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Template: ESRI Geologic Mapping Template: Essentials

Version: 1

Introduction

The Geologic Mapping Template: Essentials is the companion to the Getting Started with the Geologic
Mapping Template document and provides essential information on the template geodatabase structure
and characteristics of geologic representation symbology.

Why a Geologic Mapping Template?

GIS-based geologic mapping methods are not widely known, yet GIS provides an excellent framework to
manage the complexity of information and exacting symbology that appears on geologic maps. The
geologic mapping template provides the resources needed to successfully create a geologic map in
ArcGIS. It also provides the cartographic standard that will facilitate consistency in communicating
geologic information.

Geologic Mapping Template Geodatabase structure

The Geologic Mapping Template geodatabase contains


feature dataset, representations classes, supporting
tables and a toolbox. Each of these components is
described in greater detail in the sections below. Refer to
the ESRI Geologic Template DB.pdf for a description of
the feature classes, domains and tables.

Feature classes

The GeologicMap feature dataset is modeled after the


Contents of Appendix A of the Cartographic Standard.
Each feature class in the dataset has been assigned a
feature class ID and can be referenced by the Feature
Class domain on the FeatureClass field in the
FGDC_Lookup table. Each feature class in GeologicMap
also has a FC_ID field that references the Feature Class
domain.

Supporting tables

Supporting tables have two origins: ESRI and the USGS


NCGMP09 data model. ESRI tables include the
FGDC_Lookup and the GeologicAge tables. NCGMP09
tables include: ChangeLog, DataSources,
DescriptionOfMapUnits, ExtendedAttributes,
GeologicEvents, Glossary, StandardLithology.

Geologic Mapping Template (GMT) tools

GMT_Tools is a toolbox that contains all of the tools you


need to make a geologic map with your data and the
template geodatabase.

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FGDC Digital Cartographic Standard for Geologic Map Symbolization

Contents of Appendix A: The basis for the GeologicMap dataset structure

Representation Classes

Just as the feature class structure of the template geodatabase is modeled after the Contents of
Appendix A of the Cartographic Standard, so are the representation classes that store the geology
symbols. With the exception of MapUnitPolys and OverlayPolys, all feature classes in the template
geodatabase have a representation class that contains the symbols for that feature class and the
corresponding Section of the Cartographic Standard. The bedding feature class, for example, contains all
of the symbols from Section 6 of the Cartographic Standard. Faults, on the other hand, contain a subset
of symbols from Section 2, based on a priority level determined by the USGS. Other symbols (Glacial
and Surficial features) from multiple sections have been combined in a single feature class where other
symbols (Folds, for example) have been divided into point and line feature classes.

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Geologic Mapping Template Essentials

Mount Baker Example

Geologic Map of the Mount Baker


30-Minute by 60-Minute Quadrangle, Washington (I-2660)
By R.W. Tabor, R.A. Haugerud, Wes Hildreth, and E.H. Brown, 2006

The Geologic Map of the Mount Baker 30- by 60- Quadrangle Mount Baker (scale 1:100,000) and its
digital data were used to test the data migration and mapping process. The Mount Baker map and its
data were well documented and contained a complexity that lead to the development of modification
techniques required to complete the map.

The original data set was downloaded in coverage format from the USGS. This data then followed all of
the processing steps outlined in Getting Started with the Geologic Mapping Template document to
produce the final MountBaker.mxd included in the template

Cartographic Representations: An Overview

Cartographic representations store information about how features should be symbolized on a map. An
ArcMap layer references cartographic representations when representations are selected to symbolize a
layer. Because representations allow you to store your data and symbology in the same location, you
can easily share your data and symbology by simply sharing your database.

Representation symbology is stored as a representation class in the geodatabase. Each representation


class is composed of a set of representation rules. Only one rule can be assigned to a unique feature,
but the same rule can be assigned to multiple features. These rules can be viewed in ArcCatalog or
ArcMap.

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Geologic Mapping Template Essentials

Cartographic Representations: Implementing the Cartographic Standard

The Cartographic Standard defines the cartographic specifications for geologic symbology. Cartographic
representations make it possible to implement the symbol complexity defined in the Cartographic
Standard. These symbols have been designed following the guidance outlined in the Cartographic
Standard and the USGS.

One of the benefits of cartographic representations is that they allow you to modify the geometry of a
symbol without modifying the underlying feature geometry. The remainder of this document is dedicated
to detailing the characteristics of geologic representation symbology, how to work with geologic
representation symbology and how to modify geologic representation symbology.

Geologic Representation Symbology: Characteristics

Point feature representations

Point feature representations contain the symbols for planar geologic features (i.e. orientation of bedded
strata), linear point features (plunge of fold axis) and informational point data (fossil localities; line
decorations for contacts and faults).

Planar geologic features (orientation point symbols): Symbols for planar geologic features are typically
composed of a long shaft and decoration, usually a tick or triangle, in the middle of the shaft. When the
symbol is plotted on a map, the symbol adheres to the right-hand rule described in the Cartographic
Standard. The shaft should be oriented in the strike direction and the tick (or triangle tip) should be
pointing in the down-dip direction. The dip value is added as a label, or annotation.

A planar geologic feature representation symbol is composed of a marker layer. The zero position of the
representation marker symbol shaft is oriented at 0 , or North, in a geographic coordinate system. The
dip tick (or triangle tip) is oriented at 90 , or East, in a geographic coordinate system. The representation
rule references the SymbolRotation field to plot the symbol. This value is calculated from the
strike/azimuth value. The dip value label can be properly aligned and offset from the symbol using the
Maplex label engine.

Example planar geologic feature from the Mount Baker dataset: Inclined Metamorphic Foliation

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Linear geologic point features (orientation point symbols): Symbols for linear geologic point features are
typically composed of a long shaft and decoration, usually an arrow, at the end of the shaft. When the
symbol is plotted on a map, the symbol adheres to the right-hand rule described in the Cartographic
Standard. The shaft and arrow should be oriented in the direction of the bearing. The plunge value is
added as a label, or annotation.

A linear geologic feature representation symbol is composed of a marker layer. The zero position of the
representation marker symbol shaft and arrow are oriented at 0 , or North, in a geographic coordinate
system. The representation rule references the SymbolRotation field to plot the symbol. This value is
calculated from the strike/azimuth value.

The dip value label can be properly aligned and offset from the symbol using the Maplex label engine.

Example linear geologic feature from the Mount Baker dataset: Inclined generic lineation

Representations and Rotation

Cartographic representations and Maplex label engine allow geologist to completely automate the plotting
and labeling of planar and linear geologic point features. However, the way that a geologist measures
and records the strike/azimuth differs from how representations plot the symbol. Geologists measure and
record the strike as an azimuth, with north as 0 , measured in a clockwise direction. Representations use
graphic rotation, with 0 at the top, measured in a counterclockwise direction.

Three Rotation Types

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Informational point data: Informational point representation symbols are included in the Geophysical and
Structural Control Points (GSControlPoints) and the Observation and ornamentation point representation
classes. Observation and ornamentation symbols are added as line decorations on contact, fault and
joint lines. This can be done using the Align Marker To Stroke or Fill tool in the Symbolization Refinement
toolbox under Cartography Tools.

Use the Align Marker To Stroke Or Fill tool to align observation and ornamentation
symbols to the line they decorate.

Line feature representations

Line feature representations contain the symbols for planar geologic features and linear geologic
features. A planar geologic feature is a two-dimensional surface and includes contacts, key beds, faults
and folds. A linear geologic feature is a one-dimensional geologic or geomorphic line and includes all
other lines.

Representation symbols for all linear features are composed of stroke layers and marker layers. The
stroke layer is the line representing a linear geologic feature. The width and color of the line represents
the general classification of the geologic feature, such as a contact, fault or fold. The line dash pattern
represents the degree of locational accuracy. The level of scientific confidence is represented by a query
mark (or lack of) along the line.

Contact example: line dash pattern represents the degree of locational accuracy. Query marks represent
questionable scientific confidence (image from page A-iii of the Cartographic Standard).

A marker symbol is added to a line to represent the feature type. Thrust faults, for example, are
symbolized by a triangle placed at fixed intervals along a line. Anticlines are represented by two arrows
pointing in opposite directions placed along a line. With few exceptions, the marker decoration is placed
along the line to adhere to the right-hand rule described in the Cartographic Standard. If the line feature
is digitized correctly, the line symbol decoration will fall to the right side of the line as you move from the

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Geologic Mapping Template Essentials

“from” node to the “to” node. How the marker appears on the line depends on the cartographic
representations Maker Placement settings. Three types of marker placements are used on the markers
layer: along line, on vertices, and at extremities.

Along line marker placement: The along line placement produces a repeating pattern for the line symbol
decoration. This pattern coincides with the line pattern that represents the locational accuracy of the
geologic feature. With the exception of the normal fault symbol, all fault symbols implement the along line
marker placement.

On vertices marker placement: The on vertices placement requires the manual placement of the line
decoration in an ArcMap edit session by the mapping geologist.

Normal faults and all folds have the on vertices marker placements applied to the representation markers.
The line decoration will not appear on the line unless a control point is added to the line. The fault ball
and bar line decoration in the image below appears along the dashed line where a control point was
manually placed during an ArcMap edit session.

Adding a control point to place decoration on an inferred normal fault line symbol in the Mount Baker
map

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Fold line decorations will only be placed where a control point is added. This can be done manually in an
edit session or it can be automated using the Set Representation Control Point at Intersect tool.

Adding control points to an anticline

At extremities marker placement: The at extremities placement allows plunging anticline and syncline
symbols to be placed on any fold line feature. This can be done in an edit session, modifying only
selected features. Refer to the Cartographic Representations: Modifications section for more
information.

Plunging anticline Plunging Syncline

The plunging anticline and syncline symbols can be added to any type of fold line. The plunging
anticline and syncline symbols do not draw by default. The symbol can be placed at both ends or one
end of a selected line by changing the Extremity setting from "none" to "Both", "Just begin" or "Just end"
in an ArcMap edit session.

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Geologic Representation Symbology: Symbol Modifications

Cartographic representations allow you to modify the symbol geometry and orientation without modifying
the underlying feature geometry. This maintains the default representation definition, but allows for
flexibility in plotting exceptions to the representation rule. This can be done by selecting individual (or a
group) of features in an edit session.

Point features

Point symbols should be plotted so that strike, dip and top have the correct orientation on the map. In the
Mount Baker map, representation symbols had the correct orientation for the shaft and dip tick, but the
tops of overturned and vertical bedding features were not properly oriented.

The default orientation only needed to be changed for selected features in the Mount Baker map. To
selectively modify representations:

1. Start and edit session


2. Select the feature/features
3. Open the attributes dialog by clicking on the attributes icon on the Editor toolbar
4. Click on the Bedding_Rep tab
5. Click on the marker symbol
6. Click on Properties to access the Marker Editor
7. In Marker Editor, select the marker symbol
8. Right-click on the selected marker symbol
9. Select Transform method
10. Click OK

Attributes window

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Mount Baker Marker Editor: showing overturned bedding with tops

Before vertical flip After vertical flip

Note that the “x” in the center of the Marker Editor represents the data point center. This “x” also
represents the rotation axis for the symbol.

Data point center

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Line features

The line decoration should be placed along the line to adhere to the right-hand rule described in the
Cartographic Standard. If the line feature is digitized correctly, the line symbol decoration will fall to the
right side of the line as you move from the “from” node to the “to” node.

If the line decoration is on the wrong side of the line, one option is to flip the line features.

To flip the line feature:

1. Start and edit session


2. Select the feature
3. Double-click the selected feature to show the vertices and end points of the line
4. Right-click on the selected line
5. Select Flip

Flip thrust fault line feature to properly orient the line decoration

Otherwise, modify the representation symbol geometry:

1. Start and edit session


2. Select the feature/features
3. Open the attributes dialog by clicking on the attributes icon on the Editor toolbar
4. Click on the Bedding_Rep tab
5. Click on the marker symbol
6. Click on Properties to access the Marker Editor
7. In Marker Editor, select the marker symbol

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8. Move the selected symbol so that it is positioned on the other side of where the line would be.
The horizontal grid line in the Marker Editor that passes through the “x” is where the line symbol
would be.

Mount Baker detachment fault modification

Original Mount Baker Map and ESRI Reproduction

Selective point and line symbol decoration modifications have been applied to the Mount Baker
representation symbology.

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Geologic Representation Symbology: Null or Invalid Rule IDs

If a Rule ID has not been assigned to a feature, then it is symbolized in ArcMap with the color red. Maybe
those features should not appear on the map. In that case, uncheck Draw representations that have
an invalid or null Rule ID box under Display Options to disable drawing of these features.

In the case that you see red and want to symbolize that feature, calculate a valid a Rule ID for that
feature.

Representation display options: the Mount Baker map has a pattern fill representation class that is only
applied

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