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Design of Control Systems in State Space

Dr. P. Kavitha

Associate Professor

SELECT, VIT University

kavitha.p@vit.ac.in

POLE PLACEMENT

**2 EEE 403 Design of Control Systems in State Space
**

Lecture Outline

Introduction

Pole Placement

**Pole Placement Design Techniques
**

Using Transformation Matrix P

Direct Substitution Method

Ackermann’s Formula

Design of State Observer

**3 EEE 403 Design of Control Systems in State Space
**

Introduction

One of the drawbacks of frequency domain methods of

design is that after designing the location of the dominant

second-order pair of poles, we keep our fingers crossed,

hoping that the higher-order poles do not affect the second-

order approximation.

** What we would like to be able to do is specify all closed-
**

loop poles of the higher-order system.

**4 EEE 403 Design of Control Systems in State Space
**

Introduction…

** Frequency domain methods of design do not allow us to
**

specify all poles in systems of order higher than 2 because

they do not allow for a sufficient number of unknown

parameters to place all of the closed-loop poles uniquely.

** One gain to adjust, or compensator pole and zero to select,
**

does not yield a sufficient number of parameters to place all

the closed-loop poles at desired locations.

**5 EEE 403 Design of Control Systems in State Space
**

Introduction…

** Remember, to place n unknown quantities, you need n
**

adjustable parameters.

** State-space methods solve this problem by introducing into the
**

system

Other adjustable parameters and

The technique for finding these parameter values

** On the other hand, state-space methods do not allow the
**

specification of closed-loop zero locations, which frequency

domain methods do allow through placement of the lead

compensator zero.

6 EEE 403 Design of Control Systems in State Space

Introduction…

** Finally, there is a wide range of computational support for state-
**

space methods; many software packages support the matrix

algebra required by the design process.

** However, as mentioned before, the advantages of computer
**

support are balanced by the loss of graphic insight into a design

problem that the frequency domain methods yield.

**7 EEE 403 Design of Control Systems in State Space
**

Pole Placement

** In this lecture we will discuss a design method commonly
**

called the pole-placement or pole-assignment technique.

** We assume that all state variables are measurable and are
**

available for feedback.

** If the system considered is completely state controllable, then
**

poles of the closed-loop system may be placed at any desired

locations by means of state feedback through an appropriate

state feedback gain matrix.

**8 EEE 403 Design of Control Systems in State Space
**

Pole Placement …

** The present design technique begins with a determination of
**

the desired closed-loop poles based on the transient-response

and/or frequency-response requirements, such as speed,

damping ratio, or bandwidth, as well as steady-state

requirements.

** By choosing an appropriate gain matrix for state feedback, it is
**

possible to force the system to have closed-loop poles at the

desired locations, provided that the original system is

completely state controllable.

**9 EEE 403 Design of Control Systems in State Space
**

Pole Placement …

**Consider a plant represented in state space by
**

𝒙 = 𝑨𝒙 + 𝑩𝑢

𝑦 = 𝑪𝒙

**10 EEE 403 Design of Control Systems in State Space
**

Pole Placement …

** In a typical feedback control system, the output, y, is fed back to
**

the summing junction.

** It is now that the topology of the design changes. Instead of
**

feeding back y, we feed back all of the state variables.

** If each state variable is fed back to the control, u, through a gain,
**

ki, there would be n gains, ki, that could be adjusted to yield the

required closed-loop pole values.

**11 EEE 403 Design of Control Systems in State Space
**

Pole Placement…

**12 EEE 403 Design of Control Systems in State Space
**

Pole Placement …

𝒙 = (𝑨 − 𝑩𝑲)𝒙

** The stability and transient response characteristics are
**

determined by the eigenvalues of matrix A-BK.

** If matrix K is chosen properly Eigenvalues of the system can be
**

placed at desired location.

** And the problem of placing the regulator poles (closed-loop
**

poles) at the desired location is called a pole-placement problem.

**13 EEE 403 Design of Control Systems in State Space
**

Pole Placement …

**• There are three approaches that can be used to determine the
**

gain matrix K to place the poles at desired location.

** Using Transformation Matrix P
**

Direct Substitution Method

Ackermann’s formula

• All those method yields the same result.

**14 EEE 403 Design of Control Systems in State Space
**

Pole Placement

**Method 1 Transformation Matrix
**

Pole Placement (Using Transformation Matrix P)

**• Following are the steps to be followed in this particular
**

method.

1. Check the state controllability of the system

𝐶𝑀 = 𝐵 𝐴𝐵 𝐴2 𝐵 ⋯ 𝐴𝑛−1 𝐵

**16 EEE 403 Design of Control Systems in State Space
**

Pole Placement (Using Transformation Matrix P)

• Following are the steps to be followed in this particular method.

2. Transform the given system in CCF.

P CM W

an 1 an 2 a1 1

a an 3 1 0

n2

W 𝑠𝐼 − 𝐴 = 𝑠 𝑛 + 𝑎1 𝑠 𝑛−1 + 𝑎2 𝑠 𝑛−2 + ⋯ + 𝑎𝑛−1 s+𝑎𝑛

a1 1 0 0

1 0 0 0

A P 1 AP B P 1 B C CP

17 EEE 403 Design of Control Systems in State Space

Pole Placement (Using Transformation Matrix P)

• Following are the steps to be followed in this particular method.

**3. Obtain the desired characteristic equation from desired
**

Eigenvalues.

If the desired Eigenvalues are 𝜇1 , 𝜇2 , ⋯ , 𝜇𝑛

(𝑠 − 𝜇1 )( 𝑠 − 𝜇2 ) ⋯ 𝑠 − 𝜇𝑛 = 𝑠 𝑛 + 𝛼1 𝑠 𝑛−1 + 𝛼2 𝑠 𝑛−2 + ⋯ + 𝛼𝑛−1 𝑠+𝛼𝑛

**18 EEE 403 Design of Control Systems in State Space
**

Pole Placement (Using Transformation Matrix P)

• Following are the steps to be followed in this particular method.

4. Compute the gain matrix K.

𝑲 = 𝛼𝑛 − 𝑎𝑛 𝛼𝑛−1 − 𝑎𝑛−1 ⋯ 𝛼2 − 𝑎2 𝛼1 − 𝑎1

**19 EEE 403 Design of Control Systems in State Space
**

Pole Placement (Using Transformation Matrix P)

• Example-1: Consider the regulator system shown in following

figure. The plant is given by

𝑥1 0 1 0 𝑥1 0

𝑥2 = 0 0 1 𝑥2 + 0 𝑢(𝑡)

𝑥3 −1 −5 −6 𝑥3 1

**• The system uses the state feedback control u=-Kx. The desired
**

eigenvalues are 𝜇1 = −2 + 𝑗4, 𝜇2 = −2 − 𝑗4 ,𝜇3 = −10. Determine

the state feedback gain matrix K.

20 EEE 403 Design of Control Systems in State Space

Pole Placement (Using Transformation Matrix P)

• Example-1: Step-1

𝑥1 0 1 0 𝑥1 0

𝑥2 = 0 0 1 𝑥2 + 0 𝑢(𝑡)

𝑥3 −1 −5 −6 𝑥3 1

First, we need to check the controllability matrix of the system.

Since the controllability matrix CM is given by

0 0 1

𝐶𝑀 = 𝐵 𝐴𝐵 𝐴2 𝐵 = 0 1 −6

1 −6 31

We find that rank(CM)=3. Thus, the system is completely state

controllable and arbitrary pole placement is possible.

**21 EEE 403 Design of Control Systems in State Space
**

Pole Placement (Using Transformation Matrix P)

• Example-1: Step-2 (Transformation to CCF)

𝑥1 0 1 0 𝑥1 0

𝑥2 = 0 0 1 𝑥2 + 0 𝑢(𝑡)

𝑥3 −1 −5 −6 𝑥3 1

The given system is already in CCF

**22 EEE 403 Design of Control Systems in State Space
**

Pole Placement (Using Transformation Matrix P)

• Example-1: Step-3

𝑥1 0 1 0 𝑥1 0

𝑥2 = 0 0 1 𝑥2 + 0 𝑢(𝑡)

𝑥3 −1 −5 −6 𝑥3 1

Determine the characteristic equation

𝑠𝐼 − 𝐴 = 𝑠 3 + 6𝑠 2 + 5𝑠 + 1 = 0

𝑠𝐼 − 𝐴 = 𝑠 3 + 𝑎1 𝑠 2 + 𝑎2 𝑠 + 𝑎3

Hence

𝑎1 = 6, 𝑎2 = 5, 𝑎3 = 1

**23 EEE 403 Design of Control Systems in State Space
**

Pole Placement (Using Transformation Matrix P)

Example-1: Step-4

The desired characteristics polynomial can be computed using

desired eigenvalues

𝜇1 = −2 + 𝑗4 𝜇2 = −2 − 𝑗4 𝜇3 = −1

(𝑠 − 𝜇1 )( 𝑠 − 𝜇2 ) ⋯ 𝑠 − 𝜇𝑛 = (𝑠 + 2 − 4𝑗)( 𝑠 + 2 + 4𝑗) 𝑠 + 10

𝑠 + 2 − 4𝑗 𝑠 + 2 + 4𝑗 𝑠 + 10 = 𝑠 3 + 14𝑠 2 + 60𝑠 + 200

= 𝑠 3 + 𝛼1 𝑠 2 + 𝛼2 𝑠 + 𝛼3

Hence

𝛼1 = 14, 𝛼2 = 60, 𝛼3 = 200

24 EEE 403 Design of Control Systems in State Space

Pole Placement (Using Transformation Matrix P)

• Example-1: Step-4

State feedback gain matric K is then calculated as

𝑎1 = 6, 𝑎2 = 5, 𝑎3 = 1

𝛼1 = 14, 𝛼2 = 60, 𝛼3 = 200

𝑲 = 𝛼3 − 𝑎 3 𝛼2 − 𝑎2 𝛼1 − 𝑎1

𝑲 = 199 55 8

**25 EEE 403 Design of Control Systems in State Space
**

Pole Placement (Using Transformation Matrix P)

𝑥1 0 1 0 𝑥1 0

𝑥2 = 0 0 1 𝑥2 + 0 𝑢(𝑡)

𝑥3 −1 −5 −6 𝑥3 1

• State diagram of the given system

+ 𝑥3 𝑥3 𝑥2 𝑥2 𝑥1 𝑥1
𝑢

(𝑡)

+

∫ ∫ ∫

+

-6

+

+

-5

+

+

-5

26 EEE 403 Design of Control Systems in State Space

𝑢 = −𝑲𝑥 𝑲 = 199 55 8 𝑥1

𝑢 = − 199 55 8 𝑥2

𝑥3

199

+

+

55

+

+

8

+

𝑢(𝑡) + 𝑥3 𝑥3 𝑥2 𝑥2 𝑥1 𝑥1

-1

+

∫ ∫ ∫

+

-6

+

+

-5

+

27 EEE 403 Design of+

Control Systems in State Space

-5

Pole Placement

**Method 2 Direct Substitution
**

Pole Placement (Direct Substitution Method)

• Following are the steps to be followed in this particular method.

1. Check the state controllability of the system

𝐶𝑀 = 𝐵 𝐴𝐵 𝐴2 𝐵 ⋯ 𝐴𝑛−1 𝐵

**29 EEE 403 Design of Control Systems in State Space
**

Pole Placement (Direct Substitution Method)

• Following are the steps to be followed in this particular method.

2. Define the state feedback gain matrix as

𝑲 = 𝑘1 𝑘2 𝑘3 ⋯ 𝑘𝑛

And equating 𝑠𝐼 − 𝐴 + 𝐵𝐾 with desired characteristic

equation.

(𝑠 − 𝜇1 )( 𝑠 − 𝜇2 ) ⋯ 𝑠 − 𝜇𝑛 = 𝑠 𝑛 + 𝛼1 𝑠 𝑛−1 + 𝛼2 𝑠 𝑛−2 + ⋯ + 𝛼𝑛−1 s+𝛼𝑛

**30 EEE 403 Design of Control Systems in State Space
**

Pole Placement (By Direct Substitution Method )

• Example-1: Consider the regulator system shown in following

figure. The plant is given by

𝑥1 0 1 0 𝑥1 0

𝑥2 = 0 0 1 𝑥2 + 0 𝑢(𝑡)

𝑥3 −1 −5 −6 𝑥3 1

**• The system uses the state feedback control u=-Kx. The desired
**

eigenvalues are 𝜇1 = −2 + 𝑗4 , 𝜇2 = −2 − 𝑗4 , 𝜇3 = −1 0.

Determine the state feedback gain matrix K.

31 EEE 403 Design of Control Systems in State Space

Pole Placement (By Direct Substitution method)

• Example-1: Step-1

𝑥1 0 1 0 𝑥1 0

𝑥2 = 0 0 1 𝑥2 + 0 𝑢(𝑡)

𝑥3 −1 −5 −6 𝑥3 1

First, we need to check the controllability matrix of the system.

Since the controllability matrix CM is given by

0 0 1

𝐶𝑀 = 𝐵 𝐴𝐵 𝐴2 𝐵 = 0 1 −6

1 −6 31

We find that rank(CM)=3. Thus, the system is completely state

controllable and arbitrary pole placement is possible.

**32 EEE 403 Design of Control Systems in State Space
**

Pole Placement (Using Direct Substitution method)

• Example-1: Step-2

• Let K be 𝑲 = 𝑘1 𝑘2 𝑘3

𝑠 0 0 0 1 0 0

𝑠𝐼 − 𝐴 + 𝐵𝐾 = 0 𝑠 0 − 0 0 1 + 0 𝑘1 𝑘2 𝑘3

0 0 𝑠 −1 −5 −6 1

= 𝑠 3 + 6 + 𝑘3 𝑠 2 + 5 + 𝑘2 𝑠 + 1 + 𝑘1

Desired characteristic polynomial is obtained as

𝑠 + 2 − 4𝑗 𝑠 + 2 + 4𝑗 𝑠 + 10 = 𝑠 3 + 14𝑠 2 + 60𝑠 + 200

Comparing the coefficients of powers of s

14 = 6 + 𝑘3 𝑘3 = 8

60 = 5 + 𝑘2 𝑘2 = 55

200 = 1 + 𝑘1 𝑘1 = 199

33 EEE 403 Design of Control Systems in State Space

Pole Placement

**Method 3 Ackermann’s Formula
**

Pole Placement (Ackermann’s Formula)

• Following are the steps to be followed in this particular method.

1. Check the state controllability of the system

𝐶𝑀 = 𝐵 𝐴𝐵 𝐴2 𝐵 ⋯ 𝐴𝑛−1 𝐵

**35 EEE 403 Design of Control Systems in State Space
**

Pole Placement (Ackermann’s Formula)

• Following are the steps to be followed in this particular method.

2. Use Ackermann’s formula to calculate K

−1

𝐾 = 0 0 ⋯0 1 𝐵 𝐴𝐵 𝐴2 𝐵 ⋯ 𝐴𝑛−1 𝐵 ∅(𝐴)

∅ 𝐴 = 𝐴𝑛 + 𝛼1 𝐴𝑛−1 + ⋯ + 𝛼𝑛−1 𝐴 + 𝛼𝑛 𝐼

**36 EEE 403 Design of Control Systems in State Space
**

Pole Placement (By Ackermann’s Method )

• Example-1: Consider the regulator system shown in following

figure. The plant is given by

𝑥1 0 1 0 𝑥1 0

𝑥2 = 0 0 1 𝑥2 + 0 𝑢(𝑡)

𝑥3 −1 −5 −6 𝑥3 1

**• The system uses the state feedback control u=-Kx. The desired
**

eigenvalues are 𝜇1 = −2 + 𝑗4 , 𝜇2 = −2 − 𝑗4 , 𝜇3 = −1 0.

Determine the state feedback gain matrix K.

37 EEE 403 Design of Control Systems in State Space

Pole Placement (Ackermann’s Formula)

• Example-1: Step-1

𝑥1 0 1 0 𝑥1 0

𝑥2 = 0 0 1 𝑥2 + 0 𝑢(𝑡)

𝑥3 −1 −5 −6 𝑥3 1

First, we need to check the controllability matrix of the system.

Since the controllability matrix CM is given by

0 0 1

𝐶𝑀 = 𝐵 𝐴𝐵 𝐴2 𝐵 = 0 1 −6

1 −6 31

We find that rank(CM)=3. Thus, the system is completely state

controllable and arbitrary pole placement is possible.

**38 EEE 403 Design of Control Systems in State Space
**

Pole Placement (Ackermann’s Formula)

• Following are the steps to be followed in this particular method.

2. Use Ackermann’s formula to calculate K

−1

𝐾= 0 0 1 𝐵 𝐴𝐵 𝐴2 ∅(𝐴)

∅ 𝐴 = 𝐴3 + 𝛼1 𝐴2 + 𝛼2 𝐴 + 𝛼3 𝐼

• 𝛼𝑖 are the coefficients of the desired characteristic polynomial.

𝑠 + 2 − 4𝑗 𝑠 + 2 + 4𝑗 𝑠 + 10 = 𝑠 3 + 14𝑠 2 + 60𝑠 + 200

𝛼1 = 14, 𝛼2 = 60, 𝛼3 = 200

39 EEE 403 Design of Control Systems in State Space

Pole Placement (Ackermann’s Formula)

𝑥1 0 1 0 𝑥1 0

𝑥2 = 0 0 1 𝑥2 + 0 𝑢(𝑡)

𝑥3 −1 −5 −6 𝑥3 1

∅ 𝐴 = 𝐴3 + 14𝐴2 + 60𝐴 + 200𝐼

3 2

0 1 0 0 1 0 0 1 0 1 0 0

∅ 𝐴 = 0 0 1 + 14 0 0 1 + 60 0 0 1 + 200 0 1 0

−1 −5 −6 −1 −5 −6 −1 −5 −6 0 0 1

199 55 8

∅ 𝐴 = −8 159 7

−7 −34 117

**40 EEE 403 Design of Control Systems in State Space
**

Pole Placement (Ackermann’s Formula)

0 0 1 199 55 8

𝐵 𝐴𝐵 𝐴2 𝐵 = 0 1 −6 ∅ 𝐴 = −8 159 7

1 −6 31 −7 −34 117

−1

𝐾= 0 0 1 𝐵 𝐴𝐵 𝐴2 ∅(𝐴)

−1

0 0 1 199 55 8

𝐾= 0 0 1 0 1 −6 −8 159 7

1 −6 31 −7 −34 117

𝐾 = 199 55 8

**41 EEE 403 Design of Control Systems in State Space
**

Pole Placement

**• Example-2: Consider the regulator system shown in following
**

figure. The plant is given by

𝑥1 1 2 1 𝑥1 1

𝑥2 = 0 1 3 𝑥2 + 0 𝑢(𝑡)

𝑥3 1 1 1 𝑥3 1

**• Determine the state feedback gain for each state variable to place the
**

poles at -1+j, -1-j,-3. (Apply all methods)

42 EEE 403 Design of Control Systems in State Space

Design of Control Systems in Sate Space

Observer Based Approach

**43 EEE 403 Design of Control Systems in State Space
**

Lecture Outline

Introduction

State Observer

Topology of Pole Placement (Observer based)

Full Order State Observer

Using Transformation Matrix P

Direct Substitution Method

Ackermann’s Formula

Reduced Order state Observer

**44 EEE 403 Design of Control Systems in State Space
**

Introduction

In the pole-placement approach to the design of control systems,

we assumed that all state variables are available for feedback.

** In practice, however, not all state variables are available for
**

feedback.

Then we need to estimate unavailable state variables.

**45 EEE 403 Design of Control Systems in State Space
**

Introduction…

Estimation of unmeasurable state variables is commonly called observation.

** A device (or a computer program) that estimates or observes the state variables is
**

called a state estimator, state observer, or simply an observer.

** There are two types of state observers
**

Full Order State Observer

If the state observer observes all state variables of the system, regardless of

whether some state variables are available for direct measurement, it is

called a full-order state observer.

** Reduced Order State Observer
**

If the state observer observes only those state variables which are not

available for direct measurement, it is called a reduced-order state observer.

**46 EEE 403 Design of Control Systems in State Space
**

State Feedback Control with Observer Based Approach

State feedback with state observer

**47 EEE 403 Design of Control Systems in State Space
**

State Feedback Control with Observer Based Approach

State feedback Control

**48 EEE 403 Design of Control Systems in State Space
**

State Feedback with observer

**49 EEE 403 Design of Control Systems in State Space
**

State Observer

** A state observer estimates the state variables based on the
**

measurements of the output and control variables.

Here the concept of observability plays an important role.

** State observers can be designed if and only if the observability
**

condition is satisfied.

**50 EEE 403 Design of Control Systems in State Space
**

Consider the plant defined by

𝒙 = 𝑨𝒙 + 𝑩𝑢

𝑦 = 𝑪𝒙

The mathematical model of the observer is basically the same as

that of the plant, except that we include an additional term that

includes the estimation error to compensate for inaccuracies in

matrices A and B and the lack of the initial error.

** The estimation error or observation error is the difference between
**

the measured output and the estimated output.

** The initial error is the difference between the initial state and the
**

initial estimated state.

51 EEE 403 Design of Control Systems in State Space

Thus we define the mathematical model of observer to be

𝒙 = 𝑨𝒙 + 𝑩𝑢 + 𝑲𝒆 (𝑦 − 𝑪𝒙)

Where 𝒙 is estimated state vector, 𝑪𝒙 is estimated output and

𝑲𝒆 is observer gain matrix.

**52 EEE 403 Design of Control Systems in State Space
**

Full Order State Observer

The order of the state observer that will be discussed here is the same as that of the

plant.

Consider the plant define by following equations

𝒙 = 𝑨𝒙 + 𝑩𝑢 (1)

𝑦 = 𝑪𝒙

Equation of state observer is given as

𝒙 = 𝑨𝒙 + 𝑩𝑢 + 𝑲𝑒 (𝑦 − 𝑪𝒙) (2)

** To obtain the observer error equation, let us subtract Equation (2) from Equation
**

(1):

𝒙 − 𝒙 = 𝑨𝒙 + 𝑩𝑢 − [𝑨𝒙 + 𝑩𝑢 + 𝑲𝑒 𝑦 − 𝑪𝒙 ]

𝒙 − 𝒙 = 𝑨𝒙 + 𝑩𝑢 − 𝑨𝒙 − 𝑩𝑢 − 𝑲𝑒 𝑪𝒙 − 𝑪𝒙

53 EEE 403 Design of Control Systems in State Space

Full Order State Observer

𝒙 − 𝒙 = 𝑨𝒙 + 𝑩𝑢 − 𝑨𝒙 − 𝑩𝑢 − 𝑲𝑒 𝑪𝒙 − 𝑪𝒙

Simplifications in above equation yields

𝒙 − 𝒙 = 𝑨(𝒙 − 𝒙) − 𝑲𝑒 𝑪 𝒙 − 𝒙 (3)

** Define the difference between 𝒙 and 𝒙 as the error vector
**

e.

𝒆=𝒙−𝒙

Equation (3) can now be written as

𝒆 = 𝑨𝒆 − 𝑲𝑒 𝑪𝒆

𝒆 = (𝑨 − 𝑲𝑒 𝑪)𝒆

**54 EEE 403 Design of Control Systems in State Space
**

Full Order State Observer…

𝒆 = (𝑨 − 𝑲𝒆 𝑪)𝒆

** From above we see that the dynamic behavior of the error vector is
**

determined by the eigenvalues of matrix A-KeC.

** If matrix A-KeC is a stable matrix, the error vector will converge to
**

zero for any initial error vector e(0).

** That is, 𝒙(𝒕) will converge to 𝒙(𝒕) regardless of the values of x(0).
**

And if the eigenvalues of matrix A-KeC are chosen in such a way

that the dynamic behavior of the error vector is asymptotically stable

and is adequately fast, then any error vector will tend to zero (the

origin) with an adequate speed.

**55 EEE 403 Design of Control Systems in State Space
**

Full Order State Observer

𝒆 = (𝑨 − 𝑲𝒆 𝑪)𝒆

** If the plant is completely observable, then it can be proved that
**

it is possible to choose matrix Ke such that A-KeC has

arbitrarily desired eigenvalues.

** That is, the observer gain matrix Ke can be determined to yield
**

the desired matrix A-KeC.

**56 EEE 403 Design of Control Systems in State Space
**

Duality Property

** The design of the full-order observer becomes that of
**

determining an appropriate Ke such that A-KeC has desired

eigenvalues.

** Thus, the problem here becomes the same as the pole-
**

placement problem.

In fact, the two problems are mathematically the same.

This property is called duality.

**57 EEE 403 Design of Control Systems in State Space
**

Duality Property

Consider the system defined by

𝒙 = 𝑨𝒙 + 𝑩𝑢

𝑦 = 𝑪𝒙

In designing the full-order state observer, we may solve the dual

problem, that is, solve the pole-placement problem for the dual

system.

𝒛 = 𝑨∗ 𝒛 + 𝑪∗ 𝑣

𝑛 = 𝑩∗ 𝒛

Assuming the control signal 𝑣 to be

𝑣 = −𝑲𝒛

58 EEE 403 Design of Control Systems in State Space

Duality Property

If the dual system is completely state controllable, then the state

feedback gain matrix K can be determined such that matrix A*-

C*K will yield a set of the desired eigenvalues.

** If 𝜇1 , 𝜇2 ,…, 𝜇𝑛 , are the desired eigenvalues of the state observer
**

matrix, then by taking the same 𝜇𝑖′ 𝑠 as the desired eigenvalues of the

state-feedback gain matrix of the dual system, we obtain

** Noting that the eigenvalues of A*-C*K and those of A-K*C are the
**

same, we have

𝑠𝐼 − (𝑨∗ − 𝑪∗ 𝑲 ) = (𝑠 − 𝜇1 )( 𝑠 − 𝜇2 ) ⋯ 𝑠 − 𝜇𝑛

𝑠𝐼 − (𝑨∗ − 𝑪∗ 𝑲 ) = 𝑠𝐼 − (𝑨 − 𝑲∗ 𝑪 )

**59 EEE 403 Design of Control Systems in State Space
**

Duality Property

𝑠𝐼 − (𝑨∗ − 𝑪∗ 𝑲 ) = 𝑠𝐼 − (𝑨 − 𝑲∗ 𝑪 )

** Comparing the characteristic polynomial 𝑠𝐼 − (𝑨 − 𝑲∗ 𝑪 ) and the
**

characteristic polynomial for the observer system

𝑠𝐼 − (𝑨 − 𝑲𝑒 𝑪 ) , we find that Ke and K* are related by

𝑠𝐼 − (𝑨 − 𝑲∗ 𝑪 ) = 𝑠𝐼 − (𝑨 − 𝑲𝑒 𝑪 )

𝑲∗ = 𝑲𝑒

** Thus, using the matrix K determined by the pole-placement
**

approach in the dual system, the observer gain matrix Ke for the

original system can be determined by using the relationship Ke=K*.

**60 EEE 403 Design of Control Systems in State Space
**

Observer Gain Matrix

Using Transformation Matrix Q

Direct Substitution Method

Ackermann’s Formula

**61 EEE 403 Design of Control Systems in State Space
**

Observer Gain Matrix

Using Transformation Matrix Q

𝑲 = 𝛼𝑛 − 𝑎𝑛 𝛼𝑛−1 − 𝑎𝑛−1 ⋯ 𝛼2 − 𝑎 2 𝛼1 − 𝑎1

Since

𝑲𝑒 = 𝑲∗

𝛼𝑛 − 𝑎𝑛

𝛼𝑛−1 − 𝑎𝑛−1

𝑲𝑒 = 𝑲∗ = ⋮

𝛼2 − 𝑎2

𝛼1 − 𝑎1

62 EEE 403 Design of Control Systems in State Space

Observer Gain Matrix

Direct Substitution Method

𝑘1

𝑘2

𝑲𝒆 = ⋮

𝑘3

𝑘𝑛

**63 EEE 403 Design of Control Systems in State Space
**

Observer Gain Matrix

Ackermann’s Formula

−1 ∅(𝐴)

𝐾 = 0 0 ⋯0 1 𝐵 𝐴𝐵 𝐴2 𝐵 ⋯ 𝐴𝑛−1 𝐵

** For the dual system
**

𝒛 = 𝑨∗ 𝒛 + 𝑪∗ 𝑣

𝑛 = 𝑩∗ 𝒛

𝑲 = 0 0 ⋯ 0 1 𝐶∗ −1 ∅(𝐴∗ )

𝐴∗ 𝐶 ∗ (𝐴∗ )2 𝐶 ∗ ⋯ (𝐴∗ )𝑛−1 𝐶 ∗

Since 𝑲𝑒 = 𝑲∗

𝑲𝑒 = 𝑲∗ = 0 ∗

0 ⋯0 1 𝐶∗ 𝐴∗ 𝐶 ∗ (𝐴∗ )2 𝐶 ∗ ⋯ (𝐴∗ )𝑛−1 𝐶 ∗ −1

∅(𝐴∗ )

**64 EEE 403 Design of Control Systems in State Space
**

Observer Gain Matrix

𝑲𝑒 = 𝑲∗ = 0 ∗

0 ⋯0 1 𝐶∗ 𝐴∗ 𝐶 ∗ (𝐴∗ )2 𝐶 ∗ ⋯ (𝐴∗ )𝑛−1 𝐶 ∗ −1

∅(𝐴∗ )

Simplifying it further

𝐾𝑒 = ∅(𝐴∗ )∗ 𝐶 ∗ 𝐴∗ 𝐶 ∗ (𝐴∗ )2 𝐶 ∗ ⋯ (𝐴∗ )𝑛−1 𝐶 ∗ −1 ∗

0 0 ⋯0 1 ∗

−1

𝐶 0

𝐶𝐴 0

𝐾𝑒 = ∅(𝐴) ⋮ ⋮

𝐶𝐴𝑛−2 0

𝐶𝐴𝑛−1 1

**65 EEE 403 Design of Control Systems in State Space
**

Observer Gain Matrix

** The feedback signal through the observer gain matrix Ke serves as a
**

correction signal to the plant model to account for the unknowns in

the plant.

** If significant unknowns are involved, the feedback signal through the
**

matrix Ke should be relatively large.

** However, if the output signal is contaminated significantly by
**

disturbances and measurement noises, then the output y is not reliable

and the feedback signal through the matrix Ke should be relatively

small.

**66 EEE 403 Design of Control Systems in State Space
**

Observer Gain Matrix

** The observer gain matrix Ke depends on the desired characteristic
**

equation

(𝑠 − 𝛽1 )( 𝑠 − 𝛽2 ) ⋯ 𝑠 − 𝛽𝑛 = 0

** The observer poles must be two to five times faster than the controller
**

poles to make sure the observation error (estimation error) converges

to zero quickly.

** This means that the observer estimation error decays two to five times
**

faster than does the state vector x.

** Such faster decay of the observer error compared with the desired
**

dynamics makes the controller poles dominate the system response.

**67 EEE 403 Design of Control Systems in State Space
**

Observer Gain Matrix

** It is important to note that if sensor noise is considerable, we may
**

choose the observer poles to be slower than two times the controller

poles, so that the bandwidth of the system will become lower and

smooth the noise.

** In this case the system response will be strongly influenced by the
**

observer poles.

** If the observer poles are located to the right of the controller poles in
**

the left-half s plane, the system response will be dominated by the

observer poles rather than by the control poles.

**68 EEE 403 Design of Control Systems in State Space
**

Observer Gain Matrix

** In the design of the state observer, it is desirable to determine several
**

observer gain matrices Ke based on several different desired

characteristic equations.

** For each of the several different matrices Ke , simulation tests must be
**

run to evaluate the resulting system performance.

** Then we select the best Ke from the viewpoint of overall system
**

performance.

** In many practical cases, the selection of the best matrix Ke boils down
**

to a compromise between speedy response and sensitivity to

disturbances and noises.

69 EEE 403 Design of Control Systems in State Space

Example-1

• Consider the system

𝑥1 0 20.6 𝑥1 0

= 𝑥 + 𝑢(𝑡)

𝑥2 1 0 2 1

𝑥1

𝑦= 0 1 𝑥

2

• We use observer based approach to design state feedback control

such that

𝑢 = −𝑲𝒙

**• Design a full-order state observer assume that the desired eigenvalues
**

of the observer matrix are 𝛽1 = −10, 𝛽2 = −10.

**70 EEE 403 Design of Control Systems in State Space
**

Example-1

𝑥1 0 20.6 𝑥1 0

= 𝑥 + 𝑢(𝑡)

𝑥2 1 0 2 1

𝑥1

𝑦= 0 1 𝑥

2

• Let us examine the observability matrix first

𝐶 0 1

𝑂𝑀 = =

𝐶𝐴 1 0

**• Since rank(OM)=2 the given system is completely state observable
**

and the determination of the desired observer gain matrix is possible.

**71 EEE 403 Design of Control Systems in State Space
**

Example-1 (Method-1)

𝑥1 0 20.6 𝑥1 0

= 𝑥 + 𝑢(𝑡)

𝑥2 1 0 2 1

𝑥1

𝑦= 0 1 𝑥

2

The given system is already in the observable canonical form. Hence,

the transformation matrix Q is I.

**72 EEE 403 Design of Control Systems in State Space
**

Example-1 (Method-1)

𝑥1 0 20.6 𝑥1 0

= 𝑥 + 𝑢(𝑡)

𝑥2 1 0 2 1

𝑥1

𝑦= 0 1 𝑥

2

The characteristic equation of the given system is

𝑠𝐼 − 𝐴 = 𝑠 2 − 20.6 = 0

We have

𝑎1 = 0, 𝑎2 = −20.6

**73 EEE 403 Design of Control Systems in State Space
**

Example-1 (Method-1)

𝑥1 0 20.6 𝑥1 0

= 𝑥 + 𝑢(𝑡)

𝑥2 1 0 2 1

𝑥1

𝑦= 0 1 𝑥

2

The desired characteristic equation of the system is

(𝑠 − 𝛽1 )( 𝑠 − 𝛽2 ) = (𝑠 + 10) 𝑠 + 10

(𝑠 − 𝛽1 )( 𝑠 − 𝛽2 ) = 𝑠 2 + 20𝑠 + 100

We have

𝛼1 = 20, 𝛼2 = 100

**74 EEE 403 Design of Control Systems in State Space
**

Example-1 (Method-1)

Observer gain matrix Ke can be calculated using following formula

𝛼2 − 𝑎2

𝑲𝑒 = 𝛼 − 𝑎

1 1

Where

𝑎1 = 0, 𝑎2 = −20.6 𝛼1 = 20, 𝛼2 = 100

100 − (−20.6)

𝑲𝑒 =

20 − 0

120.6

𝑲𝑒 =

20

75 EEE 403 Design of Control Systems in State Space

Example-1 (Method-2)

𝑥1 0 20.6 𝑥1 0

= 𝑥 + 𝑢(𝑡)

𝑥2 1 0 2 1

𝑥1

𝑦= 0 1 𝑥

2

The characteristic equation of observer error matric is

𝑠𝑰 − 𝑨 + 𝑲𝑒 𝑪 = 0

Assuming

𝑘𝑒1

𝑲𝑒 =

𝑘𝑒2

𝑠 0 0 20.6 𝑘𝑒1

𝑠𝑰 − 𝑨 + 𝑲𝑒 𝑪 = − + 0 1

0 𝑠 1 0 𝑘𝑒2

= 𝑠 2 +𝑘𝑒2 𝑠 − 20.6 + 𝑘𝑒1

76 EEE 403 Design of Control Systems in State Space

Example-1 (Method-2)

The desired characteristic polynomial is

(𝑠 − 𝛽1 )( 𝑠 − 𝛽2 ) = 𝑠 2 + 20𝑠 + 100

Comparing coefficients of different powers of s

𝑠 2 + 20𝑠 + 100 = 𝑠 2 +𝑘𝑒2 𝑠 − 20.6 + 𝑘𝑒1

120.6

𝑲𝑒 =

20

**77 EEE 403 Design of Control Systems in State Space
**

Example-1 (Method-3)

𝑥1 0 20.6 𝑥1 0

= 𝑥 + 𝑢(𝑡)

𝑥2 1 0 2 1

𝑥1

𝑦= 0 1 𝑥

2

Using Ackermann’s formula

−1

𝑪 0

𝑲𝑒 = ∅(𝑨)

𝑪𝑨 1

Where

∅ 𝑨 = 𝐴2 + 𝛼1 𝐴 + 𝛼2 𝐼

𝛼1 = 20, 𝛼2 = 100

∅ 𝑨 = 𝐴2 + 20𝐴 + 100𝐼

78 EEE 403 Design of Control Systems in State Space

Example-1 (Method-3)

∅ 𝑨 = 𝑨2 + 20𝑨 + 100𝑰

2

0 20.6 0 20.6 1 0

∅ 𝑨 = + 20 + 100

1 0 1 0 0 1

120.6 412

∅ 𝑨 =

20 120.6

**79 EEE 403 Design of Control Systems in State Space
**

Example-1 (Method-3)

Using Ackermann’s formula

−1

𝑪 0

𝑲𝑒 = ∅(𝑨)

𝑪𝑨 1

−1

120.6 412 0 1 0

𝑲𝑒 =

20 120.6 1 0 1

120.6

𝑲𝑒 =

20

**80 EEE 403 Design of Control Systems in State Space
**

Example-1

We get the same Ke regardless of the method employed.

The equation for the full-order state observer is given by

𝒙 = 𝑨𝒙 + 𝑩𝑢 + 𝑲𝒆 (𝑦 − 𝑪𝒙)

𝒙𝟏 0 20.6 𝒙1 0 120.6 𝒙1

= + 𝑢(𝑡) + (𝑦 − 0 1 )

𝒙𝟐 1 0 𝒙2 1 20 𝒙2

𝒙𝟏 0 20.6 𝒙1 0 120.6 120.6 𝒙1

= + 𝑢(𝑡) + 𝑦− 0 1

𝒙𝟐 1 0 𝒙2 1 20 20 𝒙2

𝒙𝟏 0 −100 𝒙1 0 120.6

= + 𝑢(𝑡) + 𝑦

𝒙𝟐 1 −20 𝒙2 1 20

81 EEE 403 Design of Control Systems in State Space

Example-2

• Design a regulator system for the following plant:

𝑥1 0 20.6 𝑥1 0

= 𝑥 + 𝑢(𝑡)

𝑥2 1 0 2 1

𝑥1

𝑦= 1 0 𝑥

2

The desired closed-loop poles for this system are at 𝜇1 = −1.8 + 𝑗2.4 ,

𝜇2 = −1.8 − 𝑗2.4. Compute the state feedback gain matrix K to place the poles

of the system at desired location.

** Suppose that we use the observed-state feedback control instead of the actual-
**

state feedback. The desired eigenvalues of the observer matrix are 𝛽1 = −8,

𝛽2 = −8.

** Obtain the observer gain matrix Ke and draw a block diagram for the observed-
**

state feedback control system.

**82 EEE 403 Design of Control Systems in State Space
**

Reduced Order State Observer

**83 EEE 403 Design of Control Systems in State Space
**

Introduction

The state observers discussed in previous lecture was designed to

estimate all the state variables.

** In practice however, some of the state variables may be accurately
**

measured.

** Therefore, such accurately measurable state variables need not be
**

estimated.

** In that case a reduced order state observer may be designed to
**

estimate only those state variables which are not directly measurable.

**84 EEE 403 Design of Control Systems in State Space
**

Introduction

Suppose that the state vector x is an n-vector and the output vector

y is an m-vector that can be measured.

** Since m output variables are linear combinations of the state
**

variables, m state variables need not be estimated.

We need to estimate only n-m state variables.

** Then the reduced-order observer becomes an (n-m)th order
**

observer.

Such an (n-m)th order observer is the minimum-order observer.

**85 EEE 403 Design of Control Systems in State Space
**

Introduction

Following figure shows the block diagram of a system with a

minimum-order observer.

**86 EEE 403 Design of Control Systems in State Space
**

Minimum Order State Observer

To present the basic idea of the minimum-order observer we will

consider the case where the output is a scalar (that is, m=1).

** Consider the system
**

𝒙 = 𝑨𝒙 + 𝑩𝑢

𝑦 = 𝑪𝒙

where the state vector x can be partitioned into two parts xa (a scalar)

and xb [an (n-1)-vector].

** Here the state variable xa is equal to the output y and thus can be
**

directly measured, and xb is the unmeasurable portion of the state

vector.

87 EEE 403 Design of Control Systems in State Space

Minimum Order State Observer

Then the partitioned state and output equations become

**88 EEE 403 Design of Control Systems in State Space
**

Minimum Order State Observer

Then the partitioned state and output equations become

The equation of measured portion of the state is given as

Or

** The terms on the left hand side of above equation can be measure,
**

therefore this equation serves as an output equation.

89 EEE 403 Design of Control Systems in State Space

Minimum Order State Observer

Then the partitioned state and output equations become

The equation of unmeasurable portion of the state is given as

Noting that terms Abaxa and Bbu are known quantities.

** Above equation describes the dynamics of the unmeasured portion of
**

the state.

90 EEE 403 Design of Control Systems in State Space

Minimum Order State Observer

The design procedure can be simplified if we utilize the design

technique developed for the full-order state observer.

** Let us compare the state equation for the full-order observer with that
**

for the minimum-order observer.

The state equation for the full-order state observer is

The state equation for the minimum order state observer is

** The output equations for the full order and minimum order observers
**

are

**91 EEE 403 Design of Control Systems in State Space
**

Minimum Order State Observer

List of Necessary Substitutions for Writing the Observer Equation for

the Minimum-Order State Observer

**92 EEE 403 Design of Control Systems in State Space
**

Minimum Order State Observer

The observer equation for the full-order observer is given by :

** Then, making the substitutions of Table–1 into above equation, we
**

obtain

Error dynamics are given as

**93 EEE 403 Design of Control Systems in State Space
**

Minimum Order State Observer

The characteristic equation for minimum order state observer is

**94 EEE 403 Design of Control Systems in State Space
**

Minimum Order State Observer

Design methods

1. Using Transformation Matrix

**95 EEE 403 Design of Control Systems in State Space
**

Minimum Order State Observer

Design methods

1. Using Ackerman’s Formula

**96 EEE 403 Design of Control Systems in State Space
**

Example-1

Consider a system

** Assume that the output y can be measured accurately so that
**

state variable x1 (which is equal to y) need not be estimated.

Let us design a minimum-order observer. Assume that we

choose the desired observer poles to be at

**97 EEE 403 Design of Control Systems in State Space
**

Example-1

**98 EEE 403 Design of Control Systems in State Space
**

End of Slides

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