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**ANTENNA THEORY AND RADAR SYSTEMS
**

EEE 537: 3 Units

Time: 2 hours, 30mins Date: January 2016

Instruction to candidates: Maximum Mark: 70

Answer question 1 and any other three.

Question 1

**(a) Using relevant sketches and equations where applicable, define each of the following terms
**

and explain their relevance in antenna design:

**(i) Radiated power [2 mark]
**

(ii) Directivity [2 marks]

(iii) Minor lobes [1 marks]

(b) Define the term “isotropic radiator” and explain, using electromagnetic wave properties,

why an isotropic antenna cannot be constructed in practice. [4 marks]

**(c) Show that, operating with a noise bandwidth of 1.67 MHz at peak power of 1.4 MW, a radar
**

system with the parameters in Table 1 will get a reasonable signal-to-noise ratio on a small UAV

(Unmanned Aerial Vehicle) at 60 nmi. Assume the losses to be 8 dB. [10 marks]

Table 1

Parameters Value

UAV cross section 1 𝑚2

System noise temperature 9500 𝐾

Boltzmann’s constant 1.38× 10−23 w/𝐻𝑧 0 𝐾

Frequency 2800 MHz

Antenna dimension 4.29 m by 2.07 m

Question 2

(a) List any five (5) loss terms in typical radar systems. [5 marks]

(b) Using a block diagram explain the operation of primary pulse radar system. [6 marks]

**(c) A radar system can perform search at a range of 1000 km, state any five (5) modifications
**

that can be done in order to increase the system range to 2000 km. [6 marks]

∅ = 900 ? [7 marks] . If the minimum receivable power is 10-12 W. explain the three possible antenna polarizations. 𝑁. [7 marks] Question 5 (a) Define the following: (i) Beam area [2 marks] (ii) Polarization [2 marks] (iii) Half Power Beam Width (HPBW) [2 marks] (b) With the use of relevant equations. [6 marks] 𝑆 (ii) Show that the signal-to-Noise ratio. [3 marks] (c) Given that the power density 𝑃𝑡 of an ideal radiating antenna is inversely proportional to the radar range R: (i) Derive the radar range equation.Question 3 (a) List and explain any four (4) key functions of a radar system. of a radar system is inversely proportional to the Noise Bandwidth 𝐵𝑛 of the receiver and the system noise temperature 𝑇𝑠 . [3 marks] (b) Derive the expression for the total power radiated by a Hertzian dipole. What is the polarization of the total far-zone field in the direction of 𝜃 = 900 . [4 marks] (b) List any three (3) sources of noise at the receiver of a radar system. [4 marks] Question 4 (a) Define the term “travelling wave antenna” and state its characteristic advantage in communication system design. [4 marks] (c) A cross dipole is constructed by a vertical Hertzian dipole along the Z-axis and the horizontal dipole along the x-axis as shown in Figure 1. If the horizontal Hertzian dipole is excited with a phase difference of 900 with respect to the vertical Hertzian dipole. [ 7 marks] (c) A radar system is operated at 10 GHz with a peak power of 500 kW. the capture area of the radar antenna is 5 m2 and the radar cross- section target is 20 m2. find the maximum range.

[4 marks] (b) Define array antenna and specify the crucial requirement for effective antenna array arrangement. Estimate how many interference fringes of the array pattern lie within the -3 dB contours of the element pattern. [5 marks] (c) An array antenna is formed from two elements each of 50 dB aperture gain.000 wavelengths. Calculate the boresight gain of the array. which are separated in space by 100. Figure 1 Question 6 (a) Define the terms “radiation impedance” and “VSWR” in relation to antenna theory? Interpret their importance in antenna design and simulation. [8 marks] .

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