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**for WBAN Applications
**

Pradeep S V, SivaS Yellampalli andVenkataratnam P

**Abstract—This paper presents an improved design (LO).A PLL canbe used to stabilize the LO
**

of active RF CMOS double balanced Gilbert mixer. frequency applied. Then mixer down converts the

The designed mixer adheres to the IEEE 802.15.6 RF to intermediate frequency (IF). IF is filtered to

standard and can be used for WBAN applications, recover the message signal as shown in figure1.1

particularly for biomedical applications.The Designed [5].

circuit has been optimized for high conversion gain,

high linearity and low power consumption. RF The mixers are divided into two major types:

frequency used is 2.4GHz that is ISM band. LO passive and active. Passive mixers do not provide

frequency is 2GHz with the IF frequency of 400MHz.

gain and not widely used. In this paper active

The designed circuit has high conversion gain of

17.7dB with an input intercept point (IIP3) of 5dBm double balanced Gilbert mixer is designed to

and 4.67mW of power consumption. The circuit is overcome the disadvantage of LO and RF feed

implemented using 180nm CMOS process with 1.8V through which exists in a single balanced mixer.

power supply.

**Keywords—Conversion gain, ISM, intercept point,
**

WBAN, Gilbert Cell.

I. INTRODUCTION

**In recent years there has been significant
**

growth in low power wireless technologies beyond

traditional consumer usesin to medical applications

and Wireless Body Area Networks (WBAN) [1]. Figure 1.1: Mixer used in Receiver system

So the IEEE task group6 (TG6) established a

standard IEEE 802.15.6 in February 2012 [2], II. BASIC PRINCIPLE OF GILBERT

optimized for short range and low power devices MIXER

which operate on, in or around the human body.

This IEEE standard is for WBAN technology Figure2.1 shows the standard gilbert cell mixer

specially aimed for wireless medical and health schematic.It consists of three stages namely

care applications. The frequency band for WBAN transconductance, switching and load stage. The

is 2.4GHz ISM (Industrial, Scientific and Medical) output IF signal is amplified by differential

band [3]. amplifier stage where differential RF signal is

applied to M1 and M2. The drain currents of M1

To reduce waiting time for patients in hospital and M2 are varying with respect to RF signal. The

queue and cost for health care systems medical differential LO signal is applied to M3, M4, M5

field is moving towards wireless technologies. In and M6 transistors as shown in figure2.1. The RF

future patients might be wearing wireless sensors stage converts input voltage to current and this

which form a wireless body area network (WBAN) current is multiplied by LO signal. At a time any

[4]. The sensors monitor the patient’s vital two transistors are on in LO stage and the drain

activities and information measured by sensors is current of either M1 or M2 flows through LO stage

transmitted to PDA or gateway via WBAN and through the load resistors and gives the IF

technology. output. If positive cycle of RF and LO are applied,

the transistors M1, M3 and M6 are turned onand

The transceivers required for this hence create a direct path from VDD to GND

communication operateon 2.4GHz ISM band. In through RL, M3 and M1.The output IF- goes zero

this paper down conversion double balanced and the IF+ goes high because M2 is in cut off.

Gilbert mixer is designed for wireless medical and

health care application. Figure 1.1 shows the block Gilbert mixer hasvarious advantages. It

diagram of receiver with down conversion mixer. generates less even order distortion, thus relaxing

The two inputs to this mixer are: RF signal from the half IF issue in heterodyne receivers [6]. The

antenna which passes through low noise amplifier differential pairs M3-M4 and M5-M6 adds the

(LNA) andtheother signal from local oscillator amplified LO signal with opposite phase,thereby

978-1-5090-3239-6/17/$31.00©2017IEEE

Substitute I and gmvalues in equation (5) and solve for W/L. That is.4GHz is 0.(3) μ V gs −V th ) Down conversion mixer performs the frequency subtraction and gives the IF output.1 to 4. the current has to be obtained from equation (1). Load capacitance need to be assumed. Vth is threshold voltage [7]. Also it Where. Figure 4. SIMULATIONS Once voltages at all the nodes are found out.(1) dt Where C L is load capacitance and dV/dt is slew rate. R= ---------.(5) L To provide tail current. voltage. IV.8V power supply.1: Standard Gilbert cell mixer III. V IF 2 G= V RF = 20 log πg -------.and find out the current I using equation (1). 112e-18 V2/Hz.1.providing a first order cancellation. Figure 2. with drain and gate shorted.0063m/sec.1: Designed Gilbert cell mixer make all the transistors to operate in saturation region. Table2 shows Finally replace the load resistorswith active comparison of various parameters of designed deviceformed by PMOS which can be operated as mixer with existing ones. RF frequency of 2. dV I = CL --------. Figures 4. unit area of gate oxide. The results are shown for post Vtn = 0.4GHz and LO μ C OX W I= Vgs − Vth )2 -------. To design a mixer for particular gain.43V. Using these two values find out current I using equation (1). layout simulation. Table1 shows the optimised results of designed mixer. first we need to calculate the aspect ratios for all MOSFETs. It is important to Figure 3. Slew rate is defined as rate of change of output voltage and is calculated by using output signal frequency and amplitude. Cox is capacitance per provides high IIP3 and increased linearity. Figure 4. and gm is transconductance and solve the equation (4) for gm.current mirror circuit is usedwith Idc of 1mA as shown below in figure 3. The input intercept For 180nm technology.2 . The circuit is simulated with 1. μ is carrier mobility. thickness of oxide.4 show resistor and resistance is controlled by over drive the various simulation results of designed mixer. Vds> Vgs-Vth.7dB. tox= 4nm. Before calculating the aspect ratios of MOSFETs.4GHz and LO frequency 2GHz with 1 down converted output IF frequency of 400MHz.48V and Vtp = -0. Designed Gilbert mixer is simulated in calculate aspect ratio using the saturation current Cadence Virtuoso platform using CMOS 180nm equation given in (2).1 shows the output of mixer for input RF frequency 2. W gm = 2μCOX I --------.04m/sec.(2) frequency of 2GHz. The noise spectrum at 2.W and L are channel width and length.(4) m RL Where RL is load resistor. μn = 0. GILBERT MIXER DESIGN To design the circuit. μp = point is 5dBm. technology. The conversion gain obtained 2L for designed mixer is 17. use the following equation (4).

3: Input intercept point. whereasat frequencies above corner point switching speed of transistors increases and hence thermal noise will be important.8 1.7 9. Power Consumption (mW) 4.67 IIP3 (dBm) 5 1dB Compression (dBm) -29. Reference This [10] [9] [5] Work Figure 4.4 2.4 (GHz) Conversion Gain 17.7 -16 -7.(mW) IIP3 (dBm) 5 15.7 Figure 4.8 RF frequency (GHz) 2.8 8.9 10.7dB at 2.2 (V) RF frequency 2.4 2.4 shows the conversion gain of Gilbert cell which is 17. the corner frequency for this mixer is around 9Hz. At low frequencies flicker noise will be dominant due to dangling bands.4 LO frequency (GHz) 2 IF frequency (MHz) 400 Conversion Gain (dB) 17.(nm) 180 Supply Voltage (V) 1.45 2.3 Figure 4.2: Noise analysis. These regions are divided by a corner frequency. At 2.67 5.81 9 - Consp. Process(nm) 180 180 180 180 Supply Voltage 1.shows the noise analysis curve for designed Gilbert cell mixerwhich have three regions.7 (dB) Power 4.2 3.Figure 4.4GHz. . Parameters Values CMOS Tech. Figure 4.3 shows the input intercept point which is equal to 5dBmand figure 4.4GHz noise is 112e-18V2/Hz.1 Noise spectrum (V2/Hz) 112e-18 TABLE 2: COMPARISON SUMMARY WITH OTHER MIXERS.1: Input and output waveforms TABLE 1: OPTIMISED PARAMETER FOR DESIGNED MIXER.3 2.4: Conversion Gain.

IEEE Computer Society. VI. IEEE International Conference on Recent Advances and Innovations in Engineering (ICRAIE-2014). Vikram Sing Yadav.18-22. [9]. p. Zhihua Wang. solutions.Pokle. Leake Zegeye Kahsay.6 MAC User Priorities with UWB PHY for Medical Applications”. “An Overview of IEEE 802.. [2]. 2011. Hanjun Jiang. 2010. Transconductors”. “RF Microelectronics”. Third International Conference on Emerging Trends in Engineering and Technology. Dr.7dB. Tuomas Pso and Jari Iinatti. IEEE 802 LAN/MAN Standards Committee. Kyung Sup Kwak. H J Yoo et al. Meysam Asghari and Mohammad Yavari. “Evaluation of IEEE 802. B. 2014.”2.15. “CMOS IC Design for Wireless Medical and Health Care”. Input intercept point (IIP3) of 5dBm. with a low power consumption of 4.S. “VLSI Design of ISM Band RF Down Conversion Mixer”. [7]. international Edition 2001. B. 2015. “Body area network: Technology. IEEE Transactions on Very Large Scale Integration (VLSI) systems. May 09-11. papers. Abhay Chaturvedi.2: Both Schematic and Layout are matched.6: wireless body area networks.67mW. REFERENCES [1].4GHz for WBAN applications. Vol 2. invited paper. Figure 5. ”Using the Gate–Bulk Interaction and a Fundamental Current Injection to Attenuate IM3 and IM2 Currents in RF Figure 5.531. [8]. [5]. Razavi. [6].B. [3]. “Design of Analog CMOS Integrated Circuits”. P. 2010. It can be used for receiver with operating frequency of 2. Layout Design International Symposium on Medical Information and Communication Technology (ISMICT). Sana Ullah.15.” in IEEE ISSCC Dig. Edition 2012. 2012. Hong Chen. 2013. Prentice Hall. UWB-ITRC Center. Razavi. Feb. . CONCLUSION Designed Gilbert cell mixer is implemented in Cadence Virtuoso platform using 180nm technology with improved conversion gain of 17. V. 2014. Niamat Ullah. [10]. and standardization. Tata McGraw-Hill Higher Education.1: Layout of designed Gilbert mixer.6 Standard”. Tech. Nishant Ghate. Inha University. [4]. standard for local and metropolitan area networks-part 15.4GHz Active CMOS Mixer for Bluetooth and Zigbee Receiver Systems”.Springer Science+Business Media New York.

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