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isIfcalculated

N is the normal

as component

of F, we have

Friction between the tendon and its surrounding material is

9.

the length effect and is sometimes described as wobbling

effect. Friction 10. If is the coefficient

of friction, frictional loss =

dF=

11. dF = –KFds

12. where K is coefficient

of wave effect.

13. Therefore, total

2. due to length effect depends frictional loss = dF

on the length, stress in the =

**tendon (cable) and the
**

14. or

coefficient of friction between

15. if F is the prestress at a

the contact materials.

distance S subtending an

3. Curvature effect is caused by

angle , integrating the

the friction due to designed

above equation between

curvature of the cable. Loss

limits F and Fx, we have

due to these effects is

16.

estimated as follows:

17. Value of and K may

4. Consider a small length of

be taken as follows:

the cable. Let ds be its length

18. There are several

and R be the radius of

means of reducing or

curvature. (Figure below).

balancing the loss of

5. Let be the angle

prestress due to creep.

subtended at the centre by

19. In the post

the length ds.

tensioned beams several

6. Let F be prestress at one end

cables are provided. The

and F – dF the prestress at

cables are stretched in

the other end.

succession. When a cable

7.

is stretched, this cable

up and friction. an allowable concrete dependent deformation due stress of fc = 0. Hence there is loss due to anchorage take.5 fy = prestressed concrete.40 fc ’ = 1200 psi And an first will suffer maximum allowable steel stress of fs = 0. girders By AASHTO being stretched.If prestress is measured at prestress is the permanent the time of pulling the wire. initial 27. Loss due to average loss of all the 24. relaxation of steel prestress is obtained. 20. The cable jacking stress. Thus the specifications. Creep is the time specifications. creep strain in the member. girders By AASHTO 26. 25. causing the stress is termed as the compressive stress at the jacking stress.40 fc ’ = 1200 psi And an to permanent force. an allowable concrete cable which is stretched stress of fc = 0.5 fy = loss due to stretching of 20. Deducting the stretched last will not loss due to anchorage take- suffer any loss. suffers no loss. vc) Creep of Concrete: 20. cables. In allowable steel stress of fs = 0. but the initial stress minus other four cable stretched before losses namely: suffers a loss due to 21. elastic shortening. Effective stress is usually the TOTAL LOSS OF PRESTRESS: 28. loss in Effective stress is usually the the first cable is initial stress minus other four calculated and half of this losses namely: value is taken as the 23. initial calculate the loss due to prestress is obtained. force in the member. elastic shortening . the total number of the stress is termed as the cables.If prestress is measured at (n – 1) cables where n is the time of pulling the wire. Deducting the level of steel. To up and friction. Loss due to prestress in the cable 22.

the stress is termed as the jacking stress. an allowable concrete stress of fc = 0. Deducting the loss due to anchorage take-up and friction.5 fy = 20. prestress is measured at the time of pulling the wire. an allowable concrete stress of fc = 0. Effective stress is usually the initial stress minus other four losses namely: x Loss due to girders By AASHTO specifications. initial prestress is obtained.If prestress is measured at the time of pulling the wire. Effective stress is usually the initial .5 fy = 20. the stress is Loss in prestress = creep strain termed as the jacking stress. relaxation of steel Loss due to and Specifications Clear Span 48 ft Clear width 29 ft Live Loading HS20 Concrete strength fc ’ 3000 psi Future protective cover 15 pf Grade 40 reinforcement The bridge will consist of six c Elastic strain = girders By AASHTO specifications.40 fc ’ = 1200 psi And an allowable steel stress of fs = 0. initial prestress is obtained. x Deducting the loss due to anchorage take-up and friction. shrinkage of concrete stress minus other four losses 30.29. creep of concrete namely: 31.40 fc ’ = 1200 psi And is the stress in concrete at the an allowable steel stress of fs = 0.If level of steel.

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