P5, P6, and PCT10; 2010 Waimānalo Beach (83%), Nānākuli
Census SF2, Table PCT1. Figures for NHPI and each ethnic group include both single race/ethnicity and multiracial/multiethnic
people, except for White, which is single race, non-Latino. Approximately 0.2% of NHPI in this region did not report an ethnicity (81%), and Hau‘ula (70%) are most
in the 2010 Census. Figures do not sum to total. NR = Not reported in 2000 Census.
proportionately NHPI. Most NHPI
in these areas are Native Hawaiian.5

„
Outside of the city of Honolulu,
Kāne‘ohe (10,685), ‘Ewa (10,389),
Nānākuli (9,051), Kailua (9,028),
Mililani (8,656), Wai‘anae (8,018),
Pearl City (7,464), and Waimānalo
(6,435) have the largest populations
of Native Hawaiians. Waipahu
has large populations of Samoan
(2,831), Micronesian including
Chuukese (240), and Marshallese
Americans (984).6
Photo by M. Jamie Watson

1 4
The Honolulu MSA is composed of the island of Oahu and is also known as the county U.S. Census Bureau, 2000 Census SF1, Table PCT10; 2010 Census SF1, Table PCT10.
of Honolulu. Metropolitan statistical areas are defined by the U.S. Office of Management Data for smaller ethnic groups such as Marshallese were not available in 2000.
and Budget. 5
U.S. Census Bureau, 2010 Census SF1, Tables P1, P6, and PCT10.
2
U.S. Census Bureau, 2000 Census SF1, Tables P8 and P9; 2010 Census SF1, Tables P5 6
U.S. Census Bureau, 2010 Census SF1, Table PCT10; 2010 Census SF2, Table PCT1.
and P6. Note: ‘Ewa is composed of ‘Ewa Beach, ‘Ewa Gentry, ‘Ewa Villages, and Ocean Pointe, and
3
U.S. Census Bureau, 2010 Census SF1, Tables P6 and PCT10. Waimānalo includes both Waimānalo and Waimānalo Beach.

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Los Angeles CSA
INTRODUCTION

NEVADA

CALIFORNIA

ARIZONA
San Bernardino County
13,517

Ventura County
Victorville
4,070

Los Angeles County
54,169

Oxnard Los Angeles

Riverside
Moreno Valley Riverside County
Carson Anaheim 14,108

Irvine
Long Beach
Huntington Beach
Temecula

Orange County
19,484

N

U.S. Census Bureau, 2010 Census SF1, Table P6.

The Los Angeles area has a rich history of Native Hawaiian and Pacific Islander (NHPI) residents, who first began
migrating to the area during the late 1800s. The number increased dramatically following World War II, with many
Pacific Islanders from American Samoa and Guam who served in the military moving to cities near military bases where
they were stationed. Many NHPI also faced increasing costs of living on their respective islands after World War II and
moved to California in search of better economic and educational opportunities. Today the region is home to some of
the largest NHPI communities on the continent.

A Community of Contrasts 39
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Los Angeles CSA
DEMOGRAPHICS

Population, Growth by Race & Ethnic Group
Los Angeles CSA 2000 to 2010,
Ranked by 2010 Population

Ethnic Group 2000 2010 Growth
Samoan 25,770 29,848 16%
Native Hawaiian 23,452 28,615 22%
Guamanian or Chamorro 10,767 14,107 31%
Tongan 4,744 6,616 39%
Fijian 1,104 2,123 92%
Marshallese NR 579 NR

Photo by M. Jamie Watson
Tahitian NR 478 NR
Palauan NR 286 NR
Total NHPI Population 86,637 105,348 22%
Total Los Angeles CSA Population 16,373,645 17,877,006 9%

U.S. Census Bureau, 2000 Census SF1, Tables P8, P9, and PCT10; 2010 Census SF1, Tables P5, P6, and PCT10; 2010
Census SF2, Table PCT1. Figures for NHPI and each ethnic group include both single race/ethnicity and multiracial/multiethnic
people, except for White, which is single race, non-Latino. Approximately 23% of NHPI in this region did not report an ethnicity
in the 2010 Census. Figures do not sum to total. NR = Not reported.

„
The number of NHPI living in the followed by Orange (19,484), Riverside
Los Angeles Combined Statistical (14,108), and San Bernardino Counties
Area (CSA)1 grew 22% between (13,517).4
2000 and 2010, a rate higher than the
„
Fijian Americans were the fastest-
regional average (9%). There are now
growing NHPI ethnic group, nearly
close to 110,000 NHPI living in the
doubling over the decade. Both Fijian The Los Angeles CSA
Los Angeles CSA, just under 1% of
and Tongan American populations
the total population.2
grew faster than any racial group in
„
The Los Angeles CSA has the largest the region.5
has the
number of NHPI of any CSA in the
continental United States. The region
„
Though relatively small in number, the
NHPI population in Riverside County
largest
also has the largest number of Native
Hawaiians, Guamanian or Chamorro
grew faster than in any other county in NHPI population
the Los Angeles CSA, 86% over the
Americans, and Samoan Americans on
decade, a rate higher than the county’s
the continent. It has the third-largest of any on the continent.
total growth (42%).6
population of Tongan Americans of
any CSA on the continent.3 „
The City of Los Angeles has more
Native Hawaiians than any other
„
The largest number of NHPI in
United States city outside of the state
the Los Angeles CSA region live
of Hawai‘i.7
in Los Angeles County (54,169),
1
The Los Angeles CSA includes Los Angeles, Orange, Riverside, San Bernardino, and Ventura Counties. Combined statistical
areas are groupings of metropolitan areas defined by the U.S. Office of Management and Budget.
2
U.S. Census Bureau, 2010 Census SF1, Tables P5 and P6.
3
Ibid., Table P6.
4
Ibid.
5
U.S. Census Bureau, 2000 Census SF1, Tables P8, P9, and PCT10; 2010 Census SF1, Tables P5, P6, and PCT10.
6
U.S. Census Bureau, 2000 Census SF1, Tables P8 and P9; 2010 Census SF1, Tables P1 and P6.
7
U.S. Census Bureau, 2010 Census SF1, Table P6.

40 Empowering Pacific Islander Communities & Asian Americans Advancing Justice
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Seattle CSA
INTRODUCTION

CANADA
Skagit County
WASHINGTON 471

Island County
760

Snohomish County
6,481

Everett

Kitsap County Seattle
4,265

King County
23,664
Mason County
471 Renton

Kent

Federal Way

Tacoma

Lacey
Pierce County
16,785

Thurston County
3,467
N

U.S. Census Bureau, 2010 Census SF1, Table P6.

The Native Hawaiian and Pacific Islander (NHPI) community in the Pacific Northwest dates back to 1787, making it one
of the oldest NHPI communities in the continental United States. NHPI were hired to work in the fur trade and merchant
shipping industries, with many choosing to remain in the Seattle area as laborers. After World War II, many Samoans
and Chamorro Americans who enlisted in the United States military migrated to Seattle. Today the community’s growth
continues to outpace that of Seattle’s general population, motivated by access to education, employment, and a lower
cost of living.

A Community of Contrasts 45
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Seattle CSA
DEMOGRAPHICS

Population, Growth by Race & Ethnic Group „
The number of NHPI in the Seattle
Seattle CSA 2000 to 2010, Combined Statistical Area (CSA)1
Ranked by 2010 Population grew 61% between 2000 and 2010, a
rate second only to Latinos (88%).
Ethnic Group 2000 2010 Growth
There are now over 56,000 NHPI
Samoan 9,422 16,562 76%
Native Hawaiian 10,486 14,890 42%
living in the Seattle CSA, just over
Guamanian or Chamorro 7,320 12,316 68%
1% of the total population.2
Fijian 940 2,130 127% „
The Seattle CSA has the third-largest
Tongan 851 1,629 91% number of NHPI of any CSA in
Marshallese NR 1,437 NR the continental United States. The
Palauan NR 714 NR region has the second-largest popula-
Saipanese NR 165 NR tion of Guamanian or Chamorro
Chuukese NR 124 NR
and Samoan Americans and the
Carolinian NR 116 NR
third-largest population of Native
Tahitian NR 111 NR
Hawaiians and Fijian Americans on
Total NHPI Population 35,106 56,364 61%
the continent.3
Total Seattle CSA Population 3,707,144 4,199,312 13%
„
Within the Seattle CSA, the largest
U.S. Census Bureau, 2000 Census SF1, Tables P8, P9, and PCT10; 2010 Census SF1, Tables P5, P6, and PCT10; 2010
Census SF2, Table PCT1. Figures for NHPI and each ethnic group include both single race/ethnicity and multiracial/multiethnic number of NHPI live in King County
people, except for White, which is single race, non-Latino. Approximately 23% of NHPI in this region did not report an ethnicity
in the 2010 Census. Figures do not sum to total. NR = Not reported. (23,664), followed by Pierce (16,785),
Snohomish (6,481), Kitsap (4,265),
and Thurston Counties (3,467).4

„
Washington State has the largest pop-
ulation of Carolinian and Saipanese
Americans, the second-largest
population of Kosraean Americans,
and the third-largest population of
Palauan and Marshallese Americans
of any state in the United States.5

1
The Seattle CSA includes Island, King, Kitsap,
Mason, Pierce, Skagit, Snohomish, and Thurston
Counties. Combined statistical areas are groupings
of metropolitan areas defined by the U.S. Office of
Photo by M. Jamie Watson

Management and Budget.
2
U.S. Census Bureau, 2000 Census SF1, Tables P8
and P9; 2010 Census SF1, Tables P5 and P6.
3
U.S. Census Bureau, 2010 Census SF1, Table P6.
4
Ibid.
5
U.S. Census Bureau, 2010 Census SF2, Table PCT1.

46 Empowering Pacific Islander Communities & Asian Americans Advancing Justice
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Salt Lake City CSA
INTRODUCTION

IDAHO

UTAH
Box Elder County
Weber County
131 1,252

WYOMING
Morgan County
17

Davis County
2,930
NEVADA
Summit County
97

Salt Lake City

Tooele County Wasatch County
403 65

Salt Lake County
20,824

UTAH COUNTY

N

U.S. Census Bureau, 2010 Census SF1, Table P6.

Native Hawaiians and Pacific Islanders (NHPI) began settling in the Salt Lake City area in 1875 and came in larger
numbers after World War II. Many were drawn by their desire to live close to other members of the Church of Latter Day
Saints and the United Methodist Church, whose missionaries had established a significant presence in the Pacific. The
number of NHPI, particularly Tongan and Samoan Americans, continues to grow as families look for educational and
economic opportunities and a means of supporting relatives still living in the Pacific Islands.

A Community of Contrasts 51
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Salt Lake City CSA
DEMOGRAPHICS

Population, Growth by Race & Ethnic Group
Salt Lake City CSA 2000 to 2010,
Ranked by 2010 Population

Ethnic Group 2000 2010 Growth
Tongan 7,252 10,267 42%
Samoan 4,915 9,113 85%
Native Hawaiian 2,107 3,402 61%
Guamanian or Chamorro 272 700 157%
Marshallese NR 611 NR

Photo by M. Jamie Watson
Fijian 96 188 96%
Tahitian NR 138 NR
Total NHPI 16,326 25,719 58%
Total Salt Lake City CSA Population 1,469,474 1,744,886 19%

U.S. Census Bureau, 2000 Census SF1, Tables P8, P9, and PCT10; 2010 Census SF1, Tables P5, P6, and PCT10; 2010
Census SF2, Table PCT1. Figures for NHPI and each ethnic group include both single race/ethnicity and multiracial/multiethnic
people, except for White, which is single race, non-Latino. Approximately 6% of NHPI in this region did not report an ethnicity
in the 2010 Census. Figures do not sum to total. NR = Not reported.

„ „
The number of NHPI living in the The Salt Lake City CSA has the Salt Lake City
Salt Lake City Combined Statistical second-largest population of Tongan
Area (CSA)1 increased 58% between Americans and the fourth-largest
has the
2000 and 2010, a rate higher than population of Samoan Americans in
average. There are about 26,000 NHPI
living in the Salt Lake City CSA.
„
the United States.4

Salt Lake City and West Valley City
largest
„
Though relatively small, NHPI make have the largest and second-largest population of
up 1.5% of the Salt Lake City CSA’s populations of Tongan Americans of
total residents, a proportion larger any city in the United States.5 Tongan Americans
than any other CSA in the continental
United States.2
of any U.S. city.
„
Tongan and Samoan Americans are
the largest NHPI ethnic groups in
the region. Guamanian or Chamorro,
Fijian, and Samoan American popula-
tions grew faster than any racial group
over the decade.3

NHPI IN UTAH COUNTY
Though not in the Salt Lake City
CSA, there are nearly 7,500
NHPI in neighboring Utah County,
1
The Salt Lake City CSA includes Box Elder, Davis, Morgan, Salt Lake, Summit, Tooele, Wasatch, and Weber Counties. concentrated in the cities of
Combined statistical areas are groupings of metropolitan areas defined by the U.S. Office of Management and Budget.
Provo and Orem (about 2,300
2
U.S. Census Bureau, 2010 Census SF1, Table P6.
3
and 1,700, respectively).6
U.S. Census Bureau, 2000 Census SF1, Tables P8, P9, and PCT10; 2010 Census SF1, Tables P5, P6, and PCT10.
4
U.S. Census Bureau, 2010 Census SF1, Table PCT10.
5
Ibid.
6
U.S. Census Bureau, 2010 Census SF1, Table P6.

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Appendix D
NHPI ETHNIC GROUP POPULATION BY STATE

Ethnic Group Population 2010
Ethnic Groups listed in Alphabetical Order
State Carolinian State Native Hawaiian State Tahitian
Washington 127 Hawai‘i 289,970 Hawai‘i 2,513
California 74,932 California 969
State Chuukese Washington 19,863 Utah 290
Hawai‘i 2,563 Nevada 16,339 Florida 170
Oregon 537 Texas 13,192 Washington 157
Washington 225 Oregon 9,719 Nevada 128
Texas 119 Arizona 9,549
Florida 8,023 State Tokelauan
Utah 6,525 Hawai‘i 547
State Fijian
Colorado 5,670 California 138
California 24,059
Washington 2,639
Oregon 888 State Palauan State Tongan
Hawai‘i 711 California 1,404 California 22,893
Texas 454 Hawai‘i 1,216 Utah 13,235
Nevada 369 Washington 917 Hawai‘i 8,085
Utah 366 Oregon 602 Texas 2,287
New York 321 Texas 541 Washington 1,934
Florida 255 Arizona 257 Arizona 1,792
Arizona 237 Colorado 213 Nevada 1,590
Florida 198 Oregon 1,006
Guamanian or Nevada 143
Alaska 762
State Chamorro Virginia 137
Florida 683
California 44,425
Washington 14,829 State Pohnpeian
State Yapese
Texas 10,167 Hawai‘i 775
Hawai‘i 260
Hawai‘i 6,647 Texas 136
California 138
Florida 5,904 California 108
Nevada 5,512 Missouri 106
Arizona 4,276 North Carolina 101
Georgia 3,856
North Carolina 3,682 State Saipanese
Virginia 3,592 Washington 194
California 168
State Kiribati
Hawai‘i 141 State
St ate Samoan
Samoan
California
Ca lifornia 60,876
State Kosraean Hawai‘i
Hawai‘i 37,463
Hawai‘i 484 W ashington
Washington 18,351
Washington 100 Ut ah
Utah 13,086
Alaska
Al aska 5,953
State Marshallese Texas 5,490
Hawai‘i 7,412 Nevada 5,257
Arkansas 4,324 Arizona 3,547
Washington 2,207 Oregon 2,892
California 1,761 Missouri 2,740
Oklahoma 1,028
Oregon 970
Utah 793
Arizona 666
Texas 550
Iowa 406

U.S. Census Bureau, 2010 Census SF1, Table PCT10; 2010 Census SF2, Table PCT1. Note: Top 10 states are reported for Fijian, Guamanian or Chamorro, Marshallese, Native Hawaiian,
Palauan, Samoan, and Tongan tables. State population data for other ethnic groups are limited. Smaller ethnic groups reported in 2010 Census SF2, Table PCT1, are subject to suppression if
population is less than 100.

A Community of Contrasts 67
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EXHIBIT 22

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AMERICAN SAMOA CONSTITUTION

REVISED CONSTITUTION OF AMERICAN SAMOA

Article I
Bill of Rights

Section

1. Freedom of religion, speech, press, rights of
assembly and petition.
2. No deprivation of life, liberty or property without
due process.
3. Policy protective legislation.
4. Dignity of the individual.
5. Protection against unreasonable searchesand
seizures.
6. Rights of an accused.
7. Habeas corpus.
8. Quartering of militia.
9. Imprisonment for debt.
10. Slavery prohibited.
11. Treason.
12. Subversives ineligible to hold public office.
13. Retroactive laws and bills of attainder.
14. Health, safety, morals and general welfare.
15. Education.
16. Unspecified rights and privileges and immunities.

Article II
The Legislature

1. Legislature.

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2. Membership.
3. Qualifications of members.
4. Manner of election.
5. Elections.
6. Term of office.
7. Qualifications of electors.
8. Legislative sessions.
9. Enactment of law; vetoes.
10. Passage of bills.
11. Powers of each house.
12. Freedom from arrest.
13. Vacancies.
14. Public sessions.
15. Reading-Passage of bills.
16. Title
17. Amendments and revisions by reference.
18. Appointment to new offices.
19. Effective date of laws.
20. Legislative counsel
21. Quorum.
22. Qualifications and officers.
23. Adjourning Legislature.
24. Special or exclusive privileges not to be granted;
local or special laws.
25. Compensation of the Legislature.

Article III
Judicial Branch

1. Judicial power.
2. Independence of the courts.
3. Appointments.

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Article IV
Executive Branch

1. Appointments.
2. Governor.
3. Secretary.
4. Secretary of Samoan Affairs.
5. Militia and posse comitatus.
6. Executive regulations.
7. Supervision and control by Governor.
8. Annual report.
9. Pardoning power.
10. Recommendation of laws.
11. Appointment of officials.
12. Removal of officers; powers and duties of
officers.
13. Publication of laws.

Article V
Miscellaneous

1. Officers.
2. Existing laws.
3. Amendments.
4. Revision of the Constitution.
5. Existing rights and liabilities.
6. Oaths.
7. Construction.
8. Provisions self-executing.
9. Seat of Government.
10. Political districts and counties.
11. Effective date.

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Whereas the Congress of the United States, in its Act of February
20, 1929, provided that until the Congress shall provide for the
Government of the islands of American Samoa, all civil, judicial,
and military powers shall be vested in such person or persons and
exercised in such manner as the President of the United States shall
direct; and

Whereas by Executive Order No. 10264 the President of the
United States directed that the Secretary of the Interior should take
such action as may be necessary and appropriate and in harmony
with applicable law, for the administration of civil government in
American Samoa; and

Whereas it is appropriate that, in the process of developing self-
government, the people of American Samoa should enjoy certain
rights and responsibilities inherent in the representative form of
government; and

Whereas it is desirable that these rights and responsibilities be
clearly set forth in a Constitution, and the adoption of a
Constitution is in harmony with applicable law; and

Whereas the Constitution adopted in 1960 provided for a revision
thereof:

Now, therefore, this revised Constitution, having been ratified and
approved by the Secretary of the Interior and having been
approved by a Constitutional Convention of the people of
American Samoa and a majority of the voters of American Samoa
voting at the 1966 election, is established to further advance
government of the people, by the people, and for the people of
American Samoa.

Article I

Bill of Rights

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Section 1. Freedom of religion, speech, press, rights of
assembly and petition. There shall be separation of church and
government, and no law shall be enacted respecting an
establishment of religion or prohibiting the free exercise thereof; or
abridging the freedom of speech or of the press, or the right of the
people peaceably to assemble, and to petition the Government for a
redress of grievances.

Section 2. No deprivation of life, liberty or property without
due process. No person shall be deprived of life, liberty, or
property, without due process of law, nor shall private property be
taken for public use without just compensation.

Amendments: 1967 Section formerly provided for payment of
compensation "before" the taking of property and for reversion to
owner after 3 years of non-user. H.C.R. No. 45, 10th Leg. 1st Spec.
Sess., requested Secty. of Int. to revise the section to its present
form. This was done at the time of ratification and approval on
June 2, 196 7.

Case Notes:
Due process clause does not require jury trial; however the Chief
Justice may so provide by rule. Pelesasa v. Te'o, ASR (1978).
Substantive due process is a fundamental right as such must be
accorded litigants, nurses suspended by Personnel Advisory Board.
Reed v. Personnel Advisory Board, ASR (1977).

Section 3. Policy protective legislation. It shall be the policy of
the Government of American Samoa to protect persons of Samoan
ancestry against alienation of their lands and the destruction of the
Samoan way of life and language, contrary to their best interests.
Such legislation as may be necessary may be enacted to protect the
lands, customs, culture, and traditional Samoan family
organization of persons of Samoan ancestry, and to encourage
business enterprises by such persons. No change in the law
respecting the alienation or transfer of land or any interest therein,

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shall be effective unless the same be approved by two successive
legislatures by a two-thirds vote of the entire membership of each
house and by the Governor.

Case Notes:
Territory has compelling interest in preserving the lands of Samoa
for Samoans; laws in conflict with U.S. not displaced. Craddick v.
Territorial Registrar, ASR (1979).

Cross-References:
Government policy to protect persons against alienation of their
lands.
Treaty of Cession of Tutuila and Aunu'u.
U.S. obligated to protect Samoan property rights.
14th Amendment, U.S. Constitution.

Section 4. Dignity of the individual. The dignity of the individual
shall be respected and every person is entitled to protection of the
law against malicious and unjustifiable public attacks on the name,
reputation, or honor of himself or of his family.

Section 5. Protection against unreasonable searches and
seizures. The right of the people to be secure in their persons,
houses, papers and effects, against unreasonable searches and
seizures, shall not be violated, and no warrants shall issue, but
upon probable cause, supported by oath or affirmation, and
particularly describing the place to be searched, and the persons or
things to be seized. Evidence obtained in violation of this section
shall not be admitted in any court.

Section 6. Rights of an accused. No person shall be subject for
the same offense to be twice put in jeopardy of life or liberty; nor
shall he be compelled in any criminal case to be a witness against
himself; and the failure of the accused to testify shall not be
commented upon nor taken against him. In all criminal
prosecutions, the accused shall have the right to a speedy and

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public trial, to be informed of the nature and the cause of the
accusation and to have a copy thereof; to be confronted with the
witnesses against him, to have compulsory process for obtaining
witnesses in his favor, and to have the assistance of counsel for his
defense. Every man is presumed innocent until he is pronounced
guilty by law, and no act of severity which is not reasonably
necessary to secure the arrest of an accused person shall be
permitted. All persons shall be bailable by sufficient sureties
except where the judicial authorities shall determine that the
presumption is great that an infamous crime, which term shall
include murder and rape, has been committed and that the granting
of bail would constitute a danger to the community. Bail shall be
set by such judicial authorities. Excessive bail shall not be
required, nor excessive fines imposed nor cruel or unusual
punishments inflicted.

Case Notes:
Delay in setting trial is violative.
Government of American Samoa v. Tapusoa,ASR (1979).
"Double jeopardy" protection not violated where crime for which
defendant pled guilty and was convicted, was considered a
different offense rather than a lesser included part of same offense.
A.S.G. v. Moafanua, 4 ASR 2d 33 (1987).
Right to public trial not violated where courtroom cleared during
testimony of juvenile victim in rape case where such exclusion was
requested by victim to avoid describing sexual acts in front of
family members. A.S.G. v. Masaniai 4 ASR2d 156 (1987) (mem).

Section 7. Habeas corpus. The writ of habeas corpus shall be
granted without delay and free of costs. The privilege of the writ of
habeas corpus shall not be suspended except by the Governor and
then only when the public safety requires it in case of war,
rebellion, insurrection or invasion.

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Section 8. Quartering of militia. No soldier or member of the
militia shall, in time of peace, be quartered in any house without
the consent of the owner or the lawful occupant, nor in time of
war, except in a manner prescribed by law. The military authority
shall always be subordinate to the civil authority in time of peace.

Section 9. Imprisonment for debt. There shall be no
imprisonment for debt except in cases of fraud.

Section 10. Slavery prohibited. Neither slavery, nor involuntary
servitude, except as a punishment for crime whereof the party shall
have been duly convicted, shall exist in American Samoa.

Section 11. Treason. Treason against the Government of
American Samoa shall consist only in levying war against it,
adhering to its enemies, or giving them aid and comfort. No person
shall be convicted of treason except on the testimony of two
witnesses to the same overt act, or a confession in open court.

Section 12. Subversives ineligible to hold public office. No
person who advocates, or who aids or belongs to any party,
organization, or association which advocates the overthrow by
force or violence of the Government of American Samoa or of the
United States shall be qualified to hold any public office of trust or
profit under the Government of American Samoa.

Section 13. Retroactive laws and bills of attainder. No bill of
attainder, ex post facto law, nor any law impairing the obligation
of contracts shall be passed.

Section 14. Health, safety, morals and general welfare. Laws
may be enacted for the protection of the health, safety, morals and
general welfare, of the people of American Samoa.

Section 15. Education. The Government shall operate a system of
free and non-sectarian public education. The government will also

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encourage qualified persons of good character to acquire further
education, locally and abroad, both general and technical, and
thereafter to return to American Samoa to the end that the people
thereof may be benefited.

Section 16. Unspecified rights and privileges and immunities.
The enumeration of certain rights in this Constitution shall not be
construed to impair or deny other rights retained by the people. No
law shall be made or enforced which shall abridge the privileges or
immunities of the citizens of American Samoa.

Article II

The Legislature

Section 1. Legislature. There shall be a Legislature which shall
consist of a Senate and House of Representatives. The Legislature
shall have authority to pass legislation with respect to subjects of
local application, except that:

(a) No such legislation may be inconsistent with
this Constitution or the laws of the United States
applicable in American Samoa;

(b) No such legislation may conflict with treaties
or international agreements of the United States;

(c) Money bills enacted by the Legislature of
American Samoa shall not provide for the
appropriation of funds in excess of such amounts
as are available from revenues raised pursuant to
the tax laws and other revenue laws of American
Samoa. Prior to his final submission to the
Secretary of the Interior of requests for Federal
funds necessary for the support of governmental
functions in American Samoa, the Governor shall

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prepare a preliminary budget plan. He shall
submit such plan to the Legislature in joint
session for its review and approval with respect to
such portions as relate to expenditures of funds
proposed to be appropriated by the Congress of
the United States. Amended 1971, S.J.R. No. 4,
effective March 19, 1971.

(d) Legislation involving the expenditure of funds
other than as budgeted shall include revenue
measures to provide the needed funds.

Amendments: 1971 SJ.R. No. 4, llth Leg. 2nd Reg. Sess., in
paragraph (c), at end of first sentence, deleted the words "but
excluding therefrom such income as is derived from user charges
or service related reimbursements to the Government of American
Samoa which is segregated for the use of the activity to which such
charges or reimbursements are related"; in present last sentence the
word "approval" following "review and" was substituted for the
word "recommendation"; the former last sentence was deleted, it
read: "With respect to such portions of the preliminary budget
plan, the Governor shall adopt such recommendations of the
Legislature as he may deem appropriate, but he shall it to the
Secretary all recommendations he has not adopted".

Case Notes:
Subject to supervision in its exercise, the Legislature of American
Samoa has been delegated unimpaired power, through the
executive branch of the federal government, to give territorial
courts authority to sit in admiralty and, as a consequence, to
entertain in rem actions and provide procedures for arresting
vessels or other property which is the subject of a maritime action.
Vessel Fijian Swift v. Trial Division, High Court of American
Samoa, 4 ASR. 983 (1975).

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Section 2. Membership. The Senate shall consist of eighteen
members, three from the Manu'a District, six from the Western
District, and nine from the Eastern District.

The House of Representatives shall consist of twenty members
elected from the following representative districts, the number of
representatives from each of the districts to be as indicated:

Representative District No. 1, composed of Ta'u, Fitiuta two
and Faleasao, representatives;
Representative District No. 2, composed of Ofu, one
Olosega and Sili, representative;
Representative District No. 3, Vaifanua - composed of one
the Villages of Alao, Aoa, Onenoa, Tula and Vatia, representative;
Representative District No. 4, Saole - composed of the one
Villages of Aunuu, Amouli, Utumea and Alofau, representative;
Representative District No. 5, Sua No. I - composed of
the Villages of Fagaitua, Amaua, Auto, Avaio, Alega, one
Aumi and Laulii, representative;
Representative District No. 6, Sua No. 2 - composed of one
the Villages of Sailele, Masausi, Masefau and Afono, representative;
Representative District No. 7. Ma'uputasi No. I -
composed of the Villages of Fatumafuti, Fagaalu and one
Utulei, representative;
Representative District No. 8, Ma'uputasi No. 2 - one
composed of the Village of Fagatogo, representative;
Representative District No. 9, Ma'uputasi No. 3 - one
composed of the Village of Pago Pago, representative;
Representative District No. 10, Ma'uputasi No. 4 - one
composed of the Villages of Satala, Atuu and Leloaloa, representative;
Representative District No. 11, Ma'uputasi No. 5 - one
composed of the Village of Aua representative;

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Representative District No. 12, Ituau - composed of the two
Villages of Nu'uuli, Fagasa, Matuu and Faganeanea, representativs;
Representative District No. 13, Fofo - composed of the one
Villages of Leone and Auma, representative;
Representative District No. 14, Lealataua - composed
of the Villages of Fagamalo, Fagalii, Poloa, Amanave,
Failolo, Agagulu, Seetaga, Nua, Atauloma, Afao, one
Amaluia and Asili, representative;
Representative District No. 15, Ma'upu - composed of
the Villages of Tafuna, Mesepa, Faleniu, Mapusap Fou, two
Pavaiai, Iliili and Vaitogi, representatives;
Representative District No. 16, Tualatai - composed of
the Villages of Futiga, Ituau (Malaeloa), Taputimu and one
Vailoatai, representative;
Representative District No. 17, Leasina - composed of one
the Villages of Aitulagi (Malaeloa), Aoloau and Aasu. representative;

Senators and representatives shall be reapportioned by law at
intervals of not less than 5 years.

The adult permanent residents of Swains Island who are United
States nationals may elect at an open meeting a delegate to the
House of Representatives who shall have all the privileges of a
member of the House except the right to vote.

Section 3. Qualifications of members.

A Senator shall -

(a) be a United States National;
(b) be at least 30 years of age at the time of his election;
(c) have lived in American Samoa at least 5 years and have been a
bona fide resident thereof for at least 1 year next preceding his
election; and

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(d) be the registered matai of a Samoan family who fulfills his
obligations as required by Samoan custom in the county from
which he is elected.

A Representative shall -

(a) be a United States National;
(b) be at least 25 years of age at the time of his election; and have
lived in American Samoa for a total of at least 5 years and have
been a bona fide resident of the representative district from which
he is elected for at least 1 year next preceding his election.

A delegate from Swains Island shall have the qualifications of a
Representative except that in lieu of residence in a representative
district, he shall have been a bona fide resident of Swains Island
for at least one year next preceding his election.

No person who shall have been expelled from the Legislature for
giving or receiving a bribe or being an accessory thereto, and no
person who shall have been convicted of a felony under the laws of
American Samoa, the United States, or the laws of any state of the
United States, shall sit in the Legislature, unless the person so
convicted shall have been pardoned and have had his civil rights
restored to him.

No employee or public officer of the Government shall be eligible
to serve in the Legislature while holding such position. The
prohibition contained herein shall become effective on July 1,
1971. Amended 1971, S.J.R. No. 3, approved by Secretary of the
Interior, March 19, 1971.

Amendments: 1971 S.J.R. No. 3, 1lth Leg. 2nd Reg. Sess.,
amended last paragraph generally by changing former references to
specific government positions to present language covering all
employees or public officers.

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Section 4. Manner of election. Senators shall be elected in
accordance with Samoan custom by the county councils of the
counties they are to represent, the number of senators from a
county or counties to be as indicated: Fitiuta, Faleasao and Ta'u,
two senators; Olosega and Ofu, one senator; Saole, one senator;
Vaifanua, one senator; Sua, two senators; Ma'uputasi, three
senators; Ituau, two senators; Ma'upu, two senators; Leasina, one
senator; Tualatai, one senator; Fofo, one senator; and Lealataua,
one senator. The decisions of the members of the county councils
of the counties concerned shall be certified by the county chiefs of
such counties.

Representatives shall be chosen by secret ballot of the qualified
electors of their respective representative districts.

Case Notes:
"Lived in Samoa for a total of at least 5 years" does not mean last 5
years. Section 6.0212 used to explain rules for determining bona
ride residence of candidate. King v. Watson, ASR (1978).
Where county council announced its decision as to who should be
new senator, and the entire council was not in agreement with the
decision, county chief who certified the decision wrongly
ascertained for himself the decision of the majority and certified
another person; and the certification would be set aside and the
matter referred back to the council for a proper decision and
certification in accordance with Samoan custom. Faiivae v. Mola,
4 ASR 834 (1975).
High Court had subject matter jurisdiction in case involving a
contested senatorial election by county council where there was a
case or controversy, it arose under the constitution, laws or treaties,
and the cause was described in jurisdictional statutes. Meredith v.
Mola, 4 ASR 773 (1973).
Constitution requires that senators be chosen by county council
and court cannot submit names to senate for election. Meredith v.
Mola, 4 ASR 773 (1973).

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Court cannot declare one senatorial candidate victor over another,
since it lacks jurisdiction to so do, such being the exclusive
province of senate. Meredith v. Mola, 4 ASR 773 (1973).

Section 5. Elections. Elections shall be held biennially in each
even numbered year beginning on the first Tuesday following the
first Monday in November and ending not later than 4 weeks
thereafter.

Section 6. Term of office. Each senator shall hold office for a term
of four years. Representatives including any delegates from Swains
Island shall each hold office for a term of two years. The terms of
all members of the Legislature including any delegate from Swains
Island shall commence at noon on the third day of January
following their election, except as otherwise provided.

Section 7. Qualifications of electors. Every person of the age of
18 years or upwards who is a United States national and who has
lived in American Samoa for a total of at least two years and has
been a bona fide resident of the election district where he offers to
vote for at least one year next preceding the election and who
meets such registration requirements as may be prescribed by law
shall be deemed a qualified elector at such election. No person
under guardianship, non compos mentis, or insane shall be
qualified to vote at any election; nor shall any person who has been
convicted of a felony be qualified to vote at any election unless he
has had his civil rights previously restored to him or unless he has
maintained good behavior for 2 years following the date of his
conviction or his release from prison whichever is the later.

Section 8. Legislative sessions. There shall be two regular
sessions of the Legislature held each year, each session to last 45
days, the first session to begin on the second Monday in January
each year and the second session to begin on the second Monday in
July of each year. The Legislature may meet in special session at
the call of the Governor who shall set the time for the beginning of

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such session and the number of days it may last. - Amended H.J.R.
No. 1, adopted Feb. 18, 1977, approved by voters Nov. 7, 1978,
approved by Sec. of Int. Mar. 1, 1979; amended 1971 S.J.R. No. 5,
effective March 19, 1971.

Amendments: 1979 Changed length of sessions from 30 to 45
days.
1971 S J.R. No. 5, 11th Leg. 2nd Reg. Sess., substituted present
two 30 day sessions for former annual 40 day session commencing
on the 2nd Monday in February.

Section 9. Enactment of law; vetoes. The enacting clause of all
bills shall be: "Be it enacted by the Legislature of American
Samoa," and no law shall be enacted except by bill. Bills may
originate in either House, and may be amended or rejected by the
other. The Governor may submit proposed legislation to the
Legislature for consideration by it. He may designate any such
proposed legislation is urgent, if he so considers it.

Every bill, having passed both Houses, shall be signed by the
President of the Senate and the Speaker of the House, and shall,
before it becomes a law, be presented to the Governor for his
approval. If he approves it, he shall sign it and it shall become a
law, and he shall deposit it in the office of the Secretary of
American Samoa. But if it be not approved by him, he shall return
it with his objections to the House in which it originated which
shall enter the same in their journal. Any bill not returned by the
Governor within 10 days (Sundays excepted) after having been
presented to him, shall become a law, whether signed by him or
not, unless the Legislature by adjournment prevent such return, in
which case it shall not become a law unless the Governor, within
30 days after adjournment shall sign it, in which case it shall
become a law in like manner as if it had been signed by him before
adjournment; and the Governor shall deposit it in the office of the
Secretary of American Samoa.

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Not later than 14 months after a bill has been vetoed by the
Governor, it may be passed over his veto by a two-thirds majority
of the entire membership of each House at any session of the
Legislature, regular or special. A bill so repassed shall be re-
presented to the Governor for his approval. If he does not approve
it within 15 days, he shall send it together with his comment
thereon to the Secretary of the Interior. If the Secretary of the
Interior approves it within 90 days after its receipt by him, it shall
become a law; otherwise it shall not.

If a bill presented to the Governor should contain several items of
appropriation of money, he may object to one or more of such
items, or any part or parts thereof, portion or portions thereof,
while approving the other items, parts, or portions of the bill. In
such a case he shall append to the bill, at the time of signing it, a
statement of the items, or parts or portions thereof, to which he
objects and the items, or parts or portions thereof, so objected to
shall not take effect. As used in this paragraph, the terms 'items',
'part', 'portion' and 'portions' shall include a proviso or provisos, a
directive, a limitation, or other extraneous substantive legislation
included in an appropriations bill or appended to any item of
appropriation in such an appropriations bill.

Furthermore, nothing in this section shall be deemed to permit any
change in the law respecting the alienation or transfer of land or
any interest therein to be effective unless such change shall have
been approved by two successive Legislatures by a two-thirds vote
of the entire membership of each House and by the Governor as
provided in Section 3 of Article I.

Case Notes:
Concurrent resolution, given binding effect by law to veto
executive branch action, is not a "1aw" subject to enactment by
bill. Tuika Tuika v. Governor of American Samoa, 4 ASR2d 85
(1987).

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Section 10. Passage of bills. A majority of all the members of
each House, voting in the affirmative, shall be necessary to pass
any bill or joint resolution.

Section 11. Powers of each house. Each house shall keep a
journal of its proceedings and publish the same, determine its rules
of procedure, punish members for disorderly behavior, and, with
the consent of two-thirds of its entire membership, may expel a
member, but not a second time for the same offense. Each House
shall sit upon its own adjournments, but neither House shall,
without the concurrence of the other, adjourn for more than 3 days,
nor to any other place than that in which it may be sitting.

Section 12. Freedom from arrest. Senators and representatives
and any delegate from

Swains Island in all cases except treason, felony, or breach of the
peace, shall be privileged from arrest during a session (including a
special joint session) of the Legislature, and in going to and
returning from the same. No member of the Legislature shall be
held to answer before any tribunal other than the Legislature itself
for any speech or debate in the Legislature.

Section 13. Vacancies. When vacancies occur in either House, the
Governor or the person exercising the functions of Governor shall
issue writs of election to fill such vacancies except that if any such
vacancy shall occur within three months of the next regular
election, no special election shall be held and the Governor shall
appoint a qualified person to fill such vacancy. Prior to appointing
such person, the Governor shall in the case of a representative
consult with the county chief or county chiefs in the representative
district concerned; and in the case of a senator, with the District
Governor and county chiefs in the district concerned. A person
elected to fill a vacancy or appointed by the Governor to fill a
vacancy shall hold office during the remainder of the term of his
predecessor.

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Section 14. Public sessions. The business of each House, and of
the Committee of the Whole, shall be transacted openly and not in
secret session.

Section 15. Reading - Passage of bills. No bill shall be passed
until copies of the same with amendments thereto shall have been
made available for the use of the members; nor shall a bill become
a law unless the same shall have been read on two separate days in
each House previous to the day of the final vote thereon. On final
passage of all bills, they shall be read at length, section by section,
and the votes shall be by yeas and nays upon each bill separately,
and shall be entered upon the journal. The provisions of this
section respecting the reading of bills shall be subject to the
exception that a bill which has been vetoed by the Governor and
re-introduced for passage over the Governor's veto need only be
read on the day of the final vote thereon.

Section 16. Title. Every legislative act shall embrace but one
subject and matters properly connected therewith, which shall be
expressed in the title; but if any subject shall be embraced in an act
which shall not be expressed in the title, such an act shall be void
only as to so much thereof as shall not be expressed in the title.

Section 17. Amendments and revisions by reference. No law
shall be amended or revised by reference to its title only; but in
such case the act, as revised, or section or sub-section as amended,
shall be reenacted and published at full length.

Section 18. Appointment to new offices. No member of the
Legislature shall, during the term for which he was elected and for
one year thereafter, be appointed to any office which shall have
been created or the salary of which shall have been increased by
the Legislature during such term.

Section 19. Effective date of laws. An act of the Legislature
required to be approved and approved by the Governor only shall

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take effect no sooner than 60 days from the end of the session at
which the same shall have been passed, while an act required to be
approved by the Secretary of the Interior only after its veto by the
Governor and so approved shall take effect no sooner than 40 days
after its return to the Governor by the Secretary of the Interior. The
foregoing is subject to the exception that in case of an emergency
the act may take effect at an earlier date stated in the act provided
that the emergency be declared in the preamble and in the body of
the act.

Section 20. Legislative counsel. A legislative counsel, who shall
be learned in the law, shall be appointed by the President of the
Senate and the Speaker of the House, to advise and assist the
Legislature. The position of legislative counsel shall be a full-time
position and compensation for the counsel shall be budgeted by the
Legislature at a grade level equivalent to that of Deputy Attorney
General of the Government of American Samoa. The legislative
counsel shall also be the director of the Legislative Reference
Bureau. - Amended H.J.R. No. 3, Feb. 18, 1977, approved by
voters Nov. 7, 1978, approved by Sec. of Int. Mar. 1, 1979.

Amendments: 1979 Changed manner of appointment of the
counsel and changed grade level.

Section 21. Quorum. A majority of each House shall constitute a
quorum for the transaction of business, but a smaller number may
adjourn from day to day and may compel the attendance of absent
members in such manner as each House may provide.

Section 22. Qualifications and officers. Each House of the
Legislature shall be the judge of the elections, returns, and
qualifications of its own members and shall choose its officers.

Case Notes:
This section does not give the senate adjudicatory power to
determine what needs to be done for the selection of a senator to

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conform to constitutional requirements and whether those
requirements were met; such determinations are for the courts, as
the questions are judicial, not political, and are matters of
constitutional interpretation. Meredith v. Mota, 4 ASR 773 (1973).
If jurisdictional criteria are met, court will consider claim to
legislative seat despite this section's provision granting legislature
power to judge elections and qualifications of its members.
Meredith v. Mola, 4 ASR 773 (1973).
Court cannot declare one senatorial candidate victor over another,
since it lacks jurisdiction to so do, such being the exclusive
province of senate. Meredith v. Mola, 4 ASR 773 (1973).
Constitution requires that senators be chosen by county council
and court cannot submit two names to senate for election. Meredith
v. Mota, 4 ASR 773 (1973).
In view of this section, High Court could not adjudicate dispute
whereby candidate for senate claimed that he had been duly
qualified and elected and that senator who was sitting had not
been; the dispute was for the senate to decide. Tuitasi v.
Lualemaga, 4 ASR 798 (1973).
This section is a textually demonstrated constitutional commitment
to the senate to judge who received the most votes; therefore, such
issue is a political question and not justiciable. Tuitasi v.
Lualemaga, 4 ASR 798 (1973).
This section is a textually demonstrated constitutional commitment
to the senate to judge the qualifications set forth in this constitution
for the position of senator; thus, issue of whether a person is
qualified is a political question and for the senate and is not
justiciable. Tuitasi v. Lualemaga, 4 ASR 798 (1973).
High Court had subject matter jurisdiction in case involving a
contested senatorial election by county council where there was a
case or controversy, it arose under the constitution, laws or treaties,
and the cause was described in jurisdictional statutes. Meredith v.
Mola, 4 ASR 773 (1973).

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Section 23. Adjourning legislature. In case of disagreement
between the two Houses with respect to the time of adjournment,
the Governor shall have power to adjourn the Legislature to such
time as he may think proper; but no such adjournment shall be
beyond the time fixed for the next regular session of the
Legislature.

Section 24. Special or exclusive privileges not to be granted;
local or special laws. The power of the Government to act for the
general welfare of the people of American Samoa shall never be
impaired by the making of any irrevocable grant of special or
exclusive privileges or immunities. Corporations may be formed
under general laws but shall not be created by special act except
for municipal, governmental or quasi-governmental purposes in
cases where the objects of the corporation cannot be attained under
general laws. All general laws or special acts passed pursuant to
this section may be amended or repealed. The Legislature shall
pass no local or special act if a general act can be made applicable.

Section 25. Compensation of the legislature. The compensation
of the members of the Legislature is provided by law. - Amended
1977, H.J.R. No. 6, eff. April 8, 1977.

Amendments: 1971 SJ.R. No. 4, 1lth Leg. 2nd Reg. Sess.,
amended section generally and increased the annual legislative pay
to $6,000.00.

Cross-references: Compensation of legislators, see 2.0102 and
2.0103.

Article III

Judicial Branch

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Section 1. Judicial power. The judicial power shall be vested in
the High Court, the District Courts, and such other courts as may
from time to time be created by law.

High Court had subject matter jurisdiction in case involving a
contested senatorial election by county council where there was a
case or controversy, it arose under the constitution, laws or treaties,
and the cause was described in jurisdictional statutes. Meredith v.
Mola, 4 ASR 773 (1973).
It cannot be said that the "judicial power" vested in the High Court
by this section is plenary and thus comprehends the authority to sit
as a court of admiralty; the question whether the court has power to
so sit is one of jurisdiction, and such jurisdiction has not been
conferred on any court in the territory by the American Samoa
Constitution or the American Samoa Code. Vessel Fijian Swift v.
Trial Division, High Court of American Samoa, 4 AS R983
(1975).
Subject to supervision in its exercise, the Legislature of American
Samoa has been delegated unimpaired power, through the
executive branch of the federal government, to give territorial
courts authority to sit in admiralty and, as a consequence, to
entertain in rem actions and provide procedures for arresting
vessels or other property that is the subject of a maritime action.
Vessel Fijian Swift v. Trial Division, High Court of American
Samoa, 4 ASR 983 (1975).
In rem admiralty and maritime jurisdiction in the Trial Division of
the High Court cannot be grounded upon "the necessity and
importance of in rem Admiralty jurisdiction ... in the orderly
administration of justice in this maritime territory"; such
determination is for the legislature. Vessel Fijian Swift v. Trial
Division, High Court of American Samoa, 4 ASR 983 (1975).

Section 2. Independence of the courts. The judicial branch of the
Government of American Samoa shall be independent of the
executive and legislative branches.

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Section 3. Appointments. The Secretary of the Interior shall
appoint a Chief Justice of American Samoa and such Associate
Justices as he may deem necessary.

Article IV

Executive Branch

Section 1.

Superseded by U.S. Dept. of the Int. Secretary's Order No. 3009,
§§ 2 and 4, Sept. 13, 1977, eff. Sept. 13, 1977, as amended in § 2
by U.S. Dept. of the Int. Secretary's Order No. 3009, Amendment
No. 1, Nov. 3, 1977, eff. Nov. 3, 1977.

Reviser's Comment:
This section, which provided that "The Governor of American
Samoa and the Secretary of American Samoa shall be appointed as
provided in the laws of the United States", was impliedly
superseded by the above-referred to secretarial orders. See note on
the subject under 2 of this article.

Section 2. Governor and lieutenant governor. The Governor and
the Lieutenant Governor of American Samoa shall, commencing
with the first Tuesday following the first Monday of November
1977, be popularly elected and serve in accordance with the laws
of American Samoa. - Amended 1977, U.S. Dept. of the Int.
Secretary's Order No. 3009, §§ 2, 4, Sept. 13, 1977, as amended by
U.S. Dept. of the Int. Secretary's Order No. 3009, Amendment No.
1, Nov. 3, 1977, eff. Nov. 3, 1977.

Amendments: 1977 U.S. Dept. of the Int. Secretary's Order No.
3009, §§ 2 and 4, Sept. 13, 1977, amended this section to read
"The Governor and the lieutenant Governor of American Samoa
shall, commencing with the first Tuesday in November, 1977, be
popularly elected and serve in accordance with the laws of

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American Samoa."
U.S. Dept. of the Int. Secretary's Order No. 3009, Amendment No.
1, Nov. 3, 1977, amended Order No. 3009, § 2, effective Nov. 3,
1977, by substituting "following the first Monday of" for the word
"in" preceding "November 1977".

Section 3. Secretary. The Secretary of American Samoa, who may
be referred to as Lieutenant Governor of American Samoa, shall
have all the powers and duties of the Governor in the case of a
vacancy in the office of Governor or the disability or temporary
absence of the Governor. He shall record and preserve the laws and
executive orders, and transmit copies thereof to the Secretary of
the Interior. He shall have and perform such other duties as may be
prescribed by law or assigned to him by the Governor.

Section 4. Secretary of Samoan affairs. The Secretary of Samoan
Affairs shall be appointed by the Governor from among the leading
registered matais. He shall hold office during the pleasure of the
Governor. The Secretary of Samoan Affairs shall be the head of
the Department of Local Government. In conjunction with the
District Governors he shall coordinate the administration of the
district, county, and village affairs as provided by law and also in
conjunction with the District Governors he shall supervise all
ceremonial functions as provided by law.

Section 5. Militia and posse comitatus. The Governor may
summon the posse comitatus or call out the militia to prevent or
suppress violence, invasion, insurrection, or rebellion.

Section 6. Executive regulations. The Governor shall have the
power to issue executive regulations not in conflict with laws of
the United States applicable to American Samoa, laws of American
Samoa, or with this Constitution.

Section 7. Supervision and control by Governor. The Governor
shall have general supervision and control of all executive

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departments, agencies and instrumentalities of the Government of
American Samoa.

Section 8. Annual report. The Governor shall make an official
report of the transactions of the Government of American Samoa
to the Secretary of the Interior and the Legislature within three
months after the close of each fiscal year.

Section 9. Pardoning power. The Governor shall have the power
to remit fines and forfeitures, commute sentences, and grant
reprieves and pardons after conviction for offenses against the laws
of American Samoa.

Section 10. Recommendation of laws. The Governor shall give
the Legislature information on the state of the Government and
recommend for its consideration such measures as he may deem
necessary and expedient. He may attend or depute another person
to represent him at the meetings of the Legislature, and may give
expression to his views on any matter before that body.

Section 11. Appointment of officials. With the exception of
elective officials, those appointed by the Secretary of the Interior,
and those whose appointments are otherwise provided for, the
officials of the Government of American Samoa including district,
county, and village officials shall be appointed by the Governor.
Prior to appointing a district governor, a county chief, or a
pulenuu, the Governor through the Secretary of Samoan Affairs
shall request the recommendation of the appropriate district
council as to who shall be appointed in the case of a district
governor; of the appropriate county council and district governor,
in the case of a county chief; and of the appropriate village council,
district governor and. county chief, in the case of a pulenuu. The
Secretary of Samoan Affairs may also make his own
recommendations to the Governor.

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Section 12. Removal of officers; powers and duties of officers.
The Governor may appoint or remove any officer whose
appointment is not otherwise provided for. All officers shall have
such powers and duties as may be conferred or imposed upon them
by law or by executive regulation of the Governor not inconsistent
with any law.

Section 13. Publication of laws. The Governor shall make
provision for publishing laws within 55 days after the close of each
session of the Legislature and for their distribution to public
officials and sale to the public.

Article V

Miscellaneous

Section 1. Officers. For the public convenience and to insure
continuity in the operation of the Government all officers of
American Samoa, including district, county, and village officers,
shall, subject to the right of resignation or removal as may be
provided by law, continue to hold their respective offices until the
expiration of the time for which they were respectively elected or
appointed, except that senators elected at the general election in
1966 shall go out of office at noon on January 3, 1969.

Regardless of any other provision or provisions in this Constitution
the House of Representatives shall, prior to noon, January 3, 1969,
consist only of those members elected at the general election in
1966 while the Senate prior to noon, January 3, 1969, shall consist
only of the hold-over senators plus those elected at the general
election in 1966. Also regardless of any other provision or
provisions in this Constitution any vacancies occurring in either
House prior to January 3, 1969 may be filled as provided in Article
II, Section 13 of the Constitution which became effective on
October 17, 1960.

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Section 2. Existing laws. All laws of American Samoa not
inconsistent with this Constitution shall continue in force until they
expire by their own limitation, or are altered or repealed by
competent authority.

Section 3. Amendments. Any amendment to this Constitution
may be proposed in either House of the Legislature, and if the
same be agreed to by three-fifths of all members of each House,
voting separately, such proposed amendment shall be entered on
the journals, with the yeas and nays taken thereon. The Governor
shall then be requested to submit such proposed amendment to the
voters eligible to vote for members of the House of
Representatives at the next general election. If a majority of such
voters voting approve such amendment, the Governor shall, within
30 days after such approval shall have been officially determined,
submit the same to the Secretary of the Interior for approval or
disapproval within 4 months after its receipt.

Section 4. Revision of the constitution. In view of the changing
conditions in American Samoa, the Governor shall appoint a new
Constitutional Committee five years after the effective date of this
Constitution to prepare amendments or a revised draft constitution
to be submitted to the Governor who shall call a constitutional
convention to consider the same. The delegates to the convention
shall be selected by their respective county councils. The number
of delegates from each county shall be the number obtained by
dividing the population of the county, as shown by the last
preceding Federal census, by 400, any fraction in the quotient
obtained to be disregarded if such fraction shall be less than one-
half and if such fraction shall be one-half or more it shall be
considered to be one unit, provided that each county shall have at
least one delegate, and provided further that Swains Island shall
have one delegate selected in open meeting by the adult permanent
residents of the island who are United States nationals. If the
convention approves such amendments or draft constitution either

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with changes made therein by the convention or without changes,
the same as approved shall be submitted by the Governor to the
voters eligible to vote for members of the House of
Representatives at the next general election; and if a majority of
the voters voting approve the amendments or proposed revised
constitution, the Governor shall submit the same to the Secretary
of the Interior for his approval, and if he approves the same, then
the amendments shall become part of the Constitution or the
proposed revised constitution shall replace this constitution, as the
case may be. Salaries of employees of the Convention and per
them for delegates shall be provided by law. The Government shall
furnish the Convention with necessary supplies and other
necessary services.

Section 5. Existing rights and liabilities. Except as otherwise
provided in this Constitution all existing actions, writs, suits,
proceedings, civil or criminal liabilities, prosecutions, judgments,
decrees, sentences, orders, appeals, causes of action, contracts,
claims, demands, titles, and rights shall continue unaffected
notwithstanding the taking effect of this Constitution.

Section 6. Oaths. All officers of American Samoa including
district, county, and village officers, shall, before they enter upon
the duties of their respective offices, take and subscribe the
following oath: "I, ________, of ________, do solemnly swear (or
affirm) that I will support and defend the Constitution of the
United States against all enemies foreign and domestic; that I will
bear true faith and allegiance to the same; that I take this obligation
freely, without any mental reservation or purpose of evasion, and
that I will well and faithfully discharge the duties of the office on
which I am about to enter, and that I will well and faithfully uphold
the laws of the United States applicable to American Samoa, and
the Constitution and laws of American Samoa. So help me God."

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Section 7. Construction. In this Constitution titles shall not be
used for the purposes of construction and wherever any personal
pronoun appears it shall be construed to mean either sex; also in
this Constitution a special or particular provision shall control a
general provision should there be any inconsistency between a
special or particular provision and a general provision.

Section 8. Provisions self-executing. The provisions of this
Constitution shall be self-executing to the fullest extent that their
respective natures permit.

Section 9. Seat of government. The seat of Government shall be
at Fagatogo.

Section 10. Political districts and counties. It is hereby
recognized that there are three political districts in American
Samoa, viz, Manu'a, composed of the political counties of Ta'u,
Faleasao, Fitiuta, Olosega and Ofu; Eastern, composed of the
political counties of Sua, Vaifanua, Saole, Ituau and Ma'uputasi;
and Western, composed of the political counties of Fofo, Leasina,
Tualatai, Lealataua and Ma'upu.

Section 11. Effective date. This Constitution ratified and approved
on June 2, 1967, by the Secretary of the Interior, action pursuant to
the authority vested in him by Executive Order No. 10264, dated
June 29, 1951, of the President of the United States, and approved
by the Constitutional Convention of the people of American
Samoa at its meeting in Fagatogo, American Samoa, begun on
September 26, 1966, and by a majority of the voters of American
Samoa voting in the general election in 1966, shall become
effective on July 1, 1967.

Ratified and Approved: Subject to the deletion from Article I,
section 2 of all after the title and the insertion in lieu thereof of the
text of Article 1, section 2 of the Constitution of American Samoa
effective October 17, 1960, to wit: "No person shall be deprived of

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life, liberty, or property, without due process of law, nor shall
private property be taken for public use without just
compensation."

Stewart L. Udall
Secretary of the Interior

We the undersigned, being the duly appointed Delegates to the
Constitutional Convention, do hereby certify that the above and
foregoing document was approved by us in Convention assembled
as the revised Constitution of American Samoa.

For and on behalf of Sua County.
Le'iato, T.
Mulitauaopele-Sui'ava
Fautanu, P.
Mulitauaopele-Tamotu

For and on behalf of Vaifanua County.
Masaniai, T.
Tagoa'i, L.
Tuiasosopo, T.

For and on behalf of Saole County.
Utu, S.
Lauvao-Sisifo
Fonoti, G.

For and on behalf of Ma'uputasi County.
Leota, T.
Fano, S.
Fanene, F.
Pula, N.T.
Tua'olo-Lemoe
Unutoa, S.L.T.
Tua'olo-Maliuga

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Liufau, M.
Mageo, F.
Faumuina-Ioane
Lutu, S.A.
Paopaoailua, S.
Mailo, P.

For and on behalf of Ta'u County.
Rapi Sotoa
Tauala, M.

For and on behalf of Fitiuta County.
Laapui, F.

For and on behalf of Faleasao County.
Ma'o, T.

For and on behalf of Olosega County.
Tuiolosega-Tuumamao

For and on behalf of Alataua County.
Faiivae, E.H.
Salave'a, O.
Leoso, M.
Tuveve, S.A.
Toomata, T.
Noa, L.

For and on behalf of Ituau County.
Lagafuaina, L.
Atuatasi, M.
Savusa, S.
Alo, S.
Savea, P.

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For and on behalf of Ofu County.
Misa, T.
Velega, P.

For and on behalf of Tualatai County.
Satele, M.
Uiagalelei, S.
Taulapapa, E.L.

For and on behalf of Leasina County.
Asuemu U. Fuimaono

For and on behalf of Tualauta County.
Letuli, T.
Sagapolutele, T.
Magalei, T.
Paogofie-Sasae
Muagututi'a-Tuia

For and on behalf of Swains Island.
Paul Pedro

A.P. Lauvao-Lolo
Chairman of the Constitutional Convention
Attest:
Mulitauaopele-Sui'ava
Secretary of the Constitutional Convention

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EXHIBIT 23

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ORAL ARGUMENT NOT YET SCHEDULED

No. 13-5272

UNITED STATES COURT OF APPEALS
DISTRICT OF COLUMBIA CIRCUIT

LENEUOTI F. TUAUA, et al.,
Plaintiffs-Appellants,
v.
UNITED STATES OF AMERICA, et al.
Defendants-Appellees.
______________________________

On Appeal from the United States District Court for the District of Columbia
________________________________

BRIEF OF AMICUS CURIAE DAVID B. COHEN IN SUPPORT OF
PLAINTIFFS-APPELLANTS AND REVERSAL OF THE DECISION
BELOW
________________________________

Jessica Ring Amunson
Michael T. Borgia
Erica L. Ross
Nicholas W. Tarasen*
JENNER & BLOCK LLP
1099 New York Avenue, NW
Suite 900
Washington, DC 20001
Telephone: (202) 639-6000
Facsimile: (202) 639-6066
jamunson@jenner.com

Counsel for Amicus Curiae David B.
Cohen

*Admitted only in California; not admitted in
the District of Columbia.

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TABLE OF CONTENTS

Page

TABLE OF AUTHORITIES ..................................................................................iii

INTEREST OF AMICUS CURIAE...........................................................................1

INTRODUCTION.....................................................................................................2

ARGUMENT.............................................................................................................3

I. The Meaning of Citizenship............................................................................3

II. The Rights and Benefits Denied American Samoans as Non-Citizen
Nationals..........................................................................................................6

a. Voting..................................................................................................12

b. Jury Service.........................................................................................16

c. Military Advancement........................................................................17

d. Right to Bear Arms.............................................................................20

e. Sponsoring Non-American Family Members For Immigration.........21

f. Public Employment.............................................................................25

CONCLUSION.......................................................................................................29

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TABLE OF AUTHORITIES*

CASES
Arizona v. Inter Tribal Council of Arizona, Inc., 133 S. Ct. 2247 (2013) ......... 13, 14

Batson v. Kentucky, 476 U.S. 79 (1986) .................................................................. 17

Dred Scott v. Sandford, 60 U.S. 393 (1856) .............................................................. 4

Matter of Ah San, 15 I. & N. Dec. 315 (BIA 1975)................................................. 21

McDonald v. City of Chicago, 561 U.S. 742 (2010) ............................................... 20

Minor v. Happersett, 88 U.S. 162 (1874) ................................................................ 13

Moore v. City of East Cleveland, 431 U.S. 494 (1977) ........................................... 25

Perez v. Brownell, 356 U.S. 44 (1958), overruled in part by Afroyin v. Rusk,
387 U.S. 253 (1967) .............................................................................................. 5

Powers v. Ohio, 499 U.S. 400 (1991) ...................................................................... 16

Reynolds v. Sims, 377 U.S. 533 (1964) .................................................................... 15

Rutan v. Republican Party of Illinois, 497 U.S. 62 (1991) ...................................... 27

Strauder v. West Virginia, 100 U.S. 303 (1879), abrogated by Taylor v.
Louisiana, 419 U.S. 522 (1975).................................................................... 16-17

Sugarman v. Dougall, 413 U.S. 634 (1973) ............................................................ 14

Yick Wo v. Hopkins, 118 U.S. 356 (1886) ............................................................... 15

CONSTITUTIONAL PROVISIONS AND STATUTES
*U.S. Const. amend. XIV, § 1, cl.1 ........................................................................... 1

U.S. Const. amend. XVII, cl.1 ................................................................................. 13

U.S. Const. amend. XXIII ........................................................................................ 12

U.S. Const. art. I, § 2................................................................................................ 25

*
Authorities upon which we chiefly rely are marked with asterisks.

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U.S. Const. art. I, § 3................................................................................................ 25

U.S. Const. art. I, § 2, cl. 1 ....................................................................................... 13

U.S. Const. art. II, § 1, cl. 2 ..................................................................................... 13

U.S. Const. art. II, § 1, cl. 4 ..................................................................................... 25

*8 U.S.C. § 1101(a)(22) ............................................................................................. 6

*8 U.S.C. § 1101(a)(22)(B) ..................................................................................... 11

*8 U.S.C. § 1101(a)(29) ............................................................................................. 6

8 U.S.C. § 1151(a)(2) ............................................................................................... 23

8 U.S.C. § 1151(a)(3) ............................................................................................... 23

8 U.S.C. § 1151(b) ................................................................................................... 23

8 U.S.C. § 1151(b)(2)(A)(i) ...............................................................................22, 23

8 U.S.C. § 1152(a)(2) ............................................................................................... 23

8 U.S.C. § 1153(a)(3) ............................................................................................... 23

8 U.S.C. § 1153(a)(4) ............................................................................................... 23

*8 U.S.C. § 1408(1) .............................................................................................1, 16

8 U.S.C. § 1427(a)(1) ............................................................................................... 11

8 U.S.C. § 1430(d) .............................................................................................19, 20

8 U.S.C. § 1440-1(a) ................................................................................................ 20

8 U.S.C. § 1440-1(b) ................................................................................................ 20

10 U.S.C. § 504(b)(1)(A) ......................................................................................... 19

10 U.S.C. § 532(a)(1) ............................................................................................... 19

10 U.S.C. § 12201(b)(1) .......................................................................................... 19

28 U.S.C. § 1865(b) ................................................................................................. 16

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42 U.S.C. § 1396b ...................................................................................................... 8

Ariz. Const. art. 4, pt. 2, § 2 ..................................................................................... 25

Ariz. Rev. Stat. Ann. § 36-2903.03(A) ...................................................................... 8

Cal. Const. art. II § 2 ................................................................................................ 13

Cal. Const. art. IV, § 2 (c) ........................................................................................ 25

Cal. Const. art. V, § 2............................................................................................... 25

Cal. Code Civ. Proc. § 203(a) .................................................................................. 16

Cal. Gov’t Code § 1031(a) ...................................................................................7, 26

Colo. Rev. Stat. § 1-2-101(1) ................................................................................... 13

Colo. Rev. Stat. § 13-71-105(1) ............................................................................... 16

D.C. Mun. Regs. Subt. 6-B, § 808.1 ........................................................................ 26

Fla. Const. art. VI, § 2 .............................................................................................. 13

Ga. Const. art. V, § 1, ¶ iv........................................................................................ 25

Haw. Const. art. II, § 1 ............................................................................................. 13

Haw. Const. art. VI, § 3 ........................................................................................... 25

Haw. Rev. Stat. § 134-2 ........................................................................................... 21

Haw. Rev. Stat. §467-3 ............................................................................................ 26

Haw. Rev. Stat. § 612-4(a)....................................................................................... 16

Ill. Const. art. VI, § 11 ............................................................................................. 25

Ind. Const. art. V, pt. 1, § 7 ...................................................................................... 25

La. Rev. Stat. § 37:916(A)(1) .................................................................................. 26

Me. Const. art. V, pt. 1, § 4 ...................................................................................... 25

Md. Code Ann., Elec. Law § 3-102 ......................................................................... 13

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Mich. Comp. Laws § 28.422(3)(c)........................................................................... 21

Mich. Comp. Laws § 168.302 .................................................................................. 26

Mo. Const. art. IV, § 3 ............................................................................................. 25

Mo. Const. art. V, § 21............................................................................................. 25

N.C. Gen. Stat. § 14-415.12(a)(1)............................................................................ 21

Neb. Rev. Stat. Ann. § 32-110 ................................................................................. 13

Nev. Const. art. II, § 1 .............................................................................................. 13

N.J. Admin. Code § 6A:9-5.6 .................................................................................. 26

N.Y. Const. art. III, § 7 ............................................................................................ 25

Pa. Cons. Stat. § 12-1202 ......................................................................................... 26

R.I. Gen. Laws § 11-47-35....................................................................................... 20

R.I. Gen. Laws § 11-47-35.2.................................................................................... 20

S.C. Const. art. II, § 4............................................................................................... 13

Tex. Const. art. V, § 2(b) ......................................................................................... 25

Tex. Const. art. VI, § 2(a) ........................................................................................ 13

Wash. Const. art. II, § 7 ........................................................................................... 25

Wash. Const. art. VI § 1 ........................................................................................... 13

Wash. Rev. Code § 2.36.070.................................................................................... 16

Wash. Rev. Code § 9.41.010(11) ............................................................................. 21

Wash. Rev. Code § 9.41.171.................................................................................... 21

Wash. Rev. Code § 18.64.001.................................................................................. 26

Wash. Rev. Code § 42.04.020.................................................................................. 27

Wis. Rev. Stat. § 6.02............................................................................................... 13

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OTHER AUTHORITIES
8 C.F.R. § 1337.1 ..................................................................................................... 11

32 C.F.R. § 154.3(dd) ................................................................................................ 8

32 C.F.R. § 154.6(a)................................................................................................... 8

Kerry Abrams, Citizen Spouse, 101 Cal. L. Rev. 407 (2013).................................... 4

*Linda Bosniak, The Citizen and the Alien: Dilemmas of Contemporary
Membership (2006) .................................................................................3, 4, 5, 15

Rogers Brubaker, Citizenship and Nationhood in France and Germany
(1992) ................................................................................................................ 3, 5

Charter of Barnesville, § 74-3 ................................................................................ 3, 5

Charter of Takoma Park, art. VI § 601 .................................................................... 14

Charter of Takoma Park, art. VI § 603 .................................................................... 14

Charter of the Town of Garrett Park, art. III, § 78-20 ............................................. 15

Charter of the Town of Somerset, art. V, § 83-21 ................................................... 14

Charter of the Village of Chevy Chase, art. III, § 301............................................. 15

Charter of the Village of Martin’s Addition, art. III, § 301 ..................................... 15

City of Geneva, Illinois, Career Firefighter/Paramedic, available at
http://www.geneva.il.us/index.aspx?nid=169 (last visited May 2, 2014) .......... 26

City of Los Angeles, California, Police Officer Qualifications, available at
http://www.joinlapd.com/qualifications.html (last visited May 3, 2014) .......... 26

City of Memphis, Tennessee, Notice of Job Openings for Firefighter,
available at http://www.memphisfire.net/docs/firerecruitposting-jan07-
final.pdf (Jan. 3, 2007) ........................................................................................ 26

Gabriela Evia,, Note, Consent By All The Governed: Reenfranchising
Noncitizens As Partners In America’s Democracy, 77 S. Cal. L. Rev. 151
(2003) .................................................................................................................. 15

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Exec. Order No. 12,968, 60 Fed. Reg. 40,245 (Aug. 7, 1995) .................................. 8

Georgia Department of Driver Services, S.A.V.E. (Jan. 13, 2014), available
at http://www.dds.ga.gov/drivers/Dldata.aspx?con=1746571759&ty=dl............ 9

Bertrand M. Gutierrez, New N.C. Driver’s Licenses Will Flag Non-U.S.
Citizens, Winston-Salem Journal (Feb. 20, 2013), available at
http://www.journalnow.com/article_c2edaaa8-7bc4-11e2-860d-
0019bb30f31a.html ............................................................................................. 10

Tara Kini, Comment, Sharing the Vote: Noncitizen Voting Rights in Local
School Board Elections, 93 Cal. L. Rev. 271 (2005) ......................................... 15

Kevin Lapp, Reforming the Good Moral Character Requirement for U.S.
Citizenship, 87 Ind. L.J. 1571 (2012) ................................................................... 4

Nancy S. Marder, Beyond Gender: Peremptory Challenges and the Roles of
the Jury, 73 Tex. L. Rev. 1041 (1995)................................................................ 16

T.H. Marshall, Citizenship and Social Class (1950) ............................................. 3, 5

Molly F. McIntosh & Seema Sayala, Noncitizens in the Enlisted U.S.
Military, Center for Naval Analyses (Nov. 2011), available at
https://www.cna.org/sites/default/files/research/Non%20Citizens%
20in%20the%20Enlisted%20US%20Military%20D0025768%20A2.pdf... 18, 19

Amy R. Motomura, Note, The American Jury: Can Noncitizens Still be
Excluded?, 64 Stan. L. Rev. 1503 (2012) ........................................................... 16

Danielle O’Connell, Connecticut General Assembly, Office of Legislative
Research, Issuing Driver’s Licenses to Noncitizens (Oct. 18, 2002),
available at: http://www.cga.ct.gov/2002/rpt/2002-R-0767.htm ........................ 10

Omaha Mun. Code § 20-253(c)(9)........................................................................... 21

Jamin B. Raskin, Legal Aliens, Local Citizens: The Historical,
Constitutional and Theoretical Meanings of Alien Suffrage, 141 U. Pa. L.
Rev. 1391 (1993) ................................................................................................ 13

Mark Potter, Eager to Serve in American Samoa, NBC News (Mar. 5, 2006),
available at http://www.nbcnews.com/id/11537737/ns/nbc_nightly_
news_with_ brian_williams/t/eager-serve-rican-samoa/#.U2DqlIFdV8F ......... 18

viii
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S.F. Police Code Art. 13, § 841 ............................................................................... 20

Kirsten Scharnberg, Where the U.S. military is the family business, Chicago
Trib. (Mar. 11, 2007), available at http://articles.chicagotribune.com/
2007-03-11/news/0703110486_1_military-recruiters-american-samoans-
boot-camp (last visited May 7, 2014) ................................................................. 18

Secretary of the Air Force, AFI 36-2606, § 5.14 (May 9, 2011), available at
http://static.e-publishing.af.mil/production/1/af_a1/publication/afi36-
2606/afi36-2606.pdf ........................................................................................... 18

Rogers M. Smith, Civic Ideals: Conflicting Visions of Citizenship in U.S
History (1997) ....................................................................................................... 3

Simon Thompson, Voting Rights: Earned or Entitled? Harv. Pol. Rev. (Dec.
3, 2010), available at http://harvardpolitics.com/united-states/voting-
rights-earned-or-entitled/ .............................................................................. 14-15

Total Military Recruits: Army, Navy, Air Force (per capita) by state,
National Priorities Project Database, 2004, available at
http://www.StateMaster.com/graph/mil_tot_mil_rec_arm_nav_air_
for_percap-navy-air-force-per-capita (last visited May 9, 2014) ................. 17-18

United States Citizenship and Immigration Services, Information for
Noncitizens Applying for a Public Benefit (Aug. 19, 2011), available at
http://www.uscis.gov/save/benefit-applicants/information-noncitizens-
applying-public-benefit ......................................................................................... 9

United States Citizenship and Immigration Services, N-400 Application for
Naturalization, http://www.uscis.gov/n-400 (last visited May 11, 2014) .......... 12

United States Department of State, FAQs for Obtaining Security Clearances,
http://www.state.gov/m/ds/clearances/c10977.htm (last visited May 9,
2014) ..................................................................................................................... 8

United States Department of State, Certificates of Non Citizen Nationality,
http://travel.state.gov/content/travel/english/legal-considerations/us-
citizenship-laws-policies/certificates-of-noncitizen-nationality.html (last
visited May 9, 2014) ........................................................................................... 10

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United States Department of State, Visa Bulletin for May 2014 (Apr. 9,
2014), available at http://travel.state.gov/content/dam/visas/
Bulletins/visabulletin_may2014.pdf ................................................................... 24

United States Department of Homeland Security, Yearbook of Immigration
Statistics 2012, available at: https://www.dhs.gov/yearbook-
immigration-statistics-2012-legal-permanent-residents ..................................... 24

Virginia State Police, Advertisement for Position of State Trooper, available
at http://www.vsp.state.va.us/Employment_Trooper_Recruitment_
Ad.shtm (last visited May 2, 2014) .................................................................... 26

Ti’otala Lewis Wolman, Commentary: Samoa for Samoans? 2010 Census
Data Provides Insights, Samoan News (Jan. 16, 2013), available at
http://www.samoanews.com/node/71437 ........................................................... 22

Bryant Yuan Fu Yang, Notes and Comments, Fighting for an Equal Voice:
Past and Present Struggle for Noncitizen Enfranchisement, 13 Asian Am.
L.J. 57 (2006) ...................................................................................................... 14

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INTEREST OF AMICUS CURIAE

This case presents an issue of first impression in this Circuit and in any

federal appellate court: whether people born in the U.S. territory of American

Samoa are U.S. citizens by virtue of the Fourteenth Amendment’s guarantee that

“[a]ll persons born . . . in the United States, and subject to the jurisdiction thereof,

are citizens of the United States.” U.S. Const. amend. XIV, § 1, cl.1. Despite this

guarantee of birthright citizenship, federal law currently designates those born in

American Samoa as “nationals, but not citizens, of the United States.” 8 U.S.C.

§ 1408(1). Because citizenship confers a variety of rights, this case raises

important questions regarding the civil rights of individuals born in American

Samoa.

Those questions are of both professional and personal significance to amicus

David B. Cohen. Mr. Cohen has spent a significant part of his career addressing

these issues while serving in the federal government: from June 2002 through

January 2008, Mr. Cohen served in the Bush Administration as Deputy Assistant

Secretary of the Interior for Insular Affairs. In that capacity, Mr. Cohen oversaw

the Office of Insular Affairs, which administers the federal government’s

relationship with the U.S. territories, including American Samoa. In addition, in

2001, Mr. Cohen was appointed by President Bush to serve on the President’s

Advisory Commission on Asian Americans and Pacific Islanders. Currently, Mr.

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Cohen is the Vice Chair of the National Asian Pacific Center on Aging. Elderly

American Samoans are a main constituency of that organization, and the Center

often helps those individuals navigate the limitations on their rights and benefits

imposed by federal, state, and local laws. Through his past and current work, Mr.

Cohen has a professional interest in the issues addressed in this case.

These issues are also of personal interest to Mr. Cohen, who is of American

Samoan heritage and whose father was born in American Samoa. Mr. Cohen’s

family includes many American Samoans, including individuals who, like several

of the Plaintiff-Appellants here, were born in American Samoa and have moved to

the United States. Mr. Cohen therefore has a personal interest in the rights of these

individuals.

INTRODUCTION

American Samoans have been denied their rights under the Fourteenth

Amendment to United States citizenship. To appreciate the harm that American

Samoans as non-citizen nationals suffer in being denied United States citizenship,

it is necessary to understand what citizenship means and to take stock of the

benefits it confers. This brief endeavors to do both. Section I discusses the various

meanings and values of citizenship in order to explain, from a theoretical

standpoint, what American Samoans are denied as non-citizen nationals. Section II

identifies a sample of the many benefits and privileges that are limited to U.S.

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citizens, and thus denied to American Samoans living in one of the fifty states or

the District of Columbia. These practical disadvantages demonstrate that every

day, American Samoans suffer from Defendants-Appellees’ determination that

they are less than full Americans.

ARGUMENT

I. The Meaning of Citizenship

Legal scholars, political scientists, and sociologists alike have recognized

that what it means to be both a citizen of a nation generally, and of the United

States specifically, cannot be answered with a single definition. See generally

Linda Bosniak, The Citizen and the Alien: Dilemmas of Contemporary

Membership 31-51 (2006); Rogers M. Smith, Civic Ideals: Conflicting Visions of

Citizenship in U.S History 13-39 (1997); Rogers Brubaker, Citizenship and

Nationhood in France and Germany 21-34 (1992); T.H. Marshall, Citizenship and

Social Class 40-48 (1950). In part, this is because the understanding of what it

means to be a U.S. citizen—including both to whom that term may apply and what

rights and privileges are endemic to it—has been tested and revised throughout

American history. See Smith, supra, at 13-39.

Most notably, in Dred Scott v. Sanford, the Supreme Court excluded slaves

and free blacks from the status of U.S. citizenship as an “inferior class of beings”

outside “the political community formed and brought into existence by the

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Constitution of the United States,” and thereby justified denying them the rights

afforded by membership in that community. 60 U.S. 393, 403, 405 (1856). In

response, the Reconstruction Congress drafted the Fourteenth and Fifteenth

Amendments to overturn Dred Scott and guarantee to African Americans the status

of citizenship, as well as the scope of rights that status unlocks. See Kevin Lapp,

Reforming the Good Moral Character Requirement for U.S. Citizenship, 87 Ind.

L.J. 1571, 1580 (2012). So too, the Nineteenth Amendment and the civil rights

movements of the Twentieth Century invoked the status and prestige of citizenship

to expand equal access to its rights and privileges. Id.

Even today, what it means to be a U.S. citizen still requires a multi-faceted

answer. Indeed, citizenship “can invoke different meanings in varying contexts.”

Kerry Abrams, Citizen Spouse, 101 Cal. L. Rev. 407, 409 (2013) (discussing

Brubaker, supra at 23, 31). To fully understand the extent of the harm American

Samoans suffer in being denied U.S. citizenship, it is necessary first to explain

these varied meanings and then the benefits derived from them.

At the most tangible level, citizenship is a “turn-key”—a right that unlocks a

set of other rights that federal, state, and local laws have keyed to the legal concept

of citizenship. Bosniak, supra at 21-23. These rights range from the foundational

and broad, such as the right to vote or to serve on a jury, to the more routine and

specific, such as the right to obtain a certain job or public benefit. At this level, the

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harm inflicted on American Samoans is clear—the denial of certain benefits,

privileges, and protections afforded only to citizens, and the resulting restrictions

on how American Samoans can participate in their communities and direct their

lives.

Yet citizenship is not simply a right that happens to afford other rights.

Rather, it is “nothing less than the right to have rights.” Perez v. Brownell, 356

U.S. 44, 64 (1958) (Warren, C.J., dissenting) (emphasis added), overruled in part

by Afroyim v. Rusk, 387 U.S. 253 (1967). Citizenship is not just a turn-key for

other rights, but also is a status with value in and of itself. Citizenship is at once

both “a prerequisite for the enjoyment of certain rights, or for participation in

certain types of interaction,” and “a status to which access is restricted.” Brubaker,

supra, at 29. As a status, citizenship is an honorific—a determination that the

bearer of the title “citizen” is worthy of the nation’s full protection and most sacred

rights, Bosniak, supra at 31—as well as a membership card—a demarcation of

those who are fully within the national community as distinguished from those

who are not, id. at 34; see also Marshall, supra at 8 (noting that within citizenship

“there is a kind of basic human equality associated with the concept of full

membership of a community”).

Although these two meanings of citizenship—as turn-key and as status—are

conceptually distinct, they are nearly always intertwined in reality. When

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American Samoans are denied citizenship, they are denied the meaning of

citizenship in both of these senses. They are not merely excluded from an abstract

legal concept, they are denied access to fundamental and routine rights and

privileges granted exclusively to citizens. And yet, the harm to American Samoans

cannot simply be quantified by the number of rights and privileges they are denied.

Each denial, even where the right or privilege may seem mundane, trivial, or

merely symbolic, reinforces their inferior status as non-citizens and marks them as

not wholly part of their national and local communities. Each denial

communicates that they are not worthy of the title of citizen.

II. The Rights and Benefits Denied American Samoans as Non-citizen
Nationals

The importance of citizenship, both as turn-key and status, is particularly

salient for American Samoans, who occupy the unique status of having been born

in the United States while being denied American citizenship. American Samoans

owe permanent allegiance to the United States, and thus it is often unclear what the

national interest is in distinguishing American Samoans from citizens. See 8

U.S.C. § 1101(a)(22), (29); id. § 1408(1). Yet American Samoans who live in one

of the fifty states or the District of Columbia must confront a patchwork of federal,

state, and local laws that reference citizenship and are limited to citizens. As a

result, the rights and privileges afforded to American Samoans can actually change

as they move from one state or locality to another.

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For those who are citizens, citizenship unlocks these patchwork rights and

saves the citizen the substantial work of determining how his or her rights change

from place to place. At the same time, the availability of these special rights in

each jurisdiction affirms that the citizen belongs and is privileged wherever he or

she travels in the United States. For American Samoans, this legal patchwork does

the opposite—it reinforces that even when simply moving from state to state or

city to city, American Samoans always remain at least partially outsiders.

This section details just some of those federal, state, and local rights and

privileges that are keyed to citizenship. In many cases, denial of specific rights for

non-citizen nationals is clear—a particular constitutional or other legal provision

applies only to U.S. citizens and excludes all others. In other cases, it is less clear,

as some laws reference rights that apply to citizens, lawful aliens, and other

immigration statuses while simply omitting reference to “non-citizen nationals.”1

Still other laws omit reference to non-citizen nationals on the surface, and only

reveal after further research or cross-reference to other provisions that they apply

to non-citizen nationals as well as citizens.2 This complexity exists at national,

1
For example, California law requires that a “peace officer” “[b]e a citizen of the
United States or a permanent resident alien who is eligible for and has applied for
citizenship . . . .” Cal. Gov’t Code § 1031(a). On the face of that requirement,
American Samoans either cannot be peace officers, or, despite being Americans by
birth, are considered by the statute to be “permanent resident aliens.”
2
For instance, an American Samoan seeking a security clearance from the
Department of Defense in order to obtain a position with the federal government or

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state and local levels. If an American Samoan were to attempt to determine his or

her eligibility to participate in Arizona’s Medicaid program, for example, he or she

would find a requirement to “provide verification of United States citizenship or

documented verification of qualified alien status.” Ariz. Rev. Stat. Ann. § 36-

2903.03(A). Only by following a reference to a provision of the Federal Deficit

Reduction Act, codified at 42 U.S.C. § 1396b, would the American Samoan learn

that, for the purposes of Medicaid, non-citizen nationals are treated like citizens.

Of course, where a law clearly applies only to citizens, the harm to

American Samoans is most tangible. But even where laws have or ultimately may

be interpreted to apply to non-citizen nationals, real harm results from the

ambiguity. As an initial matter, American Samoans, particularly those with no

legal training, may not be able to determine their rights. And if they persist in

navigating complicated and ambiguous provisions, American Samoans may face

government contractor would see that relevant Executive Orders, various other
resources (including the Department of State website), and even Department of
Defense regulations clearly state that one must be a citizen to obtain a security
clearance. See 32 C.F.R. § 154.6(a) (“[o]nly U.S. citizens shall be granted a
personnel security clearance, assigned to sensitive duties, or granted access to
classified information.”); Exec. Order No. 12,968, 60 Fed. Reg. 40,245 (Aug. 7,
1995) (subject to specific exceptions, “eligibility for access to classified
information shall be granted only to employees who are United States
citizens….”); U.S. Dep’t of State, FAQs for Obtaining Security Clearances,
http://www.state.gov/m/ds/clearances/c10977.htm (last visited May 9, 2014) (“…
eligibility for access to classified information may only be granted to employees
who are United States citizens). Only by referencing the regulation’s definition of
“United States Citizen (Native Born)” in a separate section would one find that the
regulation considers American Samoans to be citizens. 32 C.F.R. § 154.3(dd).

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administrative hurdles from government officials or private parties who are

unfamiliar with non-citizen national status or unsure of how the law applies to it.

One of the most glaring examples of this is the U.S. Citizenship and Immigration

Service’s (USCIS) Systematic Alien Verification for Entitlements (SAVE)

program. While SAVE was designed to help federal, state, and local governments

quickly verify a non-citizen’s lawful residence in the United States before

providing public benefits, the federal government’s guidance on SAVE offers no

explanation of whether the system is intended to verify the status of non-citizen

nationals, or how the system could be used to do so. See U.S. Citizenship and

Immigration Services, Information for Noncitizens Applying for a Public Benefit

(Aug. 19, 2011), http://www.uscis.gov/save/benefit-applicants/information-

noncitizens-applying-public-benefit. That guidance only makes reference to

documentation that would not apply to American Samoans, such as an

Arrival/Departure Form or Permanent Resident Card. Thus, even if an American

Samoan is legally entitled to a benefit, a government official using SAVE—such as

an official in Georgia determining whether an American Samoan is entitled to a

state driver’s license3—might decline to approve the benefit if the American

3
See Ga. Dep’t of Driver Servs., S.A.V.E. (Jan. 13, 2014), available at
http://www.dds.ga.gov/drivers/Dldata.aspx?con=1746571759&ty=dl (stating that
Georgia law requires the use of SAVE to verify all immigration documents
presented by non-citizens in order to obtain a license).

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Samoan’s lawful residence cannot be confirmed in the system, especially if the

official is unaware of the status of non-citizen nationals.

Moreover, the very fact that many laws omit mention of non-citizen

nationals, or imply that despite being Americans, non-citizen nationals are

“resident aliens” (or a similar term), reinforces American Samoans’ outsider status.

In some cases, this outsider status is made explicit. For example, a number of

states issue special driver’s licenses to non-citizens that explicitly label the holder

as a non-citizen. See, e.g., Bertrand M. Gutierrez, New N.C. Driver’s Licenses Will

Flag Non-U.S. Citizens, Winston-Salem J. (Feb. 20, 2013), available at

http://www.journalnow.com/article_c2edaaa8-7bc4-11e2-860d-0019bb30f31a.html

(“Newly designed North Carolina driver’s licenses . . . will be used to distinguish

people who are not U.S. citizens . . . .”).4 A similar special endorsement is put on

U.S. passports for non-citizen nationals, which clearly states their non-citizen

status. See U.S. Dep’t of State, Certificates of Non Citizen Nationality,

http://travel.state.gov/content/travel/english/legal-considerations/us-citizenship-

laws-policies/certificates-of-non-citizen-nationality.html (last visited May 3,

2014).

4
Nor is the North Carolina provision unique: a 2002 survey of 40 states revealed
that at least four others issue non-citizens driver’s licenses that bear a notation
indicating non-citizen or special status. See Danielle O’Connell, Conn. Gen.
Assembly, Office of Legislative Research, Issuing Driver’s Licenses to Noncitizens
(Oct. 18, 2002), available at http://www.cga.ct.gov/2002/rpt/2002-R-0767.htm
(Louisiana, Minnesota, Ohio, South Carolina).

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To be sure, American Samoans may avoid these hardships and indignities by

naturalizing after establishing a three-month residency in one of the fifty states or

the District of Columbia. See 8 U.S.C. § 1427(a)(1). But naturalization is not

necessarily an easy process—and more importantly, it is one that is inappropriate

for American Samoans, who are already part of American society and already owe

permanent allegiance to the United States. The naturalization process requires

American Samoans, like foreign nationals, to take and pass an English and civics

test—even though the public education curriculum in American Samoa already

reflects U.S. standards. Moreover, American Samoans must submit to

fingerprinting and a good moral character review (including an in-person

interview), and take the same Oath of Allegiance as other non-citizens seeking to

naturalize, see 8 C.F.R. § 1337.1, even though American Samoans already owe

permanent allegiance to the United States. See 8 U.S.C. § 1101(a)(22)(B)

(defining “national of the United States” as “a person who, though not a citizen of

the United States, owes permanent allegiance to the United States”). Requiring

American Samoans to prove their knowledge of and commitment to the United

States and American civic life is yet another reminder that despite being born

Americans, they are treated as second-class citizens. Finally, naturalization may

be prohibitively expensive for American Samoans of limited means, as government

fees total $680. See U.S. Citizenship and Immigration Servs., N-400 Application

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for Naturalization, http://www.uscis.gov/n-400 (last visited May 11, 2014).

American Samoans should not have to navigate these hardships when they are

already Americans; indeed, they are the only people born in the United States,

including the territories, who must do so.

Keeping in mind these practical barriers to citizenship, as well as the

indignity of being required to obtain citizenship despite being born an American,

amicus offers herein a synopsis of some of the numerous federal, state, and local

laws that treat American Samoans differently based on their non-citizen national

status.

a. Voting

Because of their status as non-citizen nationals, American Samoans who live

in the fifty states and the District of Columbia cannot vote in most elections.5

Although this restriction is nearly universal, it does not come from the Constitution

or federal statute. Rather, the Constitution grants to the states the power to define

voter qualifications for elections for members of Congress and the President. See

U.S. Const. art. I, § 2, cl. 1 (the members of the House of Representatives from

5
A distinct question is whether Americans living in American Samoa and other
territories have a right to vote in national elections from within those territories.
Americans living in American Samoa cannot vote in Presidential elections because
Article II, § 1 of the Constitution affords Electoral College votes to only the States.
See also U.S. Const. amend. XXIII (granting Electoral College votes to the District
of Columbia). This brief, however, focuses on the right to vote of American
Samoans living in the fifty states or the District of Columbia.

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each state shall be elected by electors with the same qualifications as those for the

most numerous branch of the state legislature); id. art. II, § 1, cl. 2 (the legislature

of each state may direct the manner in which electors are appointed); id. amend.

XVII, cl. 1 (Senators from each state shall be elected by electors with the same

qualifications as those for the most numerous branch of the state legislature); see

also Arizona v. Inter Tribal Council of Arizona, Inc., 133 S. Ct. 2247, 2257-58

(2013). In fact, voting by non-citizens at every level of government under state

laws was once relatively commonplace. See Jamin B. Raskin, Legal Aliens, Local

Citizens: The Historical, Constitutional and Theoretical Meanings of Alien

Suffrage, 141 U. Pa. L. Rev. 1391, 1399-1417 (1993). The Supreme Court

recognized the practice of non-citizen voting in Minor v. Happersett, 88 U.S. 162,

177 (1874), explaining that certain non-citizens in several states—“enjoy[ed] …

the right of suffrage.” Id.

Today, however, every state, and nearly every locality, has exercised its

power to require U.S. citizenship as a prerequisite to voting.6 Although the

Supreme Court has never directly held that the right to vote can be limited to

citizens, it has “impl[ied]” that “citizenship is a permissible criterion” for limiting

the right to vote. Sugarman v. Dougall, 413 U.S. 634, 649 (1973) (collecting

6
See, e.g., Cal. Const. art. II, § 2; Nev. Const. art. II, § 1; Haw. Const. art. II, § 1;
Tex. Const. art. VI, § 2(a); Fla. Const. art. VI, § 2; Wash. Const. art. VI, § 1; S.C.
Const. Art. II, § 4; Colo. Rev. Stat. § 1-2-101(1); Md. Code Ann., Elec. Law § 3-
102; Neb. Rev. Stat. Ann. § 32-110; Wis. Stat. § 6.02.

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authority). Indeed, just last Term, in Arizona v. Inter Tribal Council of Arizona,

the Court examined Arizona’s requirement that voters provide proof of their

United States citizenship, in addition to averring under penalty of perjury that they

are U.S. citizens, as required by a federal form. 133 S. Ct. at 2251. Although the

Court ultimately held that the National Voter Registration Act (“NVRA”)

preempted Arizona’s requirement for proof of citizenship to register to vote in

federal elections, it expressed no doubt that Arizona’s citizenship requirement was

constitutionally permissible. See id. at 2258-59 (explaining that states have the

power to set voter qualifications and stating that “it would raise serious

constitutional doubts” if the NVRA prohibited Arizona from enforcing the proof-

of-citizenship requirement).

States and localities have decided to deny American Samoans the right to

vote even though many state and local elections have little implication for national

policy or foreign affairs.7 See Simon Thompson, Voting Rights: Earned or

7
Non-citizens are permitted to vote in a very small number of local elections. For
example, Chicago allows non-citizens to vote in school board elections. See
Bryant Yuan Fu Yang, Notes and Comments, Fighting for an Equal Voice: Past
and Present Struggle for Noncitizen Enfranchisement, 13 Asian Am. L.J. 57
(2006). Six municipalities in Maryland, including Takoma Park, allow non-
citizens to vote in city elections. See Charter of Takoma Park, art. VI, §§ 601, 603;
Charter of the Town of Somerset, art. V, § 83-21; Charter of Barnesville, § 74-3;
Charter of the Village of Chevy Chase, art. III, § 301; Charter of the Village of
Martin’s Addition, art. III, § 301; Charter of the Town of Garrett Park, art. III, §
78-20; see also Tara Kini, Comment, Sharing the Vote: Noncitizen Voting Rights
in Local School Board Elections, 93 Cal. L. Rev. 271, 296 & n.138 (2005).

14
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Entitled? Harv. Pol. Rev. (Dec. 3, 2010), available at

http://harvardpolitics.com/united-states/voting-rights-earned-or-entitled/; Gabriela

Evia, Note, Consent By All The Governed: Reenfranchising Noncitizens As

Partners In America’s Democracy, 77 S. Cal. L. Rev. 151, 163 (2003). Moreover,

these restrictions are a particularly poor fit for American Samoans, who owe

permanent allegiance to the United States and thus make up a permanent part of

the American polity.

The nearly across-the-board denial of the right to vote to American Samoans

is especially significant and harmful. The right to vote is not simply a routine

privilege; it is “the essence of a democratic society,” and the principal mechanism

by which individuals engage with and exercise control over the governance of the

community. Reynolds v. Sims, 377 U.S. 533, 555 (1964); see also Yick Wo v.

Hopkins, 118 U.S. 356, 370 (1886) (“[T]he political franchise of voting is . . . a

fundamental political right, because preservative of all other rights.”); Bosniak,

supra at 34. In addition, how this denial is effectuated—on a state-by-state basis—

compounds the harm. Although American Samoans may have deep and long-

developed connections with particular states and localities, nearly every

jurisdiction deems them unworthy to fully participate in the civic life of the

community because they lack the status of U.S. citizens.

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b. Jury Service

American Samoans are also uniformly denied another primary mechanism of

civil engagement and participation—service on federal and state juries. See Nancy

S. Marder, Beyond Gender: Peremptory Challenges and the Roles of the Jury, 73

Tex. L. Rev. 1041, 1052-66 (1995) (discussing the civil importance of the jury).

Similar to voting, qualifications for jury service are defined jurisdiction by

jurisdiction. Federal law requires jurors in federal courts to be U.S. citizens, 28

U.S.C. § 1865(b) (“[A]ny person [shall be deemed] qualified to serve on grand and

petit juries in the district court unless he—(1) is not a citizen of the United States

….”), and almost all states impose a similar explicit qualification.8

Like voting, jury service is a quintessential means of participating in

American society and civic life. “[W]ith the exception of voting, for most citizens

the honor and privilege of jury duty is their most significant opportunity to

participate in the democratic process.” Powers v. Ohio, 499 U.S. 400, 407 (1991).

The inability to serve on a jury is “practically a brand upon [an individual], affixed

by the law, [and] an assertion of [his] inferiority.” Strauder v. West Virginia, 100

U.S. 303, 308 (1879), abrogated by Taylor v. Louisiana, 419 U.S. 522 (1975).

American Samoans are deprived of the experience of serving on juries, and

8
See, e.g., Cal. Civ. Proc. Code § 203(a); Colo. Rev. Stat. § 13-71-105(1); Haw.
Rev. Stat. § 612-4(a); Wash. Rev. Code § 2.36.070; see also Amy R. Motomura,
Note, The American Jury: Can Noncitizens Still be Excluded?, 64 Stan. L. Rev.
1503, 1504 (2012).

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branded inferior, because they are not U.S. citizens—even though, once again, they

owe permanent allegiance to the United States and constitute permanent members

of the political community.

Moreover, the exclusion of American Samoans from jury service is

particularly harmful to American Samoan litigants and—most of all—American

Samoan criminal defendants. “The very idea of a jury is a body … composed of

the peers or equals of the person whose rights it is selected or summoned to

determine; that is, of his neighbors, fellows, associates, persons having the same

legal status in society as that which he holds.” Batson v. Kentucky, 476 U.S. 79,

86 (1986) (quoting Strauder, 100 U.S. at 308) (emphasis added). For American

Samoans, the reality of trial by jury is a far cry from this ideal.

c. Military Advancement

American Samoans also face hurdles within the United States Armed

Services, even though they have bravely fought for this country for the past

century. Available data shows that per capita, American Samoa provides more

recruits to serve in the military than the vast majority of American states.9 Every

9
In 2004, the U.S. military recruited 6.911 per 10,000 people from American
Samoa. In that same period, only the states of Alabama, Oklahoma, Hawaii, and
Montana provided more recruits per capita. See Total Military Recruits: Army,
Navy, Air Force (per capita) by state, National Priorities Project Database, 2004,
available at http://www.StateMaster.com/graph/mil_tot_mil_rec_arm_nav_air_
for_percap-navy-air-force-per-capita (last visited May 9, 2014); see also, e.g.,
Kirsten Scharnberg, Where the U.S. military is the family business, Chicago Trib.

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year, the number of American Samoans enlisting in the Armed Services far

exceeds recruitment quotas. See Mark Potter, Eager to Serve in American Samoa,

NBC News (Mar. 5, 2006).10

Despite their valiant service, American Samoans who join the military face

limited opportunities due to their status as non-citizen nationals because many

military occupations are closed to non-citizens. In the Air Force, only about one

quarter of enlisted active-duty positions are in occupations that do not require

citizenship. Also, once a non-citizen has finished the initial enlistment

commitment with the Air Force, he or she is prohibited from reenlisting without

citizenship. Molly F. McIntosh & Seema Sayala, Noncitizens in the Enlisted U.S.

Military, Center for Naval Analyses, 22 (Nov. 2011);11 Secretary of the Air Force,

AFI 36-2606, § 5.14 (May 9, 2011).12 American Samoan service members in the

other branches of the armed services face similar restrictions: non-citizens are

eligible for only two-fifths of enlisted active-duty positions in the Navy and one

half of those positions in the Army and Marine Corps. McIntosh & Sayala, supra

(Mar. 11, 2007), available at http://articles.chicagotribune.com/2007-03-
11/news/0703110486_1_military-recruiters-american-samoans-boot-camp (last
visited May 9, 2014).
10
Available at http://www.nbcnews.com/id/11537737/ns/nbc_nightly_news_with_
brian_williams/t/eager-serve-rican-samoa/#.U2DqlIFdV8F.
11
Available at https://www.cna.org/sites/default/files/research/Non%20Citizens%
20in%20the%20Enlisted%20US%20Military%20D0025768%20A2.pdf.
12
Available at http://static.e-
publishing.af.mil/production/1/af_a1/publication/afi36-2606/afi36-2606.pdf.

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at 21-22. Moreover, there is no guarantee that these positions will not be taken by

recruits with full citizenship, leaving non-citizen enlistees with access to only a

fraction of all military jobs.

Advancement of non-citizens in the military is also limited. Non-citizens

may not be appointed or commissioned as officers or reserve officers in any branch

of the armed forces. 10 U.S.C. § 532(a)(1); 10 U.S.C. § 12201(b)(1); see 10

U.S.C. § 504(b)(1)(A) (referring to 8 U.S.C. § 1101(a)(22), which distinguishes

between citizens and those owing permanent allegiance to the United States).

Although such limitations may make some sense when a non-citizen’s relationship

with the United States is not permanent, that same logic does not apply to

American Samoans, who enjoy a permanent—albeit unfairly diminished—

relationship with the United States.

Finally, even when they die serving their country, American Samoan service

members are treated less favorably than American citizens. Spouses, children, and

parents of deceased service members who were citizens may apply for

naturalization without demonstrating residence or physical presence in the United

States. 8 U.S.C. § 1430(d). However, the law denies this benefit to the families of

service members who were not citizens at death. Id. The spouse, child, or parent

of the deceased service member may overcome this slight only if they first obtain

posthumous citizenship for their deceased loved one. Id.; see also 8 U.S.C. §

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1440-1(a)-(b) (explaining that non-citizen nationals are eligible for posthumous

citizenship). Thus, although American Samoans continue to fight and even to die

to protect America, they are denied the benefits American citizenship.

d. Right to Bear Arms

As the Supreme Court has recently affirmed, individuals possess the right to

keep and bear arms for the purpose of self-defense. McDonald v. City of Chicago,

561 U.S. 742 (2010). However, the right to bear arms is another area in which the

rights of non-citizens are often restricted—if not clouded in substantial uncertainty.

Certain states and municipalities abridge entirely the ability of non-citizens,

including non-citizen nationals, to keep and bear arms, based solely on their

citizenship status. The law of the City of San Francisco, for example, flatly

requires that “[a]ny person carrying a firearm or any other deadly or dangerous

weapon . . . in the City and County of San Francisco, must … [b]e a citizen of the

United States.” S.F. Police Code Art. 13, § 841; see also R.I. Gen. Laws §§ 11-47-

35, 11-47-35.2 (restricting the sale of concealable weapons and rifles/shotguns to

U.S. citizens). Similarly, in North Carolina, the qualifications for a concealed

carry permit include the requirement that the applicant be “a citizen of the United

States.” N.C. Gen. Stat. § 14-415.12(a)(1); see also Omaha Mun. Code § 20-

253(c)(9) (requiring citizenship for a concealed carry permit).

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In other jurisdictions, the law regarding the ability of non-citizen nationals to

bear arms is cloudy at best. Michigan law, for example, requires that an individual

seeking a handgun permit be either a “citizen of the United States” or an “alien

lawfully admitted into the United States.” Mich. Comp. Laws § 28.422(3)(c). But

non-citizen nationals are neither “citizens” nor “aliens,” and thus do not squarely

fit within the confines of this provision, casting a cloud on their ability to exercise

their rights under the literal terms of this provision. A similar uncertainty exists

under the laws of numerous states, creating an additional burden on any non-

citizen national seeking to exercise the basic rights that may be easily secured by

both citizens and even those non-citizens with lawful permanent resident status.13

e. Sponsoring Non-American Family Members for Immigration

Another important area in which citizenship plays a significant role is the

nation’s family-based immigration laws. Under those laws, American Samoans, as

non-citizens, are afforded only the rights and benefits granted to legal permanent

residents. See Matter of Ah San, 15 I. & N. Dec. 315 (BIA 1975). Thus, American

Samoans who live in the fifty States and the District of Columbia do not enjoy the

13
See, e.g., Haw. Rev. Stat. § 134-2 (requiring that an applicant for a firearm
permit be either a citizen or verify his or her citizenship status with Immigrant and
Customs Enforcement); Wash. Rev. Code §§ 9.41.010(11), 9.41.171 (making it a
felony for a non-citizen to carry a weapon absent a special “alien firearm license”
and using a definition of “lawful permanent resident” that does not contemplate
non-citizen nationals).

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same advantages as U.S. citizens in their ability to sponsor their non-American

family members for visas to immigrate to the United States.

Perhaps most significantly, there are entire classes of non-American

relatives that non-citizen nationals simply may not sponsor to immigrate to the

United States, even though U.S. citizens would have that ability. For example, a

U.S. citizen may sponsor his or her parents to immediately immigrate to the United

States under the “immediate relatives” provision. INA § 201(b)(2)(A)(i), 8 U.S.C.

§ 1151(b)(2)(A)(i). Non-citizen nationals simply do not have that right: there is no

provision that accords non-citizens the ability to sponsor their parents for

immigration to the United States, immediately or otherwise. This problem is

particularly acute in American Samoa, where, owing in large part to the close ties

many people have with the nearby independent nation of Samoa, only about 30

percent of people born in American Samoa were born to parents who were

themselves born there. See Ti’otala Lewis Wolman, Commentary: Samoa for

Samoans? 2010 Census Provides Insights, Samoan News (Jan. 16, 2013),

available at http://www.samoanews.com/node/71437. Similarly, under different

provisions of the immigration law, U.S. citizens may sponsor their married sons or

daughters, or their brothers and sisters, for immigration to the United States and

eventual citizenship (although such immigration is subject to the waiting periods

that are part of the family-based visa program), INA § 203(a)(3), (4), 8 U.S.C.

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§ 1153(a)(3), (4), but non-citizen nationals are afforded no correlate right. They

cannot sponsor their non-American married children or brothers and sisters to

immigrate to the States the way they would if they were permitted full citizenship.

Even where American Samoans can sponsor their relatives’ immigration,

their ability to do so is more limited than that of U.S. citizens. For instance, both

American Samoans and U.S. citizens may sponsor their non-American spouses or

unmarried children under the age of 21 for immigration to the United States.

However, only citizens may take advantage of the “immediate relatives” provision

of INA § 201(b)(2)(A)(i), 8 U.S.C. § 1151(b)(2)(A)(i), which allows citizens to

immediately sponsor those relatives (as well as their parents) for permanent

residence and eventual citizenship. This has significant practical consequences,

because the “immediate relatives” provision allows citizens and their sponsored

family members to avoid the complicated system of per-year and per-country

limits on immigration that are part of the family-based visa program generally—a

system that often entails a substantial waiting period before an individual is finally

eligible for a visa. Compare INA § 201(b), 8 U.S.C. § 1151(b) (exempting such

immediate relatives from the statutory annual cap on the number of immigrants)

with INA § 201(a)(3), 8 U.S.C. § 1151(a)(3) (providing numerical limit to the

number of family-based immigrant visas available in each year) and INA

§ 202(a)(2), 8 U.S.C. § 1152(a)(2) (providing that no more than seven percent of

23
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immigrants within each category may come from a particular country). While a

U.S. citizen may immediately sponsor his or her spouse or unmarried child under

21 for immigration to the United States, regardless of any per-year or per-country

caps, the same family member of an American Samoan must wait before he or she

can even file an application to come to the United States. As of May 2013, that

waiting period was approximately nine months for individuals from most

countries, and longer in some cases. See U.S. Dep’t of State, Visa Bulletin for May

2014 at 2 (Row F2A) (Apr. 9, 2014), available at

http://travel.state.gov/content/dam/visas/Bulletins/visabulletin_may2014.pdf.

Moreover, according to Department of Homeland Security statistics for 2012, more

than four times as many relatives of U.S. citizens were able to immigrate under the

“immediate relatives” provision as were the same set of relatives of non-citizens in

total. See U.S. Dep’t of Homeland Security, Yearbook of Immigration Statistics

2012 (Legal Permanent Residents, Table 6), available at:

https://www.dhs.gov/yearbook-immigration-statistics-2012-legal-permanent-

residents.

U.S. citizens have a significantly greater ability to unite their families

within the fifty states and the District of Columbia than American Samoans do.

Thus, citizenship is a concept that provides not only significant benefits, but relates

to the most intimate and profound aspects of one’s life—the family associations

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that are of so high an order, and so fundamental an aspect of one’s liberty interests,

that the Supreme Court has recognized them as constitutionally protected. See,

e.g., Moore v. City of East Cleveland, 431 U.S. 494, 499 (1977).

f. Public Employment

Many professional opportunities in the public sector are limited to U.S.

citizens. As is well known, the Constitution requires that the President be a

“natural born citizen.” U.S. Const. art. II, § 1, cl. 4. The Constitution also requires

that members of the Senate and the House of Representatives be citizens for seven

years. Id. at art. I, §§ 2, 3. But it is not only these high-level federal offices that

are so restricted. Professional restrictions on non-citizens extend to all levels of

government and public service.

State and local laws often impose significant restrictions on the public

positions that American Samoans may hold. Many states require that state

governors, legislators, judges and other state leaders be U.S. citizens.14 Numerous

state and local laws also require U.S. citizenship to hold a number of ordinary but

14
See Cal. Const. art. V, § 2 (Governor must be a citizen); Ga. Const. art. V, § 1,
¶ iv (Governor and Lieutenant Governor); Ind. Const. art. V, § 7 (same); Me.
Const. art. V, pt. 1, § 4 (Governor); Mo. Const. art. IV, § 3 (same); Cal. Const. art.
IV, § 2(c) (members of the Legislature must be citizens); Ariz. Const. art. 4, pt. 2,
§ 2 (same); Wash. Const. art. II, § 7 (same); N.Y. Const. art. III, § 7 (same); Haw.
Const. art. VI, § 3 (justices and judges must be citizens); Ill. Const. art. VI, § 11
(judges and associate judges); Mo. Const. art. V, § 21 (judges of the supreme court
and court of appeals); Tex. Const. art. V, § 2(b) (Justices of the Supreme Court).

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vital public positions, such as that of police officer or state trooper,15 firefighter or

paramedic,16 and public school teacher.17 Those laws also prohibit non-citizens

from holding various public and quasi-public leadership positions, such as a

member of a state board of nursing,18 a state pharmacy commission,19 a school

board,20 or a real estate commission,21 among a wide variety of others. The State

15
See, e.g., Cal. Gov’t Code § 1031(a); Virginia State Police, Advertisement for
Position of State Trooper, available at
http://www.vsp.state.va.us/Employment_Trooper_Recruitment_Ad.shtm (last
visited May 2, 2014).
16
See, e.g., D.C. Mun. Regs. Subt. 6-B, § 808.1 (“Appointments to uniformed
positions in the Police and Fire Departments shall be limited to persons who are
citizens of the United States.”); City of Los Angeles, CA, Police Officer
Qualifications, available at http://www.joinlapd.com/qualifications.html (last
visited May 3, 2014) (stating that a police officer candidate must be a U.S. citizen
or permanent resident alien who has applied for citizenship); City of Memphis,
TN, Notice of Job Openings for Firefighter, available at
http://www.memphisfire.net/docs/firerecruitposting-jan07-final.pdf (Jan. 3, 2007);
City of Geneva, Ill., Career Firefighter/Paramedic, available at
http://www.geneva.il.us/index.aspx?nid=169 (last visited May 2, 2014).
17
See Pa. Cons. Stat. § 12-1202 (state certificates for public school teachers shall
not be granted to persons who are not United States citizens, except for legal
resident aliens who declare in writing their intent to become citizens); N.J. Admin.
Code § 6A:9-5.6 (requiring that one be a United States citizen to be eligible for a
teaching certificate; non-citizens may receive provisional certificates if they
declare their intent to become citizens, and must become citizens within a period of
time).
18
See La. Rev. Stat. § 37:916(A)(1) (“Each member of the board shall . . . [b]e a
citizen of the United States ….”).
19
See Wash. Rev. Code § 18.64.001 (“Each pharmacist member shall be a citizen
of the United States”).
20
See, e.g., Mich. Comp. Laws § 168.302 (“An individual is eligible for election as
a school board member if the individual is a citizen of the United States ….”).
21
See Haw. Rev. Stat. § 467-3 (each member of the real estate commission “shall
be a citizen of the United States ….”).

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of Washington, which is home to one of the largest communities of ethnic

American Samoans in the country, broadly prohibits any non-citizen from

“hold[ing] any elective public office within the state of Washington, or any county,

district, precinct, school district, municipal corporation or other district or political

subdivision.”22

Public employment, like private employment, provides a means of income

as well as opportunities for personal and professional development. Cf. Rutan v.

Republican Party of Ill., 497 U.S. 62, 74 (1990) (discussing the practical benefits

of employment and the consequences of being denied advancement for

impermissible reasons). For that reason alone, restrictions on the types of positions

American Samoans can hold is harmful. But public employment, similar to voting

and jury service, see Sections II.a-b, supra, provides an opportunity to shape and

serve one’s community, whether by working in national security or serving on a

local school board. Laws denying these opportunities to American Samoans based

on their lack of citizenship serve as yet another reminder of their outsider status.

***

In sum, American Samoans’ status as non-citizen nationals harms them in a

variety of ways, including by limiting their ability to participate in American

democracy, to serve their country in the military and in certain professions, and to

22
Wash. Rev. Code § 42.04.020.

27
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sponsor family members’ immigration into the United States. These practical,

everyday harms—which are in addition to the dignity harms associated with

American Samoans’ lesser status—are wholly unnecessary because American

Samoans are permanent members of the American community. The Fourteenth

Amendment’s Citizenship Clause should not be used to perpetuate such injuries.

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CONCLUSION

As non-citizen nationals, American Samoans are denied both the status of

citizenship and the many rights and opportunities that accompany it. By

overturning the decision below and holding that American Samoans are entitled to

citizenship, this Court will not simply extend the meaning of an abstract legal

concept. It will permit American Samoans to engage fully in the civic life of their

communities, will unlock new rights and opportunities, and will send a powerful

message that American Samoans are indeed worthy of the title of U.S. citizen.

Dated: May 12, 2014 Respectfully Submitted,

By: /s/ Jessica Ring Amunson
Jessica Ring Amunson
Michael T. Borgia
Erica L. Ross
Nicholas W. Tarasen*
JENNER & BLOCK LLP
1099 New York Avenue, NW
Suite 900
Washington, DC 20001
Telephone: 202-639-6000
Facsimile: 202-639-6066
jamunson@jenner.com

Counsel for Amicus Curiae David B.
Cohen

*Admitted only in California; not admitted in
the District of Columbia.

29
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CERTIFICATE OF COMPLIANCE

I, Jessica Ring Amunson, in reliance on the word count of the word

processing system used to prepare this brief, certify that the foregoing complies

with the type-volume limitations set forth in Fed. R. App. P. 29(d) because it

contains 6,986 words, excluding the parts of the brief exempted by Fed. R. App. P.

32(a)(7)(B)(iii).

I further certify that the foregoing brief complies with the typeface

requirements of Fed. R. App. P. 32(a)(6) and the type style requirements of Fed. R.

App. P. 32(a)(6), because it has been prepared in a proportionally spaced typeface

using Microsoft Word in Times New Roman 2014-point font.

Dated: May 12, 2014 /s/ Jessica Ring Amunson
Jessica Ring Amunson

Counsel for Amicus Curiae David B. Cohen

30

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CERTIFICATE OF SERVICE

I, Jessica Ring Amunson, hereby certify that on this 12th day of May 2014, I

caused a true and correct copy of the foregoing to be filed electronically using the

Court’s CM/ECF system pursuant to Circuit Rule 25, causing a true and correct

copy to be served on all counsel of record.

/s/ Jessica Ring Amunson
Jessica Ring Amunson

Counsel for Amicus Curiae David B. Cohen

31

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EXHIBIT 24

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No. 15-981
IN THE
Supreme Court of the United States

LENEUOTI FIAFIA TUAUA, ET AL.,

Petitioners,
v.

UNITED STATES OF AMERICA, ET AL.,

Respondents.

On Petition for Writ of Certiorari to the
United States Court of Appeals for the
District of Columbia Circuit

BRIEF IN OPPOSITION BY RESPONDENTS
AMERICAN SAMOA GOVERNMENT AND THE
OFFICE OF CONGRESSWOMAN AUMUA
AMATA OF AMERICAN SAMOA

MICHAEL F. WILLIAMS
Counsel of Record
KATHLEEN A. BROGAN
KIRKLAND & ELLIS LLP
655 Fifteenth St., N.W.
Washington, DC 20005
(202) 879-5000
michael.williams@kirkland.com

Counsel for Respondents
May 11, 2016

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QUESTION PRESENTED
Whether the Court of Appeals correctly held,
consistent with more than a century of precedent and
unbroken historical practice, that the Citizenship
Clause of the United States Constitution does not
automatically extend birthright citizenship to
persons born in the unincorporated territory of
American Samoa, over the objections of the elected
representatives and government of the people of
American Samoa and in violation of the American
Samoan people’s right to self-determination.

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TABLE OF CONTENTS
Page
QUESTION PRESENTED........................................... i
TABLE OF CONTENTS .............................................ii
TABLE OF AUTHORITIES...................................... iii
BRIEF FOR RESPONDENTS .................................... 1
STATEMENT .............................................................. 3
A. The United States and Its Territories ........... 3
B. The American Samoan Way of Life ............... 6
C. The Lawsuit .................................................... 8
REASONS FOR DENYING THE PETITION .......... 10
I. The D.C. Circuit’s Ruling Respects Fa’a
Samoa and Is the Only Sensible Result. ........... 10
II. The D.C. Circuit’s Ruling Affirms the
Political Autonomy and Right to Self-
Determination of the People of American
Samoa. ................................................................. 18
A. The People of American Samoa Are
Entitled to Choose Their Own
Political Arrangements. ............................... 18
B. Congress—Not the Courts—Extended
Citizenship to Other Territories and
Never Over Their Objections. ...................... 22
CONCLUSION .......................................................... 30

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TABLE OF AUTHORITIES
Page(s)

CASES
Corp. of Presiding Bishop of Church of Jesus
Christ of the Latter-Day Saints v. Hodel,
830 F.2d 374 (D.C. Cir. 1987) ............................. 13
Hirabayashi v. United States,
320 U.S. 81 (1943) ............................................... 12
Kennett v. Chambers,
55 U.S. (14 How.) 38 (1852) ................................ 18
King v. Andrus,
452 F. Supp. 11 (D.D.C. 1977) ............................ 24
Lee v. Weisman,
505 U.S. 577 (1992) ............................................. 16
Nunez v. City of San Diego,
114 F.3d 935 (9th Cir. 1997) ............................... 16
Qutb v. Strauss,
11 F.3d 488 (5th Cir. 1993) ................................. 17
Ramos v. Town of Vernon,
353 F.3d 171 (2d Cir. 2003) ................................ 16
Schleifer v. City of Charlottesville,
159 F.3d 843 (4th Cir. 1998) ............................... 17
Spencer v. Casavilla,
903 F.2d 171 (2d Cir. 1990) ................................ 16
United States v. Wheeler,
254 U.S. 281 (1920) ............................................. 16
Wabol v. Villacrusis,
958 F.2d 1450 (1990)........................................... 15

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CONSTITUTIONAL PROVISIONS
Revised Const. of Am. Samoa art. 1 § 1......................5
Revised Const. of Am. Samoa art. 1 § 2......................5
Revised Const. of Am. Samoa art. 1 § 3......................7
Revised Const. of Am. Samoa art. 1 § 5......................5
Revised Const. of Am. Samoa art. 2, § 3................... 12
Revised Const. of Am. Samoa arts. 2-4 ......................5

STATUTES
8 U.S.C. § 1101(a)(29) ............................................... 23
8 U.S.C. § 1406 .................................................... 23, 28
8 U.S.C. § 1407 .................................................... 23, 26
8 U.S.C. § 1408(1) ...................................................... 23
8 U.S.C. § 1421 .................................................... 23, 26
48 U.S.C. § 1421 ........................................................ 26
Act of Mar. 3, 1917, 39 Stat. 1132 ............................ 28
Act of June 22, 1936, 49 Stat. 1807 (1936)
(codified at 48 U.S.C. § 1405 (1936) ................... 28
Act of July 22, 1954, 68 Stat. 497 (1954)
(codified at 48 U.S.C. § 1541 (1954) ................... 29
Act of March 24, 1976, 90 Stat. 266.......................... 23
Am. Samoa Code Ann. § 2.1402(d) ........................... 21
Am. Samoa Code Ann. § 37.0204(a) ......................... 13
Am. Samoa Code Ann. § 37.0204(a-b) ...................... 14
Jones-Shafroth Act of 1917, Pub. L. 64-368,
39 Stat. 951 ................................................... 23, 29

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LEGISLATIVE HISTORY
H.R. Rep. No. 1677 (1950) ......................................... 27
H.R.J. Res. 549, 94th Cong. (1976) ........................... 26
Civil Government for Porto Rico:
Hearings on H.R. 8501 Before the H. Comm.
on Insular Affairs, 64th Cong. (1916) ................ 29
Civil Government for Guam:
Hearing on S. 185, S. 1892 and H.R. 7273
Before the Subcomm. of the S. Comm.
on Interior and Insular Affairs,
81st Cong. 44 (1950) ..................................... 27, 28
Revised Constitution of Am. Samoa:
Hearing Before the Subcomm. on Energy
Conservation and Supply of the Comm. on
Energy and Natural Res.,
98th Cong. 46 (1984) ......................... 14, 17, 21, 24

OTHER AUTHORITIES
1 Joseph Story, Commentaries on the
Constitution of the United States
(Thomas M. Cooley ed., 4th ed. 1873) ................ 18
Alexander M. Bickel,
The Morality of Consent (1975) .......................... 19
Arnold H. Leibowitz, American Samoa:
Decline of a Culture,
10 Cal. W. Int’l L.J. 220 (1980)................. 7, 11, 13
Arnold H. Liebowitz, Defining Status: A
Comprehensive Analysis of United States
Territorial Relations (1989) ........ 11, 12, 25, 26, 28
Cession of Manu’a Islands, Jul. 16, 1904,
U.S.-Manua Samoa, reprinted in Am.

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Samoa Code Ann., Historical Documents
and Constitutions (1992) ......................................6
Cession of Tutuila and Aunu’u, Apr. 17, 1900,
U.S.-Tutuila Samoa, reprinted in
Am. Samoa Code Ann., Historical Documents
and Constitutions (1992) ......................................6
Daniel E. Hall, Curfews, Culture, and Custom
in American Samoa: An Analytical Map for
Applying the U.S. Constitution to U.S.Territories,
2 Asian-Pac. L. & Pol’y J. 3 (2001) ......... 11, 15, 16
Derek Heater, Citizenship: The Civic Ideal in
World History, Politics and
Education (3d ed. 2004) ...................................... 19
Ediberto Román & Theron Simmons,
Membership Denied: Subordination and
Subjugation Under United States Expansionism,
39 San Diego L. Rev. 437 (2002) ........................ 20
Jeffrey B. Teichert, Resisting Temptation in the
Garden of Paradise: Preserving the Role of
Samoan Custom in the Law of American Samoa,
3 Gonz. J. Int’l L. 35 (2000) ............................ 7, 14
John Adams, Answer of the House,
reprinted in The Briefs of The American
Revolution (John Philip Reid ed., 1981) ............. 22
Jon M. Van Dyke, The Evolving Legal
Relationships Between the United
States and Its Affiliated U.S-Flag Islands,
14 U. Haw. L. Rev. 445 (1992) ............................ 29
Lowell D. Holmes, Quest for the Real Samoa:
The Mead/Freeman Controversy & Beyond
(1987) ................................................................... 11

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Neil Weinstock Netanel, Cyberspace Self-
Governance: A Skeptical View from Liberal
Democratic Theory,
88 Calif. L. Rev. 395 (2000) ................................ 19
Report of the United Nations Visiting
Mission to the Trust Territory of the
Pacific Islands (1961) ......................................... 25
Stanley K. Laughlin, Jr., Cultural
Preservation in Pacific Islands: Still
A Good Idea-and Constitutional,
27 U. Haw. L. Rev. 331 (2005) ..............................7
Statement by the Representative of American
Samoa, Pacific Regional Seminar on the
Implementation of the Third International
Decade for the Eradication of Colonialism:
Current Realities and Prospects (June 1, 2012),
available at http://www.un.org/en/decolonization/
pdf/crp_2012_american_samoa.pdf .................... 20
Statement of Jay Kenneth Katzen on American
Samoa, U.S. Mission to the United Nations
(Nov. 18, 1976) .................................................... 20
Statement of Cong. Eni F.H. Faleomavaega,
Before the United Nations Special
Committee on Decolonization
(May 23, 2001), available at
http://www.oocities.org/west_papua/
Faleomavaega.htm................................................4
The Future Political Status Study
Commission of American Samoa (2007) ............ 21
W. Ofuatey-Kodjoe, The Principle of
Self-Determination in International
Law 79 (1977)...................................................... 20

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BRIEF FOR RESPONDENTS
This case presents the question of whether the
Court should, for the first time in the nation’s
history, extend United States citizenship by judicial
fiat to residents of an unincorporated territory of the
United States. The answer to that question,
according to the Court’s precedent and historical
practice for more than a century, is plainly “no.”
Whenever the United States has extended
citizenship to the inhabitants of an unincorporated
territory, it has done so through congressional
legislation, not through judicial intervention. This
practice is more important than ever today, as only
congressional legislation can account for the
distinctive political and cultural considerations that
should govern whether residents of a territory of the
United States may choose to accept the privileges
and responsibilities of United States citizenship.
This is an inconvenient brief for Petitioners and
their amici. The Petitioners—a group of individual
United States nationals—urge the Court to extend
birthright citizenship to American Samoa.
Petitioners’ amici—a collection of academics, former
judges, non-profit organizations, and representatives
of other states and territories (i.e., not American
Samoa)—advance various scholarly theories that
such an extension of birthright citizenship is
necessary and mandatory under the Constitution.
But the leaders of American Samoa, represented
here by the American Samoa government and the
Congresswoman from American Samoa, disavow the
Petitioners’ claims and have opposed this lawsuit at
every turn. This is because the people of American
Samoa zealously guard their rights of self-

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determination and are fiercely protective of fa’a
Samoa, traditional Samoan ways that might be
threatened by a fundamental change in the status of
the American Samoan people. Even the most elegant
legal theories, and even the most interesting legal
scholarship, cannot correct the basic flaw in
Petitioners’ claims: namely, Petitioners would
deprive the people of American Samoa of their rights
to determine their own status, even though those
rights were an important condition of American
Samoa’s association with the United States.
At bottom, the arguments advanced by
Petitioners and their amici thus amount to a plea
that this Court extend United States citizenship to
the American Samoan people, whether they like it or
not. These arguments are untenable, and the Court
should deny the petition, for the following reasons:
First, extending birthright citizenship to people
who do not want it violates every legal principle of
self-determination, sovereignty, and autonomy.
Many aspects of fa’a Samoa—the Samoan way of
life—are truly unique within the United States, and
the people of American Samoa are dedicated to
preserving their traditional culture. The people of
American Samoa believe, with good justification,
that a fundamental change in their status, such as
the judicial extension of United States citizenship,
could threaten fa’a Samoa. It would be impractical
and anomalous for the Court to impose such a
change upon American Samoa against its will.
Second, whether birthright citizenship should
extend to the people of American Samoa is a question
for the people of American Samoa and its elected
representatives, and not for this Court to decide. In

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every other case in which people born in overseas
territories were granted birthright citizenship,
Congress, not the courts, has made that decision in
conjunction with the elected representatives of those
territories. There is simply no legal or practical
basis for upsetting more than a century of precedent
establishing that the Citizenship Clause does not
automatically apply in every unincorporated
territory of the United States.
STATEMENT
A. The United States and Its Territories
Between 1857 and 1947, the United States
acquired all of the geographic areas later known as
the insular possessions or territories of the United
States by purchase, conquest, or cession. The United
States first took possession of a series of uninhabited
islands in the Pacific containing deposits of guano,
which was prized for its use in gunpowder and
agricultural fertilizer. In 1899, Spain ceded control
of Guam, the Philippines, and Puerto Rico to the
United States as a result of the Spanish-American
War in the Treaty of Paris. In 1900, the matai,
traditional Samoan leaders, ceded sovereignty of
certain of the Samoan Islands to the United States.
In 1917, the United States purchased the U.S. Virgin
Islands from Denmark. Finally, in 1947, the United
Nations entrusted the United States with the Trust
Territory of the Pacific Islands, which included the
Marshall Islands, Federated States of Micronesia,
Northern Mariana Islands, and Palau. Today, the
Territory of Guam, the Territory of American Samoa,
the Territory of the U.S. Virgin Islands, the
Commonwealth of Puerto Rico, and the

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Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands
(CNMI) all remain territories of the United States.
The United States has always considered each
territory individually, basing its territorial policies
on a combination of self-determination and
particularized economic assistance. Thus, the
relationship between the United States and each
territory has changed over time in response to the
will of each territory’s inhabitants. The Philippines
gained self-governance and, eventually, full
independence. The Marshall Islands, Federated
States of Micronesia, and Palau became
independent, but freely associated with the United
States after the United States’ trusteeship ended.
And Congress eventually conferred U.S. citizenship
on the citizens of the unincorporated territories of
Guam, the Northern Mariana Islands, Puerto Rico
and the U.S. Virgin Islands.
American Samoa is unique among these
territories. In contrast to all other U.S. territories,
“American Samoa has never been taken as a prize of
war, and never been annexed against the will of [its]
people.” See Statement of Cong. Eni F.H.
Faleomavaega before the United Nations Special
Committee on Decolonization (May 23, 2001),
available at http://www.oocities.org/west_papua/
Faleomavaega.htm. Instead, American Samoa’s
traditional leaders, the matai, voluntarily ceded
sovereignty to the United States Government in
1900. See Cession of Tutuila and Aunu’u, Apr. 17,
1900, U.S.-Tutuila Samoa, reprinted in Am.
Samoa Code Ann., Historical Documents and
Constitutions (1992).

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From thereon, those same traditional leaders and
their successors have maintained their essential role
in a predominantly self-governing territory. The
American Samoa Constitution establishes a
bicameral legislature, elected by the Samoan people;
a judiciary appointed by the Secretary of the
Interior; and a popularly-elected territorial governor.
See Revised Const. of Am. Samoa arts. 2–4. It also
includes a Bill of Rights that recognizes freedom of
speech, freedom of religion, due process under law,
freedom from unreasonable searches and seizures,
and many other protections of civil rights. See
Revised Const. of Am. Samoa art. 1 §§ 1, 2, 5. And
since 1978, American Samoa has had representation
in the U.S. House of Representatives.
Today, American Samoans are born U.S.
nationals, not U.S. citizens. They owe allegiance to
the United States, can freely enter the United
States, and may apply for U.S. citizenship without
first becoming a permanent resident. Many
American Samoans also serve with distinction in the
U.S. Armed Forces. Although American Samoans
are proud of their relationship with the United
States, they nonetheless have not achieved
consensus as to whether they should ask Congress to
grant them citizenship.

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B. The American Samoan Way of Life
A lele le Toloa, e toe ma’au lava i le vai. 1
Even after voluntarily ceding sovereignty to the
United States in 1900, American Samoa has retained
its own vibrant and distinctive culture. See Pet. App.
at 23a (“American Samoans take pride in their
unique political and cultural practices, and they
celebrate its history free from conquest or
involuntary annexation by foreign powers.”). The
original deeds of cession make express provision for
the preservation of Samoan culture. See Cession of
Tutuila and Aunu’u, Apr. 17, 1900, U.S.-
Tutuila Samoa and Cession of Manu’a Islands, Jul.
16, 1904, U.S.-Manua Samoa, reprinted in Am.
Samoa Code Ann., Historical Documents and
Constitutions (1992).
The American Samoan way of life, fa’a Samoa, is
of critical importance to the American Samoan
people. As one author has put it, fa’a Samoa is
“more than merely a set of laws, norms, and social
conventions. The fa’a Samoa is the essence of being
Samoan, and includes a unique attitude toward
fellow human beings, unique perceptions of right and
wrong, the Samoan heritage, and fundamentally the
aggregation of everything that the Samoans have
learned during their experience as a distinct race.”
Jeffrey B. Teichert, Resisting Temptation in the
Garden of Paradise: Preserving the Role of Samoan
Custom in the Law of American Samoa, 3 Gonz. J.

1 “Wherever the Toloa bird may travel, it will always return
and settle back to its native waters.” American Samoa Proverb.

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Int’l L. 35, 4 (2000). Many aspects of fa’a Samoa are
wholly unlike anything in either the other territories
or the continental United States. And this rich and
unique cultural heritage permeates every level of
Samoan society, from the individual, to the familial,
to the institutional.
Samoan households, for example, are notable for
their organization according to large, extended
families, known as ‘aiga. See Stanley K. Laughlin,
Jr., Cultural Preservation in Pacific Islands: Still A
Good Idea—and Constitutional, 27 U. Haw. L. Rev.
331, 337 (2005). These extended families, under the
authority of matai, or chiefs, remain a fundamental
social unit in Samoan society. See Arnold H.
Leibowitz, American Samoa: Decline of a Culture, 10
Cal. W. Int’l L.J. 220, 224–25 (1980). Deep kinship
and social ties also contribute to American Samoans’
strong sense of community. For example, the matai
traditionally organize the resources of the ‘aiga to
undertake projects for the benefit of the entire
community. Id. at 224. And communal ownership of
land remains the fundamental aspect of Samoan
identity; indeed, other important parts of Samoan
culture (such as the ‘aiga and matai) are intimately
and historically predicated upon control of the land.
See id. at 222–23. As such, the American Samoa Bill
of Rights specifically provides for restrictions on
alienation of land to prevent “the destruction of the
Samoan way of life and language, contrary to [the]
best interests [of the Samoan people].” Revised
Const. of Am. Samoa art. 1, § 3. These traditions are
merely representative of a culture unlike anything in
the United States or its other territories—one that
Congress has both recognized and preserved for over
a century.

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C. The Lawsuit
Five U.S. nationals born in American Samoa and
the Samoan Federation of America, a private
organization serving Samoans in Los Angeles,
brought suit in the U.S. District Court for the
District of Columbia claiming a right to citizenship
under the Fourteenth Amendment’s Citizenship
Clause by birth. Pet. App. 24a–25a. The complaint
also alleged that the failure of the U.S. government
to recognize this right had caused them various
harms. Id. at 28a. For purposes of resolving the
complaint on a motion to dismiss, the courts have
assumed that these alleged harms exist.
The Government moved to dismiss these
Petitioners’ complaint, and the Honorable Eni
Faleomavaega, former Congressman from the
American Samoa, submitted an amicus brief in
support of the motion. Id. at 25a–26a. In that
pleading and related argument, Congressman
Faleomavaega explained that extending birthright
citizenship to the Petitioners by judicial fiat would
have unanticipated and potentially harmful
consequences for American Samoa culture and
cautioned the court not to interfere with the political
autonomy and democratic process of self-
determination to which the American Samoa
government is entitled. Id. at 26a–27a, 42a–43a.
The district court dismissed the complaint. Id. at
43a. Specifically, it held that the Citizenship Clause
of the Fourteenth Amendment did not guarantee
birthright citizenship to the Petitioners based on the
plain language of the Constitution, longstanding
jurisprudence interpreting the Fourteenth
Amendment, including the Insular framework,

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enduring tradition, and pragmatic considerations.
Id. at 33a–41a. In doing so, the district court cited
Congressman Faleomavaega’s observations that
longstanding practices established that democratic
processes should govern whether unincorporated
territories would attain statutory citizenship from
Congress. Id. at 42a.
The American Samoa government and
Congressman Eni F. H. Faleomavaega intervened on
appeal. The Honorable Aumua Amata subsequently
succeeded Congressman Faleomavaega as the
Congressional Representative from American Samoa.
The U.S. Court of Appeals for the District of
Columbia unanimously affirmed the order granting
the motion to dismiss. Pet. App. 2a. In so doing, it
held that the Citizenship Clause did not guarantee
birthright citizenship to persons born in American
Samoa. Id. As an initial matter, it explained that
the application of the Citizenship Clause to
unincorporated territories was not obvious from its
plain text, legislative history, or the common law
context. Id. at 5a–11a. In so doing, it reiterated the
district court’s reasoning, invoking the framework of
the Insular Cases to distinguish between
incorporated territories intended for statehood and
in which the entire Constitution automatically
applies, from unincorporated territories, such as
American Samoa, not intended for statehood and in
which only certain “fundamental” rights apply. Id.
at 11a–14a.
The court then determined that there is no set,
fundamental determinant of citizenship that is
integral to free society. Id. at 14a–17a. Examining
what it determined to be essential principals of a

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democratic republic, the court concluded that it
would be anomalous and even culturally
imperialistic to hold that the Constitution imposed
citizenship over the objections of American Samoans
themselves, as expressed through their elected
representatives. Id. at 17a–20a.
Certiorari should be denied as the district court’s
dismissal of Petitioners’ complaint under Rule
12(b)(6) of the Federal Rules of Civil Procedure was
plainly correct and based on the text of the
Constitution, binding precedent, historical tradition,
and practicality.
REASONS FOR DENYING THE PETITION
I. The D.C. Circuit’s Ruling Respects Fa’a
Samoa and Is the Only Sensible Result.

The American Samoan way of life, fa’a Samoa, is
of fundamental importance to the American Samoan
people, and Congress has done its part to help
preserve this unique culture for over a century.
Petitioners ignore the anomalous and potentially
disruptive consequences for the people and culture of
American Samoa that would result from a judicial
determination that American Samoans are
automatically American citizens. Such a judicial
determination could threaten certain aspects of fa’a
Samoa, including its basic social structures, its
traditional practices with respect to alienation of
land, and its religious customs—all of which are
constitutionally-protected principles of American
Samoan society. See Revised Const. of Am. Samoa
art I, § 3 (“It shall be the policy of the Government of
American Samoa to protect persons of Samoan
ancestry against alienation of their lands and the

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destruction of the Samoan way of life and
language.”).
Social Structure. First, citizenship by judicial
fiat could threaten the basic structure of American
Samoan society. American Samoan households are
organized according to large, extended families,
known as ‘aiga. See Leibowitz, American Samoa:
Decline of a Culture, 10 Cal. W. Int’l L.J. 220, at 224–
25. Matai, holders of hereditary chieftain titles,
regulate village life. See Daniel E. Hall, Curfews,
Culture, and Custom in American Samoa: An
Analytical Map for Applying the U.S. Constitution to
U.S. Territories, 2 Asian-Pac. L. & Pol’y J. 3, *71–72
(2001) (quoting Lowell D. Holmes, Quest for the Real
Samoa: The Mead/Freeman Controversy & Beyond
38 (1987)).
The United States has always recognized the
matai system in American Samoa. See Arnold H.
Liebowitz, Defining Status: A Comprehensive
Analysis of United States Territorial Relations, at
440 (1989). Although the United States initially
imposed a few changes to the matai structure by
suppressing some titles and transferring
governmental recognition of authority from certain
high ranking matais to lesser ranking matais, the
basic matai structure was untouched and is
preserved today. See id. at 441. When American
Samoa was under the authority of the Navy from
1900–1951, it was customary for the naval
government to meet annually with the district
governors whom had been appointed by the naval
governor on the basis of their rank within the matai
system. Id. This annual meeting, or fono, eventually

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evolved into what is the American Samoa
Legislature (Fono) today. Id.
In 1951, U.S. authority over American Samoa was
transferred from the naval government to the
Department of the Interior. Following the transfer of
authority, the Department of the Interior approved
the American Samoa Code, which provides for
registration of the matai title limits, and limits the
Senate to persons who are matai, despite the U.S.
constitutional ban on titles. Id.
The prominence of matai in American Samoan
culture is recognized by limiting eligibility to serve in
the upper house of the territorial legislature to “a
registered matai of a Samoan family who fulfills his
obligations as required by Samoan custom in the
county from which he is elected.” Revised Const. of
Am. Samoa art. 2, § 3. Were all American Samoan
people granted United States citizenship, this
tradition could be subjected to scrutiny under the
Equal Protection Clause. Indeed, this Court has
observed that “[d]istinctions between citizens solely
because of their ancestry are by their very nature
odious to a free people whose institutions are
founded upon the doctrine of equality.” Hirabayashi
v. United States, 320 U.S. 81, 100 (1943). While it is
far from predetermined that precedent would require
abolition of the matai system if the Court extended
United States citizenship to American Samoans,
there is good reason for the people of American
Samoa to urge caution in any societal changes that
could imperil their revered cultural institutions.
Land Alienation. In addition to endangering
the role of the matai, citizenship by judicial fiat could
also compromise the ways in which land in American

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Samoa is owned and alienated. The ‘aiga, which can
range in number from dozens to thousands, owns the
land in common for the benefit of the group, and the
property is managed via the matai. See Leibowitz,
American Samoa: Decline of a Culture, 10 Cal. W.
Int’l L.J. at 222–24. Each matai’s power rests in
control over the land, without which he would have
no authority. The matai, in turn, supervise the
economic activity of the common land and meet with
each other in a council (fono) to organize larger
projects. Id. at 224.
American Samoan social institutions revolve
around the communal ownership and management of
the land for the good of the community. More than
ninety percent of the land in American Samoa is
communally owned. Id. at 239. Alienation of
communal land is strictly regulated, to the extent
that the Governor himself must approve the sale.
Am. Samoa Code Ann. § 37.0204(a) (1992). Thus, it
is unsurprising that the D.C. Circuit has observed
that “[c]ommunal ownership of land is the
cornerstone of the traditional Samoan way of life.”
Corp. of Presiding Bishop of Church of Jesus Christ
of the Latter-Day Saints v. Hodel, 830 F.2d 374, 377
(D.C. Cir. 1987). It is this complex relationship that
the Samoans sought to protect in the Instruments of
Cession. As the D.C. Circuit more recently noted,
this long expressed concern that the extension of
United States citizenship to the territory could
potentially undermine this aspect of the Samoan way
of life plays a large part in the reluctance and
inability of the American Samoan people to come to a
collective consensus in requesting a change in status.
Pet. App. 18a.

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Furthermore, Samoan law restricts the sale of
community land to anyone with less than fifty
percent racial Samoan ancestry. Am. Samoa Code
Ann. § 37.0204(a–b). This restriction is consistent
with practice going back to when the United States
assumed possession of American Samoa in 1900 and
Commander B.F. Tilley prohibited the alienation of
land to non-Samoans. See Jeffrey B. Teichert,
Resisting Temptation in the Garden of Paradise:
Preserving the Role of Samoan Custom in the Law of
American Samoa, 3 Gonz. J. Int’l L. 35, 17 (2000).
Notably, the Department of Justice has
recognized the role that American Samoans’ status
as noncitizen nationals plays in preserving
traditional aspects of Samoan culture. The
Department of Justice explained during American
Samoa’s constitutional debates of 1984 that the
maintenance of fa’a Samoa:
has been based partly on treaty and partly
simply on our sense of obligation of not
imposing our ways arbitrarily on others. That
protection . . . has been accomplished in part
through a legal isolation of American Samoa,
which stems in part from the fact that
American Samoans are noncitizen nationals
rather than American citizens.
Statement of Robert B. Shanks, Revised Constitution
of Am. Samoa: Hearing before the Subcomm. on
Energy Conservation and Supply of the Comm. on
Energy and Natural Res., 98th Cong. 46 (1984)
(“Const. Hearing”) (emphasis added).
Petitioners and some of their amici argue that the
American Samoan people should not be concerned
that United States citizenship would threaten

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traditional Samoan practices with respect to
ownership and alienation of land. They argue that
racial-alienation laws have been upheld in other
territories against challenges under the Equal
Protection Clause. See Wabol v. Villacrusis, 958 F.2d
1450, 1460–61 (1990). It is ironic, though, that
Petitioners, who are asking the Court to overturn
decades of established Supreme Court precedent,
point to caselaw by a federal court of appeals as a
guarantee that Samoan customs will abide.
Moreover, the alienation laws in places such as the
Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands,
where such laws have been upheld, are unlike the
traditional practices in American Samoa. In the
former case, the laws simply restrict who may buy
land. See Covenant to Establish a Commonwealth of
the Northern Mariana Islands in Political Union
with the United States of America, Proclamation No.
4534, 42 Fed. Reg. 56,593 (Oct. 24, 1977) (restricting
for a period of time “the alienation of permanent and
long-term interest in real property so as to restrict
the acquisition of such interests to persons of
Northern Mariana Islands descent”). In American
Samoa, the racial land alienation rules are tied into
the communal ownership of land and its relation to
both the matai hierarchy and the ‘aiga clan system.
All of this could be endangered by judicial imposition
of United States citizenship.
Religion. Unlike the United States, American
Samoa has an exceptionally homogenous culture of
religion. Daniel E. Hall, Curfews, Culture, and
Custom in American Samoa: An Analytical Map for
Applying the U.S. Constitution to U.S. Territories, 2
Asian-Pac. L. & Pol’y J. 3, *71 (2001) (“One hundred
percent of Samoans report being Christian.”).

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Religious observance is not only a social norm, it is
enforced by local leaders, the village matai: “[i]n
most villages in American Samoa, there are both
early evening ‘prayer’ curfews as well as nocturnal
curfews.” Id. at *97. American Samoans themselves
characterize the early evening curfew as having “a
religious purpose.” Id. Curfews are enforced by
young men who punish violators with a range of
sanctions that could “include requiring the offender
to feed the entire village or the village council, fining
the offender as much as $100, reprimanding the
offender, withdrawal of titles in extreme cases,
banishment, and withholding village protection of
the family of the offender.” Id. at *98.
It is not difficult to imagine the disruptive
consequences that the extension of United States
citizenship might create for the American Samoa
tradition of prayer curfews. First, the Establishment
Clause, whatever else it proscribes, has been
interpreted to prohibit attempts to aid religion
through government coercion. See, e.g., Lee v.
Weisman, 505 U.S. 577, 606 (1992). Second, “most
curfews in American Samoa apply to both adults and
juveniles,” Hall, Curfews, Culture, and Custom, 2
Asian-Pac. L. & Pol’y J. at *97, and the imposition of
blanket adult curfews to United States citizens could
be unconstitutional under existing caselaw. 2

2 At least two circuits have expressly recognized the “right to
free movement” within a state as a fundamental substantive
due process right subject to strict scrutiny. Ramos v. Town of
Vernon, 353 F.3d 171, 176 (2d Cir. 2003) (citing Spencer v.
Casavilla, 903 F.2d 171, 174 (2d Cir. 1990) (“the Constitution . .
. protects the right to travel freely within a single state”));
Nunez v. City of San Diego, 114 F.3d 935, 944 (9th Cir. 1997)
(citing United States v. Wheeler, 254 U.S. 281, 293 (1920); cf.

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For more than a century, the people of American
Samoa have worked with Congress to protect fa’a
Samoa and to develop a unique relationship between
the unincorporated territory and the United States.
For example, when Congress voted to amend the
American Samoa Constitution in 1984, it made clear
that “[i]t has been the constant policy of the United
States, partly as a matter of honor, partly as a result
of treaty obligations, not to impose our way of life on
Samoa.” Statement of Robert B. Shanks, Const.
Hearing at 53. Indeed, as Governor Peter Tali
Coleman, the first person of Samoan descent to serve
as governor of American Samoa and also the first
popularly-elected governor of American Samoa,
explained to Congress during the same hearing,
“[t]he United States in turn has guaranteed
protection to American Samoa not only of our islands
themselves but also of our land, customs and
traditions.” Statement of Hon. Peter Tali Coleman,
Const. Hearing at 10. Governor Coleman noted,
moreover, that “Congress has played, and we pray,
that it will continue to play a meaningful role in our
development, and particularly, the role of being the
protector of the Samoan way of life.” Id. at 16.
Extending United States citizenship by judicial fiat
would upend this longstanding relationship and
could threaten fa’a Samoa.

Schleifer v. City of Charlottesville, 159 F.3d 843, 847 (4th Cir.
1998) (while allowing “less than the strictest level of scrutiny”
to be applied to juveniles, still requiring “more than rational
basis review”); Qutb v. Strauss, 11 F.3d 488, 492 (5th Cir. 1993)
(assuming without deciding that juvenile curfew implicated a
fundamental right to freedom of movement and applying
intermediate scrutiny).

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II. The D.C. Circuit’s Ruling Affirms the
Political Autonomy and Right to Self-
Determination of the People of American
Samoa.

A. The People of American Samoa Are
Entitled to Choose Their Own Political
Arrangements.
The American Samoan people have never reached
a consensus regarding the imposition of birthright
citizenship. Thus, “[t]he imposition of citizenship on
the American Samoan territory is impractical and
anomalous at a . . . fundamental level.” Pet. App.
19a. Consent of the governed is the foundational
premise of a democratic republic. Id. at 20a (citing
Kennett v. Chambers, 55 U.S. (14 How.) 38, 41
(1852)). As Justice Story explained:
[C]ivil society has its foundation in a
voluntary consent or submission; and,
therefore, it is often said to depend upon a
social compact of the people composing the
nation. And this, indeed, does not, in
substance, differ from the definition of it by
Cicero, Multitudo, juris consensu et utilitatis
communione sociata; that is . . . a multitude of
people united together by a common interest,
and by common laws, to which they submit
with one accord.
1 Joseph Story, Commentaries on the Constitution of
the United States 225–26 (Thomas M. Cooley ed., 4th
ed. 1873) (footnotes omitted). Accordingly, the state
“arises from, and its legitimacy depends upon, the
express or tacit consent of individuals. The state, in
turn, may rightfully exercise its authority only in

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accordance with the terms of that ‘social contract.’”
Neil Weinstock Netanel, Cyberspace Self-
Governance: A Skeptical View from Liberal
Democratic Theory, 88 Calif. L. Rev. 395, 409 (2000).
Citizenship, as an effect of the social compact,
defines the relationship between the individual and
the state. See Alexander M. Bickel, The Morality of
Consent 33 (1975). However, the significance of
citizenship is not limited to the sum of its benefits
nor a certain set of rights. “Citizenship contain[s] a
cluster of meanings related to a defined legal or
social status, a means of political identity, a focus of
loyalty, a requirement of duties, an expectation of
rights and a yardstick of good social behavior.”
Derek Heater, Citizenship: The Civic Ideal in World
History, Politics and Education 166 (3d ed. 2004).
The imposition of a compact of citizenship, directly
conflicting with the will of the American Samoan
people, therefore serves as an “irregular intrusion
into the autonomy of Samoan democratic decision-
making; an exercise of paternalism—if not overt
cultural imperialism—offensive to the shared
democratic traditions of the United States and
modern American Samoa.” Pet. App. 23a.
The Circuit Court paid proper attention to
modern standards of majoritarian self-determination
in deciding that an extension of birthright
citizenship without the will of the governed is in
essence a form of “autocratic subjugation” of the
American Samoan people. Id. at 20a. An extension
of constitutional citizenship to American Samoans
through judicial means would short-circuit and
undercut the democratic process of self-

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determination, undeniably putting American Samoa
on a path to greater union with the United States.
In contrast, the United States government,
specifically through the administration of the
Department of the Interior, has continuously
supported the self-determination efforts of the
American Samoan people. 3 With sincere regard for
the interests of its electorate, the elected officials of
American Samoa continue to evaluate the best steps
for maintaining or changing the Samoan relationship
with the United States through an effective
democratic method. See The Future Political Status

3See Ediberto Román & Theron Simmons, Membership Denied:
Subordination and Subjugation Under United States
Expansionism, 39 San Diego L. Rev. 437, 523 (2002); Statement
of Jay Kenneth Katzen on American Samoa, U.S. Mission to the
United Nations (Nov. 18, 1976) (“The United States is fully
aware and freely acknowledges the obligations regarding non-
selfgoverning territories which it administers specified in
Chapter 11 of the United Nations Charter, and the United
States is fully committed to the principle of self-
determination.”); Statement by the Representative of American
Samoa, Pacific Regional Seminar on the Implementation of the
Third International Decade for the Eradication of Colonialism:
Current Realities and Prospects 4 (June 1, 2012), available at
http://www.un.org/en/decolonization/pdf/crp_2012_american_sa
moa.pdf (The Department of the Interior’s “approach to the
Territory’s political status and workings has always been one of
greater self-determination for the people of American Samoa
within constraints set by the current system.”); W. Ofuatey-
Kodjoe, The Principle of Self-Determination in International
Law 79 (1977) (President Wilson states “[n]o peace can last or
ought to last which does not recognize and accept the principle
that governments derive all their just powers from the consent
of the governed, and that no right anywhere exists to hand
peoples [ ] from sovereignty to sovereignty as if they were
property.”).

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Study Commission of American Samoa 41 (Jan. 2,
2007) (incorporating the opinions of the Samoan
people through a number of public hearings,
including special hearings organized for the
traditional leaders, the local government, and
faifeaus (Samoan religious leaders) under the
auspices of the Office of Samoan Affairs).
The report of the American Samoa Future
Political Status Study Commission, commissioned to
“evaluate the impact of American Samoa’s political
status and relationship with the United States as to
the economic, cultural, land tenure, health, safety
and social needs of American Samoa,” exemplifies
the democratic efforts of Samoan elected officials to
proceed according to the will of the American
Samoan people. See Am. Samoa Code § 2.1402(d).
Similarly, a deliberate distance between the territory
and the law of the United States is necessary to
respect the cultural autonomy of American Samoa
and its way of life. See Statement of Hon. Salanoa
S.P. Aumoeualogo, Const. Hearing at 15–16
(“American Samoa enjoy and welcome our present
status as an unincorporated and unorganized
territory of the United States. It signifies our desire
to be part of the American Family, and at the same
time, it preserves and protects our communal land
and matai systems, the basic core of our Samoan way
of life.”). As described above, the imposition of
birthright citizenship would bridge this distance
and usurp the political process of self-determination.
Should the American Samoan people decide to
change their status with the United States, they
have options to do so, including a closer relationship
to the United States (like Puerto Rico or the CNMI),

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22

free association (like the Marshall Islands or the
Federated States of Micronesia), or even
independence (like the Philippines). Moreover, even
if the American Samoan people petition Congress for
statutory citizenship within the current political
framework, a change in territorial form as a
commonwealth or organized, unincorporated
territory has integral self-governance implications as
well, which are best left to the will of the people of
American Samoa.
By contrast, “impos[ing] citizenship by judicial
fiat . . . requires [the Court] to override the
democratic prerogatives of the American Samoan
people themselves.” Pet. App. 2a. The democratic
principles embedded in the social compact require
self-determination as the only legitimate means to
extending constitutional citizenship. A novel
application of the Citizenship Clause would upset the
political process and undeniably put American
Samoa on a path to greater union with United
States, an act of paternalism and overt cultural
imperialism. See John Adams, Answer of the House,
reprinted in The Briefs of The American Revolution
45, 63 (John Philip Reid ed., 1981) (“[The] Right to be
governed by Laws made by Persons in whose
Election they had a Voice . . . [is a] most essential
Right, which discriminates Freeman from Vassals.”).
B. Congress—Not the Courts—Extended
Citizenship to Other Territories and
Never Over Their Objections.
Whether or not to extend United States
citizenship to the people of American Samoa is a
question for Congress and not the courts. Petitioners
argue that citizenship is “a constitutional right” and

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not “a matter of legislative grace.” Pet. at 15. That
position is unsupported by territorial history. 4 In
every other territory, the grant of citizenship has been
made by Congress, not the courts. See 48 U.S.C. §
1421 and 8 U.S.C. § 1407 (Guam); Jones-Shafroth
Act of 1917, Pub. L. 64-368, 39 Stat. 951 (Puerto
Rico); Act of March 24, 1976, 90 Stat. 266 (CNMI); 8
U.S.C. § 1406 (U.S. Virgin Islands). Neither the
American Samoan people nor Congress has chosen to
alter the status of American Samoa. Congress has
designated American Samoa as an “outlying
possession” of the United States, 8 U.S.C.
1101(a)(29), and declared that persons born to non-
U.S. citizen parents in an outlying possession of the
United States on or after its date of acquisition are
nationals, but not U.S. Citizens, at birth. 8 U.S.C.
1408(1). When Congress had opportunity to amend
the American Samoa Constitution in 1984, it made
clear that it was a policy of the United States not to
impose her way of life on American Samoa.
These grants of citizenship in other territories
have also been made without any significant
controversy from the people’s elected
representatives. And rightly so, as questions of
birthright citizenship are tied to questions of political
status, and thus are necessarily political questions
best left to the democratic process. Respect for the
shared democratic traditions of the United States

4 Even with respect to territories that have been granted
citizenship by Congress, there is a recognized difference
between statutory and constitutional citizenship. See Pet. App.
14a (“This court, like the lower court, is also mindful of the
years of past practice in which territorial citizenship has been
treated as a statutory, and not a constitutional right.”)

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and modern American Samoa dictates that the
majoritarian will of the Samoan people determine
their status at such time and in such manner as they
themselves decide. See King v. Andrus, 452 F. Supp.
11, 15 (D.D.C. 1977) (“The institutions of the present
government of American Samoa reflect . . . the
democratic tradition.”). The court below found that,
at this time, there is an “absence of evidence that a
majority of the territory’s inhabitants endorse such a
tie,” and, in fact, “the territory’s democratically
elected representatives actively oppose such a
compact.” Pet. App. 22a.
American Samoa has worked closely with
Congress to maintain a deliberate distance between
the territory and the law of the United States. It has
done so because this distance is necessary to respect
the cultural autonomy of American Samoa and its
way of life. See Statement of Hon. Salanoa S.P.
Aumoeualogo, Const. Hearing at 15, 16. If this Court
chooses to bridge that distance by imposing
citizenship on Samoans, it would effectively decide
the political status of American Samoa without any
democratic input. This would be both unjustified
and anomalous when compared to the experience of
other territories.
CNMI. Take, for example, the experience of the
Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands.
There, Congress took action to promote self-
determination and granted U.S. citizenship in
response to the “clearly expressed [desires of the
CNMI people] over the past twenty years through
public petition and referendum.” H.R.J. Res. 549,
94th Cong. (1976).

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Following World War II, Congress approved the
Trusteeship Agreement for the former Japanese
governed islands of the Northern Marianas,
Marshall and Caroline in 1947. See Liebowitz,
Defining Status: A Comprehensive Analysis of United
States Territorial Relations, at 526–27. “The
Trusteeship was only three years old” when the
CNMI people began the first in a series of democratic
efforts to request political association with the
United States. Id. at 527. In 1950, “the Northern
Marianas House of Council and the House of
Commissioners petitioned” the United States “to
terminate the trusteeship and incorporate the
Mariana Islands into the United States as a territory
or possession.” Id. In 1961, a plebiscite was held on
the most populated islands of the Northern Mariana
Islands, resulting in a majority of votes favoring re-
integration with the territory of Guam, which had
been granted U.S. citizenship in 1950 via the Guam
Organic Act. Id. As the Visiting Mission from the
United Nations reported to the U.N. Trusteeship
Council, “[t]here is an almost unanimous desire
among the people in regard to seeking United States
citizenship.” Report of the United Nations Visiting
Mission to the Trust Territory of the Pacific Islands
(1961) at 10. In 1963, another plebiscite was
conducted and reflected a similar desire to
reintegrate with Guam and to obtain U.S.
citizenship. See Liebowitz, Defining Status: A
Comprehensive Analysis of United States Territorial
Relations, at 527. Guam’s 1969 plebiscite vote
against reintegration with the Northern Mariana
Islanders, however, sent the people of Northern
Marianas to seek a more direct solution for self-

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26

government and permanent ties to the United
States. See id. at 528.
On February 15, 1975, the “Covenant to Establish
a Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands in
Political Union with the United States of America”
was signed by the United States and the Marianas
Political Status Commission for the people of the
Northern Mariana Islands, providing for, among
other things, the collective naturalization of
Northern Mariana Islanders at the same time that
the United States trusteeship of the Northern
Mariana Islands would terminate in 1986. H.R.J.
Res. 549, 94th Cong. (1976). On February 20, 1975,
“the covenant was approved by the unanimous vote
of the Mariana Islands District Legislature . . . and
by a 78.8% [vote] of the people of the Northern
Mariana Islands voting in a plebiscite held on June
17, 1975. Id.
Unlike the Commonwealth of the Northern
Mariana Islands, American Samoa has not made the
legislative and political decision to request a change
it its status. Thus, the D.C. Circuit was correct in
recognizing that the imposition of citizenship that
directly conflicts with the will of the American
Samoan people serves as an “irregular intrusion into
the autonomy of Samoan democratic decision-
making; an exercise of paternalism—if not overt
cultural imperialism.” Pet. App. 23a.
Guam. The experience of Guam is also
instructive. Guam was originally acquired by the
United States under the Treaty of Paris, Dec. 10,
1898. Before it was statutorily granted in 1950
through the Guam Organic Act, 48 U.S.C. § 1421 and
8 U.S.C. § 1407, the Guamanian people had long

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expressed a strong desire for United States
citizenship. Prior to the Act’s passage, the
Guamanian legislature “repeatedly petitioned the
Federal Government for United States citizenship.”
H.R. Rep. No. 1677 at 2 (1950). Not only that, the
“elected representatives [of Guam] unanimously
carried a resolution memorializing” their desire for
Congress to “determine [their] civil rights and
political status by the passage of an organic act
providing, among other things, the establishment of
the Territory of Guam, and the government thereof,
and conferring United States citizenship upon
certain of the inhabitants thereof.” Statement of
Franciusci B. Leon-Guerrero, Member of the House
Council of the Guam Cong., Civil Government for
Guam: Hearing on S. 185, S. 1892 and H.R. 7273
Before the Subcomm. of the S. Comm. on Interior and
Insular Affairs, 81st Cong. 44 (1950). “[N]ot a single
person” who appeared before the Congressional
committee hearings on granting statutory citizenship
to Guam “testified against passage of this measure.”
H.R. Rep No. 1677 at 2 (1950).
At the same time Congress considered citizenship
for residents of Guam, it also considered a bill to
grant citizenship to American Samoa. See H.R. Rep.
No. 1677 at 8 (1950) (discussing H.R. 4500, “a bill to
provide a civil government for American Samoa”).
Samoan leaders expressed their strong opposition to
citizenship, citing the “overwhelming desire of the
people of Samoa not to make any change of their
government at this time.” Ltr. from High Chief
Tufele-Faia’oga to Chief Clerk of Senate Committee
on Interior and Insular Affairs, Civil Government for
Guam, Hearings on H.R. 7273 Before Senate
Subcommittee of Committee on Interior and Insular

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Affairs, 81st Cong. 2d Sess. 866–67 (dated Feb. 27,
1950). Even amici for the Petitioners, including
former elected officials of Guam, emphasize that the
people of Guam desired citizenship and fought to
secure it, unlike the people of American Samoa. See
Brief for Amici Curiae Members of Congress and
Former Governmental Officials at 18.
USVI. The case of the U.S. Virgin Islands also
illustrates Congress’s consideration of a territory’s
self-determination when determining the political
status of a territory’s citizens, even if not
immediately. The United States purchased the U.S.
Virgin Islands from Denmark in 1916 pursuant to a
Convention ratified on January 17, 1917, after two
previous attempts to purchase the islands had failed.
Denmark attempted to negotiate U.S. citizenship for
the Danish inhabitants of the Virgin Islands upon
cession, but had to settle for a preferred status over
non-Danish Virgin Islanders. See Liebowitz, Defining
Status: A Comprehensive Analysis of United States
Territorial Relations, at 248. Congress passed the
first Organic Act on March 3, 1917 that provided for
a temporary government, but failed to resolve the
citizenship of the Virgin Islanders. Act of Mar. 3,
1917, 39 Stat. 1132.
Then, in 1927, Congress granted U.S. citizenship
to the people of the Virgin Islands. See 8 U.S.C. §
1406. And as local ambitions for greater self-
determination by Virgin Islanders grew, Congress
passed subsequent Organic Acts in 1936 and 1954
that each provided for a greater degree of self-
governance. See Act of June 22, 1936, 49 Stat. 1807
(1936) (codified at 48 U.S.C. § 1405 (1936)); Act of
July 22, 1954, 68 Stat. 497 (1954) (codified at 48

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U.S.C. § 1541 (1954)). In 1964, the Virgin Islands
held its first Constitutional Convention and adopted
a Resolution on Status which stated, among other
things, that the people of the Virgin Islands “are
unalterably opposed to independence from the
United States of America,” and wish to “remain an
unincorporated territory under the constitutional
system of the United States . . . .” In 1988, Congress
approved a constitution drafted by the Virgin
Islands. See Jon M. Van Dyke, The Evolving Legal
Relationships Between the United States and Its
Affiliated U.S-Flag Islands, 14 U. Haw. L. Rev. 445,
498 (1992). And in 1993, a referendum held on the
status of the U.S. Virgin Islands further reflected the
desire of the people of the Virgin Islands to maintain
their relationship with the United States. Id.
Puerto Rico. Like Guam, Puerto Rico was
originally acquired by the United States under the
Treaty of Paris, Dec. 10, 1898. It was granted
citizenship not long after. See Jones-Shafroth Act of
1917, Pub. L. 64-368, 39 Stat. 951. Similar to the
experience of other territories, delegates from Puerto
Rico’s controlling political party expressed support
for citizenship at Congressional hearings on the
Jones-Shafroth Act. Statement of Cayetano Coll
Cuchi, Civil Government for Porto Rico: Hearings on
H.R. 8501 Before the H. Comm. on Insular Affairs,
64th Cong. (1916); see also Statement of Antonio R.
Barcelo on Behalf of the Unionist Party of Porto Rico,
Civil Government for Porto Rico: Hearings on H.R.
8501 Before the H. Comm. on Insular Affairs, 64th
Cong. (1916)). Citizenship in all other territories,
therefore, has been granted with the imprimatur of
democratic will and Congressional inquiry, both of
which are notably lacking here.

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30

***
A judicial decision extending United States
citizenship to the people of American Samoa would
contravene these democratic processes and resolve
for American Samoa important questions that should
be left to the people of American Samoa. Ironically,
under the guise of “equality,” the judiciary would
achieve what the U.S. Navy could not: a conquest of
American Samoa over the will of its people.
CONCLUSION
For the foregoing reasons, this Court should deny
the petition for writ of certiorari.

May 11, 2016 Respectfully submitted,

MICHAEL F. WILLIAMS
Counsel of Record
KATHLEEN A. BROGAN
KIRKLAND & ELLIS LLP
655 Fifteenth St., N.W.
Washington, DC 20005
(202) 879-5000
michael.williams@kirkland.com

Counsel for Respondents

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EXHIBIT 25

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Christina Duffy Ponsa, Opinion, Are American Samoans American? N.Y. Times (June 8, 2016),
https://tinyurl.com/y9wtsvcm.

https://www.nytimes.com/2016/06/08/opinion/are-american-samoans-american.html

OP-ED CONTRIBUTOR

Are American Samoans American?Are
American Samoans American?

Anthony Russo

By Christina Duffy Ponsa
June 8, 2016

THE Supreme Court will soon decide whether to hear an appeal in Tuaua v. United
States, which poses the question of whether the Citizenship Clause of the 14th
Amendment applies to American Samoa. That this is a question at all is puzzling, and
not just because it’s called American Samoa.

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The 14th Amendment to the Constitution guarantees citizenship to “all persons born or
naturalized in the United States, and subject to the jurisdiction thereof.” The United
States annexed the eastern half of a group of Pacific islands known as the Samoas at
the end of the 19th century. As a result, those islands became American Samoa. Surely,
people born in American Samoa are legally speaking born in the United States and
therefore citizens by birth. Easy, right?

Not so easy. The answer is that no one knows for sure.

How is it possible that a question as basic as who is a citizen at birth under our
Constitution remains unresolved in a place subject to the sovereignty of the United
States? To understand, you have to dive into the muck that is the law of the United
States territories.

When the United States closed the deal to annex American Samoa in 1899, it left open
whether the islands had become part of the United States for purposes of citizenship. The
previous year, the United States had defeated Spain in the Spanish-American War and had
taken sovereignty over Spain’s former colonies — Puerto Rico, the Philippines and Guam.

It was left to the Supreme Court to figure out the constitutional relationship between
these new territories and the rest of the United States. In the rhetoric of the day, must
the Constitution “follow the flag”? In the Insular Cases of 1901, the court handed
imperialists a victory. According to Downes v. Bidwell, the new territories belonged to
the United States but were not necessarily a part of it. They could be governed as
colonies, with fewer constitutional constraints. The places affected by the court’s
ruling came to be known as “unincorporated” territories. Today, they include Puerto
Rico, the Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands, the United States Virgin
Islands, Guam and American Samoa.

To be an unincorporated territory is to be caught in limbo: although unquestionably
subject to American sovereignty, they are considered part of the United States for
certain purposes but not others. Whether they are part of the United States for purposes
of the Citizenship Clause remains unresolved.

By statute, persons born in all of the unincorporated territories except American Samoa
are citizens at birth: In American Samoa, you become a “national,” not a citizen.
Congress originally refused to give the inhabitants of the new territories citizenship,
but the court decided that they weren’t quite foreigners, either. Eventually, the State
Department came up with the label “nationals.” Although Congress later extended
statutory citizenship to other territories, American Samoans remained “nationals,” in
part to accommodate their cultural distinctiveness.

Yet if American Samoa is part of the United States under the 14th Amendment, then
this arrangement obviously violates the Citizenship Clause.

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The painful colonial politics of the United States territories often feature deep internal
divisions, further reducing their already weak leverage. The Tuaua case (in which I am
an author of an amicus brief) is no exception. The American Samoan plaintiffs seeking
constitutional birthright citizenship have found themselves at odds with the American
Samoan government, which intervened in the case on the side of the United States.

The plaintiffs in Tuaua, including several veterans of the American military, describe
the discrimination American Samoans face if they move to the mainland United States
(which as “nationals” they have the right to do). Because of their lack of citizenship,
they are ineligible for many Civil Service jobs, disadvantaged in sponsoring family
members for immigration and denied the right to vote.

Yet the American Samoan government opposes citizenship for American Samoans on
the ground that it would threaten their cultural practices — an argument more
emotionally than legally compelling, since the constitutional provisions that could
threaten these practices, like the First Amendment’s religion clauses, have nothing to
do with birthright citizenship.

The United States presumably has less interest in denying citizenship to American
Samoans than in defending the validity of the underlying legal regime that was
constructed to allow the United States to project power in its territories and abroad
with fewer constitutional constraints.

Whatever the answer to the question raised in Tuaua is, it is long overdue. To be
subjected to uncertainty with respect to something as fundamental as one’s citizenship
is in and of itself a severe harm. Even in the other territories, where statutory birthright
citizenship has provided a makeshift solution for many decades, doubt, confusion and
anxiety over the extent to which citizenship is constitutionally guaranteed have
persisted for more than a century.

The 14th Amendment is supposed to protect people not only from arbitrary and unjust
denials of their citizenship, but from uncertainty about whether they are citizens at all.
Both the insult of second-class status and the injury of uncertainty are the ugly legal
legacies of 19th century American expansionism. The court should hear the Tuaua
appeal and clarify the scope of the Citizenship Clause once and for all.

Christina Duffy Ponsa is a law professor at Columbia and an editor of “Foreign in a
Domestic Sense: Puerto Rico, American Expansion, and the Constitution.”

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EXHIBIT 26

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By Noah Feldman

The circumstances of the birth of Republican presidential candidate Ted Cruz
put constitutional citizenship into the headlines. Also in the news: A federal
judge in Puerto Rico ruled last week that the U.S. Supreme Court’s gay-marriage
decision doesn’t follow the flag to the island. What would happen if you
mashed the two issues together, mixing birthright citizenship with the
Constitution’s applicability to U.S. territories?

The answer to this otherwise random-seeming question is in fact before the
Supreme Court right now. At issue is whether it’s constitutional for Congress to
deny birthright citizenship to people born in American Samoa, which has been
a U.S. territory since 1900. In June, a conservative panel of the U.S. Court of
Appeals for the D.C. Circuit upheld the congressional rule, which uniquely
applies to American Samoa and no other U.S. territory. Now the Samoan-born
plaintiffs are asking the Supreme Court to review the D.C. Circuit’s decision --
and asking Congress to change the rules.

American Samoa, a group of five islands and two atolls in the South Pacific,
became a U.S. possession in 1899 as the result of a treaty between Germany, the
U.K and the U.S. Western Samoa, which went to Germany under the treaty,
eventually became the independent country of Samoa in 1962 after many years
as a protectorate of the League of Nations and then a United Nations trust
territory.

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The eastern part, now called American Samoa, has been part of the U.S. ever
since, as an unorganized territory. The label “unorganized” means that
Congress has never passed a law called an “organic act” that would function as
the constitution of the territory. American Samoa has a constitution of its own,
enacted in 1960 and redone in 1967. But that constitution begins by relying on
the authority of Congress. The UN considers American Samoa a non-self-
governing territory.

About 55,000 people live in American Samoa. Unless they become naturalized,
they aren’t U.S. citizens. Their passports read, “The bearer is a U.S. national and
not a U.S. citizen.”

The lawsuit, which features some plaintiffs who’ve served the U.S. in the
military without ever becoming citizens, arises from the 14th Amendment,
which says that “all persons born or naturalized in the United States, and
subject to the jurisdiction thereof, are citizens of the United States and of the