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UNDERGRADUATE THESIS

OVERVIEW OF DRUGS USED FOR TREATMENT IN
HYPERTENSION FOR ELDERLY PATIENTS IN
SANGLAH HOSPITAL, DENPASAR, BALI

ARCHANA LAXMI PATHMANATHAN

NIM 1402005192

MEDICAL EDUCATION STUDY PROGRAM
MEDICAL FACULTY
UDAYANA UNIVERSITY
DENPASAR
2018

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M.Biomed NIP. M.Biomed dr. BALI Sheet of Approval RESEARCH OF THIS UNDERGRADUATE THESIS HAS BEEN APPROVED ON THE DATE OF 25 JANUARY 2018 Adviser 1 Adviser 2 dr. Komang Januartha Putra Pinatih.Kes NIP.dr. Coordinator of Medical Program Medical Faculty of Udayana University Dr.OVERVIEW OF DRUGS USED FOR TREATMENT IN HYPERTENSION FOR ELDERLY PATIENTS IN SANGLAH HOSPITAL. I Gusti Ayu Widianti. DENPASAR. M. 197807092005011012 NIP. I Nyoman GedeWardana. 196802091999032001 Approved by. 196701221996011001 ii .

Biomed Member : 1.Biomed iii . dr.Biomed 2. M. I Nyoman Gede Wardana. I Gusti Ayu Widianti. M. Page of Committee of Examiners of Thesis This Research has been Tested and Assessed by the Examining Committee of the Program Study of Medical Doctors in Medical Faculty of Udayana University On the Date of 25 January 2018 Committee of Examiners: Leader : dr.Yuliana. dr. M.

Denpasar for giving me the chance to grow my concentrating on degree and expand my enthusiasm into my picked point of elective study. from accumulating the rundown of diaries and trusting the best out of my execution. I Nyoman Gede Wardana. hypertension and the medication that is used to treat hypertension in elderly patients. January 2018 Medical Student Semester 7 ________________________ (ARCHANA LAXMI PATHMANATHAN) 1402005192 iv . M.Biomed and dr.Biomed for controlling me all through the procedure from day one. my affirmation toward the Medical Faculty of Udayana. Next. I Gusti Ayu Widianti. To wrap things up. to loved ones for their genuine collaboration and commitment to finish this paper with achievement. I trust this undergraduate thesis is completed in years to come and I am looking forward for the up and coming semesters to proceed with my study in this theme. M. Denpasar. My outmost appreciation will be for dr. PREFACE I might want to extend my earnest appreciation to the Almighty God for showering me with great wellbeing and the wellspring of astuteness and information furthermore to put my needs right to finish this paper in the dispensed time.

..........000. STATEMENT OF ORIGINALITY I hereby declare that in this thesis there is no paper ever submitted for a degree at a college. and to the best of my knowledge there is no work or opinion ever written or published by any other person......- ..... except as expressly referred to in this text and mentioned in the bibliography......... then the degree and diploma I have been given by the university is void of my acceptance............... Denpasar....... v ......... If it later proves that I am doing an act of copying or imitating someone else's writing as a result of my own thoughts...... 25 January 2018 Stated by Materai Rp 6.

ABSTRAK Hipertensi adalah salah satu penyakit yang paling umum di kalangan pasien usia lanjut dan juga dikenal sebagai ‘silent killer’. kami menemukan bahwa kebanyakan obat yang diberikan adalah amlodipine dan captopril untuk orang lanjut usia karena obat ini bekerja efektif untuk pasien. prevalensi vi . Penelitian ini menggunakan metode cross sectional descriptive. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui jumlah penderita hipertensi dengan usia di atas 55 tahun dan gambaran obat yang digunakan untuk pengobatan di pada pasien usia lanjut di Rumah Sakit Sanglah Denpasar Bali. didapatkan hasil perempuan memiliki prevalensi yang lebih tinggi dibandingkan laki- laki. pengobatan. Gejalanya bisa muncul tanpa disadari terjadi terus selama bertahun-tahun akan penyakit mereka. Kata kunci: hipertensi. furosemid dan bisoprolol juga diberikan kepada pasien hipertensi tergantung pada penyakit penyerta. Hal ini bisa terjadi karena stres berlebihan yang menyebabkan tekanan darah naik. Berdasarkan jenis kelamin. Obat lain seperti valsartan. kesadaran. Di Rumah Sakit Sanglah. Berdasarkan hasil penelitian didapatkan meningkatnya penderita hipertensi seiring bertambahnya umur.

Bali. we found that the mostly given drugs are amlodipine and captopril for elderly people as this drugs works effectively for the patients. This study is to determine the total number of hypertension patient with age above 55 years old and the drug used for treatment among patients in Sanglah Hospital. awareness. prevalence vii . we could find as the age increases the number of individuals with hypertension increases. In this study descriptive cross sectional study method were being used. In Sanglah hospital. Keyword: hypertension. Denpasar. Other drugs such as valsartan. we could see that female has higher prevalence compare to male. The symptoms could be appeared and people could go on for years without having any awareness of their disease. In gender. It could be due to excessive stress which causes the blood pressure to rise up. furosemide and bisoprolol are also given to patients with hypertension depending on their associated diseases. Based on the results. treatment. ABSTRACT Hypertension is one of the most common disease among elderly patients and it is also known as a silent killer.

.. 5 2....…………………… i SHEET OF APPROVAL ………………………....….………….…......….1 Prevalence of Hypertension in Elderly .3 Aim ....………………………….……....…………………………………………......………………….... 6 2..….2 Problem Identification …..... 3 CHAPTER II: LITERATURE REVIEW 2..……………………..…………………. 3 1... ii COMMITTEE OF EXAMINERS ………....……….....…..… xi LIST OF ATTACHMENT …………... iii PREFACE ……………….….1 Background ………. 1 1............…………………………………...……….…………………………….……...2 Operational Definition ………….………………. xii LIST OF ABBREVIATIONS ………………………………………… xiii CHAPTER I: INTRODUCTION 1....…...………. LIST OF CONTENT Page INNER COVER ……………………………….... v ABSTRACT …………………………………………………….....…………………….......... 7 2....... viii LIST OF TABLE …….…………….......…..4 Causes of Hypertension ….5 Diagnosis of Hypertension .……………..….………………....……...……………..…………… 4 2......………....4 Benefit of Research …………………………...6 Treatment and Management of Hypertension . 5 2..............……………………......…….3 Criteria of Hypertension . vi LIST OF CONTENT ………………. 3 1......…………….....…….....………………...........………………….……… x LIST OF FIGURE ... iv STATEMENT OF ORIGINALITY ………………………………………...…........…....……… 8 viii ..

.. 22 5.... 19 5...2..…… 18 4.. .......…….….... 14 3.………….....…..2...2 Research Results ………………………………………….4 Stages……….. 16 4.......……...2 Criteria of Sample .1 Design of Research . 23 5.…… .3 Research Discussion ………………………...3...3 Classifications………………………………………........ 16 4.. 17 4.....1 Conclusion ………………………….........…… 20 5.……........…. 32 ix ....…………………...….… 15 CHAPTER IV: METHOD OF RESEARCH 4......…….….. 19 5.........5 Time and Place of Survey………………………………...........…….2 Gender………………………………………………......…...…..…………………… 28 REFERENCE……………………………………………………………… 30 ATTACHMENT…………………..…….……..3..................... 16 4.…..…..…………….3..…..………………………………………..……………… 24 CHAPTER VI: CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATION 6.........…………………………… 28 6.....1 Research Frame Work .1 Research Frame Work ...CHAPTER III: RESEARCH FRAMEWORK..3......……………………………………...………….…….6 Research Protocol …………………………………...….1 Age …………………………………………...... CONCEPT & HYPOTHESIS 3..….………...….…........2 Research Concept ………... 16 4.5 Drugs……………………………………….....3...3 Size of Sample ……...…….….2 Recommendation……………………………...3 Research Variables .………. 18 CHAPTER V: RESEARCH RESULTS AND DISCUSSION 5...……. 17 4.….....3..........………………...…….………..........……………….....……………….……… 21 5......1 Population of Research .....4 Research Instruments and Materials ……... 17 4..2 Population and Sample of Research ………………………………..…….…… 20 5.……..….....2.. 17 4..……...…… 18 4........…...7 Data Analysis………………………….....…………...………..1 Operational definition …………….....

13 Table 5.2 Dosage of Drug…………………………………………. 19 Table 5...………..4 Drugs Used for Treatment....… .1 Total Patients Based on Characteristic of Samples. LIST OF TABLE Page Table 2.…….....3 Total Number of Patients According to Stages…………………......………..2 Total Hypertension Patients According to Gender……. 24 x ..……..…. 6 Table 2... 24 Table 5. 21 Table 5..1 Stages of hypertension ……………………………………....……………………………….

..… 15 Figure 5.……… 23 xi . LIST OF FIGURE Page Figure 3.1 Age range from 55 years old from January-June 2017………… 20 Figure 5.2 Classification of Hypertension from January-June 2017.1 Conception of framework of Hypertension………………….

. LIST OF ATTACHMENT Page Research schedule………………………….………………………….. 32 xii .

LIST OF ABBREVIATIONS ACCF : American College of Cardiology Foundation ACE : Angiotensin Converting Inhibitors AHA : American Heart Association ARB : Angiotensin Receptor Blockers ASA : Acetylsalicylic Acid BP : Blood Pressure CAD : Coronary Artery Disease CCB : Calcium Channel Blockers CKD : Chronic Kidney Disease CVD : Cardiovascular Disease DBP : Diastolic Blood Pressure ESH : European Society of Hypertension ESC : European Society of Cardiology HF : Heart Failure RCT : Randomized Control Trial SBP : Systolic Blood Pressure TIA : Transient Ischemic Attack xiii .