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**Elsi Bella Pratiwi (1613021049)
**

Indira Putri Gumilang (1613021031)

Mukti Aji Guno (1613021025)

Mulia Arifianti (1613021009)

Tri Firma Yustianingsih (1613021027)

Quadrilateral

**Quadrilateral is a geometric construct formed by four line segments connecting
**

four points with three of them not inline.

Types of Quadrilateral:

1. Parallelogram

A. Definition of Parallelogram

Parallelogram is a quadrilateral with opposite sides parallel.

B. Properties of Parallelogram

There are five important properties of parallelograms to know:

Opposite sides are congruent (AB = DC and CB = DA).

Opposite angles are congruent (∠D = ∠B , ∠C = ∠A

Consecutive angles are supplementary (∠A + ∠D = ∠B + ∠C = ∠C + ∠D

= ∠D + ∠A = 180°).

The diagonals of a parallelogram bisect each other.

Each diagonal of a parallelogram separates it into two congruent triangles.

C. Perimeter of Parallelogram

**The perimeter of parallelogram ABCD = the sum of all sides of a parallelogram
**

ABCD.

= AB + BD + DC + CA

D. Area of Parallelogram

The area of a parallelogram can be found by multiplying a base by the

corresponding altitude.

Look at the picture.

**If in the parallelogram ABCD above. CD is the base, then the distance of either A
**

or B to CD is called the altitude.

A = CD x t

If AD is the base, then the distance of either C or B to AD is called the altitude.

A = AD x t

And similarly if the base is either AB or BC

2. Rectangle

A. Definition of Rectangle

Rectangle is a parallelogram which each of its interior angle is a right angle (90°).

In the rectangle ABCD below, ∠ADC = ∠DCB = ∠CBA = ∠BAD = (90°).

1. AB = DC and AB//DC

2. AD = BC and AD//BC

3.

In a rectangle we replace the terminology base and height to length and width. If

in the parallelogram ABCD above AB > BC, then AB is the length and BC is the

width

In the rectangle ABCD besides, the diagonals AC and BD are equal in length,

since Pythagorean theorem :

AC2 = AD2 + DC2 = AD2 + AB2 = BD2 T

↔ AC2 = BD2 ↔ AC = BD

**If the point T is the point of intersection of the
**

diagonals AC and BD, then

a. TA = TB = TC = TD = ½ AC = ½ BD

b. ∠TAD = ∠TDA = ∠TBC = ∠TCB

c. TDC = TCD = ∠TAB = ∠TBA

If L is area of the rectangle ABCD beside and K is its circumference, then

a. L = pl

b. K = 2(p+l)

Where p = length and l = width

B. Properties of Ractangle

There are three important properties of parallelograms to know:

The opposite sides are the same length and parallel

Ractangle has four equal right angles

The length of the diagonals is the same and bisect the same length

3. SQUARE

A. Definition of Square

Square is rectangle which all sides are equal in lenghts. That has four equal sides

and four equal angles (90° or right angles).

B. Properties of Square

There are seven important properties of parallelograms to know:

Each of the interior angles of a square is .

The diagonals of a square bisect each other.

The opposite sides of a square are parallel.

A square whose side length is has area .

A square whose side length is has perimeter .

A square whose side length is has a diagonal of length .

The diagonals of a square are equal.

C. Parimeter and Area of Square

To determine parimeter of square, we can use same method as used for other

plane, namely by summing up all sides of the plane. In this section, we will

determine area of square.

Square ABCD consists of ∆ABD and on ∆BCD. Eg. the length is s.

= L∆ABD + L∆BCD

= ½ (AB x AD) + ½ (CD x BC)

= ½ (s x s) + ½ (s x s)

= ½ (s2) + ½ (s2)

= s2

**Based of these explanation we can conclude that
**

P=AB+BC+CD+DE

A= s2

Example:

6m

a) A square has a side length of 6 m, what is its Area?

A =6m×6m

= 36 m2

12cm

b) A square has a side length of 12 cm, what is its Perimeter?

Perimeter = 4 × 12 cm

= 48 cm

D. Diagonals of Square

A square has two diagonals, they are equal in length, perpendicular, they are

bisect each other and intersect in the middle.

D = a × √2

Example:

a) A square has a side length of 5 m, what is the length of a diagonal?

Diagonal Length = a × √2

= 5 × 1.41421...

= 7.071 m (to 3 decimals)

4. Rhombus

A. Definition of Rhombus

Rhombus is parallelogram which has a pair of adjacent sides are congruent.

PQ = QR = RS = SP

B. Properties of Rhombus

There are eight important properties of parallelograms to know:

The opposite sides are parallel and equal in length

The diagonals are perpendicular

The diagonals bisect each other

The diagonals are the axes of symmetry

The sum of adjacent angles is 180o.

The opposite angles are equal in measurement

The opposite angles are equal in measure and bisected by the diagonals.

The sum of all angles is 360o.

C. Perimeter of Rhombus

1. Draw a rhombus RODA in a paper.

**2. The perimeter of rhombus RODA = the sum of all sides of a rhombus RODA
**

= RO + OD + DA + AR

Hint : RO = OD = DA = AR

**If s = the length of rhombus
**

So, The perimeter of rhombus = s+s+s+s

= 4 × s cm

D. Area of Rhombus

1. Draw a rhombus PQRS

**2. Draw a diagonal of rhombus. Point O is the intersection point of two diagonals.
**

PR as diagonal 1 and QS as diagonal 2.

1

Rhombus with diagonal 1 d1 cm and diagonal 2 d2 cm , has an area as: L = (2 × d1

× d2) cm2

5. Trapezoid

A. Definition Trapezoid

Trapezoid is any quadrilateral that has precisely a pair of parallrel opposite sides.

̅̅̅̅ // 𝐷𝐶

If you see trapezoid ABCD on figure 9.56, you will find that 𝐴𝐵 ̅̅̅̅ and 𝐴𝐷

̅̅̅̅

̅̅̅̅ . From the trapezoid, ̅̅̅̅

are not parallel to 𝐵𝐶 𝐴𝐵 as base and ̅̅̅̅

𝐶𝐸 as altitude, and ̅̅̅̅

𝐴𝐷

̅̅̅̅ as arms of trapezoid ABCD. Since ̅̅̅̅

and 𝐵𝐶 𝐴𝐵 // ̅̅̅̅

𝐷𝐶 then we obtain <A + <B =

180° and <B + <C =180°.

B. Types of Trapezoid

Trapezoid can be distinguished into three, namely as follows.

a) Scalene Trapezoid

b) Isosceles Trapezoid

c) Right Trapezoid

C. Properties of Isosceles Trapezoid

**Isosceles trapezoid has two equal arms. In this section, we will discus other
**

properties of isosceles trapezoid.See beside the figure. Suppose ABCD is a

isosceles trapezoid with ̅̅̅̅

𝐴𝐵 // ̅̅̅̅

𝐷𝐶 and AD = BC. From C and D, draw a line

̅̅̅̅ that is intersects 𝐴𝐵

perpendicular to 𝐴𝐵 ̅̅̅̅ on points E and F. Since 𝐴𝐵

̅̅̅̅ // 𝐷𝐶

̅̅̅̅ then

DE = CF and EA = FB. It means that <AED is congruent to <EFC. Therefore,

corresponding angles are equal. Thus, <A = <B. Therefore, we obtain following

property, “Base angles of isosceles trapezoid are equal”.Next, see isosceles

trapezoid KLMN on figure 9.59. If KLM is reversed accordingto line l (axis of

̅̅̅̅̅ ↔ 𝑁𝐿

symmetry), then M ↔ N, K ↔ L, and 𝑀𝐾 ̅̅̅̅ that MK = NL. Therefor, we

obtain following property.Diagonals of isosceles trapezoid are equal.

D. Parimeter and Area of Trapezoid

To determine parimeter of trapezoid, we can use same method as used for other

plane, namely by summing up all sides of the plane. In this section, we will

determine area of trapezoid as shown in figure 9.60.

**Trapezoid ABCD consists of ∆ABD and on ∆BCD, and then draws altitude for
**

each triangle. On ∆ABD, draw altitude ̅̅̅̅ ̅̅̅̅ .

𝐷𝐸 and on ∆BCD, draw altitude 𝐵𝐹

Area of trapezoid ABCD

= L∆ABD + L∆BCD

= ½ (AB x DE) + ½ (CD x BF)

= ½ (AB x DE) + ½ (CD x DE)………….. (DE = BF)

= ½ (AB + CD) x DE

= ½ (a + b) x t

**Based on above description, it is concluded as follow. For any trapezoid with its
**

parallel sides a and b, two other sides c and d, and altitude t, its perimeter (K) and

area (L) will be as follows.

K=a+b+c+d

L = ½ (a + b) x t

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