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b e n i - s u e f u n i v e r s i t y j o u r n a l o f b a s i c a n d a p p l i e d s c i e n c e s 4 ( 2 0 1 5 ) 1 1 9 e1 3 3

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Review Article

A review on versatile applications of transition
metal complexes incorporating Schiff bases

Ahmed M. Abu-Dief a,b,*, Ibrahim M.A. Mohamed a
a
Chemistry Department, Faculty of Science, Sohag University, Sohag, Egypt
b
Departamento de Quimica Organica e Inorganica, Faculad de Quimica, Universdad de Oviedo, 33006 Oviedo, Spain

article info abstract

Article history: Schiff bases and their complexes are versatile compounds synthesized from the conden-
Received 31 January 2015 sation of an amino compound with carbonyl compounds and widely used for industrial
Accepted 8 March 2015 purposes and also exhibit a broad range of biological activities including antifungal, anti-
Available online 16 May 2015 bacterial, antimalarial, antiproliferative, anti-inflammatory, antiviral, and antipyretic
properties. Many Schiff base complexes show excellent catalytic activity in various re-
Keywords: actions and in the presence of moisture. Over the past few years, there have been many
Complex reports on their applications in homogeneous and heterogeneous catalysis. The high
Schiff base thermal and moisture stabilities of many Schiff base complexes were useful attributes for
Bio-inorganic chemistry their application as catalysts in reactions involving at high temperatures. The activity is
Catalysis usually increased by complexation therefore to understand the properties of both ligands
Antimicrobial and metal can lead to the synthesis of highly active compounds. The influence of certain
Dyes metals on the biological activity of these compounds and their intrinsic chemical interest
Polymers as multidentate ligands has prompted a considerable increase in the study of their coor-
dination behaviour. Development of a new chemotherapeutic Schiff bases and their metal
complexes is now attracting the attention of medicinal chemists. This review compiles
examples of the most promising applied Schiff bases and their complexes in different
areas.
Copyright 2015, Beni-Suef University. Production and hosting by Elsevier B.V. This is an open
access article under the CC BY-NC-ND license (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/
4.0/).

carbonyl group (CO) has been replaced by an imine or azo-
1. Introduction methine group (Fig. 1).
Schiff base ligands are easily synthesized and form com-
Schiff bases are formed when any primary amine reacts with plexes with almost all metal ions. Over the past few years,
an aldehyde or a ketone under specific conditions. Structur- there have been many reports on their applications in biology
ally, a Schiff base (also known as imine or azomethine) is a including antibacterial, antifungal, anticancer, antioxidant,
nitrogen analogue of an aldehyde or ketone in which the anti-inflammatory, antimalarial, antiviral activity and also as

* Corresponding author. Chemistry Department, Faculty of Science, Sohag University, Sohag, Egypt.
E-mail address: ahmed_benzoic@yahoo.com (A.M. Abu-Dief).
Peer review under the responsibility of Beni-Suef University.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bjbas.2015.05.004
2314-8535/Copyright 2015, Beni-Suef University. Production and hosting by Elsevier B.V. This is an open access article under the CC BY-
NC-ND license (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0/).

Fe(III). aureus (Gram-positive bacteria) (Mohamed et al. 2010). coli. coli and S. coli. Co(II) or Ni(II) or UO2(II) showed a good antibacterial activity coli. reaction. Cu(II). which might interact with the double membrane coccus pyogenes. Fe(III). reduction reaction of ketones. 2009).. fact that these complexes could be applied fairly in the 2-Aminomethylthiophenyl-4-bromosalicylaldehyde Schiff treatment of some common diseases caused by E. 1 e General scheme for formation of Schiff bases. Cu(II). The importance of that the metal complexes exhibit antimicrobial properties and this unique property of the investigated Schiff base complexes they show enhanced inhibitory activity compared to the lies in the fact that. How.. Metal complexes of a novel Schiff base derived from synthesis of bis(indolyl) methanes and DielseAlder reaction. Zn(II) and UO2(II) complexes (Mohamed et al... It is known 2. aldol reaction. Thus. oxidation of organic com. base and its metal complexes have been screened for their ever. epoxidation of alkenes. P. Raman et al.120 b e n i .. Zn(II) and UO2(II) complexes were antimicrobial activities using the disc diffusion method specialized in inhibiting Gram-positive bacterial strains against bacteria. thus the lipophilicity is an them in the following: important factor that controls the antimicrobial activity. The importance of this lies in the and structure of the complexes (Fig. theory. since it has the membrane permeability of the Gram-negative bacteria. it could be applied safely in the treatment parent ligand under experimental conditions. Also. 2). catalyst in several reactions such as polymerization reaction. The activity possible because the cell wall is essential to the survival of . compounds is related to cell wall structure of the bacteria. This activity is related to the nature caused inhibition for E. Ba. groups. It is cillus subtilis. It may be concluded that antibacterial activity of the enediamine were reported as antibacterial against E. aeruginosa). OCH3. Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Staphylo. The antibacte- of infections caused by any of these particular strains rial activity has been explained on the basis of chelation (Mohamed et al. The Schiff base ligands and their complexes.s u e f u n i v e r s i t y j o u r n a l o f b a s i c a n d a p p l i e d s c i e n c e s 4 ( 2 0 1 5 ) 1 1 9 e1 3 3 Fig. 2007. Co(II). the results of antimicrobial activity show (Staphylococcus pyogenes and P. Anti-bacterial activity of Schiff base complexes base and its metal complexes into the lipid membranes and thus restricts further growth of the organism (Tumer et al. aureus than on E. newly prepared Schiff base and its metal complexes showed a higher effect on E. Staphylococcus aureus. Also the increase in lipophilicity enhances the penetration of Schiff 2. teria. the results indicated that tested complexes were Four Platinum(II) Schiff bases complexes containing of more active against Gram-positive than Gram-negative bac- salicylaldehyde and 2-furaldehyde with o. The Schiff base carboxaldehyde and 2-aminobenzoic acid (HL) and Fe(III) or and its metal complexes are more toxic on S. we report of only lipid soluble materials. condensation of sulphametrole and varelaldehyde were hence the need for a review article highlighting the uses of screened against bacterial species (E. Metal complexes of Schiff base derived from 2-thiophene 1999. been recognized that many of these complexes may serve as The lipid membrane surrounding the cell favours the passage models for biologically important species. hydrosilylation of ketones. 2010). antimicrobials than the parent Schiff base ligands against one pounds. Imran et al. aureus). S and CH3CH2CH against Escherichia coli.. probably due to the sulphonic OH. coli.1. aeruginosa.and p-phenyl. 2005). Biological importance of Schiff base that the membrane of Gram-negative bacteria is surrounded complexes by an outer membrane containing lipopolysaccharides. data show that the Platinum(II) complexes are more potent reduction of thionyl chloride.. coli (Gram-negative bacteria) and S. 2007). Henry or more microorganisms (Gaballa et al. The synthesized Schiff base and its metal complexes seem to be The development in the field of bio-inorganic chemistry has able to combine with the lipophilic layer in order to enhance increased the interest in Schiff base complexes.

2012). L-phenylalanine (phala).s u e f u n i v e r s i t y j o u r n a l o f b a s i c a n d a p p l i e d s c i e n c e s 4 ( 2 0 1 5 ) 1 1 9 e1 3 3 121 Fig. L-histidine (his) and L-arginine (arg)). 3 e Suggested structure of Schiff base ligand and its metal(II) complexes where M ¼ Cu(II). 2011) (Fig. measurements. aeruginosa and order of the synthesized compounds is as follows: Micrococcus bacteria (Shaker et al. Metal chelates bear polar and condensation of 5-bromosalicylaldehyde (bs) and a-amino nonpolar properties together. chelation may (aspa). P. analyses. The activity has been tested against Bacillus cereus. . b e n i . spectral analyses and conductance measurements. The sta- Schiff base complexes of Co(II). ultravioletevisible. In addition. The structure of the enhance or suppress the biochemical potential of bioactive investigated iron(II) complexes was elucidated using elemental organic species (Nair et al. thermogravimetric A series of new Iron(II) Schiff base amino acid complexes analysis. Ni(II) and Zn (II). 2013) Cu(II) > Co(II) > Ni(II) > Zn(II) > Ligand. as well as conductivity and magnetic susceptibility derived from the condensation of amino acid and sodium 2. Ni(II). The higher activity of Also a series of new iron(II) complexes based on Schiff bases the metal complexes may be owing to the effect of metal ions amino acids ligands have been designed and synthesized from on the normal cell membrane. IR and Eldebss. 2 e The proposed structural formulae of metal complexes. 3). Cu(II) and Zn(II) bility and solubility of the prepared complexes were deter- incorporating indole-3-carboxaldehyde and m-aminobenzoic mined. inhibiting a step in the synthesis of peptidoglycan (El-Sherif The complexes were characterized by elemental. The structure of the complexes was validated Fig.. L-aspartic acid permeation to the cells and tissues.. The antibacterial activity of the prepared complexes acid were screened by disc diffusion method. electronic. this makes them suitable for acids (L-alanine (ala). many bacteria and some antibiotics are able to kill bacteria by hydroxybenzaldehyde-5-sulfonate have been synthesized. infrared.

Co(II) and Mn(II) complexes exhibit less inhibition bsari > bshi > bsali > bsasi > bsphali (Abdel-Rahman et al. 2002). aeruginosa and B. coli. The ligands presented here and their transition metal constants of the prepared complexes have been determined complexes gave better results against the growth of fungi.. a permeability barrier of the cell (Gupta et al. The ligands et al. Further more. P. Co(II). by with Schiff bases derived from o-phthalaldehyde and amino using electronic absorption spectra and viscosity measure. indicate complexes except bromosalicylaldehydine aspartate complex that Cu(II) complexes show more activity than the other which has a distorted tetrahedral structure. L-phenylalanine.122 b e n i . While the lipophilicity of complexes due to delocalization of pi- in the case of L-aspartic. showed a different DNA binding according to the sequence: However. against three fungi. The experimental results indicated that the investi. In some the coordination of the second carboxylate group. conductance and magnetic hydes were screened against Aspergillus niger and Rhizoctonia measurements. 1997. 2013. Also. complexes. It is spectrophotometrically using continuous variation and molar found that the activity increases upon coordination. the ligand acts as tetradentate due to electrons in the chelate ring (Srivastava. Geometry optimization of the Fe-Schiff base amino ligands and the activity increases with the increase in con- acid complexes showed that all complexes had octahedral co. and Fe(III) metal salt in methanolic Fig. 4 e Schematic diagram for antibacterial activity and DNA interaction of the investigated complexes.3-dione (2:2) formed complexes negative bacteria (P. All the complexes showed with Cr(III). The representa. the DNA Metal complexes Cu(II). aeruginosa). The ordination. 4). Prashanthi dine and L-arginine behave as tridentate ligands. the stoichiometry and the stability solani. the prepared compounds are screened activity data show that the metal complexes have a promising for their in vitro antibacterial activity against three types of biological activity comparable with the parent Schiff base bacteria. bases of 3-(2-hydroxy-3-ethoxybenzylideneamino)-5-methyl amino acids (L-alanine. Cukurovali square planar geometry has been proposed for all Cu(II) et al. L.. . method. L-phenylalanine. The results of these studies indicated that the metal complexes exhibit a stronger antibacterial and antifungal effi. 2013.s u e f u n i v e r s i t y j o u r n a l o f b a s i c a n d a p p l i e d s c i e n c e s 4 ( 2 0 1 5 ) 1 1 9 e1 3 3 using quantum mechanics calculations based on accurate DFT activity against the organisms more than the free Schiff base methods. L-phenylalanine. The obtained results indicated that the Schiff increased activity of the metal chelates can be explained on bases of the amino acids: L-alanine. The results of anti-fungal screening. thermogravimetric analysis. for their antibacterial activity against two Gram-Positive A Schiff base ligand derived from 1. E. 2014). Increased activity enhances deprotonated carboxylate oxygen and phenolic oxygen. L-histi. five novel Cu(II) complexes derived from the The metal complexes of Cu(II).. 1981). L-aspartic acid. IR.4-dicarbonyl-phenyl- bacteria (Micrococcus luteus and B. glycine L-alanine. These results may be due to higher stability con- tive Schiff bases and their Cu(II) complexes were tested in vitro stant of the Cu(II) complexes than the other complexes. dihydrazide and chromene-2. 2015). The ratio methods. of 3-amino-5-methyl isoxazole with substituted salicylalde- mass and electronic spectra. overlap with the ligand orbital. then tested ments. cereus using disk diffusion ligand against bacterial species (Abu-Dief and Nassr. The orbital of each metal ion is made so as to are coordinating with the Cu(II) via azomethine nitrogen. centration of test solution containing the new complexes. the basis of chelation theory (Raman et al.. Anti-fungal activity of Schiff base complexes ciency than their corresponding Schiff base amino acid ligands (Abdel-Rahman et al. Based on cases increased lipophilicity leads to breakdown of the the studies of magnetic moments and electronic spectra... isoxazole and 3-(2-hydroxy-5-nitroben-zylidene amino)-5- histidine and L-arginine) were synthesized and characterized methyl isoxazole which were obtained by the condensation by their elemental analyses. Mn(III). 2008). It is clear that Cu(II) and Ni(II) complexes gated complexes could bind to DNA via intercalative mode and exhibit inhibition towards all the studied microorganisms. cereus) and one Gram. Moreover. 2008). 2. and VO(II) complexes have no activity towards the microor- 2014) (Fig.2.. acids viz. ganisms (Neelakantan et al. 2001.2.. Ni(II) and Co(II) with Schiff condensation between 5-bromosalicylaldehyde (bs) and a. Moreover. Ni(II) and Mn(II) are synthesized interaction of these complexes with was tested at pH ¼ 7.

the toxicity of one complex (5g) is better than that of cisplatin treatment for cancer primarily includes surgery and against BGC-823 and HL-60 cell lines. It continues as a serious public molar conductivity. and Cd(C18H16N3O2)2$2CH3OH (3).. The development of more effective colon cancer cells has been examined (Hajrezaie et al. dosage. In addition. invasion reduced amino acid Schiff bases as potential anticancer and even sometimes metastasis (De Vita et al. and The Gd(III). In recent years. the acti- vation of caspases 3/7 and 9 was part of the Cu (II) complex- induced apoptosis. 2010). complex (3) can inhibit proteasomal chymotrypsin like activity and also can induce apoptosis on human breast cancer MDA-MB-231 2. the Cu(BrHAP)2 com- pound caused significant elevation in ROS production following perturbation of mitochondrial membrane potential and cytochrome c release. have been synthe. 2013) (Fig. Fluconazole as standard (Santhi and Radhakrishnan Cd(C18H16N3O2)2$2CH3OH (3) has the highest anti-proliferative Namboori. b e n i . then tested for their antimicrobial activities to drugs for treating patients with cancer has been a main assess their inhibiting potential. At a concentration of 6. activity among the three complexes. Meanwhile. 2012). there was no significant activation of caspase-8. The Cu(BrHAP)2 Schiff base compound demonstrated a potent antiproliferative effect in HT-29 cells. 2013) (Fig. In these Cu(C18H16N3O2)2$2CH3OH (1). The been also observed that the activity depends upon the type of research showed that the complexes could inhibit K562 metal ion and varies in the following order of the metal ion: tumour cell's growth. these re- sults imply that the Cu(BrHAP)2 compound is a potential candidate for further in vivo and clinical colon cancer studies to develop novel chemotherapeutic agents derived from Fig. where X ¼ Cl. as assessed by the measurement of fluorescence intensity in stained cells. as exhibited by a progressive elevation in the proportion of the G1 cell popula- tion. EA. 2014).25 mg/ml. spectral as Three transition metal coordination complexes well as magnetic susceptibility measurements. and Bel-7402 cell lines by the MTT assay. various results of the compounds were compared with the standard Schiff bases derivatives have been found to be associated antifungal drug (Miconazole) at the same concentration. inhibition ratio was accelerated by increasing the dosage. Taken together. It is the second leading cause of human death anticancer activities have been validated against HL-60. .. Zn(C18H16N3O2)2$2CH3CH2 OH (2) complexes.s u e f u n i v e r s i t y j o u r n a l o f b a s i c a n d a p p l i e d s c i e n c e s 4 ( 2 0 1 5 ) 1 1 9 e1 3 3 123 medium. ligand LH2 acts as a tetradentate ligand coordi. the metal complexes exhibited greater antifungal activity Five ternary complexes of the rare earth ions with o-phe- against Aspergillus sp. 2005. prepared. which confirmed the involvement of mitochondrial-mediated apoptosis.3. These compounds were tested for their health problem throughout the world as the most feared DNA interaction with salmon sperm DNA. and their in vitro diagnosis. they show slightly lesser ac.. derived from the same nating through the two azomethine nitrogen atoms and the ligand of 2-acetylpyridine and L-tryptophan (C18H16N3 O2) are two enolizable carbonyl group of acetoacetanilide moiety. NO  3 . and induce apoptosis. 5). were tested as anti-cancer. All with anticancer properties. then the anticancer activities of these three com- The antifungal activity of the ligands LH2 and some of their plexes on MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cells were also investi- complexes were evaluated by agar diffusion method against gated. The results indicate that all of the three complexes can the fungi Candida albicans and Fusarium oxysporum using inhibit the cellular proliferation.. 5 e Proposed structure for the complexes. Currently. Cancer or malignant neoplasm is a class of diseases in A series of water-soluble platinum(II) complexes of which a group of cells display uncontrolled growth. Anti-cancer activity of Schiff base complexes cells. 2008). metal-based agents. 2012). The cyto- developed countries (Babasaheb et al. IR.. Furthermore. than the standard drug. NCS . From the data it has cancer effect of the complexes with K562 tumour cell.3-diaminopropane. Furthermore. and Thomas and Vinay. agents and characterized them by 1H NMR. nanthroline and Schiff base salicylaldehyde L-phenylalanine tivity against Rhizoctonia sp. The anticancer activities testing showed that all these [MX3(LH2)]. tumour cell (Dongfang et al. after cardiovascular diseases in developing as well as in BGC-823. 6) chemotherapeutic drugs are not good enough and they have Antiproliferative effect of a copper (II) complex on HT-29 plentiful side effects. KB.87 mg/ml after 72 h of treatment. generation. Methyl thiazolyl tetrazolium The Cr(III) and Fe(III) complexes are more effective against colorimetry and flow cytometry were used to test the anti- Penicillium sp. complexes exhibited excellent anticancer ability against K562 sized in alcohol and characterized by elemental analysis. Dy(III) and Sm(III) complexes of Schiff base it had significant positive correlation with the medication derived from acetoacetanilide and 1. with an IC50 value of 2.. 2007). The antifungal experimental attempt over the past 50 years. The Cr > Fe > Mn (Kumar et al.. Complex (3) has potential to be used as a proteasome inhibitor and anticancer agent (Zhang et al. than standard drug Miconazole. MS. but the curative effects of the existing effect against Bel-7402 cell line (Li et al. and show close cytotoxic chemotherapy. However. electrical conductance in non-aqueous solvents. HT-29 cells treated with Cu (II) complexes underwent apoptosis death.

. OFP.  attention and effort in order to identify the compounds having high capacity in scavenging free radicals related to various MFP and PFP possessed similar activities to trap DPPH and ABTS þ.6- creases with increases the concentration of the Schiff bases dicarboxylic acid and PPh3/AsPh3 were synthesized and (Guo et al. The scavenging effect in. compared to those of Ru(II). Cu2þ/ cytotoxic specificity towards cancer cells. Presently. and 9. All the ferrocenyl Schiff bases employed herein  disorders and diseases associated with oxidative damage. Currently a number of Schiff-base metal complexes have been investigated as can terminate about 15. HeLa. superoxide anion radical.. acting as antioxidants.20 -azobis(2-amidinopropane hydrochloride) (AAPH). nitric oxide radical. propagations in AAPH-induced oxidation of DNA. antioxidant assays involving DPPH radical. HEp-2 and a normal cell line ferrocenylethylideneamino)phenol (PFP) were evaluated in NIH/3T3 showed that Ru(II) complexes exhibited substantial 2. m-(1. Five kinds of Schiff bases of chitosan and carboxymethyl the introduction of ferrocenyl group to Schiff base increased chitosan (CMCTS) prepared and the antioxidant activity was the antioxidant effectiveness more remarkably than benzene- studied using an established system. 11. The results indicate that the antioxidant capac.2.s u e f u n i v e r s i t y j o u r n a l o f b a s i c a n d a p p l i e d s c i e n c e s 4 ( 2 0 1 5 ) 1 1 9 e1 3 3 Fig. showed that the Ru(III) The antioxidant capacities of ferrocenyl Schiff bases complexes possess excellent radical scavenging properties including o-(1-ferrocenylethylideneamino)phenol (OFP). The metal complexes. assessed by a series of in vitro  investigated. Biological Glutamic acidesalicylaldehyde Schiff-base metal com. HepG2.20 -diphenyl-1- The search for metal-derived antioxidants has received much picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) and 2. antioxidant assays and cytotoxic plexes are bound into bovine serum albumin (BSA). . 2012). target specific Schiff bases of chitosan and CMCTS were observed.20 -azinobis (3-ethylbenzothia- zoline-6-sulfonate)cationic radical (ABTS þ). cancer lines viz. M ¼ Cu. Especially. hydroxyl radical. a sequence of Ru(II). Co. groups in the molecular chains. Zn). hydrogen base metal complexes (Wang et al. It showed that the protein struc. studies such as DNA binding. Cytotoxicity studies using three ferrocenylethylideneamino)phenol (MFP). 2. evaluated. behaved as prooxidants in Cu2þ/GSH and OH induced  caused by reactive oxygen species (ROS). 2011). Obvious differences between the The developing of more efficient.3. which metal drugs and evaluate their anticancer properties in terms might be related to contents of the active hydroxyl and amino of oxidation state and co-ligand sphere. and hydroxyl radical (OH) induced oxidation of DNA.4. Ni. DNA revealed that the triphenylphosphine complexes could tures of BSA kept after coordinating amino acid Schiff-bases bind more strongly than the triphenylarsine complexes. Interactions of the complexes with calf thymus GluM. which activity were carried out and their anticancer activities were afforded BSA binding Schiff-base metal complexes (BSA-Sal. and p-(1. Ru(III) complexes bearing 4-hydroxy-pyridine-2. PFP. OFP and MFP  cheaper than natural antioxidants. hydroxyl radical scavenging. The effect of the antioxidant activity was free radical scavenging ability.4 radical-chain- effective scavengers of ROS.124 b e n i .. and in trapping 2. less toxic. Antioxidant activity of Schiff bases glutathione (GSH). ity of BSA increased more than 10 times after binding Schiff. such as superoxide and related Schiff bases (Li and Liu. structurally characterized (Kamatchi et al. 2007). 2005). respectively. synthetic antioxidants are widely used because they are effective and oxidation of DNA except that OFP exhibited weak antioxidant activity in OH induced oxidation of DNA. peroxide and metal chelating assay. 6 e Pt(II) complexes of reduced amino acid Schiff bases.

1995).. Antiviral activity of Schiff bases (N1eN10) were evaluated for analgesic.2-dihydro-3H-pyrazol-3-one) chemical structures were elucidated by spectral studies. 2006). 120 and 240 mg/kg doses-after 2 h) produced structural characteristics and physicochemical parameters highly significant (P < 0.001) inhibition of hyperpyrexia. 4APZAB Schiff base of functionalised 5-nitroisoquinolines was syn. 2- 1. Moreover. gesic and antipyretic activities. and N8 exhibited significant anti- effective. 3 and 4 h A series of novel 3-(4-(benzylideneamino) phenylimino) 4. ment of a new therapeutic agent useful in fighting diseases A new series of 3-(benzylideneamino)-2- caused by oxidative stress and inflammation (Alam et al. fluoroindolin-2-one derivatives were synthesized and char- acterized by spectral (I. para influenza-3 virus. The results of this study may lead to the develop- et al.5. The title compounds 2.. 300 and nitro-1-naphthyl)methylene]-1-[2-(trifluoromethyl)phenyl] 600 mg/kg dose) produced highly significant inhibition methanamine was the most effective antimalarial agent (P < 0. inhibiting its growth by 50% be beneficial for use in the treatment of inflammatory dis- when employed at concentrations as low as 3. N2.3... In fact. herpes simplex virus-2 (G).s u e f u n i v e r s i t y j o u r n a l o f b a s i c a n d a p p l i e d s c i e n c e s 4 ( 2 0 1 5 ) 1 1 9 e1 3 3 125 2. 4APZBB (500 mg/kg) and APZCB (150. probably due to the high rate of virus mutation. The synthetic Cytotoxicity and antiviral activity were evaluated against compounds were screened for their anti-inflammatory. 1H NMR. respiratory syncy- bases in mice. influenza A H1N1 subtype. The anti-inflammatory activity was in the order tial virus. Interestingly. has been tested paw licking and writhing activity in the treated mice. oedema (52. agents (Sriram et al. Analgesic activity of the compounds was ciparum growth by 50% (IC50) was 0. It was observed 2tzn) Y2] and [Cu (dienXXY2) (2a-5mt)] and of the type [Cu that 4APZ (240 mg/kg). from a set of different Schiff base derived from 4-aminoantipyrine (4-amino- 1-amino-3-hydroxyguanidine tosylate-derived Schiff bases. 4APZBB (500 mg/ (dptaS) Cl2] and [Cu (dptaS) Br2] (dptaS ¼ 1. They inflammatory activity comparable to reference standard may also present any of a number of side effects. falciparum strain ysis. b e n i . Schiff base formation of 3-amino-2-phenyl quinazoline-4(3) A series of Schiff base derivatives of 4-aminophenazone H-one with various substituted carbonyl compounds. adducts of tive property. and ulcerogenic index activities. in press). kg doses).0e82. .6%) and present important scavenging phenobarbitone-induced sleeping time (PIST) in mice was also activity.5-dimethyl-2-phenylpyrazole-3-one) and benzaldehyde (3-allyl-2-hydroxybenzylidene)-N-hydroxyhydrazinecarboxi- derivative was tested for its anti-inflammatory. acid-induced writhing (AIW) methods in mice. to the standard drug. mass).R.5-dimethyl-2-phenyl-1. Other has been made (Pontiki et al. N3.6. the test compounds showed laldehyde Schiff bases of 1-amino-3-hydroxy-guanidine only mild ulcerogenic side effect when compared to aspirin tosylate are a good platform for the design of new antiviral (Nirmal et al.001) of albumin denaturation. reovirus-1. feline herpes virus. Further. compared to the starting material of type [Cu (dienXXY2)].. (160 mg/kg) and 4APZVn (600 mg/kg) produced highly signifi- thesized and the in vitro activity of these compounds against cant inhibition (P < 0. compounds showed good antipyretic activity after 2. Salicy- diclofenac sodium. fal.001) of hypotonicity-induced haemol- an ACC Niger chloroquine resistant P. 2008). The Schiff base: N-[(1E)-(5. 4APZAB (160 mg/kg). The results midamide derivative was shown to be very effective against showed promising anti-inflammatory activity which could mouse hepatitis virus (MHV). currently available antiviral agents are not yet fully compounds studied. Different doses of 4APZ for different time durations (240 mg/ An attempt to correlate the biological results with their kg-after 1 h. anti-inflammatory. Punta Toro virus. feline tivity of commercial sample of 4APZ and its synthesized Schiff corona virus (FIPV). influenza A H3N2 of 4APZAB > 4APZBB > 4APZCB > 4APZVn and all the test subtype. a consistent dose depen- among the synthesized 5-nitroisoquinoline derivatives. anal- herpes simplex virus-1 (KOS). 2010). Compound 2a showed bet- compounds exhibited considerable dose dependent inhibition ter antiviral activity against the entire tested virus (Kumar of the paw oedema.6%) in the studied but only 600 mg/kg of 4APZVn significantly increased in vivo experiment. The tested order of analgesic effect of the compounds was compounds inhibit the carrageenin-induced rat paw 4APZAB > 4APZBB > 4APZVn > 4APZCB.2 mM (Sriram eases. phenylquinazoline-4(3H)-ones were prepared through 2012). The effect of the compounds on et al. Carrageen an-induced paw vaccinia virus.001) reduction of amine with 2-thiophene-carboxaldehyde.. Brewer's yeast was used to induce fever in rab- the type [Cu (dienXXY2) (2a-5mt)] exhibit increased activity bits and analyzed the compounds for their antipyretic activity. Anti-inflammatory activity of Schiff bases membrane stabilization was also determined which showed that compounds 4APZ (120 and 240 mg/kg doses). Coxsackie virus B4.7 mg/mL. Compound 6 is the most potent (82. 2006). The dent anti-inflammatory effect of test compounds as compared concentration of this Schiff base necessary to inhibit P.. 4APZCB (600 mg/kg) and 4APZVn (600 mg/kg) showed propanediamine) or Schiff mono-base of dipropylenetri. Among the title fections. The results support that in general. with different aldehydes were synthesized. Their (4APZ-1. kg). herpes simplex oedema (CIPO) and histamine induced paw oedema (HIPO) virus-1 TK-KOS ACVr. methods were used to determine the anti-inflammatory ac- Sindbis virus.. investigated by formalin-induced paw licking (FIPL) and acetic A new series of complexes of the type [Cu (dien) (2a. Lipophilicity-as RM values e has been the duration of induced sleep which also suggested its seda- determined. Results displayed that compound Although there are many therapeutic options for viral in- N3 exhibited significant analgesic activity. vesicular stomatitis virus. it was also observed that 4APZ (120 and 240 mg/ investigated (Rathelot et al. 2010). analgesic effect with highly significant (P < 0. and influenza B virus. The for anti-inflammatory and antioxidant activity. (Murtaza et al.

solvent as well as acetyl acetone in DMF and chloroform solvents were investi..2- bis(naphthylideneimino) butane and 1. The gated. 2014).3-propanediimine ligand yield and activity than the cobalt(II) complexes (Souane et al. This kind 4. The catalytic activity of metal complexes has been re. ethane. The salen complexes also showed activity in ring opening pyrrolidinone (NMP) solution.. structure of the poly-2.. The sorption processes were undertaken in the pres. These complexes were also used successfully for copolymerization of ethylene with 1-hexene (Souane et al. 2002). The charge trans- Many Schiff base complexes of metal ions show high catalytic fer process during the reduction of thionyl chloride is affected activity and played a significant role in various reactions to by the concentration of catalysts.20 -dimethyle1.20 -dihydroxybiphenyl (PDHBP) was ence and absence of (pyridine) axial-base in 1:1 M ratio of confirmed by UVevis. 4.2-bis (naphthylidene-imino) (Emara et al. measured in (g O2/g solution) remains about 35% Catalytic oxidative polymerization of 2. Thermodynamic and kinetic enhance their yield and product selectivity. compared to Mn(II) and Ni(II) complexes. for the oxidation of alcohols at room temperature using N- c) Catalyst must be stable enough under the usual polymer.126 b e n i . The oxygen affinity of Schiff base ligands showed significant activity in the polymerization of complexes ethylene. For polymerization reaction 4. A series of transition metal complexes with this Schiff catalysts both in homogeneous and heterogeneous reactions base ligand have been synthesized and structurally charac- and the activity of these complexes varied with the type of terized by IR and elemental analysis. For reduction of thionyl chloride of material can be used as a catalyst in oxidative addition reactions in the organic chemistry and petrochemicals. the rate of discharge. These complexes are found to be effective catalysts polymerization. the reduction of thionyl chloride. salicylaldehyde or its derivatives or 2-hydroxy-1- merization of different monomers (Gupta and Sutar. coordination sites and metal ions. The presence of pyridine axial base clearly increases oxygen affinity. 2008). The electrochemical and thermal properties of PDHBP significant oxygen affinity than in chloroform solvent.N0 . were also studied. temperature. which improves the cell ported in various reactions as given below: voltage. aldol condensation and epoxida. 2000). 1998). 2009).3-bis(naphthylidene-imino)propane. which The catalytic effects of some Co(II). IR. Oxygen absorption properties of cobalt(II) complexes of N. oligomerization or polymerization of epoxides (Mason and cyanopyridine (2 M) as axial base. The complexes with 2. Saldmpr). Cobal. were reported (Park et al. the following The reaction between ONS donor ligands (H2L) (derived from conditions apply to the efficient use of catalysts in the poly. methoxysalicylidene)-o-phenylenediamine (H2L) was pre- Schiff base complexes of transition metal ions are efficient pared. hydroxylation. This provides a ization conditions. the amount of catalyst and oxidant were investigated. Cu(II). CH3OH and [Co(II)HLCl(H2O)] have a good catalytic activity for tion. Chiral Schiff base tion of thionyl chloride was studied by means of constant complexes are more selective in various reactions such as resistance discharge. general and simple method for the oxidation of different kind .1. 2008): naphthaldehyde and o-aminothiophenol) and [RuHCl(-CO) (PPh3)3] afforded new ruthenium(II) complexes of composi- a) Catalyst must have high olefin-insertion ability.20 -dihydrox- higher than Co(3-methoxy-Salen) for at least four absorption/ ybiphenyl (DHBP) was performed by using both the Schiff base desorption cycles... monomer-Cu(II) complex and Schiff base polymer-Cu(II) Oxygen absorptionedesorption processes for square complex compounds as catalysts and hydrogen peroxide as planar Mn(II).2-bis(naphthylidene- imino) pentane on the reduction of thionyl chloride on a 4. Co(II) and Ni(II) complexes of tetradentate Schiff oxidant..2. and Ni(II) Schiff base is reproducible and is considered environmentally friendly complexes derived from 1. The complexes gave significant results in 1-methyl-2. 2002). respectively. derivatives. The dependence of monomer conver- base ligands derived from condensation reaction of ethyl. 1. Oxidation of organic compounds The polymerization reactions are catalyzed with various cat- alysts and based on experimental observations.s u e f u n i v e r s i t y j o u r n a l o f b a s i c a n d a p p l i e d s c i e n c e s 4 ( 2 0 1 5 ) 1 1 9 e1 3 3 Iron(III) and cobalt(II) complexes with pyridine bis(imine) 3.. 1H and 13C NMR spectroscopy tech- (pyridine:metal(II) complexes). Complexes in DMF indicate niques. Perkins. 1. The convenient parameters of the reduction process are affected by the route of synthesis and thermal stability of Schiff base ligands chelate ring size of the ligands (Choi et al. sion and molecular weight distribution on various reaction enediamine with salicylaldehyde. tion [Ru(L)(CO)(PPh3)2] (L ¼ dianionic ONS donor Schiff base b) Catalyst must have two available cis-located sites for ligand). termed CoSaldmpr. 2000). Schiff base complexes as catalysts glassy carbon electrode were studied and the kinetic param- eters with cyclic voltammetry determined. o-hydroxyacetophenone or parameters. The result shows that [Mn(III)LCl(H2O)] oxidation. including time. The catalysis for reduc- ligands.3. and the lifetime of Li/SOCl2 batteries (Lin Che et al. loading of Co(3-methoxy. DSC data revealed that PDHBP was amor- t(II) complexes showed significant sorption processes phous (Bilici et al. Methylmorpholine-N-Oxide (NMO) as oxidant. The iron(III) Schiff base complexes showed higher bis (salicylidene)e2. 2008). have contributed significantly for their possible applications A symmetric tetradentate Schiff base ligand bis(3- in catalysis as metal complexes (Gupta and Sutar.

The biomimetic catalysts were moderate yields (Tamizh et al. Production of benzaldehyde in the substituents in aryl ketones. FT-IR..s u e f u n i v e r s i t y j o u r n a l o f b a s i c a n d a p p l i e d s c i e n c e s 4 ( 2 0 1 5 ) 1 1 9 e1 3 3 127 of alcohols under mild conditions. . ence of hydrogen. The selective oxidation of phenylethanol 99% yield. 2000). 1996). Langer mixture of 1-tetralol and 1-tetralone (turnover 7. and maximum conversion was obtained in the chloroform. 2003) from an environmental point of view. The efficiency of this oxidation reaction was tested in the presence of two 4. The electrolysis experiments The asymmetric reduction of dialkyl ketones to alcohols were carried out at controlled potential for each complex. which cause a darkening of the pulp. influenced by the position and electronic properties of ring version was obtained. The reduction of ketones (Faller and The catalytic performance of the prepared Cu(II) complexes Lavoie. b e n i . the tetraline. A variety of ketones were exam- styrene to benzaldehyde was carried out with Schiff base ined from which.. and the ability of this complex to Oxidation of cyclooctene with tert-butyl hydro-peroxide gave catalyze hydrogenolysis of 1-tetralone into 1. All complexes exhibit a quasireversible redox system. 2001).. metals and decreased in order Rh  Ir [ Ru.. 7 e Structure of the Schiff base ligands H2L1eH2L4. and catalytic performance of the prepared molyb- denum complexes for oxidation of different olefins with tert- butylhydroperoxide was evaluated. Mn2L22(H2O)2(DCA)2 was crystallographically characterized. In Nature. These complexes were found to be an efficient and selective catalyst for the homo- geneous oxidation of various olefins.. The development of low molecular weight manganese peroxidase mimics may achieve environmentally-safe bleaching catalysts for the industry. Cross et al. MoO2{sal-nptn(3-OMe)2} with a methoxy groups on the salicylidene ring of the ligand promote the effectiveness (Rayati et al. ketones was also carried using chiral complexes in place of propanediamine] (H2L2)) with Cu(OAc)2$H2O in 1:1 M ratios. 2012).7). et al. manganese peroxidases and lac- cases.4. used in conjunction with chlorine-free inexpensive co- Three complexes RuLCl.3.6) respec..and para- epoxide formed with the tert-butylhydroperoxide (Maurya substituted ketones. A silica supported chitosan-Schiff base Pd(II) catalyst was sion was found to be strongly dependent on the solvent nature prepared in a simple way and characterized by XRD.20 -dimethyl. et al. tetrahydronaphthalene was also investigated in the pres- 2012).2. Although the presence of formic acid has fav- tively. which produced (S)-1- hydroperoxide has been evaluated. in contrast to 5e6. (L derived from salicylaldehyde or oxidants as dioxygen or hydrogen peroxide.20 -dimethyl-propanedi. (Fehring and Selke. Kraft pulp has to be bleached to eliminate the chromo- phoric structures.5% of catalyst (Gonza dioxygen associated with benzoic anhydride. a carrying out these reductions (Nishibayashi et al.4- cyclooctene oxide as the sole product (Heshmatpour et al.. The reduction of ketones using iridium and ruthenium Two mononuclear copper (II) complexes have been pre. 2001. and plexes as catalysts for the degradation of the lignin model aliphatic and cyclic alcohols give carbonyl compounds in compound veratryl alcohol. it was observed that enantioselectivity was complex as catalyst using tert-butylhydroperoxide 100% con. 0. 2001) was better when carried out for the oxidation of styrene and cyclooctene with tert-butyl in the presence of chiral Schiff base. Complexes 1e4 behave as more efficient mimics of peroxidase Fig. The reduction rate was affected by central ([bis(2-hydroxy-propiophenone)2.. 7).5-dibromosalicylaldehyde and of veratryl alcohol conversion to veratraldehyde have been ethylenediamine) were used as catalysts in the oxidation of achieved at room temperature in presence of air flow using cyclo-octene and tetraline in the presence of molecular  lez-Riopedre et al. incorporating dianionic hexadentate Schiff base ligands (H2L1eH2L4) and different anions. 2013) (Fig. 1999.. 1998) is a difficult process but Schiff using different substrates such as cyclo-octene and tetraline.or 2-methylimidazole. Benzylic primary and sec. For reduction reaction of ketones apical bases: 1. XPS and TG. Yields up to 30% 2-hydroxyacetophenone or 3. 2001. higher yield and selectivity were observed in the aqueous phase reduction is of great significance (Himeda presence of 1-methylimidazole instead of its isomer 2. Complex 4... bipyridine complexes. methylimidazole (Ourari et al. 2012). et al. 2007. The ortho substituted aceto- oxidation of styrene may be due to the further oxidation of the phenones were more enantioselective than meta... Herein we report the synthesis and characterization of six manganese(III) com- plexes 1e6. SEM-EDS. We have studied the use of these com- ondary alcohols are oxidized in good to excellent yields. base complexes of transition metals are efficient catalysts in The oxidized products are cyclo-octene oxide (turnover 6. analogous was also performed (Faller and Lavoie. 2012). 20 -dimethylpropylenediamine and aromatic aldehydes prepared. It has been revealed that the catalyst had Two Mo(VI) tetradentate Schiff base complexes derived high catalytic activity for hydrogenolysis of 1-tetralone at from 2. et al. The styrene conver. Heshmatpour et al. an equivalent role is assumed by ligninolytic enzymes such as lignin peroxidases. For the oxidation of hydrocarbon compound such as oured asymmetric reduction of ketones (Petra et al. The reduction of amine] (H2L1) and [bis(5-bromosalicylaldehyde)2. Cross pared by the reaction of two ONNO type Schiff base ligands. 2012).

2001). molybdenum. DMF. notably higher than those achieved from Catalytic asymmetric synthesis of unnatural amino acids simple salt catalysts Mn(Ac)2$4H2O and MnSO4$H2O. For epoxidation of alkenes tetrahydronaphthalene were obtained under optimized reac- tion conditions. with vicinal tetrasubstituted chiral carbon stereocenters is another two saleneMn complexes 1 and 2 derived from li- described. cobalt (3b). An increase in the reaction temperature may selectivities (Wei et al. and 2-hydroxy-1- Al(III) Schiff base complexes were used as catalyst for reaction naphthaldehyde. while the Sr/Schiff complexes in the reaction of epoxidation of cyclohexene and base catalyst produced anti-a. 2011). 1995). its main oxidation catalyst was efficient and eco-friendly for the hydrogenolysis product. reached 91. 2011).2. isopropanol.r. These complexes displayed high catalytic activity lytic enantioselective Henry reaction between benzaldehyde and selectivity in the epoxidation of cyclohexene with urea and nitromethane.2-diaminocyclohexane and R-salicylalde- base catalyst were utilized for stereodivergent direct asym- hyde as well as 2-hydroxynaphthaldehyde have been metric Mannich-type reaction of ketimines.5. set of ONN and ONO were prepared by the reaction of benz- action of nitroalkanes with aldehydes to produce the corre.. 2. Schiff-base derived from primary amine and 2-pyridine- methanol. such as THF. First. oxidant due to the decomposition of them (Qiu et al. 2012). 2013). The complexes of these complex was an effective catalyst for the Henry reaction and ligands were synthesized by treating an ethanolic solution of produced b-hydroxy nitroalkanes in high yield.. In the first part. 2-pyridinecarboxaldehyde. action solvents. epoxides are very useful intermediates in the chem- responding aromatic hydrocarbons (Gu et al. hydrazide with the appropriate salicylaldehyde and pyridine- sponding products of b-nitro alcohols. The synthesized dioxomolybdenum (VI) com- plexes are found to be very selective catalysts for the epoxi- 4.N0 -bis (salicylidene)cyclohexanediamine (L1) and reaction of simple non-activated ketone electrophiles with a- N. ical industry. isolation (Zhou et al. (4. then tested to catalyze Henry re. Those reactions can hydroxynaphth-ylidene)-1.6-dimethoxysalicylidene)-1. For Henry reaction dation of cyclohexene and 1-octene. 3a).. The catalytic activities of the base catalyst gave syn-a. 2004). et al. Solvent always plays an lead to an increase in the yield of the epoxide (Ambroziak important role in various catalytic processes. direct catalytic asymmetric aldol gands N. Mn(II) Schiff base 2-carbaldehyde and characterized. THF was clearly the best choice for this hydrogen peroxide adduct (UHP) as oxidant in methanol. The influences of reaction temperature. and a-amino- conditions (Lu et al.. b-hydroxy esters were obtained in up to 98% ee and 98:2 d. For aldol reaction the condensation of 1. the Mg/Schiff base catalyst and a Sr/Schiff rivatives of trans 1.N0 -bis (2-hydroxy-1- Moreover. and dioxane were tested in the cata. A series of Schiff-base complexes has been synthesized by 4. diethyl ether. carboxaldehyde formed complexes with methyltrioxo- dichloromethane. A series of novel Schiff bases bearing triazole structure Five tridentate Schiff base ligands. simplicity of operation. mild reaction condition and easy Especially.s u e f u n i v e r s i t y j o u r n a l o f b a s i c a n d a p p l i e d s c i e n c e s 4 ( 2 0 1 5 ) 1 1 9 e1 3 3 ambient temperature and normal pressure of hydrogen. Cis-cyclooctene is often used as a diagnostic substrate action time and solvent on the hydrogenolysis of 1-tetralone whenever a new catalytic system is synthesized. up to 97% (Matsunaga and Yoshino. toluene.. followed by the metallation with manga- between 5-methoxyoxazoles and benzaldehydes to produce nese (1.N0 -bis-(2- hydes with nitromethane or nitroethane. been studied. 4.3. Besides.2-cyclohexanediaminato]- mote the Henry reaction of both aromatic and aliphatic alde...b-diamino esters in good to high 1-octene with tert-butyl hydroperoxide (TBHP) as oxidant have enantioselectivity. A series of re.2-diaminocyclohexane with salicy- laldehyde.6.. Mn optically active cis-oxazoline adducts (Evans et al. A Mg/ exhibited relatively poor activity under identical experimental Schiff base catalyst promoted the aldol reaction.b-diamino esters.4. complex (3a) resulting from N. 2006). containing a mixed donor complexed with Mn(OAc)2. However. hexane.2 mol%. The optimized catalyst can pro. highly selective Aldol reaction of 1. These Mn(II) Schiff base . High yield (90e100%) of epoxidation was found for the first of the reactions at 358 K. A series of Schiff bases derived from cinchona alkaloids were for the epoxidation of 1-octene the yield was in the range developed as chiral ligands for the copper(II)-catalyzed 15e74%. The Mg/Schiff synthesized and characterized.128 b e n i . the were also investigated.N0 -bis (2-pyridinecarboxalidene) cyclohexanediamine (L2) substituted a-isothiocyanato ester donors was realized.3- naphthalidene) cyclohexanediamine (L3) ligand was consid- dibenzoylmethanes with formaldehyde catalyzed by tetra- erably active for the catalytic epoxidation of styrene under dentate hydroxycobalt(III) Schiff base complexes under mild conditions. In Six dioxomolybdenum(VI) complexes of Schiff-bases de- the second part. but reaction in terms of yield and enantioselectivity (Wei et al. The best results were obtained for [trans-N. enables easy evaluation of the catalyst efficiency.7. 2009). It has been also revealed that the high stability of cis-cyclooctenoxide. The procedure the appropriate ligand and one equivalent Et3N with an with above-mentioned catalyst has several merits including equimolar amount of MnCl2$4H2O. dioxomolybdenum(VI) and [trans-N.N0 -bis- asymmetric Henry reaction. of carbonyl that connected with a benzene ring to give cor. since they are the starting point for the prepa- ration of a wide variety of products. poor performances in the case of hydrogen peroxide (30%) as 2011). vent gave excellent results and the 100% conversion of 1- tetralone and the 100% selectivity for 1. in which the highest yield of styrene oxide neutral condition (Maruyama et al. copper (3c) and iron (3d) salts. the hydrogenolysis of 1-tetralone in ethanol sol. ethanol. rhenium. acetonitrile. acetone.. re.2-cyclohexanediaminato]-dioxo- afford the chiral b-nitro alcohol adducts with high enantio.

N0 -(2. and its catalytic potential was studied for the epoxidation of alkenes using aqueous tert-butyl hydroperoxide (TBHP) as the oxidant. After ring-opening reaction. from aqueous solutions.5-di-tert-butylsalicyldehyde were tested for the catalytic hydroxynaphthylmethenylimino)-1. 2014). dried by magnesium sulphate. due to their synthetic as well as biological applications Nickel(II) Schiff base complexes of N. 2011). solvent was alytic amount of vanadyl Schiff base complex (Grivani et al.8.3-propanedia-minate asymmetric hydrosilylation of ketones..and trans-stilbenes. complex is found to be an effective catalyst for the conden- hydroxyphenyl) acetylaldimine N-(2-hydroxyphenyl) acet. Mn(II) complex possessed the best jbU inhibitory . of the reaction was cyclohexene oxide in the presence of imidazole. The adsorbed uranium(VI) can be des- neous catalyst is found to be highly reactive in the epoxidation orbed effectively (about 98. with saturated sodium chloride solution and extracted with tively to their corresponding epoxides in the presence of cat. The products which tested as catalyst for epoxidation of alkenes. Three of them showed potent inhibitions against jack bean silylation of ketones catalyzed with zinc complexes in the urease. indene with sodium carried out an electrophilic substitution at C-3 of an indole. used as a potential adsorbent for sorption uranium(VI) and Excellent enantiomeric excess was obtained for the epoxida.1 M NaOH and the of unfunctionalized olefins. 2007). The solution diluted Various alkenes can be converted efficiently and selec. also provides a simple.0.57%) by 0. composite toward uranium(VI) is 94. 9). an electrophile to attack a second molecule of indole. (ethyl acetate/petroleum ether 1:15).N0 -bis(2.. solvent. cis. It is are revealed to be responsible for the catalyst's excellent found that the maximum adsorption capacity of the magnetic performance in epoxidation reactions (Fig. cyclohexene. The catalyst was found to be highly efficient and 5. 4. the hydrophobic properties of the POSS units in the catalyst and temperature have been investigated and optimized. 2002). XRD. 3-propanediaminate (SALPD) or N. 2011). An aldehyde was activated by the catalyst and then 1-hexene. friendly. and the results (NAPTPD) were synthesized and crystallographically charac- showed that excellent yield values were obtained. These kinds of complexes are poten- tially important catalysts in quantitative cyclohexene In recent years.. several advantages such as high yield of product. short reac- quioxane (POSS) has been generated via covalent attachment tion time. Urease inhibitory activities of Schiff base metal complexes 4. hypochloride (Kureshy et al. Yang et al. adsorbent dose. the intermediate was served as Vanadium(IV) reacted with Schiff base ligand N-salicyli. temperature ¼ 25  C.N0 -bis Zinc Schiff base complexes derived from a-amino acids and (salicylidene)-1. 6. TGA. 2010.. Magnetic Schiff base (ferroferric oxide/Schiff base composite) bridged oxo-molybdenum Schiff base complex was success. fast separation method for removal of tion of a-methylstyrene in this oxidant system. In this study.02 g. which are terized. ethyl acetate. 2012). a large trend towards synthesis of bis (indolyl) oxidation or similar oxidation processes of hydrocarbons methanes and their derivatives has attracted much attention (Pouralimardan et al.. This method offers molybdenum Schiff base on a polyhedral oligomeric silses.. Further work is in progress to extrapolate the cata- num Schiff base complex catalyst was fully characterized by lytic activity of Schiff base complex to other organic trans- 1 H NMR. shaking time. while the cata- lysts only effectively promote the process of catalytic re- actions (Baojiao et al... It's suggested that this magnetic Schiff base can be can be reused ten times without noticeable loss of activity.. SEM. the effect of adsorption The unique three dimensional network catalyst structure and parameters such as pH value. these catalysts are of adsorption capacity is not significantly reduced after three higher stability and re-usability in the oxidation reactions and cycles.30 mg g1 obtained at A series of tridentate Schiff base dioxomolybdenum(VI) pH ¼ 6. (Sadaphal et al. was prepared and could efficiently remove uranium(VI) ions fully reused for four runs without significant loss in activity. were obtained in high yields (up to 98%).N0 -bis (2- 3. FT-IR. The prepared heteroge. 2015) (Fig.s u e f u n i v e r s i t y j o u r n a l o f b a s i c a n d a p p l i e d s c i e n c e s 4 ( 2 0 1 5 ) 1 1 9 e1 3 3 129 complexes are highly selective catalysts for oxidation of presence of readily available and inexpensive a-amino acids cyclohexene by PhIO under mild conditions. The POSS. adsorbent dose ¼ 0. Moreover. removed under reduced pressure to give a crude product 2012). and contact angle analysis. Their urease inhibitory activities were evaluated. target products were formed after loss of water. Cu(II) Schiff base Hydroxylphenyl) ethylenediimine and N. simple work up procedures and environmental (Leng et al. 2012).. contact time ¼ 6 h and complexes were tested as catalyst. the din-2-bromoethylimine (L) to form vanadium(IV) complex. Adding nitrogenous donor imidazole made cata. For synthesis of bis(indolyl) methanes lytic activity increase. For removal of uranium (VI) from aqueous showed higher catalytic reactivity than the corresponding solutions homogeneous analogues with added benefits of facile recov- ery and recycling of the heterogeneous catalyst. sation reaction of indole with aldehydes using ethanol as the amide were used for epoxidation of olefins viz. The resulting POSS-bridged oxo-molybde. For hydrosilylation of ketones Transition metal Schiff base complexes derived from metal acetate (M ¼ Mn(II) or Ni(II) or Co(II) or Cd(II)) and N.. formation (Yang et al. The only product based Schiff base ligands (Liu et al. the prominent examples of catalytic asymmetric hydro. involved any costly chiral ligand or additives. b e n i . which do not uranium(VI) ions from aqueous solution (Zhang et al. which was purified by column chromatography on silica gel A new heterogeneous catalyst by bridging an oxo. 8).9.

with Ni(II) and Co(II) in [M(QMP)2] and Cu(II) and Zn(II) in gle crystal X-ray analysis.93 mM. exhibited weak inhibitory activity (IC50 > 50 mM). The inhibitory activity of all the [M(QMP)(CH3COO)]H2O compositions. ligands but also the central ions (Shi et al. mass spectrometry. while nickel(II) Schiff base complex. 2007). indicate that inhibitory activities of Schiff base metal com- plexes interacted with the enzyme in the whole complex plexes as the urease inhibitor depend on not only the organic forms rather than the free ions (Shi et al. The results tivity relationships of the complexes indicated that the com. obtained complexes was tested in vitro against jack bean ure. .59 mM). activity with IC 50 of 8. 2007). The (IC50 ¼ 1. which was much better showed strong inhibitory activity against jack bean urease than those of the corresponding ligand and control ion. UVevis spectroscopy. study and magnetic susceptibilities were used to characterize Fig. investigation on the stability constants and the structure ac.s u e f u n i v e r s i t y j o u r n a l o f b a s i c a n d a p p l i e d s c i e n c e s 4 ( 2 0 1 5 ) 1 1 9 e1 3 3 Fig. (H-QMP) was crystallized in Pc space group and complexed phenylethylamine were synthesized and determined by sin. 8 e Mechanism of the catalytic reaction using investigated Mo complex..45e3. conductance ase. Elemental analyses.30 ± 0..130 b e n i . 9 e Catalytic mechanism of catalyst CPS-[MoO2(ALGL)2] in epoxidation of cyclohexene to cyclohexene oxide by TBHP. Five mononuclear copper(II) and nickel(II) Schiff base The Schiff base 2-[(E)-(quinolin-3-ylimino)methyl]phenol complexes derived from 4-hydroxyphenethylamine and 2. IR. It was found that copper(II) Schiff base complexes.

Nassr LAE. The activation energies and order of pyrolysis were calculated using HorowitzeMetzger method. 6. showing medium to moderate activities for potential applications in designing new therapeutic agents. Abu-Dief AM. (Ikrama et al.s u e f u n i v e r s i t y j o u r n a l o f b a s i c a n d a p p l i e d s c i e n c e s 4 ( 2 0 1 5 ) 1 1 9 e1 3 3 131 the complexes. L3 and L4. atomic FIPL formalin-induced paw licking absorbtion and magnetic susceptibility (Jber et al.20 -diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl Cl2 (11. 13 and 14) was synthesized from azo ligands and ABTS 3-ethylbenzothia-zoline-6-sulfonate bidentate ligand (4-aminoantipyrine) with copper. Azo groups containing phala phenylalanine metal complexes (Dehnert and Juchemann. FTIR. 1985). Cobalt complex of a arg arginine Schiff base (salicylaldehyde with diamine) has excellent light X halide resistance and storage ability and does not degrade even in NMR nuclear magnetic resonance acidic gases (CO2). b e n i . Mixed-ligand dinuclear GSH glutathione complexes with general stoichiometry [Cu2L(amino antipy. 7. both the enzymes except nickel complex.124 mM ± SEM. 2005). Nickel complex But still there is need to explore the biological properties of shows IC50 ¼ 9. and X-ray single-crystal/powder UHP urea hydrogen peroxide diffraction. H NMR. food packages. 2011) AIW acetic acid-induced writhing Two low-dimensional oxime-containing Schiff base copper PIST phenobarbitone-induced sleeping time (I/II) complexes with iodineecopper cluster [Cu2I4]2 bridges. degrading various organic dyes (Hong et al. cat- alytic experiments demonstrated that compounds 2 and 3 have promising visible-light-driven catalytic activity in Abdel-Rahman LH. Transition metal complexes containing Schiff energy follow the order Cu(II) > Ni(II) > Co(II) > Zn(II). L2.20 -dihydroxybiphenyl {[CuIII(pop)]4}2$4H2O (1) with equivalent CuI2I2 (iodineecopper NMO N-methylmorpholine-N-oxide clusters) under solvothermal condition and characterizated THF tetrahydrofurane by elemental analysis (EA).20 -azobis(2-amidinopropane hydrochloride) and through diazo-coupling reactions. However. infra-red spectrum(IR). Novel tetradentate Schiff base acts as a MS mass spectroscopy chromogenic reagent for determination of Ni in some natural ROS reactive oxygen species food samples (Fakhari et al. 12. organic compounds because of their ability to form complexes tions of thermodynamic parameters including DS*. Some metal complexes are his histidine used to mass dye polyfibers (Kaul. El-Khatib RM. The thermograms obtained in the range of 30e1000  C were used for kinetic and thermodynamic calcu. In dyes List of abbreviations Chromium azomethine complexes. UVeVis. have been syn- DHBP 2. were prepared by BSA bovine serum albumin linking benzaldehyde p-aminobenzoylhydrazone (3). 2013). Abdou Seleem A.. thermog- DMF dimethylformamide ravimetric analysis (TGA). which is con- structed by coordination of m2-I atoms from [CuI2I4]2 units references with CuII atoms in [2  2] molecular grids (1). wools etc. p- OFP o-(1-ferrocenylethylideneamino)phenol hydroxybenzaldehyde p-amino-benzoylhydrazone (4). CMCTS carboxymethyl chitosan Four new azo dyes L1. cobalt complex Schiff IR infrared base (Befta.20 -dihydroxybiphenyl thesized from the reaction of [2  2] grid-like compound PDHBP poly-2. Conclusion lations. It was found that the thermal stability and activation properties.. DH* and with transition metal ions and of their pharmacological DG*. Ismael M. Metal based pharmacologically . The results show that 2 is 0-D discrete structure POSS polyhedral oligomeric silsesquioxane from assembly of one [Cu2I4]2 unit and two [2  2] molecular TBHP tert-butyl hydroperoxide grids 1 via m3-I atom coordinating to CuI/CuII atoms. All the bases have been of much interest over the last years. 1985). compound 3 presents 1-D wave-like chain. Moreover.1. 1984) dyes give fast colours to ala alanine leathers. because of its various applications in biological processes and trypsin inhibition. The calculated Schiff bases are considered as a very important class of activation energies were subsequently used for the calcula.H.)2] DPPH 2. MHV mouse hepatitis virus namely {[CuII4I3(pop)4]2(CuI2I4)}$(CH3CN)2$H2O (2) and FIPV feline corona virus [Cu 4I2(pop)4(CuI2I4)$(CH3CN)]n (3) (Hpop ¼ 2-(hydro-xyimino)- II salen salicylaldehydeethylendiamine N0 -[1-(2-yridyl)ethylidene]propane-ydrazone). naph- MFP m-(1-ferrocenylethylideneamino)phenol thaldehyde p-aminobenzoylhydrazone (5) and p-methox- PFP p-(1-ferrocenylethylideneamino)phenol ybenzaldehyde p-aminobenzoylhydrazone (6) to resorcinol AAPH 2. The struc- CIPO carrageenan-induced paw oedema tures of both azo dyes and their complexes were identified by HIPO histamine induced paw oedema elemental analyses (C. 2014).9 ± 0. 1985) are used for aspa aspartic acid dying cellulose polyester textiles..N). and the activity was these already synthesized transition metal complexes and to rationalized by carrying out molecular modelling studies synthesize new complexes with more properties. unsymmetrical complex 1:2 chromium Bs bromosalicylaldehyde (Mennicke and Westphal. largely compounds were also studied for their urease and a-chymo..

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