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The Big Bang

Let's rewind time 13.7 billion years to explain
what we believe is the creation of the universe
we know of, the big bang. Many believe before
the big bang, all the matter of the cosmos existed
in a form of a singularity. smaller than a
subatomic particle the singularity was an
Infinitely dense hot fireball of concentrated
energy which exploded and expanded from a
size of a proton to the size of a basketball within a
millisecond. In these turn of events, the building
blocks for all of the matter in existence were created. Three minutes after the big bang, the
temperature of the universe had cooled to about half a trillion degrees Fahrenheit. Protons and
neutrons began to combine to form atomic nuclei. Gravity came into being, and subatomic
particles flooded the universe slamming into one another forming protons and neutrons which
provided the universe with the elementary particles of which atoms are composed of.
Approximately 700,000 years later, atoms of hydrogen and helium formed, then about one
billion years later, the universe had expanded and cooled enough for galaxies to form and within
them smaller clouds of dust and gas which eventually would become our solar system which
formed a mere 4.5 billion years ago.

The Evidence
The most convincing and compelling portions of this theory is the evidence. 3 pieces of the big
bang supporting evidence are the hydrogen/helium abundance, CMB, and cosmological redshift.

-Hydrogen/Helium abundance
the hydrogen-helium abundance helps us to model the
expansion rate of the early universe.different variables
could affect the ratios of matter in the universe. Hydrogen
and helium account for nearly all the nuclear matter in
today's universe. but it is clear that hydrogen and helium
make up 98%, helium is about 25% by mass and hydrogen
about 73% while all other elements constituting less than 2%.

-Cosmic Microwave Background Radiation
the reminiscence of “cosmic microwave
background", or CMB left behind after the big bang
is the second piece of evidence backing the big bang.
The big bang was a very powerful explosion which
left behind a lot of radiation and heat, and even to this day scientists on earth can still
detect this radiation emitted 13.7 billion years ago.

-Cosmological Redshift
The cosmological redshift is caused by the expansion of
space as a result of the Big Bang. the Universe is expanding
and most of the galaxies within it are moving away from
each other which causes the light from these galaxies to be
redshifted as seen from earth.

-The Life of A Star
The life of a star begins with the Stellar
Nebula. The Stellar Nebula is a cloud of
dust, plasma, hydrogen and helium which
wants to disperse but gravity pulls it in
creating a very hot and dense point where
a star starts its life as a protostar, this is
named stellar ignition. Depending on the
size of the nebula this can either create an
average star or massive star, where their
lifespans and end differentiate. Smaller stars tend to live billions of years while massive stars
tend to live only around hundreds of thousands of years. this is because lower mass stars run
through their fuel slower while massive stars tend to go through their fuel faster. these stars
spend the majority of their lives in the main sequence fusing hydrogen to create helium. once it
has used up all its hydrogen fuel a star makes the ultimate decision to fuse heavier elements as
fuel to continue living, this is called a red giant due to how its temperature drops and the star
expands. after these red giants fuse and create all elements up to iron the star the star ends
nuclear fusion because of the energy needed to fuse iron. small/average mass stars go through the
planetary nebula state to become a dense white dwarf which survives on its stored energy and
eventually fades away. Massive stars, on the other hand, go out in a bang spreading all the other
heavier elements including germanium and iridium in the heat of the explosion. from here the
massive star can either become a dead neutron star or an unimaginably dense black hole whose
gravity is so strong nothing can escape, not even light.

-Atom Information
Positive and negative charges are the
differences in the amount of protons and
electrons. If an atom has the same number
of protons and electrons it has a
zero/neutral charge, if an atom has more
electrons than protons it is negatively
charged, and if an atom has more protons
than electrons it’s positively charged.
Standard form elements have a neutral charge because the numbers of protons equal the number
of electrons. Ions are the difference in protons and electrons while isotopes are atoms of the same
element that differ in only the number of neutrons.
To find the average atomic mass of an element, you
must multiply the exact weight of isotope #1 by the
abundance of isotope #1 adding the exact weight of
isotope #1 by the abundance of isotope #2. To find
the weighted average you multiply the percentage
value by how much of the total percentage the
value makes up and you repeat that with all scores.
A melting point is the temperature that causes the
substance to melt or to turn into a liquid from a gas.
The boiling point is the temperature that causes the
substance to boil or turn from a liquid to a gas.
To find density all you have to do is divide mass by volume and that will give you the density of
the requested element.


Germanium was discovered by Clemens
A. Winkler at Freiberg, Germany, hence the name
germanium, in 1886. Its existence had been
predicted before its discovery by the creator of the periodic table
Mendeleev who predicted its atomic weight would be about 71 and that its density around
5.5 g/cm3. Germanium ores are very rare. They are found in small quantities as the
minerals germanite and argyrodite and are found in high concentrations on meteorites.
Germanium minerals are also present in zinc ores and is usually acquired as a byproduct
of zinc. In present time germanium is mainly used in electronics to compose transistors.

Atomic #: 32
Category: Metalloid
Period: 4
Group: 14
Melting Point: 938.25°C
Boiling Point: 2833°C
Bohr Model:

Atomic Spectrum:


Iridium was discovered together with osmium in
1803 by Smithson Tennant in London when crude
platinum was dissolved in a solution leaving behind a
black residue which was initially thought to be
graphite. Tennant thought otherwise going through a
treatment process to separate it into two new
elements. He named one iridium because its salts were so colourful and the other osmium
because it had a curious odour. Iridium is one of the rarest elements on Earth. It is commercially
recovered as a byproduct of nickel refining. A very thin layer of iridium exists in the Earth’s
crust. It is used to support the dinosaur extinction theory because it is believed that this thin layer
was created by a large meteor or asteroid hitting the Earth. In present Iridium is most commonly
used to make spark plugs and is mixed with other elements to create crucibles. If iridium were to
run out we will have to use mixes of osmium and other elements to take its place.

Atomic #: 32
Category: Metal
Period: 6
Group: 9
Melting point 2446°C
Boiling point 4428°C
Bohr Model:
Atomic Spectrum:


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Germanium - Element information, properties and uses | Periodic Table. (n.d.). Retrieved
December 11, 2015, from

Iridium - Element information, properties and uses | Periodic Table. (n.d.). Retrieved
December 11, 2015, from

Life Cycle of a Star | National Schools' Observatory. (n.d.). Retrieved December 11, 2015,

Propulsion. (n.d.). Retrieved December 11, 2015, from

Tests of Big Bang: The CMB. (n.d.). Retrieved December 11, 2015, from

Big Bang Source
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