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MODULE 2: Wood

2.1 Floor Systems and Framing

Wood Floor System

The floor framing is the platform structure of the building suspended by posts, columns, walls and beams. The design of a platform floor system depends upon the following considerations:

Live load

Dead load

Types of materials used

The sizing and spacing of the structural members.

The span of the supports.

Parts of a Floor System

 Block or solid bridging – short members which are fixed vertically between floor joist to
Block or solid bridging – short members which are fixed vertically between floor
joist to stiffen the joists.
Source: B.C. Dytoc Construction Drawings
Cripple stud – in a building frame, a structural element that is shorter than usual,
as a stud above and below opening.

*All text and illustrations in this section are from Building Construction Illustrated by Francis Ching except as indicated.

MODULE 2: Wood

Cross bridging diagonal bracing in pairs, between adjacent floor joists to prevent the joists from twisting. Draftstop plate a piece of lumber used to dress the edge of the joists. Floor joists the parts of the floor systems placed on the girders where the floor boards are fastened. Girder a principal beam extending from wall to wall of a building supporting the floor joists of the floor beams.

Sill the part of the side of the house that rests horizontally upon the foundation. Header a short transverse joist that supports the end of the cut-off joist at a stair well hole. Trimmer a supporting joist which carries an end portion of a header. Ledger strip a strip of lumber which is nailed to the side of the beam, forming a seat for the joists. Sole plate a horizontal timber which serves as a base for the studs in a stud partition. Sill plate a horizontal timber at the bottom of the frame of a wood structure, which rests on the foundation.

Source: Complete Building Construction Single and double header and trimmer construction for floor openings.
Source: Complete
Building Construction
Single and double header and trimmer
construction for floor openings.
Source: Architectural Graphic Standards
Source: Architectural
Graphic Standards

MODULE 2: Wood

Top

plate

a horizontal

timber at the upper

portion of

the

studs in

a

stud

partition. Hanger or stirrup a meat seat, attached to a girder to receive and support a joist.

Types of Wood Floor Systems

Wood Joist System

MODULE 2: Wood  Top plate – a horizontal timber at the upper portion of

Most typical wood floor system.

Relatively small joint members closely spaced.

Joists supported by either beams or walls.

Relatively short spans for subflooring, underlayment, and applied ceiling.

MODULE 2: Wood

Flexible in form and shape because of the workability of the material, the

relatively small pieces, and the various means of fastening available. Fire-resistance rating depends on finish floor and ceiling materials.

MODULE 2: Wood  Flexible in form and shape because of the workability of the
MODULE 2: Wood  Flexible in form and shape because of the workability of the

MODULE 2: Wood

Wood Plank and Beam System

MODULE 2: Wood Wood Plank and Beam System  Typically used with a supporting grid

Typically used with a supporting grid of posts or columns to form a skeleton frame structure. Larger but fewer structural members span greater distances with potential savings in material and labor costs. Larger beams spaced further apart and spanned with structural planking or decking. Beams supported by girders, posts, or walls. Plank and beam framing most effective when supporting moderate, evenly distributed loads. Concentrated loads and floor openings may require additional framing.

MODULE 2: Wood

If underside of construction is left exposed, it is more difficult to run concealed mechanical and electrical lines, and the system is less resistant to sound transmission. Careful attention must be paid to joint details, specially at beam-to- beam and beam-to-post connections. Disadvantages of the system include susceptibility to impact sound transmission and its inherent lack of concealed spaces to run utility lines, except when spaced posts and beams are used.

MODULE 2: Wood  If underside of construction is left exposed, it is more difficult

Wood Floor Truss

(Not commonly used in the Philippines, EAL comment Jun ‘06)

MODULE 2: Wood  If underside of construction is left exposed, it is more difficult

Trussed joints can be used instead of dimension lumber to frame floors.

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Floor trusses are pre-engineered and prefrabricated units which offer long spans,

speed of installation, and economical use of material. Form of prefabricated floor trusses vary according to manufacturers, but layout is similar in principle to conventional wood joist framing.

MODULE 2: Wood  Floor trusses are pre-engineered and prefrabricated units which offer long spans,
MODULE 2: Wood  Floor trusses are pre-engineered and prefrabricated units which offer long spans,

Source: B.C. Dytoc Construcrtion Drawings

Other Subfloor Systems

Plywood

1/8” thick.

Can span up to 4’.

Tongue and groove edges.

Laid continuously over two spans with face plies

perpendicular to staggered. No overhang possible.

beams

and

end

joints

MODULE 2: Wood  Floor trusses are pre-engineered and prefrabricated units which offer long spans,

MODULE 2: Wood

Prefabricated Panels

Plywood sheathing over nominal 2” framing which acts as floor joists. Glue-nailed or bonded with adhesives under heat and pressure to form stressed skin panels. Insulation, vapor barrier, and interior finish may be applied at one time. Limited overhang possible.

MODULE 2: Wood Prefabricated Panels  Plywood sheathing over nominal 2” framing which acts as

Wood Planking

Openings and concentrated loads require additional framing. Wood strip flooring laid at right angles to planking. Underlayment required for resilient and thinset tile flooring. Limited overhang possible.

MODULE 2: Wood Prefabricated Panels  Plywood sheathing over nominal 2” framing which acts as