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# EEE 403 ADVANCED CONTROL THEORY

Design of Control Systems in State Space

Dr. P. Kavitha
Associate Professor
SELECT, VIT University
kavitha.p@vit.ac.in
POLE PLACEMENT

2 EEE 403 Design of Control Systems in State Space
Lecture Outline

 Introduction

 Pole Placement

Pole Placement Design Techniques
 Using Transformation Matrix P

 Direct Substitution Method

 Ackermann’s Formula

 Design of State Observer

3 EEE 403 Design of Control Systems in State Space
Introduction
 One of the drawbacks of frequency domain methods of
design is that after designing the location of the dominant
second-order pair of poles, we keep our fingers crossed,
hoping that the higher-order poles do not affect the second-
order approximation.

 What we would like to be able to do is specify all closed-
loop poles of the higher-order system.

4 EEE 403 Design of Control Systems in State Space
Introduction…

 Frequency domain methods of design do not allow us to
specify all poles in systems of order higher than 2 because
they do not allow for a sufficient number of unknown
parameters to place all of the closed-loop poles uniquely.

 One gain to adjust, or compensator pole and zero to select,
does not yield a sufficient number of parameters to place all
the closed-loop poles at desired locations.

5 EEE 403 Design of Control Systems in State Space
Introduction…

 Remember, to place n unknown quantities, you need n

 State-space methods solve this problem by introducing into the
system
 The technique for finding these parameter values

 On the other hand, state-space methods do not allow the
specification of closed-loop zero locations, which frequency
domain methods do allow through placement of the lead
compensator zero.
6 EEE 403 Design of Control Systems in State Space
Introduction…

 Finally, there is a wide range of computational support for state-
space methods; many software packages support the matrix
algebra required by the design process.

 However, as mentioned before, the advantages of computer
support are balanced by the loss of graphic insight into a design
problem that the frequency domain methods yield.

7 EEE 403 Design of Control Systems in State Space
Pole Placement

 In this lecture we will discuss a design method commonly
called the pole-placement or pole-assignment technique.

 We assume that all state variables are measurable and are
available for feedback.

 If the system considered is completely state controllable, then
poles of the closed-loop system may be placed at any desired
locations by means of state feedback through an appropriate
state feedback gain matrix.

8 EEE 403 Design of Control Systems in State Space
Pole Placement …

 The present design technique begins with a determination of
the desired closed-loop poles based on the transient-response
and/or frequency-response requirements, such as speed,
damping ratio, or bandwidth, as well as steady-state
requirements.

 By choosing an appropriate gain matrix for state feedback, it is
possible to force the system to have closed-loop poles at the
desired locations, provided that the original system is
completely state controllable.

9 EEE 403 Design of Control Systems in State Space
Pole Placement …

Consider a plant represented in state space by
𝒙 = 𝑨𝒙 + 𝑩𝑢
𝑦 = 𝑪𝒙

10 EEE 403 Design of Control Systems in State Space
Pole Placement …

 In a typical feedback control system, the output, y, is fed back to
the summing junction.

 It is now that the topology of the design changes. Instead of
feeding back y, we feed back all of the state variables.

 If each state variable is fed back to the control, u, through a gain,
ki, there would be n gains, ki, that could be adjusted to yield the
required closed-loop pole values.

11 EEE 403 Design of Control Systems in State Space
Pole Placement…

12 EEE 403 Design of Control Systems in State Space
Pole Placement …

𝒙 = (𝑨 − 𝑩𝑲)𝒙

 The stability and transient response characteristics are
determined by the eigenvalues of matrix A-BK.

 If matrix K is chosen properly Eigenvalues of the system can be
placed at desired location.

 And the problem of placing the regulator poles (closed-loop
poles) at the desired location is called a pole-placement problem.

13 EEE 403 Design of Control Systems in State Space
Pole Placement …

• There are three approaches that can be used to determine the
gain matrix K to place the poles at desired location.

 Using Transformation Matrix P
 Direct Substitution Method
 Ackermann’s formula

• All those method yields the same result.

14 EEE 403 Design of Control Systems in State Space
Pole Placement

Method 1 Transformation Matrix
Pole Placement (Using Transformation Matrix P)

• Following are the steps to be followed in this particular
method.

1. Check the state controllability of the system

𝐶𝑀 = 𝐵 𝐴𝐵 𝐴2 𝐵 ⋯ 𝐴𝑛−1 𝐵

16 EEE 403 Design of Control Systems in State Space
Pole Placement (Using Transformation Matrix P)

• Following are the steps to be followed in this particular method.

2. Transform the given system in CCF.

P  CM  W

 an 1 an  2  a1 1
a an  3  1 0
 n2
W       𝑠𝐼 − 𝐴 = 𝑠 𝑛 + 𝑎1 𝑠 𝑛−1 + 𝑎2 𝑠 𝑛−2 + ⋯ + 𝑎𝑛−1 s+𝑎𝑛
 
 a1 1  0 0
 1 0  0 0

A  P 1 AP B  P 1 B C  CP
17 EEE 403 Design of Control Systems in State Space
Pole Placement (Using Transformation Matrix P)

• Following are the steps to be followed in this particular method.

3. Obtain the desired characteristic equation from desired
Eigenvalues.
 If the desired Eigenvalues are 𝜇1 , 𝜇2 , ⋯ , 𝜇𝑛

(𝑠 − 𝜇1 )( 𝑠 − 𝜇2 ) ⋯ 𝑠 − 𝜇𝑛 = 𝑠 𝑛 + 𝛼1 𝑠 𝑛−1 + 𝛼2 𝑠 𝑛−2 + ⋯ + 𝛼𝑛−1 𝑠+𝛼𝑛

18 EEE 403 Design of Control Systems in State Space
Pole Placement (Using Transformation Matrix P)

• Following are the steps to be followed in this particular method.

4. Compute the gain matrix K.

𝑲 = 𝛼𝑛 − 𝑎𝑛 𝛼𝑛−1 − 𝑎𝑛−1 ⋯ 𝛼2 − 𝑎2 𝛼1 − 𝑎1

19 EEE 403 Design of Control Systems in State Space
Pole Placement (Using Transformation Matrix P)
• Example-1: Consider the regulator system shown in following
figure. The plant is given by
𝑥1 0 1 0 𝑥1 0
𝑥2 = 0 0 1 𝑥2 + 0 𝑢(𝑡)
𝑥3 −1 −5 −6 𝑥3 1

• The system uses the state feedback control u=-Kx. The desired
eigenvalues are 𝜇1 = −2 + 𝑗4, 𝜇2 = −2 − 𝑗4 ,𝜇3 = −10. Determine
the state feedback gain matrix K.
20 EEE 403 Design of Control Systems in State Space
Pole Placement (Using Transformation Matrix P)
• Example-1: Step-1

𝑥1 0 1 0 𝑥1 0
𝑥2 = 0 0 1 𝑥2 + 0 𝑢(𝑡)
𝑥3 −1 −5 −6 𝑥3 1
 First, we need to check the controllability matrix of the system.
Since the controllability matrix CM is given by

0 0 1
𝐶𝑀 = 𝐵 𝐴𝐵 𝐴2 𝐵 = 0 1 −6
1 −6 31
 We find that rank(CM)=3. Thus, the system is completely state
controllable and arbitrary pole placement is possible.

21 EEE 403 Design of Control Systems in State Space
Pole Placement (Using Transformation Matrix P)

• Example-1: Step-2 (Transformation to CCF)

𝑥1 0 1 0 𝑥1 0
𝑥2 = 0 0 1 𝑥2 + 0 𝑢(𝑡)
𝑥3 −1 −5 −6 𝑥3 1
 The given system is already in CCF

22 EEE 403 Design of Control Systems in State Space
Pole Placement (Using Transformation Matrix P)
• Example-1: Step-3

𝑥1 0 1 0 𝑥1 0
𝑥2 = 0 0 1 𝑥2 + 0 𝑢(𝑡)
𝑥3 −1 −5 −6 𝑥3 1
 Determine the characteristic equation

𝑠𝐼 − 𝐴 = 𝑠 3 + 6𝑠 2 + 5𝑠 + 1 = 0
𝑠𝐼 − 𝐴 = 𝑠 3 + 𝑎1 𝑠 2 + 𝑎2 𝑠 + 𝑎3
 Hence

𝑎1 = 6, 𝑎2 = 5, 𝑎3 = 1

23 EEE 403 Design of Control Systems in State Space
Pole Placement (Using Transformation Matrix P)
Example-1: Step-4
 The desired characteristics polynomial can be computed using
desired eigenvalues
𝜇1 = −2 + 𝑗4 𝜇2 = −2 − 𝑗4 𝜇3 = −1

(𝑠 − 𝜇1 )( 𝑠 − 𝜇2 ) ⋯ 𝑠 − 𝜇𝑛 = (𝑠 + 2 − 4𝑗)( 𝑠 + 2 + 4𝑗) 𝑠 + 10

𝑠 + 2 − 4𝑗 𝑠 + 2 + 4𝑗 𝑠 + 10 = 𝑠 3 + 14𝑠 2 + 60𝑠 + 200
= 𝑠 3 + 𝛼1 𝑠 2 + 𝛼2 𝑠 + 𝛼3
 Hence

𝛼1 = 14, 𝛼2 = 60, 𝛼3 = 200
24 EEE 403 Design of Control Systems in State Space
Pole Placement (Using Transformation Matrix P)
• Example-1: Step-4

 State feedback gain matric K is then calculated as

𝑎1 = 6, 𝑎2 = 5, 𝑎3 = 1
𝛼1 = 14, 𝛼2 = 60, 𝛼3 = 200

𝑲 = 𝛼3 − 𝑎 3 𝛼2 − 𝑎2 𝛼1 − 𝑎1

𝑲 = 199 55 8

25 EEE 403 Design of Control Systems in State Space
Pole Placement (Using Transformation Matrix P)
𝑥1 0 1 0 𝑥1 0
𝑥2 = 0 0 1 𝑥2 + 0 𝑢(𝑡)
𝑥3 −1 −5 −6 𝑥3 1
• State diagram of the given system

+ 𝑥3 𝑥3 𝑥2 𝑥2 𝑥1 𝑥1 𝑢
(𝑡)
+
∫ ∫ ∫
+
-6
+
+
-5
+
+
-5
26 EEE 403 Design of Control Systems in State Space
𝑢 = −𝑲𝑥 𝑲 = 199 55 8 𝑥1
𝑢 = − 199 55 8 𝑥2
𝑥3
199
+
+
55
+
+
8
+

𝑢(𝑡) + 𝑥3 𝑥3 𝑥2 𝑥2 𝑥1 𝑥1
-1
+
∫ ∫ ∫
+
-6
+
+
-5
+
27 EEE 403 Design of+
Control Systems in State Space
-5
Pole Placement

Method 2 Direct Substitution
Pole Placement (Direct Substitution Method)
• Following are the steps to be followed in this particular method.

1. Check the state controllability of the system

𝐶𝑀 = 𝐵 𝐴𝐵 𝐴2 𝐵 ⋯ 𝐴𝑛−1 𝐵

29 EEE 403 Design of Control Systems in State Space
Pole Placement (Direct Substitution Method)
• Following are the steps to be followed in this particular method.

2. Define the state feedback gain matrix as

𝑲 = 𝑘1 𝑘2 𝑘3 ⋯ 𝑘𝑛
 And equating 𝑠𝐼 − 𝐴 + 𝐵𝐾 with desired characteristic
equation.

(𝑠 − 𝜇1 )( 𝑠 − 𝜇2 ) ⋯ 𝑠 − 𝜇𝑛 = 𝑠 𝑛 + 𝛼1 𝑠 𝑛−1 + 𝛼2 𝑠 𝑛−2 + ⋯ + 𝛼𝑛−1 s+𝛼𝑛

30 EEE 403 Design of Control Systems in State Space
Pole Placement (By Direct Substitution Method )
• Example-1: Consider the regulator system shown in following
figure. The plant is given by
𝑥1 0 1 0 𝑥1 0
𝑥2 = 0 0 1 𝑥2 + 0 𝑢(𝑡)
𝑥3 −1 −5 −6 𝑥3 1

• The system uses the state feedback control u=-Kx. The desired
eigenvalues are 𝜇1 = −2 + 𝑗4 , 𝜇2 = −2 − 𝑗4 , 𝜇3 = −1 0.
Determine the state feedback gain matrix K.
31 EEE 403 Design of Control Systems in State Space
Pole Placement (By Direct Substitution method)
• Example-1: Step-1

𝑥1 0 1 0 𝑥1 0
𝑥2 = 0 0 1 𝑥2 + 0 𝑢(𝑡)
𝑥3 −1 −5 −6 𝑥3 1
 First, we need to check the controllability matrix of the system.
Since the controllability matrix CM is given by

0 0 1
𝐶𝑀 = 𝐵 𝐴𝐵 𝐴2 𝐵 = 0 1 −6
1 −6 31
 We find that rank(CM)=3. Thus, the system is completely state
controllable and arbitrary pole placement is possible.

32 EEE 403 Design of Control Systems in State Space
Pole Placement (Using Direct Substitution method)
• Example-1: Step-2
• Let K be 𝑲 = 𝑘1 𝑘2 𝑘3

𝑠 0 0 0 1 0 0
𝑠𝐼 − 𝐴 + 𝐵𝐾 = 0 𝑠 0 − 0 0 1 + 0 𝑘1 𝑘2 𝑘3
0 0 𝑠 −1 −5 −6 1

= 𝑠 3 + 6 + 𝑘3 𝑠 2 + 5 + 𝑘2 𝑠 + 1 + 𝑘1
 Desired characteristic polynomial is obtained as
𝑠 + 2 − 4𝑗 𝑠 + 2 + 4𝑗 𝑠 + 10 = 𝑠 3 + 14𝑠 2 + 60𝑠 + 200
 Comparing the coefficients of powers of s

14 = 6 + 𝑘3 𝑘3 = 8
60 = 5 + 𝑘2 𝑘2 = 55
200 = 1 + 𝑘1 𝑘1 = 199
33 EEE 403 Design of Control Systems in State Space
Pole Placement

Method 3 Ackermann’s Formula
Pole Placement (Ackermann’s Formula)

• Following are the steps to be followed in this particular method.

1. Check the state controllability of the system

𝐶𝑀 = 𝐵 𝐴𝐵 𝐴2 𝐵 ⋯ 𝐴𝑛−1 𝐵

35 EEE 403 Design of Control Systems in State Space
Pole Placement (Ackermann’s Formula)

• Following are the steps to be followed in this particular method.

2. Use Ackermann’s formula to calculate K

−1
𝐾 = 0 0 ⋯0 1 𝐵 𝐴𝐵 𝐴2 𝐵 ⋯ 𝐴𝑛−1 𝐵 ∅(𝐴)

∅ 𝐴 = 𝐴𝑛 + 𝛼1 𝐴𝑛−1 + ⋯ + 𝛼𝑛−1 𝐴 + 𝛼𝑛 𝐼

36 EEE 403 Design of Control Systems in State Space
Pole Placement (By Ackermann’s Method )
• Example-1: Consider the regulator system shown in following
figure. The plant is given by
𝑥1 0 1 0 𝑥1 0
𝑥2 = 0 0 1 𝑥2 + 0 𝑢(𝑡)
𝑥3 −1 −5 −6 𝑥3 1

• The system uses the state feedback control u=-Kx. The desired
eigenvalues are 𝜇1 = −2 + 𝑗4 , 𝜇2 = −2 − 𝑗4 , 𝜇3 = −1 0.
Determine the state feedback gain matrix K.
37 EEE 403 Design of Control Systems in State Space
Pole Placement (Ackermann’s Formula)
• Example-1: Step-1

𝑥1 0 1 0 𝑥1 0
𝑥2 = 0 0 1 𝑥2 + 0 𝑢(𝑡)
𝑥3 −1 −5 −6 𝑥3 1
 First, we need to check the controllability matrix of the system.
Since the controllability matrix CM is given by

0 0 1
𝐶𝑀 = 𝐵 𝐴𝐵 𝐴2 𝐵 = 0 1 −6
1 −6 31
 We find that rank(CM)=3. Thus, the system is completely state
controllable and arbitrary pole placement is possible.

38 EEE 403 Design of Control Systems in State Space
Pole Placement (Ackermann’s Formula)

• Following are the steps to be followed in this particular method.

2. Use Ackermann’s formula to calculate K

−1
𝐾= 0 0 1 𝐵 𝐴𝐵 𝐴2 ∅(𝐴)

∅ 𝐴 = 𝐴3 + 𝛼1 𝐴2 + 𝛼2 𝐴 + 𝛼3 𝐼
• 𝛼𝑖 are the coefficients of the desired characteristic polynomial.

𝑠 + 2 − 4𝑗 𝑠 + 2 + 4𝑗 𝑠 + 10 = 𝑠 3 + 14𝑠 2 + 60𝑠 + 200

𝛼1 = 14, 𝛼2 = 60, 𝛼3 = 200
39 EEE 403 Design of Control Systems in State Space
Pole Placement (Ackermann’s Formula)
𝑥1 0 1 0 𝑥1 0
𝑥2 = 0 0 1 𝑥2 + 0 𝑢(𝑡)
𝑥3 −1 −5 −6 𝑥3 1

∅ 𝐴 = 𝐴3 + 14𝐴2 + 60𝐴 + 200𝐼
3 2
0 1 0 0 1 0 0 1 0 1 0 0
∅ 𝐴 = 0 0 1 + 14 0 0 1 + 60 0 0 1 + 200 0 1 0
−1 −5 −6 −1 −5 −6 −1 −5 −6 0 0 1

199 55 8
∅ 𝐴 = −8 159 7
−7 −34 117

40 EEE 403 Design of Control Systems in State Space
Pole Placement (Ackermann’s Formula)
0 0 1 199 55 8
𝐵 𝐴𝐵 𝐴2 𝐵 = 0 1 −6 ∅ 𝐴 = −8 159 7
1 −6 31 −7 −34 117

−1
𝐾= 0 0 1 𝐵 𝐴𝐵 𝐴2 ∅(𝐴)

−1
0 0 1 199 55 8
𝐾= 0 0 1 0 1 −6 −8 159 7
1 −6 31 −7 −34 117

𝐾 = 199 55 8

41 EEE 403 Design of Control Systems in State Space
Pole Placement

• Example-2: Consider the regulator system shown in following
figure. The plant is given by
𝑥1 1 2 1 𝑥1 1
𝑥2 = 0 1 3 𝑥2 + 0 𝑢(𝑡)
𝑥3 1 1 1 𝑥3 1

• Determine the state feedback gain for each state variable to place the
poles at -1+j, -1-j,-3. (Apply all methods)
42 EEE 403 Design of Control Systems in State Space
Design of Control Systems in Sate Space

Observer Based Approach

43 EEE 403 Design of Control Systems in State Space
Lecture Outline
 Introduction

 State Observer

 Topology of Pole Placement (Observer based)

 Full Order State Observer

 Using Transformation Matrix P

 Direct Substitution Method

 Ackermann’s Formula

 Reduced Order state Observer

44 EEE 403 Design of Control Systems in State Space
Introduction
 In the pole-placement approach to the design of control systems,
we assumed that all state variables are available for feedback.

 In practice, however, not all state variables are available for
feedback.
 Then we need to estimate unavailable state variables.

45 EEE 403 Design of Control Systems in State Space
Introduction…
 Estimation of unmeasurable state variables is commonly called observation.

 A device (or a computer program) that estimates or observes the state variables is
called a state estimator, state observer, or simply an observer.

 There are two types of state observers
 Full Order State Observer
 If the state observer observes all state variables of the system, regardless of
whether some state variables are available for direct measurement, it is
called a full-order state observer.

 Reduced Order State Observer
 If the state observer observes only those state variables which are not
available for direct measurement, it is called a reduced-order state observer.

46 EEE 403 Design of Control Systems in State Space
State Feedback Control with Observer Based Approach
State feedback with state observer

47 EEE 403 Design of Control Systems in State Space
State Feedback Control with Observer Based Approach

 State feedback Control

48 EEE 403 Design of Control Systems in State Space
 State Feedback with observer

49 EEE 403 Design of Control Systems in State Space
State Observer

 A state observer estimates the state variables based on the
measurements of the output and control variables.

 Here the concept of observability plays an important role.

 State observers can be designed if and only if the observability
condition is satisfied.

50 EEE 403 Design of Control Systems in State Space
 Consider the plant defined by

𝒙 = 𝑨𝒙 + 𝑩𝑢
𝑦 = 𝑪𝒙
 The mathematical model of the observer is basically the same as
that of the plant, except that we include an additional term that
includes the estimation error to compensate for inaccuracies in
matrices A and B and the lack of the initial error.

 The estimation error or observation error is the difference between
the measured output and the estimated output.

 The initial error is the difference between the initial state and the
initial estimated state.
51 EEE 403 Design of Control Systems in State Space
 Thus we define the mathematical model of observer to be
𝒙 = 𝑨𝒙 + 𝑩𝑢 + 𝑲𝒆 (𝑦 − 𝑪𝒙)
 Where 𝒙 is estimated state vector, 𝑪𝒙 is estimated output and
𝑲𝒆 is observer gain matrix.

52 EEE 403 Design of Control Systems in State Space
Full Order State Observer
 The order of the state observer that will be discussed here is the same as that of the
plant.
 Consider the plant define by following equations

𝒙 = 𝑨𝒙 + 𝑩𝑢 (1)
𝑦 = 𝑪𝒙
 Equation of state observer is given as

𝒙 = 𝑨𝒙 + 𝑩𝑢 + 𝑲𝑒 (𝑦 − 𝑪𝒙) (2)

 To obtain the observer error equation, let us subtract Equation (2) from Equation
(1):
𝒙 − 𝒙 = 𝑨𝒙 + 𝑩𝑢 − [𝑨𝒙 + 𝑩𝑢 + 𝑲𝑒 𝑦 − 𝑪𝒙 ]
𝒙 − 𝒙 = 𝑨𝒙 + 𝑩𝑢 − 𝑨𝒙 − 𝑩𝑢 − 𝑲𝑒 𝑪𝒙 − 𝑪𝒙
53 EEE 403 Design of Control Systems in State Space
Full Order State Observer
𝒙 − 𝒙 = 𝑨𝒙 + 𝑩𝑢 − 𝑨𝒙 − 𝑩𝑢 − 𝑲𝑒 𝑪𝒙 − 𝑪𝒙
 Simplifications in above equation yields

𝒙 − 𝒙 = 𝑨(𝒙 − 𝒙) − 𝑲𝑒 𝑪 𝒙 − 𝒙 (3)

 Define the difference between 𝒙 and 𝒙 as the error vector
e.
𝒆=𝒙−𝒙
 Equation (3) can now be written as
𝒆 = 𝑨𝒆 − 𝑲𝑒 𝑪𝒆
𝒆 = (𝑨 − 𝑲𝑒 𝑪)𝒆

54 EEE 403 Design of Control Systems in State Space
Full Order State Observer…
𝒆 = (𝑨 − 𝑲𝒆 𝑪)𝒆

 From above we see that the dynamic behavior of the error vector is
determined by the eigenvalues of matrix A-KeC.

 If matrix A-KeC is a stable matrix, the error vector will converge to
zero for any initial error vector e(0).

 That is, 𝒙(𝒕) will converge to 𝒙(𝒕) regardless of the values of x(0).
 And if the eigenvalues of matrix A-KeC are chosen in such a way
that the dynamic behavior of the error vector is asymptotically stable
and is adequately fast, then any error vector will tend to zero (the

55 EEE 403 Design of Control Systems in State Space
Full Order State Observer

𝒆 = (𝑨 − 𝑲𝒆 𝑪)𝒆

 If the plant is completely observable, then it can be proved that
it is possible to choose matrix Ke such that A-KeC has
arbitrarily desired eigenvalues.

 That is, the observer gain matrix Ke can be determined to yield
the desired matrix A-KeC.

56 EEE 403 Design of Control Systems in State Space
Duality Property

 The design of the full-order observer becomes that of
determining an appropriate Ke such that A-KeC has desired
eigenvalues.

 Thus, the problem here becomes the same as the pole-
placement problem.

 In fact, the two problems are mathematically the same.

 This property is called duality.

57 EEE 403 Design of Control Systems in State Space
Duality Property
 Consider the system defined by

𝒙 = 𝑨𝒙 + 𝑩𝑢
𝑦 = 𝑪𝒙
 In designing the full-order state observer, we may solve the dual
problem, that is, solve the pole-placement problem for the dual
system.
𝒛 = 𝑨∗ 𝒛 + 𝑪∗ 𝑣
𝑛 = 𝑩∗ 𝒛

 Assuming the control signal 𝑣 to be

𝑣 = −𝑲𝒛
58 EEE 403 Design of Control Systems in State Space
Duality Property
 If the dual system is completely state controllable, then the state
feedback gain matrix K can be determined such that matrix A*-
C*K will yield a set of the desired eigenvalues.

 If 𝜇1 , 𝜇2 ,…, 𝜇𝑛 , are the desired eigenvalues of the state observer
matrix, then by taking the same 𝜇𝑖′ 𝑠 as the desired eigenvalues of the
state-feedback gain matrix of the dual system, we obtain

 Noting that the eigenvalues of A*-C*K and those of A-K*C are the
same, we have
𝑠𝐼 − (𝑨∗ − 𝑪∗ 𝑲 ) = (𝑠 − 𝜇1 )( 𝑠 − 𝜇2 ) ⋯ 𝑠 − 𝜇𝑛
𝑠𝐼 − (𝑨∗ − 𝑪∗ 𝑲 ) = 𝑠𝐼 − (𝑨 − 𝑲∗ 𝑪 )

59 EEE 403 Design of Control Systems in State Space
Duality Property
𝑠𝐼 − (𝑨∗ − 𝑪∗ 𝑲 ) = 𝑠𝐼 − (𝑨 − 𝑲∗ 𝑪 )

 Comparing the characteristic polynomial 𝑠𝐼 − (𝑨 − 𝑲∗ 𝑪 ) and the
characteristic polynomial for the observer system
𝑠𝐼 − (𝑨 − 𝑲𝑒 𝑪 ) , we find that Ke and K* are related by

𝑠𝐼 − (𝑨 − 𝑲∗ 𝑪 ) = 𝑠𝐼 − (𝑨 − 𝑲𝑒 𝑪 )

𝑲∗ = 𝑲𝑒

 Thus, using the matrix K determined by the pole-placement
approach in the dual system, the observer gain matrix Ke for the
original system can be determined by using the relationship Ke=K*.

60 EEE 403 Design of Control Systems in State Space
Observer Gain Matrix

 Using Transformation Matrix Q

 Direct Substitution Method

 Ackermann’s Formula

61 EEE 403 Design of Control Systems in State Space
Observer Gain Matrix
 Using Transformation Matrix Q

𝑲 = 𝛼𝑛 − 𝑎𝑛 𝛼𝑛−1 − 𝑎𝑛−1 ⋯ 𝛼2 − 𝑎 2 𝛼1 − 𝑎1
 Since
𝑲𝑒 = 𝑲∗

𝛼𝑛 − 𝑎𝑛
𝛼𝑛−1 − 𝑎𝑛−1
𝑲𝑒 = 𝑲∗ = ⋮
𝛼2 − 𝑎2
𝛼1 − 𝑎1
62 EEE 403 Design of Control Systems in State Space
Observer Gain Matrix
 Direct Substitution Method

𝑘1
𝑘2
𝑲𝒆 = ⋮
𝑘3
𝑘𝑛

63 EEE 403 Design of Control Systems in State Space
Observer Gain Matrix
 Ackermann’s Formula
−1 ∅(𝐴)
𝐾 = 0 0 ⋯0 1 𝐵 𝐴𝐵 𝐴2 𝐵 ⋯ 𝐴𝑛−1 𝐵

 For the dual system
𝒛 = 𝑨∗ 𝒛 + 𝑪∗ 𝑣
𝑛 = 𝑩∗ 𝒛
𝑲 = 0 0 ⋯ 0 1 𝐶∗ −1 ∅(𝐴∗ )
𝐴∗ 𝐶 ∗ (𝐴∗ )2 𝐶 ∗ ⋯ (𝐴∗ )𝑛−1 𝐶 ∗

 Since 𝑲𝑒 = 𝑲∗

𝑲𝑒 = 𝑲∗ = 0 ∗
0 ⋯0 1 𝐶∗ 𝐴∗ 𝐶 ∗ (𝐴∗ )2 𝐶 ∗ ⋯ (𝐴∗ )𝑛−1 𝐶 ∗ −1
∅(𝐴∗ )

64 EEE 403 Design of Control Systems in State Space
Observer Gain Matrix

𝑲𝑒 = 𝑲∗ = 0 ∗
0 ⋯0 1 𝐶∗ 𝐴∗ 𝐶 ∗ (𝐴∗ )2 𝐶 ∗ ⋯ (𝐴∗ )𝑛−1 𝐶 ∗ −1
∅(𝐴∗ )

 Simplifying it further

𝐾𝑒 = ∅(𝐴∗ )∗ 𝐶 ∗ 𝐴∗ 𝐶 ∗ (𝐴∗ )2 𝐶 ∗ ⋯ (𝐴∗ )𝑛−1 𝐶 ∗ −1 ∗
0 0 ⋯0 1 ∗

−1
𝐶 0
𝐶𝐴 0
𝐾𝑒 = ∅(𝐴) ⋮ ⋮
𝐶𝐴𝑛−2 0
𝐶𝐴𝑛−1 1

65 EEE 403 Design of Control Systems in State Space
Observer Gain Matrix

 The feedback signal through the observer gain matrix Ke serves as a
correction signal to the plant model to account for the unknowns in
the plant.

 If significant unknowns are involved, the feedback signal through the
matrix Ke should be relatively large.

 However, if the output signal is contaminated significantly by
disturbances and measurement noises, then the output y is not reliable
and the feedback signal through the matrix Ke should be relatively
small.

66 EEE 403 Design of Control Systems in State Space
Observer Gain Matrix

 The observer gain matrix Ke depends on the desired characteristic
equation
(𝑠 − 𝛽1 )( 𝑠 − 𝛽2 ) ⋯ 𝑠 − 𝛽𝑛 = 0

 The observer poles must be two to five times faster than the controller
poles to make sure the observation error (estimation error) converges
to zero quickly.

 This means that the observer estimation error decays two to five times
faster than does the state vector x.

 Such faster decay of the observer error compared with the desired
dynamics makes the controller poles dominate the system response.

67 EEE 403 Design of Control Systems in State Space
Observer Gain Matrix

 It is important to note that if sensor noise is considerable, we may
choose the observer poles to be slower than two times the controller
poles, so that the bandwidth of the system will become lower and
smooth the noise.

 In this case the system response will be strongly influenced by the
observer poles.

 If the observer poles are located to the right of the controller poles in
the left-half s plane, the system response will be dominated by the
observer poles rather than by the control poles.

68 EEE 403 Design of Control Systems in State Space
Observer Gain Matrix

 In the design of the state observer, it is desirable to determine several
observer gain matrices Ke based on several different desired
characteristic equations.

 For each of the several different matrices Ke , simulation tests must be
run to evaluate the resulting system performance.

 Then we select the best Ke from the viewpoint of overall system
performance.

 In many practical cases, the selection of the best matrix Ke boils down
to a compromise between speedy response and sensitivity to
disturbances and noises.
69 EEE 403 Design of Control Systems in State Space
Example-1
• Consider the system

𝑥1 0 20.6 𝑥1 0
= 𝑥 + 𝑢(𝑡)
𝑥2 1 0 2 1
𝑥1
𝑦= 0 1 𝑥
2
• We use observer based approach to design state feedback control
such that
𝑢 = −𝑲𝒙

• Design a full-order state observer assume that the desired eigenvalues
of the observer matrix are 𝛽1 = −10, 𝛽2 = −10.

70 EEE 403 Design of Control Systems in State Space
Example-1
𝑥1 0 20.6 𝑥1 0
= 𝑥 + 𝑢(𝑡)
𝑥2 1 0 2 1
𝑥1
𝑦= 0 1 𝑥
2
• Let us examine the observability matrix first

𝐶 0 1
𝑂𝑀 = =
𝐶𝐴 1 0

• Since rank(OM)=2 the given system is completely state observable
and the determination of the desired observer gain matrix is possible.

71 EEE 403 Design of Control Systems in State Space
Example-1 (Method-1)
𝑥1 0 20.6 𝑥1 0
= 𝑥 + 𝑢(𝑡)
𝑥2 1 0 2 1
𝑥1
𝑦= 0 1 𝑥
2
 The given system is already in the observable canonical form. Hence,
the transformation matrix Q is I.

72 EEE 403 Design of Control Systems in State Space
Example-1 (Method-1)
𝑥1 0 20.6 𝑥1 0
= 𝑥 + 𝑢(𝑡)
𝑥2 1 0 2 1
𝑥1
𝑦= 0 1 𝑥
2
 The characteristic equation of the given system is

𝑠𝐼 − 𝐴 = 𝑠 2 − 20.6 = 0

 We have
𝑎1 = 0, 𝑎2 = −20.6

73 EEE 403 Design of Control Systems in State Space
Example-1 (Method-1)
𝑥1 0 20.6 𝑥1 0
= 𝑥 + 𝑢(𝑡)
𝑥2 1 0 2 1
𝑥1
𝑦= 0 1 𝑥
2
 The desired characteristic equation of the system is

(𝑠 − 𝛽1 )( 𝑠 − 𝛽2 ) = (𝑠 + 10) 𝑠 + 10

(𝑠 − 𝛽1 )( 𝑠 − 𝛽2 ) = 𝑠 2 + 20𝑠 + 100
 We have

𝛼1 = 20, 𝛼2 = 100

74 EEE 403 Design of Control Systems in State Space
Example-1 (Method-1)
 Observer gain matrix Ke can be calculated using following formula
𝛼2 − 𝑎2
𝑲𝑒 = 𝛼 − 𝑎
1 1
 Where

𝑎1 = 0, 𝑎2 = −20.6 𝛼1 = 20, 𝛼2 = 100

100 − (−20.6)
𝑲𝑒 =
20 − 0

120.6
𝑲𝑒 =
20
75 EEE 403 Design of Control Systems in State Space
Example-1 (Method-2)
𝑥1 0 20.6 𝑥1 0
= 𝑥 + 𝑢(𝑡)
𝑥2 1 0 2 1
𝑥1
𝑦= 0 1 𝑥
2
 The characteristic equation of observer error matric is

𝑠𝑰 − 𝑨 + 𝑲𝑒 𝑪 = 0
 Assuming
𝑘𝑒1
𝑲𝑒 =
𝑘𝑒2

𝑠 0 0 20.6 𝑘𝑒1
𝑠𝑰 − 𝑨 + 𝑲𝑒 𝑪 = − + 0 1
0 𝑠 1 0 𝑘𝑒2

= 𝑠 2 +𝑘𝑒2 𝑠 − 20.6 + 𝑘𝑒1
76 EEE 403 Design of Control Systems in State Space
Example-1 (Method-2)
 The desired characteristic polynomial is

(𝑠 − 𝛽1 )( 𝑠 − 𝛽2 ) = 𝑠 2 + 20𝑠 + 100

 Comparing coefficients of different powers of s

𝑠 2 + 20𝑠 + 100 = 𝑠 2 +𝑘𝑒2 𝑠 − 20.6 + 𝑘𝑒1

120.6
𝑲𝑒 =
20

77 EEE 403 Design of Control Systems in State Space
Example-1 (Method-3)
𝑥1 0 20.6 𝑥1 0
= 𝑥 + 𝑢(𝑡)
𝑥2 1 0 2 1
𝑥1
𝑦= 0 1 𝑥
2
 Using Ackermann’s formula
−1
𝑪 0
𝑲𝑒 = ∅(𝑨)
𝑪𝑨 1
 Where
∅ 𝑨 = 𝐴2 + 𝛼1 𝐴 + 𝛼2 𝐼

𝛼1 = 20, 𝛼2 = 100

∅ 𝑨 = 𝐴2 + 20𝐴 + 100𝐼
78 EEE 403 Design of Control Systems in State Space
Example-1 (Method-3)
∅ 𝑨 = 𝑨2 + 20𝑨 + 100𝑰
2
0 20.6 0 20.6 1 0
∅ 𝑨 = + 20 + 100
1 0 1 0 0 1

120.6 412
∅ 𝑨 =
20 120.6

79 EEE 403 Design of Control Systems in State Space
Example-1 (Method-3)
 Using Ackermann’s formula
−1
𝑪 0
𝑲𝑒 = ∅(𝑨)
𝑪𝑨 1

−1
120.6 412 0 1 0
𝑲𝑒 =
20 120.6 1 0 1

120.6
𝑲𝑒 =
20

80 EEE 403 Design of Control Systems in State Space
Example-1
 We get the same Ke regardless of the method employed.

 The equation for the full-order state observer is given by

𝒙 = 𝑨𝒙 + 𝑩𝑢 + 𝑲𝒆 (𝑦 − 𝑪𝒙)

𝒙𝟏 0 20.6 𝒙1 0 120.6 𝒙1
= + 𝑢(𝑡) + (𝑦 − 0 1 )
𝒙𝟐 1 0 𝒙2 1 20 𝒙2

𝒙𝟏 0 20.6 𝒙1 0 120.6 120.6 𝒙1
= + 𝑢(𝑡) + 𝑦− 0 1
𝒙𝟐 1 0 𝒙2 1 20 20 𝒙2

𝒙𝟏 0 −100 𝒙1 0 120.6
= + 𝑢(𝑡) + 𝑦
𝒙𝟐 1 −20 𝒙2 1 20
81 EEE 403 Design of Control Systems in State Space
Example-2
• Design a regulator system for the following plant:
𝑥1 0 20.6 𝑥1 0
= 𝑥 + 𝑢(𝑡)
𝑥2 1 0 2 1
𝑥1
𝑦= 1 0 𝑥
2
 The desired closed-loop poles for this system are at 𝜇1 = −1.8 + 𝑗2.4 ,
𝜇2 = −1.8 − 𝑗2.4. Compute the state feedback gain matrix K to place the poles
of the system at desired location.

 Suppose that we use the observed-state feedback control instead of the actual-
state feedback. The desired eigenvalues of the observer matrix are 𝛽1 = −8,
𝛽2 = −8.

 Obtain the observer gain matrix Ke and draw a block diagram for the observed-
state feedback control system.

82 EEE 403 Design of Control Systems in State Space
Reduced Order State Observer

83 EEE 403 Design of Control Systems in State Space
Introduction
 The state observers discussed in previous lecture was designed to
estimate all the state variables.

 In practice however, some of the state variables may be accurately
measured.

 Therefore, such accurately measurable state variables need not be
estimated.

 In that case a reduced order state observer may be designed to
estimate only those state variables which are not directly measurable.

84 EEE 403 Design of Control Systems in State Space
Introduction
 Suppose that the state vector x is an n-vector and the output vector
y is an m-vector that can be measured.

 Since m output variables are linear combinations of the state
variables, m state variables need not be estimated.

 We need to estimate only n-m state variables.

 Then the reduced-order observer becomes an (n-m)th order
observer.

 Such an (n-m)th order observer is the minimum-order observer.

85 EEE 403 Design of Control Systems in State Space
Introduction
 Following figure shows the block diagram of a system with a
minimum-order observer.

86 EEE 403 Design of Control Systems in State Space
Minimum Order State Observer
 To present the basic idea of the minimum-order observer we will
consider the case where the output is a scalar (that is, m=1).

 Consider the system
𝒙 = 𝑨𝒙 + 𝑩𝑢

𝑦 = 𝑪𝒙
 where the state vector x can be partitioned into two parts xa (a scalar)
and xb [an (n-1)-vector].

 Here the state variable xa is equal to the output y and thus can be
directly measured, and xb is the unmeasurable portion of the state
vector.
87 EEE 403 Design of Control Systems in State Space
Minimum Order State Observer
 Then the partitioned state and output equations become

88 EEE 403 Design of Control Systems in State Space
Minimum Order State Observer
 Then the partitioned state and output equations become

 The equation of measured portion of the state is given as

 Or

 The terms on the left hand side of above equation can be measure,
therefore this equation serves as an output equation.
89 EEE 403 Design of Control Systems in State Space
Minimum Order State Observer
 Then the partitioned state and output equations become

 The equation of unmeasurable portion of the state is given as

 Noting that terms Abaxa and Bbu are known quantities.

 Above equation describes the dynamics of the unmeasured portion of
the state.
90 EEE 403 Design of Control Systems in State Space
Minimum Order State Observer
 The design procedure can be simplified if we utilize the design
technique developed for the full-order state observer.

 Let us compare the state equation for the full-order observer with that
for the minimum-order observer.

 The state equation for the full-order state observer is

 The state equation for the minimum order state observer is

 The output equations for the full order and minimum order observers
are

91 EEE 403 Design of Control Systems in State Space
Minimum Order State Observer
 List of Necessary Substitutions for Writing the Observer Equation for
the Minimum-Order State Observer

92 EEE 403 Design of Control Systems in State Space
Minimum Order State Observer
 The observer equation for the full-order observer is given by :

 Then, making the substitutions of Table–1 into above equation, we
obtain

 Error dynamics are given as

93 EEE 403 Design of Control Systems in State Space
Minimum Order State Observer
 The characteristic equation for minimum order state observer is

94 EEE 403 Design of Control Systems in State Space
Minimum Order State Observer
 Design methods
1. Using Transformation Matrix

95 EEE 403 Design of Control Systems in State Space
Minimum Order State Observer
 Design methods
 1. Using Ackerman’s Formula

96 EEE 403 Design of Control Systems in State Space
Example-1
 Consider a system

 Assume that the output y can be measured accurately so that
state variable x1 (which is equal to y) need not be estimated.
Let us design a minimum-order observer. Assume that we
choose the desired observer poles to be at

97 EEE 403 Design of Control Systems in State Space
Example-1

98 EEE 403 Design of Control Systems in State Space
End of Slides

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