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Management is a process with a social element.

It requires the efficient use of resources combined with

the guidance of people in order to reach a specific organizational objective. It involves responsibility to
achieve the objectives and to fulfill specific organizational purposes through economical and effective
planning and regulation. It’s about taking charge and ensuring focus is placed on the things and aspects of
the business that help achieve the vision and the goals.
Henri Fayol
The French engineer established the first principles of the classical management theory at the start of the
last century. Fayol is considered the founding father of concepts such the line and staff organization.
As well as setting out 14 general principles of management, Fayol also defined the five core functions of
management, which are still used and which form the basis of much of the later theories. To Fayol, manages
is a process, which includes forecasting, planning, organizing, commanding and controlling.
George R. Terry
After Fayol, many theorists have looked at the functions and crafter their own ideas, deviating only slightly
from Fayol’s core functions. George R. Terry wrote a book Principles of Management in 1968 and outlined
his view on the principles. Terry believed there to be four core functions, each function posing and
responding to a specific question the management must solve.

The Question The Function The Result

Objectives, policies, procedures

What is the need? Planning
and methods

Where should actions take place Work division, work assignment,

and who should do what work? and authority utilization

Why and how should group Leadership, communication,

members perform their tasks? development, and incentives

Are the actions being performed Reports, comparisons, costs and

according to plan? budgets

Harold Koontz and Cyril O’Donnell

In 1976, Harold Koontz and Cyril O’Donnell published an essay Management: A Systems and Contingency
Analysis of Managerial Functions. They felt the previous studies have been effective in describing the
functions, but believed the division should be more detailed. Koontz and O’Donnell believed there to be five
key functions of management:

 Planning  Directing/Leading
 Organizing  Controlling
 Staffing
The first managerial function involves planning. The function is about creating a detailed plan towards achieving a
specific organizational objective. When you are planning, you are identifying the tasks, which are required to achieve the
desired goals, outlining how the tasks should be performed, and identifying when and by whom they must be
performed. The focus of planning is about achieving the objectives and it does require knowledge of the organization’s
objectives and vision. You will need to look both at the short- and long-term success of the organization as part of the
The next function of management follows planning and it is about organizing. It’s about using the plan to bring together
the physical, financial and other available resources and use them to achieve the organizational goal. If your task were to
increase sales, you would look at the plan and determine how to divide the resources you have in order to put your plan
in place.
The staffing function is an increasingly important function of management, although it is sometimes left out when the
core functions are discussed. It can be seen closely related to organizing, with both focused on ensuring the resources
are directed to the right processes and tasks. For staffing, the focus is on people and their labor in relation to the
organizational objectives.
The function aims to ensure the organization always has the right people in the right positions and the organizational
structure isn’t hindered by lack or excess of personnel. You would essentially be looking at the tasks ahead of you and
determining who should do what and if you have the right manpower to achieve the objectives you want.
The fourth function is known as directing, sometimes also referred to as the influencing or the leading function of
management. Directing is about the actuation of the methods to work efficiently to achieve the set organizational
objectives. The function goes beyond organizing the employees to their specific roles and involves ensuring they are able
to perform the tasks through a variety of means. Directing in essence is looking after productivity and ensuring
productivity is going up instead of decreasing.
The final function of management is controlling. The function ensures the other four functions are followed correctly
and the flow of work is moving the organization towards the objectives it has set itself.

Organisational artefacts are materials, buildings, symbols, names, images, logos, catchwords that make sense to all the
stakeholders of an organisation; they therefore have meanings and do not just exist. Artefacts demonstrate the culture,
norms and values of those who are in the organisation as well as all its stakeholders.
Artifacts include any tangible or visible elements in an organization (Denison, 1990): for example, architecture, facilities,
offices, furnishings, technology, products, language, dress code, office jokes, manners of address, myths, stories, all
exemplify organizational artifacts. Artifacts are the visible elements in a culture, easy to observe, but difficult to
decipher. Thus, verbal, behavioral and physical artifacts that can be recognized by people, can be seen, felt and heard on
surface (Schein, 1992; Trice, 1984; Dalkir, 2005).
One of the ‘core growth patterns’ of this language is Culture in the Artifacts (May 2001):
this pattern suggests that culture can be infused throughout the organization by expressing it in
the artifacts of the organization. This pattern discusses three types of artifacts where an
organization’s culture can be expressed:
1. Physical artifacts: these are physical objects and environments in the organization
(e.g. pieces of artwork, furniture, rooms, meeting places, equipment).
2. Information artifacts: these are primarily informational or computational (e.g. lists,
directories, databases, computer applications).
3. Conceptual artifacts: these are objects that we use in our mental or conceptual space
(e.g. metaphors, stories, patterns, etc).
The patterns in this paper assume this overall context: you are applying Culture in the Artifacts (May 2001) in your
organization, because you want to grow it by spreading a certain type of culture throughout your organization and you
wish to do so by infusing the culture in the organization’s different artifacts.
Stories That Bind are useful for helping an organization look to the past, drawing from the organization’s history and
using it to explain the present and inform future action. Activities That Shape are used to reinforce an organization’s
present culture and practice, anchoring to the past (where the activities were practiced) and reassuring towards the
future (where these activities will continue). Metaphors That Inspire are used to drive the organization forward, drawing
from stories and activities as a foundation. Patterns That Capture can be applied anywhere in the organization’s
trajectory, but are products of more of a reflective, meta-level activity. At any point, patterns can be captured and
applied throughout the trajectory of an organization. It is likely that the further an organization travels on its trajectory,
the more opportunity there is for patterns to emerge and be applied. These patterns focus on how culture in conceptual
artifacts may be created. The target user for these patterns is the organizational designer. I use this term to mean
someone who has a role in configuring and designing the organization (how it functions, how it is structured). I do not
limit this role to management at strategic levels, since any employee can be effective in this activity—applying these
patterns—at various levels. This effectiveness will vary in proportion to whether an employee is considered a thought-
leader and the responsibility/power that the employee has within the organization.

Privileged status attained by an employee because of the length of continuous service with the same employer, and
which usually determines the order of promotion, benefits, or layoffs.
Seniority at Workplace:
At a workplace which is represented by union, seniority drives major decisions within the organization be it regarding
wages, promotions, pays & perks etc. All these conditions of decision making are agreed upon in the contract signed by
the union. The same applies to skilled trade workers who are also a part of unions.
Seniority is not very important in a forward thinking organization which is less likely to give preference to senior
employees unless it’s an important part of salary, promotions and other important management decisions. Seniority is
just a condition here, which doesn’t guarantee a preferential treatment.
Advantages of Seniority at workplace:
1. Senior employees get the rights to decide on the time they’ll be going on vacation, holidays etc. Senior
employees decide on their time for vacation rather than a lower seniority employee who just gets work holidays
and has to finish off with his work and ask permission from the seniors for a vacation.
2. Seniors have the flexibility of working in the location and at times which are best suited to them so that the job
becomes more enjoyable for them.
3. They are always protected from the potential layoffs occurring in the organization, hence tend to have a high
level of job security compared to people with low level of seniority.
4. Being senior ensures that the person is guaranteed a promotion and rise in the job.
Disadvantages of Seniority at workplace:
1. Once a person reaches the higher ranks the career progression rate/ growth becomes very slow or else we can
say that it becomes quite steady. Example. After becoming the VP –HR the person enters the pay band of a CEO
and there is not much scope in terms of the income as well as the pays and perks that he gets.
2. One major disadvantage is that the organization does not reward you in the same manner as it used to reward
the person earlier when he was at lower seniority level. The organization starts thinking that after spending so
many years in the organization it is the person’s responsibility that the organization performs best in terms of its
capability and capacity.

Differences between leader and manager

1. Leaders create a vision, managers create goals.
Leaders paint a picture of what they see as possible and inspire and engage their people in turning that vision into
reality. They think beyond what individuals do. They activate people to be part of something bigger. They know that
high-functioning teams can accomplish a lot more working together than individuals working autonomously. Managers
focus on setting, measuring and achieving goals. They control situations to reach or exceed their objectives.
2. Leaders are change agents, managers maintain the status quo.
Leaders are proud disrupters. Innovation is their mantra. They embrace change and know that even if things are
working, there could be a better way forward. And they understand and accept the fact that changes to the system
often create waves. Managers stick with what works, refining systems, structures and processes to make them better.
3. Leaders are unique, managers copy.
Leaders are willing to be themselves. They are self-aware and work actively to build their unique and differentiated
personal brand. They are comfortable in their own shoes and willing to stand out. They’re authentic and transparent.
Managers mimic the competencies and behaviors they learn from others and adopt their leadership style rather than
defining it.
4. Leaders take risks, managers control risk .
Leaders are willing to try new things even if they may fail miserably. They know that failure is often a step on the path to
success. Managers work to minimize risk. They seek to avoid or control problems rather than embracing them.
5. Leaders are in it for the long haul, managers think short-term.
Leaders have intentionality. They do what they say they are going to do and stay motivated toward a big, often very
distant goal. They remain motivated without receiving regular rewards. Managers work on shorter-term goals, seeking
more regular acknowledgment or accolades.
6. Leaders grow personally, managers rely on existing, proven skills.
Leaders know if they aren’t learning something new every day, they aren’t standing still, they’re falling behind. They
remain curious and seek to remain relevant in an ever-changing world of work. They seek out people and information
that will expand their thinking. Managers often double down on what made them successful, perfecting existing skills
and adopting proven behaviors.
7. Leaders build relationships, managers build systems and processes.
Leaders focus on people – all the stakeholders they need to influence in order to realize their vision. They know who
their stakeholders are and spend most of their time with them. They build loyalty and trust by consistently delivering on
their promise. Managers focus on the structures necessary to set and achieve goals. They focus on the analytical and
ensure systems are in place to attain desired outcomes. They work with individuals and their goals and objectives.
8. Leaders coach, managers direct.
Leaders know that people who work for them have the answers or are able to find them. They see their people as
competent and are optimistic about their potential. They resist the temptation to tell their people what to do and how
to do it. Managers assign tasks and provide guidance on how to accomplish them.
9. Leaders create fans, managers have employees.
Leaders have people who go beyond following them; their followers become their raving fans and fervent promoters –
helping them build their brand and achieve their goals. Their fans help them increase their visibility and credibility.
Managers have staff who follow directions and seek to please the boss.

1.A leader invents or innovates while a manager organizes.

The leader of the team comes up with the new ideas and kick starts the organization’s shift or transition to a forward-
thinking phase. A leader always has his or her eyes set on the horizon, developing new techniques and strategies for the
organization. A leader has immense knowledge of all the current trends, advancements, and skill sets—and has clarity of
purpose and vision.
By contrast, a manager is someone who generally only maintains what is already established. A manager needs to watch
the bottom line while controlling employees and workflow in the organization and preventing any kind of chaos.
2. A manager relies on control whereas a leader inspires trust
A leader is a person who pushes employees to do their best and knows how to set an appropriate pace and tempo for
the rest of the group. Managers, on the other hand, are required by their job description to establish control over
employees which, in turn, help them develop their own assets to bring out their best. Thus, managers have to
understand their subordinates well to do their job effectively.
3.A leader asks the questions “what” and “why whereas a manager leans more towards the questions “how” and
To be able to do justice to their role as leader, some may question and challenge authority to modify or even reverse
decisions that may not have the team’s best interests in mind.
Good leadership requires a great deal of good judgment, especially when it comes to the ability to stand up to senior
management over a point of concern or if there is an aspect in need of improvement. If a company goes through a rough
patch, a leader will be the one who will stand up and ask the question: “What did we learn from this?”
Managers, however, are not required to assess and analyze failures. Their job description emphasizes asking the
questions “how” and “when,” which usually helps them make sure that plans are properly executed. They tend to accept
the status quo exactly the way it is and do not attempt a change.
What is organization?
A social unit of people that is structured and managed to meet a need or to pursue collective goals. All organizations
have a management structure that determines relationships between the different activities and the members, and
subdivides and assigns roles, responsibilities, and authority to carry out different tasks. Organizations are open systems--
they affect and are affected by their environment.
What is POLC?

Strategic planning involves analyzing competitive opportunities and threats, as well as the strengths and weaknesses of
the organization, and then determining how to position the organization to compete effectively in their environment.
Tactical planning is intermediate-range (one to three years) planning that is designed to develop relatively concrete and
specific means to implement the strategic plan.
Operational planning generally assumes the existence of organization-wide or subunit goals and objectives and specifies
ways to achieve them.