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School of PE

Professional Engineer
by George Stankiewicz, P.E., LEED ® A. P.

School of
PE

C
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CONTENTS

Contents .....................................................................................................................................2

How to use this Refresher Course Study Guide ...................................................................5

Preface .......................................................................................................................................6

Refresher Course Activity Organization/Administration ........................................................7

Chapter 1 – Surveying ................................................................................................................9

LATITUDE AND DEPARTURES ..................................................................................10

COORDINATE SYSTEM ...............................................................................................11

Soils - Swell and Shrinkage ...............................................................................................17

Average End Area Method .................................................................................................28

Earthwork Volume Calculations .........................................................................................31

Borrow Pit Leveling ............................................................................................................34

Differential Leveling ...........................................................................................................40

Chapter 2 – Construction Management.....................................................................................47

Construction Management - Procurement Methods ...........................................................49

Cost Estimating ..................................................................................................................50

Estimating Takeoff Quantities ............................................................................................51

Cost Estimating – Board Feet ............................................................................................59

Methods of Budgeting ........................................................................................................61

ConstructionHistoric Data ..................................................................................................62

Engineering Economics .....................................................................................................63

Factor Table Quick View Exercise .....................................................................................65

Time Value of Money .........................................................................................................67

Compound Interest – Nominal and Effective ......................................................................70

Solving Engineering Economic Problems...........................................................................72

Present Worth ....................................................................................................................73

Contents |
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Future Worth or Value ........................................................................................................74

Annual Cost .......................................................................................................................75

Maintenance Costs ............................................................................................................76

Rate of Return Analysis – Three Alternatives .....................................................................77

Benefit/Cost Analysis .........................................................................................................78

Alternate Project Selection .................................................................................................79

Alternate Selection of Components ....................................................................................80

Contractor Project Financing ..............................................................................................82

Internal Rate of Return.......................................................................................................83

Project Schedule Financial Analysis...................................................................................85

Estimating Activity Durations..............................................................................................85

Project Scheduling Fundamentals......................................................................................88

Project Scheduling – Types of Methods .............................................................................89

Precedence Relationships .................................................................................................90

Precedence Diagramming Methods ...................................................................................91

Arrow Diagramming Method...............................................................................................91

Critical Path - Activity on Node ...........................................................................................97

Project Float -- “Free Float” and “Total Float” .....................................................................98

Resource Leveling .............................................................................................................99

Chapter 3 - Materials............................................................................................................... 107

Mechanical Properties of Materials ..................................................................................108

Actual versus Ultimate strength........................................................................................111

Elastic Stretch .................................................................................................................. 112

Thermal Expansion ..........................................................................................................113

Lifting Load – Offset ......................................................................................................... 114

Equipment Production ...................................................................................................... 115

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Daily standard production rate of Equipment.................................................................... 116

Daily standard production rate of a dump truck ................................................................117

Productivity Analysis and Improvement............................................................................118

Operating Costs ............................................................................................................... 119

Effects of job size on productivity .....................................................................................120

Material Specifications ..................................................................................................... 121

Quality Control Process (QA/QC).....................................................................................122

Concrete Mix Design ........................................................................................................ 123

Concrete Mix Design Ratio 1 : 2: 3 ................................................................................... 125

Water Cement Ratio ........................................................................................................ 127

Concrete Strength Testing ............................................................................................... 128

Asphalt Performance .......................................................................................................132

INDEX .....................................................................................................................................134

Contents |
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HOW TO USE THIS REFRESHER COURSE STUDY GUIDE

Throughout the Refresher Course Notes the following symbol


represents references to the NCEES Fundamental of Engineering
Supplied Reference Handbook 8th Edition 2nd Revision and page
locations for further review, self-study, and ease of navigation
through this refresher course:
Sample 1:
 NCEES Reference Handbook, 8thedition
p
Page number

Sample 2:

fast facts

This example text box contains subject material that is supplemental


to the subject matter and/or enhances its knowledge. The
information is intended for self-study.

Sample 3:
This example text box shows necessary
equations.

Sample 4:

This symbol represents topics within the Refresher Course that are part of
the subject matter which will further help your understanding.
The information is intented for self-study and may not be
reviewed during the refresher course.

Contents 5
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PREFACE

fast facts
Each of us has different study habits and a preferred way of
learning. The material in the Refresher Course uses a technique which
helps quicken the pace of understanding of the subject matter. The
arrangement of the material follows a hierarchical pattern of learning
engaging three basic components:
Concept is a cognitive unit of meaning— an abstract idea or a
mental symbol sometimes defined as a "unit of knowledge" which
is built from other units. A concept is typically associated with a
corresponding representation, for example, the concept of
Trigonometry with Triangles. Often, a concept is not a single
thought, but a composite of simpler concepts.
Terminology refers to the typical words used in connection with
a concept. For example, the elements of the Law of Sine’s: sin a,
sin b, sin n.
Application refers to the typical manner in which the theory is used
in connection with a concept. For example, find the hypotenuse of
a right triangle when one side is 4-units with an angle of 53° (4 ÷
sin 53° = 5).

Concept

Terminology

Application

Preface |
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REFRESHER COURSE ACTIVITY ORGANIZATION/ADMINISTRATION

The refresher course is organized in seven chapters as outlined below. Each chapter covers
materials which parallels the outline provided by the NCEES Exam Specifications for the
Construction Exam and is outlined in NCEES
Fundamental of Engineering
Supplied Reference Handbook 8 Edition 2nd Revision. th

The refresher class focus is on interpreting the Civil Engineering afternoon session 60 questions
in nine topic areas. The course provides a graduating series of problem statements to better
the understanding of the content for the Civil Engineering Exam.

CHAPTER ORGANIZATION

I. Surveying 11% = 7/60


A. Angles, distances, and trigonometry
B. Area computations
C. Closure
D. Coordinate systems (e.g., GPS, state plane)
E. Curves (vertical and horizontal)
F. Earthwork and volume computations
G. Leveling (e.g., differential, elevations, percent grades)

II. Construction Management 10% = 6/60


A. Procurement methods (e.g., design-build, design-bid-build, qualifications based)
B. Allocation of resources (e.g., labor, equipment, materials, money, time)
C. Contracts/contract law
D. Project scheduling (e.g., CPM, PERT)
E. Engineering economics
F. Project management (e.g., owner/contractor/client relations, safety)
G. Construction estimating

III. Materials 8% = 5/60


A. Concrete mix design
B. Asphalt mix design
C. Test methods (e.g., steel, concrete, aggregates, and asphalt)
D. Properties of aggregates
E. Engineering properties of metals

Preface 7
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Preface |
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CHAPTER 1 – SURVEYING

1
CHAPTER
Surveying

Construction Surveying
Concept

“State” of Soils
Terminology Average End Area
Earthwork Volume
Mass Haul Diagram

Application Swell
Shrinkage
Bank Soil
Stations
Cut
Fill
Borrow Pit
NCEES – FE Civil Engineering Topics Staking & Layout
I. Surveying 11% = 7/60 Differential Leveling
Benchmark
A. Angles, distances, and trigonometry
B. Area computations Back sight
C. Closure Foresight
D. Coordinate systems (e.g., GPS, state plane) Height of Instrument
E. Curves (vertical and horizontal) Terrain
F. Earthwork and volume computations Cumulative Volume
G. Leveling (e.g., differential, elevations, percent grades)

Chapter 1 – Surveying 9
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LATITUDE AND DEPARTURES

fast facts
Latitude of a line is the distance that the line extends in a north or south direction. A line that
runs towards north has positive latitude; a line that runs towards south has negative latitude.

Departure of a line is the distance that the line extends in an east or west direction. A line that
runs towards east has a positive departure; a line that runs towards west has a negative
departure.


p

Memorize
Chapter 1 – Surveying |
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COORDINATE SYSTEM

fast facts
1. A Benchmark provides only elevation data.

2. Coordinate System provides northing and easting coordinates within a


defined system.

3. Coordinates require a minimum of eight significant digits.

4. The project site coordinates and datum are referenced by the State Plane
Coordinate System

5. State Plane Coordinate System is represented as a grid map of the United


States where coordinates are referenced within the 1st Quadrant.

Chapter 1 – Surveying 11
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Chapter 1 – Surveying |
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N 671588.23
B E 585724.45

____-ft
N 671488.23
E 585234.45

A
300.00-ft
400.00-ft

C
N _________ Not to scale
E

1. - Question The northing and easting coordinates for point C is most nearly:

a. N 671248.23 E 585554.45

b. N 671188.2 E 585258.45

c. N 671317.08 E 585595.3

d. N 671317.08 E 585596.11

Solution:

Section the triangle and calculate using Pythagorean Theorem and the Law of Sine’s or use the
calculator Pol() Rec() function. See the annotated figure on the next page.

A’~B = (585724.45 - 585234.45) = 490.00-ft


A~A’ = (671588.23 - N 671488.23) = 100.00-ft

Pol(490,100) = 500.00 and 11.54°

B~C’ = Rec(300,25.33°) = 271.15-ft


C~C’ = Rec(300,64.67°) = 128.34-ft

Apply results to the coordinates (answer=d) 


p
671588.23 – 271.15 = N 671317.08
585724.45 – 128.34 = E 585596.11

Chapter 1 – Surveying 13
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53.13°
N 671588.23
11.54° E 585724.45
Solution:: A’
B
500.00-ft 25.33°
N 671488.23
E 585234.45

A
300.00-ft
400.00-ft
C’

C
N 671317.08 Not to scale
E 585596.11


p

Chapter 1 – Surveying |
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2. - Question A surveyor’s total station measured slope distance near station


3245+26.35 is recorded as 437.380-m with a zenith angle of 118º48’07” and a south
easterly bearing. The horizontal distance (m) is most nearly:

a. 383.2
b. 383.276
c. 391.324
d. 391.300

Solution: Sketch the statement:

118º48’07”

437.380-m

383.276-m

α = 118º48’07” - 90º00’00”
α = 28.80
cos 28.80 = x .
437.38 
p

X = (437.38)(0.8763)

X = 383.276-m (answer is b)

Chapter 1 – Surveying 15
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3. - Question Convert the azimuth reading of 273.34º to a land bearing:

a. N 273.34 W
b. N 3º 20’ 24” W 
c. N 86º 39’ 36” W p
d. W 3º 20’ 24” N
Solution:

Convert 273.34º to degrees minutes and seconds = 273º 20’ 24”


Next, convert the angle to orient to IV quadrant:
273º 20’ 24” - 360º 0 ’ 0” = 86º 39’ 36”
Assign bearing: N 86º 39’ 36” W

fast facts
In land navigation, azimuth is usually denoted as alpha, α, and defined as a horizontal angle
measured clockwise from a north base line or meridian. Azimuth has also been more
generally defined as a horizontal angle measured clockwise from any fixed reference plane or
easily established base direction line.
The reference plane for an azimuth in a general navigational context is typically true
north, measured as a 0° azimuth. In any event, the azimuth cannot exceed the highest
number of units in a circle – for a 360° circle; this is 359 degrees, 59 minutes, 59 seconds
(359° 59' 59").
For example, moving clockwise on a 360° degree circle, a point due east would have
an azimuth of 90°, south 180°, and west 270°.
In land surveying, a bearing is the clockwise or counterclockwise angle between north
or south and a direction. For example, bearings are recorded as N57°E, S51°E, S21°W,
N87°W, or N15°W. In surveying, bearings can be referenced to true north, magnetic north,
grid north (the Y axis of a map projection), or a previous map, which is often a historical
magnetic north.

True North Based Azimuths


From North
North 0° or 360° South 180°
North-Northeast 22.5° South-Southwest 202.5°
Northeast 45° Southwest 225°
East-Northeast 67.5° West-Southwest 247.5°
East 90° West 270°
East-Southeast 112.5° West-Northwest 292.5°
Southeast 135° Northwest 315°
South-Southeast 157.5° North-Northwest 337.5°

Chapter 1 – Surveying |
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SOILS - SWELL AND SHRINKAGE

4. - Question Which of the following statements about construction earthwork are


true:
I. The volume of earth known in its natural state is known as bank-measure; in-
situ; in-place; virgin soil.
II. The volume during transport is known as loose–measure; fluffed; swell; bulk.
III. The volume after compaction is known as compacted-measure.
IV. The change in volume of earth from its natural to loose state is known as
swell. Swell is expressed as a percentage of the natural volume.
V. The decrease in volume from its natural state to its compacted state is known
as shrinkage. Shrinkage is expressed as percent increase from the natural
state.

a. I & II 
b. I, II, & III p
c. I, II, III, & IV
d. I, II, III, IV, & V

Solution: Item V – “Shrinkage is expressed as percent decrease from the natural state”.
(answer is c)

fast facts
An example of the relationships of a cubic yard of soil in three states: bank, loose,
and compacted. Swell and shrinkage are always measured in relation to the bank
condition. The numerical values are examples and are different for each type of soil.
(Note the inverse relationship between loose and compacted states of soil.)

1.25-yd3
0.80-yd3
1-yd 3 25% swell
20%
shrinkage

Bank Loose Compacted

Chapter 1 – Surveying 17
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A soil’s swell factor represents the fact that the volume of soil placed by nature in the
ground is not the same as the volume of the same mass of dirt excavated by the
contractor and placed in the dump truck. The same mass of soil occupies more volume
in the truck (loose cubic yards) than it does in the ground (bank cubic yards). The swell
factor is an adjustment representing this increase in volume. However, the swell factor
plays no part in the calculation of an earthwork’s balance. The swell factor is used to
determine the subsequent hauling and stockpiling requirements.

p

Soil Diagram Soil Phase Diagram

Swell is the percentage increase in volume caused by the excavation of soil. Physically,
the act of excavation breaks up the soil into particles and clods (lump of earth) of
various sizes. This creates more air pockets and results in an effective increase in the
soil’s void volume. An increase in volume also results in a decrease in density. This
decrease in density and increase in volume varies between soil types and is not
proportional due to the initial, natural void volume of the bank soil. The swell factor
equations are found in the Table below:

Swell: A soil increases in volume when it is excavated.

Swell Swell
Density Volume
Swell (%) = Bank Density x 100 V loose = 100% + % swell x Vbank = Vbank
-1
Loose Density 100% Load Factor

Load Factor = Loose Density Load Factor = (1 + decimal swell) -1


Bank Density

Bank Volume = Loose volume x Load factor

Chapter 1 – Surveying |
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Applying the equation, soil with a swell of 25% would have a load factor of 80% (the
inverse of 1.25). The load factor can be used to show the relationship between Loose
and Bank density by dividing the loose density by the load factor (i.e., 2100 / .79 =
2650).

Using dry clay (from the Table below) as an example, the calculations are derived as
follows: 2650-lb/CY x .79 = 2100-lb/CY; or, 2100-lb/CY x 1.26 = 2650-lb/CY

Loose Bank Swell Load


Material (lb/cy) (lb/cy) (%) Factor
Clay, dry 2,100 2,650 26 0.79
Clay, wet 2,700 3,575 32 0.76
Clay and gravel, dry 2,400 2,800 17 0.85
Clay and gravel, wet 2,600 3,100 17 0.85
Earth, dry 2,215 2,850 29 0.78 Exact values will vary with grain
Earth, moist 2,410 3,080 28 0.78 size, moisture content, compaction,
Earth, wet 2,750 3,380 23 0.81 etc. Test to determine exact values
Gravel, wet 2,780 3,140 13 0.88
for specific materials.
Gravel, dry 3,090 3,620 17 0.85
Sand, dry 2,600 2,920 12 0.89
Sand, wet 3,100 3,520 13 0.88
Sand and gravel, dry 2,900 3,250 12 0.89
Sand and gravel, wet 3,400 3,750 10 0.91

In addition to the swell factor and its associated load factor, soil also has a shrink factor.
While the first two relate the volume of an equal mass of bank soil in the ground with the
loose mass deposited in stockpiles or dump trucks by excavation, the shrink factor
relates the initial bank soil with the volume resulting from subsequent placement and
compaction of the loose soil into earthen structures.

Often this ratio is not a result of natural characteristics but is based on the construction
specifications. For example, clay soils used to construct a high density/low permeability
containment layer for landfills are typically constructed in controlled lifts of a certain
spread thickness which are then compacted to a final desired thickness. Typically, the
soil is spread out over the work area in loose lifts about 8 inches thick. Multiple passes
with a compacting roller (sheep foot roller or vibratory smooth drum roller) are then
performed to compact and knead the loose clay into a tight layer of about 6 inches
thickness. This results in a post-compaction volume that is approximately 25% smaller
than that of the initial loose placement volume. The resultant shrink factor equations are
found in the following Table:

Chapter 1 – Surveying 19
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Shrinkage: A soil decreases in volume when it is compacted:

Shrinkage Shrinkage
Density Volume
Shrinkage(%) = Bank Density x 100 V compacted = 100% - % shrinkage V bank
Compacted Density -1 100%

Shrinkage factor = 1 – Shrinkage (% decimal) Compacted Volume =


Bank volume x Shrinkage factor

The preceding can be applied to an example of an earthwork operator excavating wet


clay. Assume its initial bank density to be 3,500 pounds per cubic yard and its
excavated loose density to be 2,800 pounds per cubic yard. One ton of this soil (2,000
pounds) would occupy 0.57 (2000-lb / 3500-lb = .57) bank cubic yard in the ground
while its hauled or stockpiled volume would be 0.71 (2000 / 2800 = .71) loose cubic
yard. This analysis results in a swell factor of 25% (2800 / 3500 = 0.80; 0.80 -1 = 25%).
Its related load factor would be 0.80 (remember that 0.80 x 3500 = 2800).

Suppose further that this clay is used to construct a landfill cover using compaction as
described above thereby reducing its volume to 0.53 cubic yard (given). The shrink
factor, then, would be 0.93 (0.53 / 0.57 = 0.93).

For planning purposes, the earthwork contractor will have to assume that for every 100
cubic yards he excavates he will need to haul 125 cubic yards so that he will be able to
place 93 cubic yards. All of these numbers affect his bottom line. The first determines
the amount of the excavation effort, the second determines his hauling requirements
and the third determines the overall cost of the finished project.

Initial Converted to:


Soil Type Soil Condition Bank Loose Compacted
Clay Bank 1.00 1.27 0.90
Loose 0.79 1.00 0.71
Compacted 1.11 1.41 1.00
Common Earth Bank 1.00 1.25 0.90
The TABLE illustrates
Loose 0.80 1.00 0.72
Compacted 1.11 1.39 1.00
soil in a variety of states.
Rock (blasted) Bank 1.00 1.50 1.30
Loose 0.67 1.00 0.87
Compacted 0.77 1.15 1.00
Sand Bank 1.00 1.12 0.95
Loose 0.89 1.00 0.85
Compacted 1.05 1.18 1.00

Chapter 1 – Surveying |
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5. - Question An earthwork contractor encountered a location within


the borrow area where the geological conditions changed. Instead of
encountering 100 cubic yards of wet clay, the contractor excavates 100
cubic yards of loose sand and clay having a bank density of 3,400 pounds
per cubic yard and a loose density of 2,700 pounds per cubic yard. A ton
of this material will occupy nearly how many cubic yards in the ground?
and, in the truck?
a. 0.49-yd3 in the ground; and, 0.75-yd3 in the truck
b. 0.59-yd3 in the ground; and, 0.76-yd3 in the truck
c. 0.59-yd3 in the ground; and, 0.74-yd3 in the truck
d. 0.69-yd3 in the ground; and, 0.93-yd3 in the truck

Solution:

Two-thousand pounds of this material would occupy 0.59 (2000 / 3400 =


0.59) cubic yard in the ground and 0.74 (2000 / 2700 = .74) cubic yard in
the truck. This results in a swell factor of 26%. The contractor will have to
haul 126 cubic yards of this material for every 100 cubic yards in the
ground. [Be attentive to the units.] (answer is c)

6. - Question 30,000-yd3 of banked soil from a borrow pit is


stockpiled before being trucked to the jobsite. The soil has 28% swell and
shrinkage of 18%. The final volume of the compacted soil is most nearly:
a. 24,600-yd3
b. 25,400-yd3
c. 35,400-yd3
d. 38,400-yd3

Solution: Shrinkage is measured with respect to the bank condition.


Apply the equation:
V compacted = 100% - % shrinkage) V bank
100%

Vcompacted = 100% -18% (30,000-yds3) = 24,600-yd3 (answer is a)


100%

Chapter 1 – Surveying 21
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7. - Question A proposed building site requires 135,000-ft3 of


imported fill. A borrow site is located 5-miles Northeast of the project site
where the soil has a shrinkage of 16%. The amount of cubic yards of soil
that must be excavated from the borrow site is most nearly:
a. 135,000-ft3
b. 4,310-yds3
c. 5,800-yds3
d. 5,950-yds3
Solution: Apply the equation, calculate the bank volume from the
borrow site using the known components of the equation:

V compacted = [(100% - % shrinkage) ÷ 100%] x V bank

135,000-ft3 = [(100% - 16% shrinkage) ÷ 100%] x V bank


= 135,000-ft3 ÷ .84 = Vbank
V bank = 160,715-ft3 ÷ (3-ft/yd)3 = 5,950-yds3 (answer is d)

8. - Question A contractor was awarded a Contract to excavate


3
and haul 200,000-yds of silty clay (USCS classification ML) with a bulking
factor of 30%. The contractor’s fleet of dump trucks have a capacity of 26-
yds3 and operate on a 23-minute cycle. The job must be completed in 5-
working days with the fleet working at two 8-hour shifts per day. The
number of trucks required is most nearly:
a. 24
b. 37
c. 48
d. 125
Solution:
 Apply a bulking factor (swell) of 30% to the total volume.
 200,000-yds3 x 1.30 = 260,000-yds3 (Volume to be trucked off-site)
 5-wd x 2-shifts x 8-hrs = 80-hrs (Total trucking hours)
 260,000-yds3 ÷ 80-hrs = 3,250-yds3/hr (Haulage rate per hour)
 (26-yds3/truck ÷ (23-min/cycle ÷ 60-min/hr)) = 67.82-yds3/truck hour
 3,250-yds3/hr ÷ 67.82-yds3/truck-hr = 47.92-trucks use 48 trucks
 (answer is c)
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9. - Question Soil at a borrow area has a total unit weight of 120-PCF


and a water content of 15 percent. The soil from the borrow area will be
used as structural fill and compacted to an average dry unit weight of 110-
PCF. The soil shrinkage is most nearly:

a. 3.0%
b. 3.5%
c. 4.0%
d. 5.5%

Solution:

At the borrow area, the dry unit weight is determined from the equation:

Dry unit weight = Total Unit Weight


(1 + water content)

Dry Unit Weight = 120 / (1 + 0.15) = 104-PCF

The shrinkage factor is the ratio of the volume of compacted material to the
volume of borrow material (based on dry unit weight), or:

Shrinkage factor = 104-PCF / 110-PCF = 0.945

Convert the shrinkage factor to a percentage:

Percent shrinkage = (110 - 104) / 110 = 0.055 = 5.5% (answer is d)

fast facts
.
Step 1-- Be certain to make comparisons based on the “state” (bank, loose,
compacted) of soil first, then - Step 2 -- analyze the soil using the equations for
swell and shrinkage using bank or compacted densities or volumes. Don’t mix
up the “units”. Bank soil is not the same as dry unit weight as it may have water
content and comparisons cannot be made until the soil’s common denominator
is found.

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10. - Question Project specifications require a relative compaction


of 95% (modified Proctor). Construction of a highway embankment
requires 10,000-yd3 of fill. The borrow soil has an in-situ dry density of 94-
PCF and a laboratory maximum dry density of 122.5-PCF. The total
volume of soil that must be excavated from the borrow area is most nearly:

a. 9,500-yd3
b. 10,000-yd3
c. 11,700-yd3
d. 12,380-yd3

Solution: The most common method of assessing the quality of field


compaction is to calculate the Relative Compaction (RC) of the fill, defined
as:
RC = 100 * (field dry density, PCF)
Laboratory maximum dry density (PCF)

Apply the equation using the given data:

RC = 100 x 94-PCF = 76.73%


122.5-PCF

Calculate the required volume of soil that must be excavated from the
borrow area:

(Required Fill) x (Compaction %) x (Relative Compaction)-1 = Excavated


Volume (borrow)

10,000-yd3 of fill x (95%) x (76.73%)-1 = 12,380-yd3 (answer is d)

fast facts
The most common type of nondestructive field test is the nuclear density test
method. In this method the wet density of soil is determined by the attenuation
of gamma radiation. The water content is determined by the thermalization or
slowing of fast neutrons and direct probe readings over the in place test area.
The nuclear density test uses the laboratory dry density and optimum moisture
content to determine the in-place soil density.

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fast facts
Although earthwork optimization is related with both swelling and
compaction behavior of fill material, it is possible to combine these
characteristics by a unique swelling/shrinkage ratio that accounts for field
densities measured before excavation and after compaction.
Compaction is a soil densification process achieved by the
application of mechanical energy and improves several engineering
properties of soils. Commonly, it is essential to control certain compaction
parameters, namely, dry density and water content, with field tests
conducted throughout the earthwork construction. It is desirable that fill
material has a field unit weight as close as possible to the maximum dry
unit weight obtained by the laboratory Proctor test. The measure of the
closeness is defined as the relative compaction (RC), which is required to
be higher than a threshold value determined by the project specifications.
In order to determine the swelling/shrinkage behavior of a material,
field and laboratory tests should be performed to measure field dry unit
weight and maximum dry unit weight. Swelling/shrinkage parameters can
then be calculated using these test results based on the project
compaction criterion and the construction equipment being used.
However, soil behavior is inherently ambiguous and the actual
compaction control process is usually carried out while earthwork
construction is continuing. Therefore, for most of the highway designs,
swelling/shrinkage factors are selected from predetermined tables
according to specific soil types being considered.
The swelling/shrinkage behavior of soils can also be characterized
based on their particle size classifications (either fine or coarse grained
based on the amount passing No. 200 sieve). In this context, gradation
(well or poor) determined by the coefficient of curvature and coefficient of
uniformity parameters, can be taken into consideration for coarse grained
soils, whereas the plasticity index is the primary distinguishing variable for
expressing the swelling/shrinkage behavior of fine grained soils (silts and
clays). Natural water content is also a significant factor influencing the
shrinkage/swelling potential of both fine and coarse grained soils. For
fine-grained soils, an increase in the plasticity index reduces the
swelling/shrinkage potential. At a certain applied energy level, the dry unit
weight of a soil reaches to the maximum level for optimum water content.
Therefore, the natural water content (either at wet or dry of optimum)
should also be considered to characterize swelling/shrinkage behavior.

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fast facts
Compaction is achieved by inputting energy to expel the air and
water in the soil’s voids. The reduction of the voids creates the
following changes in the material:

 Increase in unit weight


 Decrease in Compressibility
 Decrease in Permeability

ENERGY

AIR WATER

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fast facts

The Laboratory Proctor


Target Area

100% B
Maximum achievable
98% density for the
compacting effort
Dry Density PCF

DRY MUD

A
% Moisture
Maximum density is found at point “B” and at the
intersection of Optimum Moisture Content point “A”

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AVERAGE END AREA METHOD

fast facts
Average end area method is the most widely used method to
calculate the volume of soil between stations in a roadway.
The format of the equation is shown below:
L ( A1  A2 )
V 
2

A2 = 544-ft2 at station 19+00

A1 = 725-ft2 at station 18+00

Figure 1

11. - Question Using the information given in Figure 1, the volume


3
of excavation in yd is most nearly:
a. 1,350-yd3
b. 2,050-yd3
c. 2,250-yd3
d. 2,350-yd3

Solution: Use the average end area method:



Volume (yd3) = [(A1 + A2) ÷ (2)] x [(L ÷ 27)] p
Volume (yd3) = [725 + 544) ÷ (2)] x [(100 ÷ 27)]
Volume (yd3) = 2,350-yd3 (answer is d)

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12. - Question For the cross section areas End Area


listed in the Table, determine the following. Apply Station Cut Fill
a soil swell of 25% to fills, if required: (ft2) (ft2)
10 + 00 0
1. Is the project’s earthwork balanced? 11 + 00 168
a. Yes 12 + 00 348
b. No 13 + 00 371
14 + 00 146
2. Does it produce waste or require borrow? 14 + 60 0 0
a. It produces waste 15 + 00 142
b. It requires borrow 16 + 00 238
17 + 00 305
3. In response to question # 2 above, the volume 18 + 00 247
in cubic yards is most nearly: 19 + 00 138
a. 1350-yds3 20 + 00 106
b. 1400-yds3
c. 1450-yds3
d. 1500-yds3

[Hint:See CERM page 79-2; Paragraph 5 – CUT and FILL. In highway work,
payment is usually for cut, while in dam work it is usually for fill.]


p

fast facts
The precision obtained from the average end area is generally sufficient
unless one of the end areas is very small or zero. In that case, the volume
should be computed as a pyramid or truncated pyramid using the equation
below.
V pyramid = L Abase
3

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Solution:

End Area (ft2)


Station Distance Cut Fill cut vol fill vol fill vol
(ft) +25%
(sf) (sf) (cy) (cy)
10+00 0
100 207.4 Use Vpyramid
11+00 168
100 955.6
12+00 348
100 1331.5
13+00 371
100 957.4
14+00 146
60 108.2 Use Vpyramid
14+60 0 0
40 70.1 87.7 Vpyramid
15+00 142
100 703.7 879.6
16+00 238
100 1005.6 1256.9
17+00 305
100 1022.2 1277.8
18+00 247
100 713.0 891.2
19+00 138
100 451.9 564.8
20+00 106
TOTAL 3560.1 4958.0

(a) Since Cut and fill quantities are not same, earthwork is NOT balanced
(answer is b)

(b) Since fill quantity is more than cut quantity, it is required to borrow earth
from off-site (answer is b)

(c) 4958.0 – 3560.1 = 1398-CY of borrow from off-site is required.


(answer is b)

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EARTHWORK VOLUME CALCULATIONS

13. - Question A municipality has awarded a contract to cap an existing landfill.


Prior to the landfill’s construction, the base area was surveyed and found to be level and
bound to a neat 2,000 square acres in size. The Contract requirement is to cover the landfill
with 1’-6” of the borrow material. The landfill’s average height is 12 feet with side slopes
groomed 3H:1V. Soil Boring reports at the borrow location limits the excavation to no greater
than 3’–0” depth from existing grade with a requirement for side slopes to be groomed to
3H:1V. Determine the following:
1. The number of cubic yards of in-situ (in-place) borrow needed to cap the landfill is most
nearly:
a. 3,689,330-yd3
b. 4,189,330-yd3
c. 4,789,330-yd3
d. 5,789,330-yd3

2. Based on in-situ (“in place”) volume, the number of acres at the borrow site that will be
disturbed based on the soil boring constraint is most nearly:
a. 595-Ac
b. 789-Ac
c. 856-Ac
d. 992-Ac
Solution:
1. The problem can be evaluated using the “truncated pyramid” equation; first, calculate the
base pyramid (the “landfill”); then, second, calculate the “capped” landfill using the given
dimension and subtract the amounts to obtain the net volume.
Calculate volume of base pyramid = V1

Volume = V1 = h/3 (A1 + A2 + √(A1 x A2))

A1

Base Landfill 12-ft


A2
Plan View
A1
9333’
Cap Landfill
13.5-ft

36-ft
A2
Cap Volume 3
[not to scale] 1

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√(2,000ac x 43,560-ft2/ac) = 9,333-ft (per side)


Area of Base Pyramid = A2 = 9333-ft x 9333-ft = 87,120,000-ft2
Area of Top Pyramid = A1 = (9333-ft – 72-ft) (9333-ft – 72-ft) = 85,766,121-ft2
Volume Base Pyramid = V1 = [12-ft/3 (87,120,000-ft2 + 85,766,121-ft2 + √(85,766,121-ft2 x
87,120,000-ft2)] ÷ (27-ft3/yd3)
V1 = 38,418,745-yd3

Calculate volume of “cap” by adding 1’-6” to the base pyramid dimensions [Note the change in
dimensions]:

h2 = h + 1.5-ft = 12-ft + 1.5-ft = 13.5-ft


Side A2 = 9333 + 1.5 + 1.5 = 9336-ft
Side A1 = 9336-ft – 81-ft = 9256-ft [Note: 72’ + 4.5’ + 4.5’ = 81’]
V2 = [13.5/3 (9,3362 + 92562 + √(93362 x 92562)] ÷ (27-ft3/yd3)
V2 = 43,208,075-yd3

Net in situ volume = V2 – V1 = 43,208,075-yd3 - 38,418,745-yd3 = 4,789,330-yd3 (answer is c)

Solution:

2. Based on in-situ (“in place”) volume, determine the number of acres at the borrow site
that will be disturbed based on the soil boring constraint of 3-ft deep.
Use the computed volume from the calculations above.

4,789,330-yd3 x (27-ft3/yd3) = 129,311,910-ft3

129,311,910-ft3 = h/3 (A1 + A2 + √ (A1 x A2))

Substitute known data into the equation; note that A1 = (S2 + 18)2 ; A2 = S22

129,311,910-ft3 = 3/3 ((S2 + 18)2 + S22 + √(( S2 + 18 )2 x S22))

Calculate A2 using the SOLVE function on your calculator or use quadratic equation:

S2 side = 6,556-ft; length of one side of the excavation.


Compute the number Acres disturbed at the borrow site.
Substituting: S1 side = (S2 + 18) = (6556 + 18) = 6,574-ft per side

Ac = (6,574-ft x 6,574-ft) ÷ (43,560-ft2/Ac) = 992-Ac (answer is d)


S1 A1

3-ft
1

3 S2
A2

9-ft
[not to scale]

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14. - Question On a 5-acre level terrain building site, an earthwork


contractor has instructed her crew to strip and grub the topsoil of a 60,000-
ft2 proposed building pad to a minus 2-ft sub-grade and limit the stockpile to
75-ft radius. The soil has a swell of 40% and an angle of repose at 30°.
The initial height of the stockpile is most nearly:
a. 20
b. 30
c. 45
d. 50

Solution:

Determine the cubic volume of the cut and the swell of the soil:

60,000-ft2 x 2-ft x 1.40 (40% swell) = 168,000-ft3 or 6,222-yd3

Evaluate the question using the equation for the volume of a cone and the
maximum incline of the sides of the cone are at the natural angle of repose
equal to the angle of internal friction.

Check the maximum height based on the natural angle of repose.

r = h ÷ tan α°

75-ft = h ÷ tan 30° = h = 43-ft


h

Using the equation to find the α= 30°


Volume of the cone, solve for h, the
Height:
r
2
V=πr h
3

168,000-ft3 = (π 752 h) ÷ 3

Solve for: h = 28.53-ft is less than the natural angle of repose therefore the
solution checks. (answer is b)

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BORROW PIT LEVELING

fast facts
Borrow-pit leveling calculates the excavation volume by applying a grid to
the excavation area. The grids can be staked to squares of 10, 20, 50,
100, or more feet depending on the project size and the accuracy desired.

For each grid square, final elevations are established for each corner of
every grid square. These are subtracted from the existing elevations at the
same location to determine the depth of cut or height of fill at each corner.
For each grid square an average of the depths/heights of the four corners
is multiplied by the area of the square to determine the volume of
earthwork associated with the grid area.

The total earthwork volume for the project is calculated by adding the
volumes of each grid square in the excavation area. Follow the following
steps to evaluate and calculate the volume of soil at a borrow pit:

Step l
Determine by visual study of the site drawing if the net total will be
an import (more fill required than cut) an export (less fill required
than cut) or a blend (cut and fill about equal)

Step 2
Determine the pattern of calculation points or grid size.

Step 3
Determine elevations at each calculation location, the corners of
each grid.

Step 4
Calculate the cubic yards of cut or fill required in each grid cell.

Step 5
Add the individual Grid Cell quantities together to arrive at the total
cut, total fill volume and the import or volume export yardage
required for the job.

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15. - Question Which of the following statements about unit area or


borrow pit are true?

I. Sometimes called Average Depth


II. Works well for volumes for building sites and surface mines
III. Needs grid survey for best results
IV. Not a good choice for roads
V. Based on the principle of measuring material based on adding or
removal from pit, hence, Borrow Pit
a. I & II
b. I, II, & III
c. I, II, III, IV, & V
d. None

Solution:
All the statements are true; (answer is c)

fast facts
Note that the refresher course questions force you to focus your
attention on the units. Throughout, the questions make it a point to mix up
the “units”, that is, FT3, CY, PCF, yd3, etc. The purpose for this is for those
that are not as familiar with the terminology to become acutely aware of the
differences.

Strategies for Test Taking


• Rank order for difficulty all the questions and go for the “low hanging
fruit” first.
• Determine what is given and what is being asked.
• Scan all answer choices before answering a question.
• When approximation is required, scan answer choices to determine
the degree of approximation or precision.
• Avoid long computations. Use reasoning instead, when possible.
• Scan the set of data to see what it is about.
• Try to make visual comparisons and estimate products and
quotients rather than perform computations.
• Answer questions only on the basis of data given.
• Answer “the” question, not “a” question.
• Select the “best” answer choice.

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16. - Question Surveyed elevations are shown in Figure-1 for a 50’ x


50’ grid at a proposed parking lot location. The amount of borrow needed
to bring the area to an elevation of 90-ft is
most nearly:

a. 160-yd3
b. 178-yd3
c. 190-yd3
d. 200-yd3

Datum

Figure 1

Solution: 

Find the average elevation:

Average = 87.6-ft + 87.6-ft + 87.6-ft + 88.6-ft


4
Average = 87.85-ft

Change = 90-ft – 87.85-ft


in elevation = 2.15-ft

Fill Required = 2.15-ft x 50-ft x 50-ft


= 199-yd3 (answer is d)

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17. - Question The information given in Figure 1 is translated from


the surveyor’s field book data for a proposed local borrow pit. The volume
of excavation from the marked benchmark in yd3 is most nearly:

a. 2,050
b. 2,250
c. 2,325
d. 2,350

Figure 1

Solution:

Chapter 1 – Surveying 37
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Figure 1

18. - Question For the project site shown in Figure 1, the amount of
import or export to bring the entire site to elevation 90-ft is most nearly:

a. The site is balanced


b. 526-CY import
c. 656-CY export
d. 833-CY export

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Solution:

By inspection, the project has a combination of


areas where there are imports and exports to
bring the entire site to elevation 90-ft. Further,
the multiple choices given for the answer
should be analyzed. There is a spread of
approximately 20% among the choices which
suggests a broad perspective analysis to
determine the solution.

The figures to the right illustrate a broad based


analysis. Assume one grid:

Existing 90.50-ft

Proposed 90.00-ft

Cut 0.50-ft

Total Export = [150-ft x 300-ft x 0.50-ft] ÷ 27ft3/yd3 = 833-yd3

(answer is d)

fast facts
Many of the problems on the NCEES Civil PE exam will include
“extraneous” information that is not necessary to solve the problem. It is
important to remain focused on the information that is relevant and sift through
the distractions. Use a technique of underlining the relevant information in the
question so as to remain focused and not become distracted by irrelevant
content.

Remember that discrete quantitative questions measure:


• basic mathematical knowledge
• your ability to read, understand, and solve a problem that involves
either an actual or an abstract situation.

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DIFFERENTIAL LEVELING

fast facts
A’ Horizontal Line
B

Earth’s surface
A HB

HA
Reference Surface

B
A

Consider two points A and B, and consider that the elevation of A


{HA} is known and the elevation of B {HB} is required. What can be done
to find HB when HA is given? Utilize differential leveling, the process used
to determine the elevation difference between two points.

Using a level, the optical line of sight forms a horizontal plane which
is the same elevation as the telescope crosshairs. By reading a graduated
rod held at a point of known elevation (benchmark) a difference in
elevation can be measured and a height of instrument (HI) calculated by
adding the rod readings to the elevation benchmark. Once the height of
instrument is established, rod readings can be taken on subsequent points
and their elevations calculated by subtracting the readings from the height
of instrument.

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19. - Question Which of the following statements about differential


leveling are true:

I. Bench mark (BM) – relatively permanent point of known


elevation as indicated on the Contract drawings
II. Back sight (BS) – a sight taken to the level rod held at a point of
known elevation (either BM or TP)
III. Height of Instrument (HI) – the elevation of the line of sight of
the telescope
IV. Foresight (FS) – a sight taken on any point to determine its
elevation

a. I & II
b. I, II, & III
c. I, II, III, & IV
d. None

Solution: All are true, (answer is c)

A total station is an
electronic/optical instrument
used in surveying.

A theodolite is an optical instrument


for measuring both horizontal and vertical angles,
as used in triangulation networks.

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20. - Question Based on the information provided in Figure 1, the


difference in elevation between BM and TP2 is most nearly:

a. +3.60-ft
b. -11.08-ft
c. -7.48-ft
d. +7.48-ft

BS FS
1.27 4.91

BS FS
BM 2.33 6.17
Elev. 356.68

TP1
[not to scale]
TP2

FIGURE 1

Solution:

Set up a Table as shown below and insert the known information.


Calculate the BM at each point to arrive at the answer of 349.20. Note that
the column totals BS and FS provide the total difference in elevation; use
this as a check. -7.48 (answer is c)

BM + BS = HI 
p
HI – FS = TP Elevation

Point BS HI FS Elevation
BM 1.27 357.95 356.68
TP1 2.33 355.37 4.91 353.04
TP2 6.17 349.20

Check Sum +3.60 + -11.08 = -7.48

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21. - Question The trigonometric leveling from the surveyor’s notes is


shown below. The ground elevation of T (ft) is most nearly:

a. 1667.01
b. 1730.75
c. 1730.97
d. 1731.77

220.85-ft

α=7°10’10”

T
HI=5.02-ft

Elev. 1703.99-ft 4.22-ft


P
[not to scale]

FIGURE 1

Solution: The elevation of point P can be found from:

Elev P = elev T + HI – (Horizontal Distance) tan α + Rod Reading

Elev T = elev P – HI + HD tan α + RR

= 1703.99-ft – 5.02-ft + (220.85) tan 7°10’10” + 4.22-ft

= 1730.97-ft (answer)

p

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22. - Question The development of a planned community requires the addition of


a sanitary manhole to be located at STA. 254+80.3. The proposed doghouse manhole
top of pipe elevation (ft.) is most nearly:

a. 425.3
b. 433.3
c. 439.5
d. 441.2

STA. 253+65.7 Proposed MH


Invert elev=438.33 STA. 254+80.3
Ground elev=448.33 STA. 256+30.7
Invert elev=429.05

72-in. O.D.
Concrete Pipe (10-in
Not to scale Wall Thickness)

Chapter 1 – Surveying |
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Solution: Compute the horizontal and vertical distance between the existing and proposed.

Existing Conditions:
Δ Horizontal = (253+65.7) – (256+30.7) = (25,365.7) – (25,630.7) = 265.0-ft
Δ Vertical = 438.33 – 429.05 = 9.28-ft

Proposed Construction:
Δ Horizontal = (254+80.3) - (253+65.7) = (25,480.3) - (25,365.7) = 114.6-ft
Δ Vertical = 114.6 x 9.28 = 4.0-ft
265.0
Invert elevation = 438.33 – 4.0 = 434.33-ft

Adjust for top of pipe. The top of pipe will be above the calculated invert elevation. Adjustment
must include the thickness of the pipe.

(72-in – 10-in) ÷ 12-in/ft = 5.17-ft


434.33 + 5.17 = 439.5-ft (answer=c)

Samples of various types of Manholes

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ground rod

grade rod
grade rod HI
8.50’

grade point
Existing grade

Roadbed finish grade

50+00
55+00
[not to scale] Figure 1

23. - Question A section view of a proposed roadway is shown in


Figure 1 with an existing grade point elevation of 100-ft. The proposed
roadbed finish grade elevation at station 50+00 is 95.00-ft and slopes at
2% grade. The grade rod reading at station 55+00 is most nearly:

a. 13.50-ft
b. 18.00-ft
c. 19.00-ft
d. 23.50-ft

Solution:
The Height of Instrument elevation can be calculated:
HI = 100.00-ft + 8.5-ft = 108.5-ft
The grade rod reading at station 50+00 is calculated by:
HI – station 50+00 elevation = 108.50-ft - 95.00-ft = 13.50-ft
The distance between station 50+00 and 55+00 is 500-ft
The slope is set at 2%, therefore; 2% x 500-ft = 10-ft elevation difference
between stations.
Add the results of the proposed roadbed slope which is 10-ft to the
grade rod reading at station 50+00 to obtain the grade rod reading at
station 55+00 which is 23.50-ft. (answer is d)

Chapter 1 – Surveying |
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CHAPTER 2 – CONSTRUCTION MANAGEMENT

2
CHAPTER
Construction
Management

Construction Management
Concept

Quantity Takeoff
Productivity Analysis
Terminology Engineering Economics

Application
Takeoff
Factor Tables
Time Value of Money
Compound Interest
Present Worth
Future Worth
Annual Cost
NCEES – FE Civil Engineering Topics Rate of Return
Construction Management 10% = 6/60 Benefit/Cost Ratio
A. Procurement methods (e.g., design-build, design- Alternate Project Selection
bid-build, qualifications based) Internal Rate of Return
B. Allocation of resources (e.g., labor, equipment,
materials, money, time)
C. Contracts/contract law
D. Project scheduling (e.g., CPM, PERT)
E. Engineering economics
F. Project management (e.g., owner/contractor/client
relations, safety)
G. Construction estimating

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fast facts
I. Estimating is a complex process involving collection of available
and pertinent information relating to the scope of a project,
expected resource consumption, and future changes in resource
costs.
II. The estimating process involves a combination of evaluating
information through a mental process of visualization of the
constructing process for the project. This visualization is mentally
translated into an approximation of the final cost.
III. At the outset of a project, the estimate cannot be expected to carry
a high degree of accuracy, because little information is known. As
the design progresses, more information is known, and accuracy
should improve.
IV. Estimating at any stage of the project cycle involves considerable
effort to gather information. The estimator must collect and review
all of the detailed plans, specifications, available site data, available
resource data (labor, materials, and equipment), contract
documents, resource cost information, pertinent government
regulations, and applicable owner requirements. Information
gathering is a continual process by estimators due to the
uniqueness of each project and constant changes in the industry
environment.
V. Unlike the production from a manufacturing facility, each product of
a construction firm represents a prototype. Considerable effort in
planning is required before a cost estimate can be established.
Most of the effort in establishing the estimate revolves around
determining the approximation of the cost to produce the one-time
product.

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CONSTRUCTION MANAGEMENT - PROCUREMENT METHODS

24. - Question Which of the following statements about the construction contract
process are true:
I. Surety bond assures the project owner a guarantee of funds equivalent to a
promissory note. The surety bond is a promise to pay the owner a certain
amount if the contractor fails in fulfilling the terms of a contract.

II. Performance bond is a surety bond issued by an insurance company or a


bank to guarantee satisfactory completion of a project by a contractor.
Performance bonds are issued upon Contract award and cost approximately
0.50% to 1.25% of the total contract value.

III. Builder’s risk insurance is a special type of property insurance which


indemnifies against damage to buildings while they are under construction.
Builder's risk insurance is coverage that protects a person's or an
organization's insurable interest in materials, fixtures and/or equipment being
used in the construction or renovation of a building or structure should those
items sustain physical loss or damage from a covered cause

IV. A bid bond is issued as part of a bidding process by the surety to the project
owner, to guarantee that the winning bidder will undertake the contract under
the terms at which they bid. The cash deposit is subject to full or partial
forfeiture if the winning contractor fails to either execute the contract or
provide the required performance and/or payment bonds. The bid bond
assures and guarantees that should the bidder be successful, the bidder will
execute the contract and provide the required surety bonds.

V. Bonds are not insurance. Bonds are a guarantee to pay made by a cosigner
who is liable only if the principal fails to discharge the obligations under the
Contract.

a. I & II
b. I, II, & III
c. I, II, III, & IV
d. I, II, III, IV, & V

Solution: All are true.

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COST ESTIMATING

25. - Question A capital improvement project requires the


installation of a property line fence along the 250-ft Northern
boundary line. The decorative aluminum fence is constructed of posts
spaced at 10-ft centers and an ornate picket infill panel. The material costs
for this scope of work is most nearly:
Material Costs:
a. $65,771.25
b. $66,416.60 Aluminum Posts $645.35 -each

c. $68,402.10 Picket Infill Panel $1,985.50- each


d. $71,065.58
Placed Concrete $498.00/CY

Ironworker $78.00/hr

State Sales Tax 7%

Solution: Develop a Bill of Materials and multiply quantities by


the costs:

Aluminum Posts: 26 x $645.35 = $16,779.10

Picket Infill Panel 25 x $1,985.50 = $49,637.50

Grand Total $66,416.60 (answer is b)

fast facts
The most common blunder during quantity take–off estimating is to omit the
“zero” position during the count. To help with the analysis, sketch the work so
as to better visualize the quantity take-off. Also, material cost on a capital
improvement project is non-taxable. Remember that “distracters” are included
in questions to test your engineering judgment.

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ESTIMATING TAKEOFF QUANTITIES

26. - Question A 450-ft length canal is to be lined with concrete for


erosion control. It is estimated that there will be 10% waste. Unit material
costs of concrete and curing compound based on other recent projects in
the area with similar volume are $98/ yd3 and $40/5-gal, respectively.
Project specifications require an application rate of curing compound at 1-
gal per 300-ft2.

8-in - concrete

20-ft 2

[not to scale] 19-ft

Determine the following:

a. The total material cost for delivered concrete is most nearly:

a. $85,000.00
b. $90,160.00
c. $99,176.00
d. $109,094.00

b. The total material cost for the concrete curing compound is most nearly:

a. $1,120.00
b. $1,160.00
c. $1,200.00
d. $1,240.00

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Solution:

a. Horizontal length of side slope = (20 / 2) x 3 = 30 ft

Slope length = √ [(20)2 + (30)2] = 36.06 ft

Cross-sectional area of lining = [(2 x 36.06) + 19] 8/12 = 60.74 ft2

Volume of lining = (60.74 x 450) / 27 = 1,012- yd3

Delivered volume (add waste) = 1,012-yd3 x 1.10 = 1,113- yd3

Material Cost = $98.00/yd3 x 1,113-yd3 = $109,094.


(answer is d)

b. Surface Area of Canal = (19-ft + 36.06-ft x 2) x 450-ft = 41,004 ft2

Quantity of Curing Compound = 41,004 ft2 / (300 ft2/gal.) = 136.68gal.

Calculate waste: 136.68 gal. x 1.10 = 150.35-gal

Convert to purchase within 5-gal containers: 150.35-gal / 5 = 30.07


containers

Material Cost = 31-containers x $40.00/container = $1,240.00


(answer is d)

fast facts
The manufacturer’s specification cannot be deviated from. This question
illustrates the importance of rounding up to meet the product specifications.
The seven-hundredths of a 5-gallon container in the example is enough to
support the manufacturer’s position that the coverage rate was not met. Always
round up in this situation.

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27. - Question A A concrete crew will use the available steel form
panels measuring 2’-6” wide x 4’-0” high to construct a 40’-6” long by 3’-2”
high by 1’-6” wide concrete knee wall. The square foot of contact area for
the formwork is most nearly:

a. 105-ft2
b. 134-ft2
c. 266-ft2
d. 368-ft2

Solution:

The square foot of contact area consists of the surface of the formwork
“touched” by the concrete. Therefore, apply the equation to calculate the
contact area:

(40.5-ft + 1.5-ft + 40.5-ft + 1.5-ft) x 3.167-ft = 266.03-ft2 (answer is c)

40’-6”

1’-6”

Plan View
1’-6”

Concrete Knee
Wall 3’-2”

Not to scale Section View

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fast facts
Cost per Square Foot of Contact Area
The cost of concrete formwork is influenced by three factors:

1. Initial cost or fabrication cost, which


includes the cost of transportation,
materials, assembly, and erection.
2. Potential reuse which decreases the
final total cost per square foot of
contact area. The data in Table
indicates that the maximum economy
can be achieved by maximizing the
number of reuses.
3. Stripping costs, this also includes the
cost of cleaning and repair. This item
tends to remain constant for each
reuse up to a certain point at which the
total cost of repairing and cleaning
start rising rapidly.

In deciding to use a specific formwork system, the initial cost should


be evaluated versus the available budget for formwork cost. Some
formwork systems tend to have a high initial cost, but through repetitive
reuse, they become economical.

For example, slip forms have a high initial cost, but the average
potential reuse (usually over 100 times) reduces the final cost per square
foot of contact area for the type of formwork.

In the case of rented formwork systems, the period of time the


formwork is in use has a great effect on the cost of the formwork.

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28. - Question A contractor will place 90-cubic yards of concrete


for a housekeeping pad on the rooftop of a 36-ft tall building. Site
conditions dictate that the safest and best method of placement is to
use a crane and a 2-cubic-yard bucket. To perform the task efficiently,
five Union laborers are needed — one at the concrete truck, three at the
point of placement, and one on the portable internal vibrator. The wage
rate for laborers is $22.00/hr (Union overtime rate is 1.5 times the wage
rate after 8-hour day). Time needed for the operation is: Setup: 15-min;
Cycle time consists of Load = 3-min., plus Swing, dump and return = 6-min.
which allows a total cycle time = 9-min; Demobilize operation, 10-min.
Supervision is done by the superintendent. Allow a 10% factor for
inefficiencies during the cycle time. Crane rental cost is $1,800 per 8-hr
day. The total labor cost per cubic yard for the concrete crane placement
of the 90 cubic yards is most nearly:

a. $8.75
b. $9.78
c. $10.12
d. $10.65

Solution:

Identify (by underlining) relevant cost items and calculate summary


quantities.

No. of cycles 90-CY/2-CY/Bucket = 45 cycles


Total cycle time 45-cycles x9-min/cycle = 405 min
Inefficiency(labor,delays,etc.)10%of cycle time = 41-min
Setup and demobilize: Sub-total = 25 min
Total operation time: 405 + 41 + 25 = 471-min or 7.85-hrs
Amount of time needed (adjusted to workday) = 8 hr
Laborers — five for 8 hours at $22.00/hr = $880.00
3
Total labor cost per 90-yd = $880.00
3
Cost per cubic yard $880/90-yd = $9.78/yd3
(answer is b)

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29. - Question The Owner’s representative requested a cost proposal for the
Architect’s design change. The revised Scope of Work (SOW) is to provide a credit for
the installation of one layer of ½” Gypsum Wallboard (GWB) and provide a new
scope of work consisting of: (1) install two (2) layers of 5/8” Fire Code (FC) GWB
on the inside face of the existing framing system, (2) as part of the building code
requirement mud coat the first layer of the GWB, (3) mud coat and finish coat the
second layer of GWB, (4) and provide sound-batt insulation within the existing metal
stud wall cavity. The room is located within a warehouse with dimensions: 180-ft x 200-
ft; 10-ft high floor to underside of deck dimension; and, eight (8) 6’-0”wide x 10’-0” high
openings. The total cost for the new scope of work is most nearly:

a. $19,500
b. $20,500
c. $21,000
d. $22,500

Use the following excerpt from the Company’s cost standards:

Work Crew
4 Carpenters
2 Laborers
Working Foreman
Labor Rates per hour
Carpenter Foreman (working) $46.35 fully burdened
Carpenter (journeyman) $38.85 fully burdened
Laborer $28.45 fully burdened
Work Crew Productivity (based on 8-hr/day)
GWB 960 ft2/Work Crew Hr
Insulation 1,920 ft2/ Work Crew Hr
Tape &Spackle Mud Coat 2,800 ft2/ Work Crew Hr
Tape &Spackle Finish Coat 1,800 ft2/ Work Crew Hr
Material Costs price includes all taxes and delivery; add a 10% waste factor to all
materials.

4’-0” x 10’-0” x ½” GWB $0.185/ ft2


4’-0” x 10’-0” x 5/8” GWB (FC) $0.285 / ft2
Sound Batt Insulation (65-ft2/Bag) $0.45/ ft2
Mud Coat (coverage 150- ft2/gal) $0.125/ft2
Finish Coat(coverage 300- ft2 /gal) $0.08/ft2

Contractor Change Order Pricing


Contactor’s Overhead 10%
Contractor’s Profit 5%

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Solution: Step 1; Sketch the project,

200-ft

Openings
(2) layers (typ)
GWB Interior
Side Only
180-ft

[not to scale]

Step 2 - Determine GWB surface Area


fast facts
Walls
200-ft Common Estimating Blunders:
200-ft  Count the “0” position
180-ft  Take the “Outs” Out
180-ft  OH&P are cumulative not additive
760-ft Total  Round Up material quantities
2  Follow mfg’s application rate
760-ft x 10-ft = 7,600-ft
Outs (delete)  Include the given waste amount
2  Use product coverage Qtys’
(8) x 6-ft x 10-ft =480-ft
Surface Area  Follow bid document info
7,600-ft - 480-ft = 7,120-ft2  Calculate work crew rates
 Use burdened labor rates
 Sketch the work

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Step 3 - Calculate Fully Burdened Cost Rate for Crew Day


Trade QTY U/M Rate/hr Total
Foreman 1 ea $ 46.35 $ 46.35
Journeyman 4 ea $ 38.85 $ 155.40
Laborer 2 ea $ 28.45 $ 56.90
TOTAL $ 258.65 per crew hour
TOTAL $ 2,069.20 per crew day (8-hrs)

Step 4 - Determine the Material List for the new Scope of Work

5/8" GWB 7,120 x 2-layers x 1.10 (waste) / 40-SF/BD = 392 boards


Sound Batt 7,120 / 65ft^2/bag x 1.10 (waste) = 121 bags
Mud Coat 14,240 /150-ft^2/gal x 1.10 (waste) = 105 gallons
Finish 7,120 /300-ft^2/gal x 1.10 (waste) = 27 gallons

Step 5 - Calculate Change Order amount for the new SOW


Total Labor Total Material
Description QTY U/M Production U/M Unit Cost U/M Crew Hrs Cost Cost
5/8" GWB Labor 14,240 ft^2 960 ft^2 258.65 14.83 $ 3,836.64
Material 15,680 ft^2 includes waste $ 0.285 ft^2 $ 4,468.80
Sound Batt Labor 7,120 ft^2 1,920 ft^2 258.65 3.71 $ 959.16
Material 7,865 ft^2 includes waste $ 0.450 ft^2 $ 3,539.25
Mud Coat Labor 14,240 ft^2 2,800 ft^2 258.65 5.09 $ 1,315.42
Material 15,750 ft^2 includes waste $ 0.125 ft^2 $ 1,968.75
Finish Labor 7,120 ft^2 1,800 ft^2 258.65 3.96 $ 1,023.10
Material 8,100 ft^2 includes waste $ 0.08 ft^2 $ 648.00
Column Totals 27.58 $ 7,134.33 $ 10,624.80

SUMMARY
Labor Cost $ 7,134.33
Material Cost $ 10,624.80 fast facts
SUB-TOTAL $ 17,759.13
Construction Estimating calculates the
Contractor OH @ 10% $ 1,775.91
SUB-TOTAL $ 19,535.04 total fully burden cost for labor, material
Contractor Profit @ 5% $ 976.75 and equipment. Once the “raw” costs
Grand Total $ 20,511.79 New Scope of Work are determined, the contractor’s Over
Head and Profit (plus Bond) are added
(answer is b)
to the bottom line costs.

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COST ESTIMATING – BOARD FEET

fast facts
One board foot equals 144 cubic inches. The thickness in inches, times the
width in inches, times the length in inches, divided by 144 cubic inches,
equals total board feet in a piece of stock. For instance, a piece two inch
thick by twelve inches wide by twelve inches long would be 2" x 12" = 24" x
12" = 288 cubic inches ÷ 144 cubic inches = 2 board feet.

Sample calculations provided in Table below for 2” thick stock.

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30. - Question A project engineer has ordered 100 hardwood boards,


1-1/4-in thick by 8-in wide and 8-ft long. The total board feet ordered is
most nearly:

a. 533
b. 600
c. 667
d. 1,067

Solution:

1.25” x 8” x 8’ x 100-pcs = 666.67


board feet (answer)
12
Or, 1.25” x 8” x (8’x 12”/1’) x 100-pcs

= 666.67 board feet (answer is c)


144

fast facts
The questions on the NCEES exam generally do not include units with
the associated answer choices. You are more likely to see answers such as
20, 40, 60, and 80, rather than 20-PSF, 40-PSF, etc.

Read the problem statement carefully to ensure that you know what
units to solve for. Some of the answers are logical distracters and are only
included to test your “engineering judgment”.

Four minutes per question requires focusing your attention to the time
variable of the exam.

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METHODS OF BUDGETING

31. - Question The total equipment cost for an addition to a


pharmaceutical plant is estimated to be $5,000,000. The percentages
provided in the Table represent the average expenditures in other cost
phases within the project budget. The total cost for the project is most
nearly:

a. $5,000,000 Description Percent

b. $12,500,000 Engineering, overhead, and fees 22%


Equipment Storage 5%
c. $14,000,000
Services 2%
d. $16,700,000
Utilities 6%
Piping 20%
Instrumentation 5%
Electrical 6%
Buildings 4%
Solution:

Calculate the total percentage of the items provided:

Total percentage = 70%

Apply the equation:

Estimated Equipment Cost = Total Project Cost


(1 – Percent of Other Costs)

Total Project Cost = $5,000,000 = $16,666,667 (answer is d)


(1 – .70)

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CONSTRUCTIONHISTORIC DATA
32. - Question A concrete specialty company’s uses productivity
standards calculated as averages from historical data. On average
100-square feet of formwork requires 6 hours of carpenter time and 5
hours of common laborer time. The wage rate for a carpenter is $38.97/hr
plus a 54% burden rate. The wage rate for common laborers is $14.87/hr
plus a 48% burden rate. The total square foot cost is most nearly:
a. $3.08/ft2
b. $3.25/ft2
c. $4.25/ft2
d. $4.70/ft2

Solution: Burden Rates are amounts charged over and above the actual
costs for labor, materials and/or taxes. Add the allotted burden rate to the
trade labor rate to determine the total SF cost.

The unit cost may be calculated as follows:


Carpenter — 6 hr at $60.00/hr = $360.00
Laborer — 5 hr at $22.00/hr = $110.00
Total labor cost for 100 ft2 = $470.00
Labor cost per ft2 = $470.00 ÷ 100-ft2 = $4.70-ft2 (answer is d)

fast facts
Labor burden is the cost to a company to carry their labor force aside
from salary actually paid to them. Simply stated, burden is the benefits and
taxes that a company must pay on their payroll. It is important to stress that
burden typically should not include any profit, markup or expenses unrelated to
employee compensation, but should be the actual cost to carry the labor. These
can include, but are not limited to, all of the following:

 Payroll Taxes – both Federal and State (Statutory)


 When applicable, Union Fringe Benefits Package
 Vacation Pay allocation
 Retirement/Pension Costs
 Health Care
 Life/Accidental Death & Dismemberment Insurance (AD&D)
 Worker’s Compensation Costs
 Long-Term Disability Insurance
 Short-Term Disability Insurance

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ENGINEERING ECONOMICS

P – Present worth of money


F – Future worth of money
A – An end-of-period cash receipt or disbursement in a uniform series
i – Interest rate per interest period
n – Number of interest periods
Single Payment Present Worth F

F
P = F(P/F, i, n) =
(1  i) n P

Interest Formulas: Payments

Single Payment Compound Amount Factor

(F/P, i%, n) = (1 + %, i )n

Single Payment Present Worth Factor

(P/F, i%, n) = 1/ (1 + %, i )n= 1/ (F/P, i%, n)

Uniform Series Compound amount Factor

(F/A, i%, n) = (1 + %, i )n - 1 / i

Uniform Series Sinking Fund Factor

(A/F, i%, n) = i / (1 + i)n - 1 = 1 / (F/A, i%, n)

fast facts
Factor Tables are derived from the equations shown in the introductory pages
of this section. The Factor Tables are a convenience, however, not all % factors are
available and although interpolation can be used, it is strongly recommended to
become as familiar with the equations. FE – Ref Hb. provides a summary of the
varying equations used in engineering economics.

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See pages 114 through 120 in the NCEES Supplied Reference


Handbook for Factor Tables
For example, where F/P is the column selector for the Factor Tables, the interpretation is:

Calculate “F” / Given “P” p

Where: A = Annual Amount

F = Future Worth

P = Present Worth

G = Uniform Gradient Amount

n = number of compounding periods or life of asset

i = effective rate per period

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FACTOR TABLE QUICK VIEW EXERCISE

The following factor table quick exercise uses the value of $1.00 using 10% for 10-yrs.
Using the appropriate Factor Table found in the NCEES Supplied Reference Handbook, find
the appropriate answer. Use the Calculate “x” / Given “y” study aid.

a. If you want $1.00, 10-yrs from now, deposit $_____ now.

a. 0.3855
b. 6.1446 
c. 2.5937 p
d. 0.1627
e. 0.0627
f. 15.9374
g. 22.8913

b. If you deposit $1.00 at the end of every year for 10-yrs the present value is?

a. 0.3855
b. 6.1446
c. 2.5937
d. 0.1627
e. 0.0627
f. 15.9374
g. 22.8913

c. $1.00 today is worth $_______10-yrs from now in an account yielding 10%

a. 0.3855
b. 6.1446
c. 2.5937
d. 0.1627
e. 0.0627
f. 15.9374
g. 22.8913

d. The annual amount of interest deposited in the account with a starting balance of $1.00
at 10% for 10-yrs is?

a. 0.3855
b. 6.1446
c. 2.5937
d. 0.1627
e. 0.0627
f. 15.9374
g. 22.8913

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e. If you want to have $1.00 in the bank, deposit $_____every year for 10–years at 10% an
annual yielding account.

a. 0.3855
b. 6.1446
c. 2.5937
d. 0.1627
e. 0.0627
f. 15.9374
g. 22.8913

f. If you deposit $1.00 every year in an account yielding 10%, you will have this amount in
10-yrs $__________.

a. 0.3855
b. 6.1446
c. 2.5937
d. 0.1627
e. 0.0627
f. 15.9374
g. 22.8913

g. If you deposit $1 in yr-1; $2-at the beginning of yr-2; $3 at the beginning of yr-3, and so
on to the 10th year, the present worth of the deposits is $__________.

a. 0.3855
b. 6.1446
c. 2.5937
d. 0.1627
e. 0.0627
f. 15.9374
g. 22.8913

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TIME VALUE OF MONEY

33. - Question If you want to have $60,000 in 10 years, the amount that should be
put into a 6.0% (effective annual rate) savings account now is most nearly:

a. $33,503.69
b. $43,000.39 
c. $48,475.09 p
d. $53,500.60

Solution:

This problem could also be stated: What is the equivalent present worth of $60,000 ten
years from now if monthly money is worth 6% per year?

P = F(P/F, I, n) = $60,000(P/F, 6%, 10) = $60,000 * 0.5584 = $33,503.69 (answer is a)

34. - Question The cost of utilities, taxes and maintenance on a home is $3,000
per year. The amount of money that would have to be invested now at 8% to cover
these expenses for the next 5 years is most likely: (Assume no inflation or tax
increase).

a. $10,980
b. $11,980
c. $12,980
d. $13,980

Solution:

Referencing Appendix 86-A (pg. A-136) in


CERM-11 and using the Factor Tables

$3,000 (P/A, 8%, 5) = $3,000 x 3.9927 =


$11,978.10 (answer is b)

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35. - Question Your home mortgage is $300,000 for 30 years with a


nominal annual rate of 7%. The monthly payment is most nearly:

a. $1,899.00
b. $1,900.00

c. $1,995.10 p
d. $2,015.00

Solution:

n = 360 months interest = 7%-annual ÷ 12-months/year


= 0.583% per month

$300,000(A/P, 0.00583, 360) = Apply the equation:


i(1+i)n
= 0.006650339 (1+i)n - 1

A = 300,000 x 0.006650339 = $1,995.10 per month (answer is c)

fast facts
This question illustrates the importance of interpreting the information
provided before running through the computations. Although the nominal annual
rate is given as 7%, the monthly rate needs to be computed. A common approach
would be to use the CERM Appendix Factor Tables to find the monthly payments
which would yield:
(A/P, 7%, 30) = $300,000(A/P, 0.0806, 30) = $24,180/12 = $2,015. / month or a 1%
error.

Conclusion: Be familiar and comfortable with both the Factor Tables and the
Equations which comprise the results in the Tables.

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36. - Question You wish to buy a house and you can afford to make
a down payment of $50,000. Your monthly mortgage payment cannot
exceed $2,000. If 30-year loans are available at 7.5% annual interest rate
which is compounded monthly, the highest price that you may consider is
most nearly:

a. $332,000 
p
b. $334,000
c. $336,000
d. $338,000

Solution:

n = 360 months interest = 7.5%-annual ÷ 12-months/year = 0.625% per


month
n
Apply the equation: i(1+i)
(1+i)n - 1

This yields (A/P, 0.00625, 360) = 0.00699


Apply the following equation to find the highest price to consider:

P x 0.00699 = (Highest $ - $50,000) x 0.00699 ≤ $2,000

Highest $ ≤ ($2,000/0.00699) + $50,000 = $336,123 (answer is c)

fast facts
Alternate method - Use one year as the time period.
Then, n = 30 years, and i = (1 + 0.00625)12 – 1 = 7.763%
Then, (A*/P, 0.07763, 30) = 0.0867 [A* = 0.0867 P per year]
Your effective payment per year is:
A* = $2,000 x (F/A, 0.00625, 12) = $2,000 x12.4212 = $24,842
P ≤ (24,842 / 0.0867) + $50,000 = $336,533 same as before;
answer checks.

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37. - Question An engineer deposits a “X” amount every 6 months for


3 years so that she’ll have $10,000 at the end of this period. The interest
rate is 5% per year which is rebalanced every 6-month. The amount
deposited is most nearly:

a. $1,565.50 p
b. $1,585.50
c. $1,595.50
d. $1,600.50

Solution: Determine the components and apply the equation:

n = 6 deposits i = 2.5% per 6-month period

F = $10,000(A/F, 2.5%, 6) = 0.15655 A = $1,565.50 (answer is a)

COMPOUND INTEREST – NOMINAL AND EFFECTIVE

38. - Question A credit card advertises a nominal rate of 18%


compounded monthly. If no monthly payments are made, the effective
annual interest rate is most nearly:

a. 18.00%

b. 18.25% p
c. 18.75%
d. 19.56%

The actual rate is, (18% / 12) = 1.5% per month. The effective annual rate
is:
i = (1 + .015)12 – 1 = 0.1956 or 19.56% if you do not pay anything each
month. (answer is d)

fast facts
This question illustrates that 18% interest per month is
equivalent to 19.56% effective annual rate. The terms are
synonymous as they are dependent upon a “point in time”.

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fast facts
Compound interest is the concept of adding accumulated
interest back to the principal, so that interest is earned on interest
from that moment on. The act of declaring interest to be principal
is called compounding (i.e., interest is compounded). Interest rates
must be comparable in order to be useful, and in order to be
comparable, the interest rate and the compounding frequency must
be disclosed.
Since most people think of rates as a yearly percentage,
many governments require financial institutions to disclose a
(nominally) comparable yearly interest rate on deposits or
advances.
Compound interest rates may be referred to as annual
percentage rate, annual percentage yield, effective interest rate,
effective annual rate, and by other term. Compound interest may
be contrasted with simple interest, where interest is not added to
the principal (there is no compounding).
Note that the effective interest rate i depends on the
frequency of compounding. The following illustrates the effects of
compounding.

Example: nominal interest rate r = 10%

–Compounded annually: i = r = 10%

–Compounded quarterly: i = (1 + 0.1 / 4)4 - 1 = 10.38%

–Compounded monthly: i = (1 + 0.1 / 12)12 - 1 = 10.471%

–Compounded weekly: i = (1 + 0.1 / 52)52 - 1 = 10.506%

–Compounded daily: i = (1 + 0.1 / 365)365 – 1 = 10.516%

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SOLVING ENGINEERING ECONOMIC PROBLEMS

Uniform Series Present Worth Factor


 (1  i) n  1 A A A A A
P = A (P/A, i, n) = A  n 
 i(1  i) 

P
Uniform Series Future Worth Factor A A A A A
 (1  i) n  1
F = A (F/A, i, n) = A  
 i 

Net Present Worth F


NPW = PW of benefits – PW of costs

Benefit-Cost Ratio

B PW of benefits p

C PW of costs

fast facts
Engineering Economics applies the principles reviewed in the previous
section and allows the calculation for the time value of money to be evaluated at a
“common” point in time.
The majority of engineering economic analysis questions are alternative
comparisons. In these questions, two or more mutually exclusive investments
compete for limited funds.
To help with the analysis, cash flow diagrams can be drawn to help visualize
and simplify problems having diverse receipts and disbursements. The most
obvious advantage for the diagram is to clearly see the reference point in time.
Remember to pay particular attention to counting the “zero” position.

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PRESENT WORTH

39. - Question A heavy equipment rental company uses a high


interest rate of 30% for the rental of a specialty heavy haul dump truck.
The net annual profit for this investment is most nearly:

a. - $3,900
b. - $4,500 Total annual income: $55,000
Capital cost: $80,000
c. +$5,000 Annual operating cost: $28,600
d. +$6,000 Lifespan: 6 years

Solution: 
p
Calculate the annual capital recovery with return:

$80,000 (A/P, 30%, 6yrs) = $30,272

Calculate the net annual profit:

55,000 – (30,272 + 28,600) = - $3,872 (net loss) (answer is a)

fast facts
This question illustrates a counterintuitive result for the interpretation of the
data presented. At first glance, the business scenario appears that it should be
profitable. However, the high rate of 30% is intended to cover uncertainty during the
rental period. After computation, the results show that it does not cover uncertainty.

However, if the annual income were $60,000, then the net annual profit would
be 60,000 - (30,272 + 28,600) = $1,128 and the truck rental would return a net profit.

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FUTURE W ORTH OR VALUE

40. - Question Two alternatives have the cash flows as shown in


the Table. At a 4% interest rate, the yield for the alternative that should
be selected to maximize its value is most nearly:
Alternative
a. -$247.60 Year A B
b. +$247.60 0 -$2000 -$2800
c. -$284.20 1 +800 +1100
2 +800 +1100
d. +$284.20 3 +800 +1100
Solution:

This example will be solved using Future Worth analysis at the end of 3-
years.

Net Future Worth (NFW) = Future Worth of Benefits – Future Worth of Costs

NFW A = 800(F/A, 4%, 3) – 2000 (F/P,4%,3)


=800(3.122) – 2000(1.125)= +$247.60

NFW B = 1100(F/A, 4%, 3) – 2800 (F/P,4%,3) p
=1100(3.122) – 2800(1.125)= +$284.20
To maximize Net Future Worth, choose alternative B: + $284.20

(answer is d)

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ANNUAL COST

41. - Question A contractor purchased an excavator for $100,000.


The life expectancy is 10-years. With the annual interest rate at 7%, the
annual cost for the excavator is most nearly:

a. $10,000
b. $11,000
c. $13,000
d. $14,000

Solution:

Equivalent Uniform Annual Cost


(EUAC) = P (A/P ,i, n)
= 100,000(A/P, 7%,10)
= $14,200 (answer is d)

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MAINTENANCE COSTS

42. - Question A contractor purchased a Year Maintenance


Caterpillar D-13 dozer for $100,000 and owned it for and Repair
Costs
five years. The annual cost for maintenance and repair 1 $4,500
is provided in the Table. With annual interest rate at 2 $9,000
7% and end-of-year disbursements, the uniform annual 3 $11,800
cost for maintenance and repair for the dozer is most 4 $13,500
5 $22,500
nearly:

a. $10,000
b. $11,000
c. $12,000
d. $13,000

Solution: The Equivalent Uniform Annual Cost (EUAC) can be computed


for this irregular series of payments in two steps:

Step 1: Compute the Present Worth for five years using the single
payment present worth factors.

PW of cost = 4500(P/F, 7%, 1) + 9000(P/F, 7%,2) + 11800(P/F, 7%, 3) +


13500(P/F, 7%, 4) + 22500(P/F, 7%,5)

= 4500(.9346) + 9000(.8734) + 11800(.8163) + 13500(.7629) +


22500(.7130)

= $48,040.29
Step 2: With the PW of cost known, compute the EUAC using the
capital recovery factor.

EUAC = 48,040(A/P, 7%, 5)

= 48,040(.2439)

= $11,717.03 (answer is c)

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RATE OF RETURN ANALYSIS – THREE ALTERNATIVES

43. - Question Three alternatives are being considered for


improving a street intersection. The annual dollar savings on account
of the improvement is shown below. Assume that the intersection will
last for 25 years and the interest rate is 5%. Each of the three
improvements is mutually exclusive but provides similar benefits. The
alternative that is the most economical is:

a. A
b. B
c. C
d. Cannot be determined without additional information

Alternative Total cost Annual Benefit

A $10,000 $ 800

B $12,000 1,000

C $19,000 1,400

Solution:

Estimate the Net Present Worth (NPW) for each alternative and identify the
most economical alternative for construction.
Net Present Worth (NPW) = PW of benefits – PW of costs
Use the present worth factor for uniform series:
(P/A, i =5%, 25 yrs) = 14.094 (from the Factor Tables)

NPW(A) = ($800 x 14.094) - $10,000 = $1,275.20

NPW(B) = ($1000 x 14.094) - $12,000 = $2,094.00

NPW(C) = ($1400 x 14.094) - $19,000 = $731.60


Therefore, select Alternate B because it has the highest net present worth. (answer is b)

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BENEFIT/COST ANALYSIS

44. - Question An Earthwork Contractor is planning the purchase of


new equipment. Three options are under review:

Option 1 Option 2 Option 3


Initial Cost 500,000 600,000 700,000
Annual O&M cost 10,000 15,000 20,000
Annual Revenue 100,000 120,000 150,000

The interest rate is 10% and the life of each option is 20 years. The
Benefit/Cost Ratio for the recommended option is most nearly:

a. 1.40
b. 1.46
c. 1.47
d. 1.48

fast facts
All comparisons must be made at a single time reference point. Use PW (Present
Value), FV (Future Value) or AW (Annual Worth) as a basis. (PW and AW are the
most commonly used). The analysis will be performed using Present Worth. If the
Benefit to Cost Ratio (B/C) > 1.0, then the project is a go.

Solution: Find the Benefit /Cost ratio for each option using the
conventional formulas found in the CERM-11.
Set the equation to: Option X = (P/A, i. 10%) for each option.
Benefits (Option1) = Present Worth of $100,000 annual revenue for 20
years @10%
From the interest tables or by calculation:
PW (Benefits) = 8.514 x $100,000 = $851,400
Costs (Option 1) = Initial Cost + Present Worth of $10,000/year O&M
From the interest tables or by calculation:
PW (O&M) = 8.514 x $10,000 = $85,140

Therefore: B/C (Option 1) = $851,400 / ($500,000+$85,140) = 1.455


Similarly, B/C (Option 2) = $1,021,680 / ($600,000+$127,710)=1.403
And, B/C (Option 3) = $1,277,100 / ($700,000+$170,280)=1.467
Option 3 brings the most benefit to the contractor. (answer is c)

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ALTERNATE PROJECT SELECTION

45. - Question A County is planning to build a new roadway


connector in the rapidly developing area of the county. The road can be
built at a reduced capacity now for $30 million and can be widened 15
years later for an additional $20 million. An alternative is to construct the
full capacity connector now for $40 million. Both alternatives would provide
the needed capacity for the 25-year analysis period. Maintenance cost
differences are small and may be ignored. At 6% interest, which alternative
should be selected:

a. Two stage construction with a $1,700,000 savings


b. Single stage construction with a savings of $1,700,000
c. Two stage construction with a $300,000 savings
d. Single stage construction with a savings of $300,000

Solution:

Analysis of the two-stage construction:

PW of cost = $30 million + $20 million (P/F, 6%, 15)


= $30 million + $8.3 million
= $38.3 million

Analysis of the single-stage construction:


From the information provided:

PW of cost = $40 million

Two-stage construction alternative is preferred with a $1,700,000 savings.


(answer is a)

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ALTERNATE SELECTION OF COMPONENTS

46. - Question A city is trying to decide which of two traffic devices to


install. Device A costs $1000 and has useful life of five years. Device A
can be expected to result in $300 savings annually. Device B costs $2000
and has useful life of eight years. Device B can be expected to result in
$400 savings annually. Both devices have no salvage value at the end of
their lives. With interest at 7%, the benefit cost ratio of the most cost
effective device is most nearly:

a. 1.19
b. 1.23
c. 1.32
d. 1.38

Solution:

Device A:
PW of cost = $1000
PW of benefits = $300 (P/A, 7%, 5) = $1230

B = 1230 = 1.23
C 1000

Device B:
PW of cost = $2000
PW of benefits = $400 (P/A, 7%, 8) = $2388

B = 2388 = 1.19
C 2000

In order to maximize the benefit-cost ratio, select Device A; 1.23


(answer is b )

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47. - Question The construction of a new bakery requires the property


development firm to pay the municipality the cost to expand its sewage
treatment plant. In addition to the expansion costs, the developer must pay
$60,000 annually toward the plant operating costs. The developer plans to
finance the annual costs by placing money into a fund that earns 5% per
year to pay its share of the plant operating costs forever. The amount to be
paid to the fund is most nearly:

a. $120,000
b. $600,000
c. $1,200,000
d. $2,200,000

Solution: Using CERM-11 equation 86.10 for a present worth of an infinite


(perpetual) series of annual amounts is known as capitalized cost.

P = A / i = 60,000 ÷ .05 = $1,200,000 (answer is c)

48. - Question An earthwork contractor is considering the purchase of


a new excavator. Based on 10% interest, the equivalent uniform annual
cost for the excavator is most nearly:

a. $12,000 Initial Cost $80,000


b. $27,000 End of useful life salvage value $20,000
c. $28,000 Annual Operating Cost $18,000
d. $32,000 Useful Life 20-years

Solution:

EUAC = 80,000 (A/P, 10%, 20) – 20,000 (A/F, 10%, 20) + annual
operating cost

= 80,000 (0.1175) – 20,000 (0.175) + 18,000

= 9400 – 350 + 18,000

= $27,050 (answer is b)

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CONTRACTOR PROJECT FINANCING


49. - Question A contractor is bidding a construction project that will
take 12 months to complete. The terms of the bid provide that the owner
will pay the Contractor one lump sum at the end of 14-months. The
Contractor secured a bank loan with an interest rate of 1% per month on
the outstanding balance. The Contractor will borrow $100,000 per month to
reconcile costs at the end of months 1 through 12. The cost to finance the
project that will be included as part of the bid is most nearly:

a. $68,000
b. $93,000
c. $94,000
d. $118,000

Solution:

At the end of month 12, the contractor will have borrowed 12 payments of
$100,000 each. The owner is scheduled to pay the contractor at the end of
month 14 at which time the contractor will repay the bank. Use the
following equation to calculate the future value then extract the cost of
financing the project:

F = $100,000 (F/A, 1%, 12) (F/P, 1%, 2) = $1,293,700


Amount Borrowed = $1,200,000
Amount of interest = $ 93,700
(answer is c)

fast facts
Your calculator is an important tool during the exam. Select and use the
calculator approved by the NCEES. Use only your selected calculator for the
next few months to become comfortable with all of its relevant functions, and
give yourself enough time to learn how to use it effectively. There is a learning
curve with any new calculator. You will save time during the exam if you are
familiar with its functions. The SOLVE, POL(), REC() functions are all time
savers. Also, obtain an identical model to bring with you as a backup with
personal distinguishing identification marks.

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INTERNAL RATE OF RETURN

50. - Question A contractor established a policy to purchase


equipment over leasing only if the return is a minimum of 15%. Given
the following conditions, the contractor’s decision based on the policy
reveals that:
Machine “A”
Initial Cost $20,000
Life 5-years
Salvage Value $4,000
Annual Receipts $10,000
Annual Disbursements $ 4,400

a. The equipment purchase yields a minimum 15% return


b. The equipment purchase yields less than a minimum 15% return
c. The purchase yields a neutral or $0 return
d. Cannot be determined without additional information

Solution:
The contractor’s goal is to accept a purchase with Internal Rate of Return
(IRR) larger than the discount rate in which he can borrow money. The first
step is to identify the rate of return on the investment. An example would
be to use a geometrically rising series of values.

A typical means of computing IRR is to identify the discount rate that sets
the Net Present Value (NPV) to $ 0 (zero dollars).

Applying the concept yields an Internal Rate of Return (IRR) that must
satisfy the Contractor’s goal.

Find the NPV using a 15% IRR by establishing a zero sum equation

$0 = - $20,000 + $5,600 (P/A, IRR%, 5) + $4,000 (P/F, IRR%, 5)

$0 = +$760

Therefore, $0 IRR = $760 which is > 15% IRR; the purchase is justified.
(answer is a)

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fast facts

Percentage of a number
A percentage is a way of expressing a ratio or a fraction as a whole number, by using 100
as the denominator. One percent is one per one hundred or one hundredth of a whole
number; notation: 1%.

Below are the statements of main percentage problems and their solutions.

1. Find the number b that makes up p% of a number a. b= a p


100

2. Find the number a whose p% is equal to a number b. a= 100 b


p

3. What percentage does a number b make up of a number a? p = 100 b %


a

Percent Change

To compute the percent change between two numbers:

The equation is: (old value – new value) divided by old value;

Old – New = Percent Change


Old

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PROJECT SCHEDULE FINANCIAL ANALYSIS


51. - Question The 6th monthly payment application for the construction of a $70,000,000
University dormitory is analyzed and the summary accounting show: the budgeted cost of work
performed is $14,500,000, while the actual cost of work performed is $14,750,000. The cost
status of the project is most nearly:
a. 1.5% under budget
b. 1.5% over budget
c. 1.7% under budget
d. 1.7% over budget

Solution: Financial project status is analyzed using the following equations:

BCWS = Budgeted Cost of Work Scheduled = planned costs


ACWP = Actual Cost of Work Performed = actual spent
BCWP = Budgeted Cost of Work Performed = Earned Value

Schedule Variance = BCWP – BCWS

Cost Variance = BCWP - ACWP

Cost Variance = BCWP - ACWP

Cost Variance = $14,500,000 – $14,750,000 = - $250,000 (over budget)

(1 - ($14,500,000 ÷ $14,750,000)) x 100 = 1.69% over budget (answer is d)


(See page 90 of the Notes for more information on effect of percent)

ESTIMATING ACTIVITY DURATIONS


52. - Question The total labor cost for emergency bridge rehabilitation on an interstate
highway is $5,716,440. The average crew-hour cost is $15,879 for this nonstop project. The
number of work days the roadway was shut down is most nearly:
a. 1
b. 15
c. 30
d. 45

Solution: Assigning duration of actives is the estimated or actual time that it will be required to
complete it. Accordingly:

Total labor cost ÷ crew-hour cost = total crew-hours

$5,716,440 ÷ $15,879 = 360 crew-hours

Nonstop project constitutes work at 24-hr 7-days/week 


Total crew hours ÷ 24-hrs/day = project days 
360 crew-hour ÷ 24-hrs/day = 15 days (answer is b)

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fast facts
Scheduling procedures rely upon estimates of the durations of the various
project activities, as well as, the definitions of the predecessor relationships
among tasks.

A straightforward approach to the estimation of activity durations is to keep


historical records of particular activities and rely on the average durations
from this experience in making new duration estimates. Since the scope of
activities is unlikely to be identical between different projects, unit
productivity rates are typically employed for this purpose. For example, the
duration of an activity such as concrete formwork assembly might be
estimated as:

where the Area of the formwork divided by the productivity times the crew
size.

This formula can be used for nearly all construction activities. The
calculation of a duration as is only an approximation to the actual activity
duration for a number of reasons. Further, productivity rates may vary. An
example of productivity variation is the effect of learning on productivity.
As a crew becomes familiar with an activity and the work habits of the crew,
their productivity will typically improve. The result is that productivity is a
function of the duration of an activity or project.

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53. - Question A concrete contractor historical records show that the


construction duration for a cast-in-place foundation formwork is 1,000-
SF/crew-day. The number of days a 200,000-SF formwork for a cast-in-
place concrete foundation using 3-crews is most nearly:
a. 55
b. 60
c. 70
d. 75

Solution: Apply the equation:

Duration = 200,000-SF = 66.67-days


1000-SF/crew-day x 3 crews

(answer is c)

Formwork set with rebar placed and ready for inspection.

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PROJECT SCHEDULING FUNDAMENTALS

54. - Question The total duration for the four activity project is most
nearly:

a. 1
Durations and Predecessors for a Four Activity Project Illustration
b. 2
c. 3
Activity Predecessor Duration (Days)
d. 4

Excavate trench --- 1.0


Place formwork Excavate trench 0.5
Place reinforcing Place formwork 0.5
Pour concrete Place reinforcing 1.0

Solution:

Scheduling work activity has associated time duration. The durations shown in the Table
were estimated for the project diagrammed below. The entire set of activities would then
require 3-days, since the activities follow one another directly and require a total of 1.0 +
0.5 + 0.5 + 1.0 = 3-days (answer is c). If another activity proceeded in parallel with this
sequence, the 3 day minimum duration of these four activities is unaffected. More than
3 days would be required for the sequence if there was a delay or a lag between the
completion of one activity and the start of another.

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PROJECT SCHEDULING – TYPES OF METHODS

Project Scheduling – Distinction between the Major Types of Schedule Diagrams

• Precedence Diagrams (PDM)

– Activity on Node (AON)

– Can have any kind of precedence

• Arrow Diagrams (AOA)

– Activity On Arrow (AOA)

– Activity-on-Branch

– May have dummy tasks

– Finish to start precedence only

fast facts
Units of Time Convention

Units of time are often stated in terms of days. There are two types of convention:
1. “Beginning-of-day” - means that the finish date of the activities is defined in terms of
the beginning of the following day. For example, if the first activity in a network has a
duration of two days and if its start date is set at the beginning of Day 1, the following
calculation would be made:

The activity will end on the beginning of Day 3

or, (Early start time of Day 1) + (2-day duration) = (Early start time of Day 3)

Clearly, the activity will actually be completed at the end of Day 2, but hand calculations
are easier to make if beginning-of-day convention is used. The project’s “early-start”
date is for the first activity is 1.

2. “End-of-day” – the early start is assigned 0, meaning that the end-of-day convention is
being used. The project’s “early start” date is for the first activity 0.

3. NCEES use both conventions in their scheduling examples.

4. Unless otherwise stated, all relationships are assumed to be finish-to-start relationships.

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PRECEDENCE RELATIONSHIPS

• Finish-to-Start – the most common, the predecessor activity must finish before
the successor activity can start

• Finish to Finish – The predecessor activity must finish before the successor
activity can finish

• Start-to-Start – The predecessor activity must start before the successor activity
can start

• Start-to-Finish – the predecessor activity must start before the dependent


activity can finish

Lead Lag Relationships

• A lead is when the successor task begins before the predecessor task is complete

• A lag is when a successor task does not start immediately upon the completion of the
predecessor task

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PRECEDENCE DIAGRAMMING METHODS

• Activity on Node (AON) with arrows for dependencies

• Uses all forms of precedence relationships

ARROW DIAGRAMMING METHOD

• Activity-on-Arrow (Branch) with nodes as dependencies

• Uses finish-to-start precedence only. The solution method for an activity on


arrow problem is essentially the same as for the activity-on-node problems
requiring forward and backward passes to determine the earliest and latest
dates.

• May require use of dummy activities to maintain proper logic of various


construction activities. If two activities have the same starting and ending events,
a dummy node is required to give one activity a uniquely identifiable completion
event.

• A dummy is treated as an activity (represented by a dotted line on the arrow


network diagram), that indicates that any activity following the dummy cannot be
started until the activity or activities preceding the dummy are completed. The
dummy activity does not consume time or any resource.

• Review Figure 1 Activity-on-Arrow diagram below. Note the dummy activity


showing the relationship between the material procurement and installation of the
components.

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Electrical

Window
Doors

Roof
3 4

Material
Delivery Curtain
Wall

Excavate Foundation Assemble Painting Finishing


1 2 5 7 8 9

Drainage Plumbing

Grading Install Fence


6

LEGEND

i ES Operation EF j
LS Duration LF

Figure 1 - Activity on Arrow Diagram

fast facts
The network illustrates the importance of procurement and material delivery in the
schedule. The “Material Delivery” component in the network tracks the delivery of the
Roof and Curtain Wall while the “dummy” activity places a logic link indicating that the
two components must be installed together.

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A critical Path is:

• The series of activities which determines the earliest possible date of project
completion

• Usually defined as those activities with minimal or zero float

Dec 3, '00 Dec 10, '00


ID Task Name S M T W T F S S M T W T F S
1 Task 1
2 Task 2
3 Task 3
4 Task 4

Critical Path Method -- Highlights

• A network analysis technique used to predict project duration by analyzing which


sequence of activities has the least amount of schedule flexibility (float)

• Early dates are calculated by a forward pass using a specified start date

• Late dates are calculated by a backwards pass using a specified completion date
(usually the early finish date)

• Uses deterministic dates (for example, the most likely date the activity will occur)

• Single duration estimate for each activity

• Start date and calculated Early Finish and Late Finish dates for each activity

• Primary focus when analyzing the project is on calculating float

Note: There are many sign conventions used to display the type of information in schedule
analysis. Always interpret the project schedule using the legend provided. Samples are shown
below:

ACTIVITY Activity
(duration)
ES DURATION LS ES EF
EF FF TF LF LS LF

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THE FORWARD PASS

EF = ES + Duration

The forward pass works from left to right, calculating when tasks can end using their early start
date and the expected duration.

Task Early Start Early Finish Duration


A 1 11 10
B 11 16 5
C 16 24 8
D 11 17 6
E 17 26 9
F 26 29 3

Note that Task F cannot begin until both C and E are finished.

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29

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THE BACKWARD PASS

The early finish for the forward pass is also the late finish for the project. In
the backward pass we move from right to left using the late finish and the
duration to determine the late start.

Task Late Finish Late Start Duration


F 29 26 3
C 26 18 8
B 18 13 5
E 26 17 9
D 17 11 6
A 11 1 10

LS = LF – Duration

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CALCULATING FLOAT

Float for a task is the difference between the early start and the late start. In this case,
only tasks B and C have any float, 2 days in both cases. However, if task B is two days
late in starting, task C loses its float. Float is a property of a network fragment.

Task Duration Early Start Early Finish Late Start Late Finish Float
A 10 1 11 1 11 0
B 5 11 16 13 18 2
C 8 16 24 18 26 2
D 6 11 17 11 17 0
E 9 17 26 17 26 0
F 3 26 29 26 29 0

TF = LF - ES - DUR

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CRITICAL PATH - ACTIVITY ON NODE


55. - Question The project precedence table shown below provides the
relationships and durations of all activities. Based on end-of-day calculations for starts
and finishes, use a critical path analysis to determine the following:
Activity Predecessor Duration
a) The project duration is most nearly:
(days)
a. 36
Start -
b. 48
A Start 9
c. 41
d. 32 B A 8
C B 2
b) The Critical Path is most nearly: D A, C 6
a. A,B,C,D,F,G E D 7
b. A,B,C,D,E,F,G F C, D 9
c. A,D,E,G, G E, F 7
d. A,B,C,E,G Finish G

Solution: Where there are multiple paths between subsets of


activities, analyze the subsets to find the longest time path, then string Legend
together the longest subset paths to complete the critical path from start to Activity
finish. To clarify the situation, sketch the project network, showing (duration)
activities, durations, and the critical path. ES EF

LS LF

B(8) C(2) F(9)


9 17 17 19 25 34
9 17 17 19 25 34

START(0) A(9) D(6) FINISH(0)


0 0 0 9 19 25 41 41
0 0 0 9 19 25 41 41
E(7)
25 32
27 34
G(7)
34 41
34 41

a) Total days to Finish = 41. (Answer is C).

b) The critical path is as follows: START, A, B, C, D, F, G, FINISH (answer is a)

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PROJECT FLOAT -- “FREE FLOAT” AND “TOTAL FLOAT”

fast facts
Consider the construction of a building, there are various component
activities involved in the project as a whole. Some of these activities can run
concurrently, for example: purchase the doors, windows, mechanical components.
While others are consecutive, for example: the paint cannot be bought until it has
been chosen, the window cannot be painted until the window is installed.
Delaying the purchase of the windows is likely to delay the entire project - this
activity will be on the critical path and have no float and hence it is a “critical
activity”. A relatively short delay in the purchase of the paint may not
automatically hold up the entire project as there is still some waiting time for the
trim to be installed. There will be some “free float” attached to the activity of
purchasing the paint and hence it is not a critical activity. However, a delay in
choosing the paint in turn inevitably delays buying the paint which, although it may
not subsequently mean any delay to the entire project, it does mean that choosing
the paint has no “free float” attached to it. Despite having no free float of its own,
choosing the paint is involved with a path through the network which does have
“total float”. Therefore, float or slack is the amount of time that a task in a project
network can be delayed without causing a delay to: subsequent tasks (free float)
or project completion date (total float). Activities on the critical path have zero
free and total float. A critical activity typically has free float equal to zero, but an
activity that has zero free float may not be on the critical path.

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RESOURCE LEVELING
56. - Question The project network with activities A, B, and C and
durations are as shown. Activity A has 3 days of total float and activity C
has 2 days of total float. Activity A requires 2 workers, B requires 4
workers, and C requires 2 workers. Apply the project network to the
following:

2
A = 2 days

B = 5 days
1 4

C = 3 days
3

1. If all the activities start on day one, the number of workers


needed on day 4 is most nearly:
a. 2
b. 4
c. 6
d. 8

2. If activity C is delayed 2 days, its total float, the number of


workers needed on day 4 is most nearly:
a. 2
b. 4
c. 6
d. 8

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The project network with


2 activities A, B, and C and
A = 2 days durations are as shown.
Activity A has 3 days of total
B = 5 days float and activity C has 2
1 4 days of total float. Activity A
requires 2 workers, B
C = 3 days requires 4 workers, and C
3 requires 2 workers.

Duration Total Resource


Operation Activity (days) Float (workers) ES EF LS LF
1-2 A 2 3 A' (2) 0 2 3 5
1-4 B 5 0 B' (4) 0 5 0 5
1-3 C 3 2 C' (2) 0 3 2 5
2-4 Dummy 0 3 n/a 2 2 5 5
3-4 Dummy 0 2 n/a 3 3 5 5

8
8
A’ A’
Workers

6
Workers

6
A’ A’ C’ C’ C’
4 4
B’ B’ B’
2 B’ B’ B’ B’ B’
2 B’ B’
C’ C’ C’

0 1 2 3 4 5
0 1 2 3 4 5
Days
Days
Resource usage if all Resource usage if Activity C
Activities start on day one. is delayed 2 days, its total
float.
Solution:
1. (answer is b)
2. (answer is c)

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57. - Question

1. A network diagram method that uses only finish-to-start relationships and may
use dummy activities to define logical relationships is called:
a. Precedence diagramming method
b. Arrow diagramming method
c. Conditional diagramming method
d. A Gantt chart

Solution: (answer is b). the Arrow Diagramming Method is the only scheduling
technique that employs dummy activities.

2. Precedence diagramming is best described as:


a. Arrows represent activities and connect with nodes to show dependencies
b. Nodes represent activities and connect with arrows to show dependencies
c. A method that allows loops and conditional branches
d. Using only finish-to-start activities and dummy activities

Solution: (answer is b). Precedence diagramming is also called Activity On Node


(AON) diagramming.

3. Which of the following statements are true about the Critical Path Method:

I. A network analysis technique used to predict project duration by analyzing


which sequence of activities has the least amount of schedule flexibility
(float)

II. Early dates are calculated by a forward pass using a specified start date

III. Late dates are calculated by a backwards pass using a specified


completion date (usually the early finish date)

a. I
b. I & II
c. I, II, & III
d. none

Solution: (answer is c)

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58. - Question

1. When the activity A precedes B but succeeds C, the network logic is


represented in which of the following diagrams:

A B C

a. . 6 7 8
6 9

B C A
b. . 6 7 8
6 9

c. . C A B
6 7 8
6 9

d. .
C B A
6 7 8
6 9

Solution: (answer is c)

2. The network flow diagram shown below depicts which of the


following conditions:
a. Activity C can be started only after the completion of activities A
and B
b. Activity D can be started only activity B is completed
c. Activity E can be started only when activities A, B, C and D have
been completed
d. All of the above
C E
A 1 3
6 4

0 D

2
B
Solution: (answer is d)

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59. - Question

1. 1. The free float is equal to:


a. Latest allowable event occurrence time + Early finish time
b. Earliest event occurrence time + early finish time
c. Latest allowable event occurrence time - Early finish time
d. Earliest event occurrence time – Early finish time

Solution: (answer is d)

2. When float or slack of an activity is positive, which one of the following


applies:
a. It represents a situation where extra resources are available and the
completion of the project is not delayed
b. It represents that a project falls behind schedule and additional
resources are required to complete the project on time
c. The activity is critical and any delay in its performance will delay the
completion of the whole project
d. Any one of the above.

Solution: (answer is a)

3. When float or slack of an activity is negative, which one of the following


applies:
a. It represents a situation where extra resources are available and the
completion of the project is not delayed
b. It represents that a project falls behind schedule and additional
resources are required to complete the project on time
c. The activity is critical and any delay in its performance will delay
the completion of the whole project
d. Any one of the above.

Solution: (answer is b)

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60. - Question

1) In a project network, activities B and C follows A, activity D follows B, activity E


follows C and activities D and E precede F. The correct network for the project
is:

a. . 3

B D

1 A 2
5 F 6
C
E
4

b. .
4

C E

1 A 2 B 3
6
D
F
5

c. .

B C

1 A 2
5 F 6
D
E
4

d. .

D E
1 F 2
5 A 6
C
B
4

Solution: (answer is a)

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2) The flow net of activities of a project is shown below. The duration of the
activities are written along their arrows. The critical path of activities is:
a. 1-2-4-5-7-8
b. 1-2-3-6-7-8
c. 1-2-3-5-7-8
d. 1-2-4-5-3-6-7-8

O
3 6
M 2 R
L 7 3 S
2 7 8
1 Q
N 7
4 P
6
3 4 5
3

Solution: (answer is c)

3) The activity-on-arrow network of a project is shown below. The project duration


is most nearly:
a. 40
b. 41
c. 45
d. 47

O
3 6 R
M 10
14 A 2
S
L 6 7 8
1 2 7
8 N Q
P 12
10 4 5
8
4

Solution: (answer is d) Based on the critical path: 1-2-3-5-7-8

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CHAPTER 3 - MATERIALS

3
CHAPTER
Materials

Materials
Concept

Properties of Materials
Terminology Equipment Production

Application Actual vs. Ultimate Strength


Breaking Strength
Wire Rope
Elastic Stretch
Design Factors
Lifting Load
Standard Productivity
Operating Costs
NCEES – FE Civil Engineering Topics
Job Size Productivity
Materials 8% = 5/60

A. Concrete mix design


B. Asphalt mix design
C. Test methods (e.g., steel, concrete, aggregates, and
asphalt)
D. Properties of aggregates
E. Engineering properties of metals

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MECHANICAL PROPERTIES OF MATERIALS

fast facts
Knowledge of the mechanical properties is obtained by testing materials.
Results from the tests depend on the size and shape of material to be tested
(specimen), how it is held, and the way of performing the test. The most
common procedures, or standards, that are used in Construction are published
by the ASTM.
Strength, hardness, toughness, elasticity, plasticity, brittleness, and
ductility and malleability are mechanical properties used as measurements of
how metals behave under a load. These properties are described in terms of
the types of force or stress that the metal must withstand and how these are
resisted.
Common types of stress are compression, tension, shear, torsion,
impact, or a combination of these stresses, such as fatigue. Compression
stresses develop within a material when forces compress or crush the material.
A column that supports an overhead beam is in compression, and the internal
stresses that develop within the column are compression.
Tension (or tensile) stresses develop when a material is subject to a
pulling load; for example, when using a wire rope to lift a load or when using it
as a guy to anchor an antenna. "Tensile strength" is defined as resistance to
longitudinal stress or pull and can be measured in pounds per square inch of
cross section. Shearing stresses occur within a material when external forces
are applied along parallel lines in opposite directions. Shearing forces can
separate material by sliding part of it in one direction and the rest in the
opposite direction.

61. - Question The breaking strength of a material is also known as its:


a. Ultimate Strength
b. Yield Point
c. Proportional Limit
d. Elastic Limit

Solution: This question aids to further Review Stress Strain Curves of Mechanical
Properties of Materials as shown in Figures 1, 2 and 3 below:

Chapter 3 - Materials |
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Stress is force per unit area and is usually expressed in pounds per square inch. If the stress
tends to stretch or lengthen the material, it is called tensile stress; if to compress or shorten the
material, a compressive stress; and if to shear the material, a shearing stress.

Tensile and compressive stresses always act at right-angles to (normal to) the area being
considered; shearing stresses are always in the plane of the area (at right-angles to
compressive or tensile stresses).

Unit strain is the amount by which a dimension of a body changes when the body is subjected
to a load, divided by the original value of the dimension. The simpler term strain is often used
instead of unit strain.

Proportional limit is the point on a stress-strain curve at which it begins to deviate from the
straight-line relationship between stress and strain.

Elastic limit is the maximum stress to which a test specimen may be subjected and still return
to its original length upon release of the load. A material is said to be stressed within the elastic
region when the working stress does not exceed the elastic limit, and to be stressed in the
plastic region when the working stress does exceed the elastic limit. The elastic limit for steel is
for all practical purposes the same as its proportional limit.

Yield point is a point on the stress-strain curve at which there is a sudden increase in strain
without a corresponding increase in stress. Not all materials have a yield point.

Yield strength, Sy, is the maximum stress that can be applied without permanent deformation of
the test specimen.

Ultimate strength, Su, (also called tensile strength) is the maximum stress value obtained on a
stress-strain curve. (answer is a)
Modulus of elasticity, E, (also called Young's modulus) is the ratio of unit stress to unit strain
within the proportional limit of a material in tension or compression.
Modulus of elasticity in shear, G, is the ratio of unit stress to unit strain within the proportional
limit of a material in shear.
Poisson's ratio, is the ratio of lateral strain to longitudinal strain for a given material subjected
to uniform longitudinal stresses within the proportional limit. The term is found in certain
equations associated with strength of materials.


p

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62. - Question Which of the following stress-strain curves represents a soft and weak
material:

σ σ
a . c .

ε ε

b . σ d . σ

ε ε

Solution: As depicted, stress is on the y-axis while the x-axis represents strain. When a is
compared to b, the stress is less. Comparatively, both c and d are characteristically brittle and
fail relatively quickly when stress is applied (for example, concrete). (answer is a --- “soft and
weak”)


p

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ACTUAL VERSUS ULTIMATE STRENGTH

fast facts
The major distinction between ASD and LRFD is that the Allowable Stress
Design (ASD) compares actual and allowable stresses. Load and
Resistance Factor Design (LRFD) compares required strength to actual
strengths. The difference between designing for strengths vs. stresses does
not present much of a problem since the difference is normally just multiplying or
dividing both sides of the limit state inequalities by a section property.
Figure-1 illustrates the member strength levels computed by the two methods on a
typical mild steel load vs. deformation diagram. The combined force levels, Load,
Moment, and Shear (Pa, Ma, Va)
for ASD are typically kept below
the yield load for the member by
computing member load capacity
as the nominal strength, Rn,
divided by a factor of safety, 
that reduces the capacity to a
point below yielding. For LRFD,
the combined force levels
(ultimate) Load (Pu), Moment
(Mu), and Shear (Vu) are kept
below a computed member load
capacity that is the product of the
nominal strength, Rn, times a
resistance factor, .
When considering member Figure -1: ASD vs. LRFD Strength Comparison
strengths, the governance is to Rn/ = ASD Capacity
always keep the final design's Rn = LRFD Capacity
actual loads below yielding so as Rn = Nominal Capacity
to prevent permanent
deformations in the structure.
Consequently, if the LRFD approach is used, then load factors greater than 1.0 must
be applied to the applied loads to express them in terms that are safely comparable to
the ultimate strength levels. This is accomplished in the load combination equations
that consider the probabilities associated with simultaneous occurrence of different
types of loads. For structures subjected to highly unpredictable loads (live, wind, and
seismic loads for example) the LRFD eff is higher than the ASD  which results in
stronger structures.

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ELASTIC STRETCH
63. - Question A 70-ft long, ¾” diameter, 6 x 7 FC wire rope is
resisting a tension force of 12-kips. The elastic stretch of the steel wire
rope given the following properties is most nearly: E = 10,000-ksi; A =
0.288-in2
a. 0.75-in
b. 3.5-lb
c. 6.3-in
d. 9.8-in

Solution: The elongation or “stretch” of wire ropes must be considered in


designing temporary bracing and lifting configurations. Elongation comes
from two sources: (1) constructional stretch is dependent on the
classification and results primarily from a reduction in diameter as load is
applied and the strands compact against each other. Constructional stretch
is provided by the manufacturer and is always given. (2) Elastic stretch is
caused by deformation of the metal itself when load is applied. Use the
following equation to establish a value for elastic stretch:

Elastic Stretch = PL p
AE

Where: P= change in load; L=length; A=area of wire rope; E=modulus of


elasticity.

Elastic Stretch = 12-kips x 70-ft x 12-in/ft = 3.5-in


0.288-in2 x 10,000-ksi
= 3.5-in (answer is b)

Two popular types of wire rope are: (1) FC or Fiber Core


where there are 7 bundles of 7-strands of steel with a fiber
rope core (see illustration nearby); and, (2) IWRC or
Independent Wire Rope Core where there is an
independent wire rope core inside a wire rope outer wrap.

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THERMAL EXPANSION
64. - Question A continuous mullion within an aluminum curtain wall
is supported on the edge of a spandrel beam at 40-ft vertical intervals on a
20-story building façade. The linear expansion (in) of the aluminum mullion
due to the 100°F thermal extremes and using a factor of safety of two is
most nearly:
a. 0.625
b. 1.10 
c. 1.25 p
d. 1.55
Solution:
Apply the following thermal expansion equation (page 33 – Thermal deformations) using
the coefficient of linear expansion (α) from the Materials Table on page 38 for aluminum
alloy:

ϵth = α (T2 – T1) (Factor of Safety)

ϵth = (13.1 x 10-6 in / in °F) (100°F – 0°F) (2)


ϵth = 2.62 x 10-3 in / in
ΔL = ϵth = 2.62 x 10-3 in / in x (40-ft x 12-in/ft)
ΔL = 1.2576-in (answer is c)

fast facts
Curtain wall is a term used to describe a building façade which does not carry any dead
load from the building other than its own dead load, and to transfer horizontal loads (wind loads)
applied on the curtain wall. These loads are transferred to the main building structure through
connections at floors or columns of the building. A curtain wall is designed to resist air and water
infiltration, wind forces acting on the building, seismic forces (usually only those imposed by the
inertia of the curtain wall), and its own dead load forces.

Curtain walls are typically designed with extruded aluminum members, although the first
curtain walls were made of steel. The aluminum frame is typically in filled with glass, which provides
an architecturally pleasing building, as well as benefits such as day lighting. However, parameters
related to solar gain control such as thermal comfort and visual comfort are more difficult to control
when using highly-glazed curtain walls. Other common infill include: stone veneer, metal panels,
louvers, and operable windows or vents.

Curtain walls differ from storefront systems in that they are designed to span multiple floors,
and take into consideration design requirements such as: thermal expansion and contraction;
building sway and movement; water diversion; and thermal efficiency for cost-effective heating,
cooling, and lighting in the building.

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LIFTING LOAD – OFFSET

65. - Question The rigging configuration shown below will be used


to lift a bridge girder using a 200-ton capacity luffing jib crane onto the
foundation abutment. The tension force (lb.) in Sling A is most nearly:

a. 12,000
b. 20,000
c. 28,000
To Crane Hook
d. 40,000

Sling A
CG

Sling B

60-ft
Spreader Beam = 60-ft

40,000-lbs

Section View
Not to Scale

20-ft 20-ft 40-ft 40-ft


Solution:

By inspection, the center of gravity of the load is offset causing an eccentric


load condition. The reaction load is heavier on the left side (RL). The
distribution of the 40,000-lbs load at RL is: (40-ft ÷ 60-ft) ( 40,000-lbs) =
26,667-lbs. The reaction force RL must be adjusted for the slope of the
slings. The vector force length of Sling A is √ 602 + 202 = 63.25-ft. The
force in Sling A is (63.25-ft ÷ 60-ft) (26,667-lbs) = 28,111-lbs (answer=c)

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EQUIPMENT PRODUCTION

fast facts
In order to affect job-site productivity, it is necessary to select equipment
with proper operating characteristics and a size based on site conditions. The
following is a listing of factors which can affect the selection and operation of
equipment.

a. Size of the job: Determines size of equipment and quantity.


b. Activity time constraints: Dependent on the project schedule.
c. Availability of equipment: Affected by specialty equipment.
d. Cost of transportation of equipment: Mobilize and demobilize
e. Type of job needed to be performed. Based on equipment capacities
f. Workflow: Coordinated to the project sequence
g. Work crowding: Effect of too much activity in one location
h. Space constraints: The performance of equipment is influenced by the
spatial limitations for the movement of excavators.
i. Location of dumping areas: Effect on cycle time
j. Weather and temperature: Rain, snow and severe temperature
conditions affect the job-site productivity of labor and equipment.

Dump trucks are usually used as haulers for excavated materials as they
can move freely with relatively high speeds on city streets as well as on
highways.

The cycle capacity C of a piece of equipment is defined as the number of


output units per cycle of operation under standard work conditions. The capacity
is a function of the output units used in the measurement as well as the size of
the equipment and the material to be processed. The cycle time T refers to units
of time per cycle of operation. The standard production rate R of a piece of
construction equipment is defined as the number of output units per unit time.

Rate = Cycle Capacity Time = Cycle Capacity


Time Rate

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DAILY STANDARD PRODUCTION RATE OF EQUIPMENT

66. - Question An excavator with a bucket capacity of 3-yd3 has a


standard operating cycle time of 40 seconds. The daily standard production
rate of the excavator is most nearly:

a. 2,140-yd3
b. 2,150-yd3
c. 2,160-yd3
d. 2,180-yd3

Solution: The daily standard production rate is as follows:

( )( )( , )
P = = 2,160 − yd

(answer is c)

Excavator works in tandem with a dump truck to remove spoils off-site.

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DAILY STANDARD PRODUCTION RATE OF A DUMP TRUCK

67. - Question A dump truck with a capacity of 26 cubic yards is used


to dispose of excavated materials at a dump site 6 miles away. The load
time is 40-seconds using a 3-yd3 bucket. The average speed of the dump
truck is 25 mph and the dumping time is 46 seconds. A fleet of dump
trucks of this capacity is used to dispose of the excavated materials in 8-
hours per day. The number of trucks needed daily using a swell of 10% for
the soil is most nearly:

a. 5
b. 6
c. 7
d. 8

Solution: Calculate the daily standard production rate of a dump truck:


( )( )( , )
P = = 2,160yd x 1.1 swell = 2,376yd /day

( )( )( , )
= = 1,728


= (40 ) = 347

= 1,728 + 347 + 46 = 2,121

The daily dump truck productivity is:


( )( )( , )
= = 353
( , )

Calculate the number of trucks required:


( , / )
= = 6.73

Therefore, 7 trucks should be used. (answer is c)

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PRODUCTIVITY ANALYSIS AND IMPROVEMENT

68. - Question An excavator


Work Conditions at the Site Factor
with a bucket capacity of 3-yd3 Bulk composition 0.954
has a standard production rate of Soil properties and water content 0.983
2,160-yd3 for an 8-hour day. The Equipment idle time for worker breaks 0.8
job site productivity and the actual Management efficiency 0.7
Soil Compaction 0.83
cycle time of this excavator under
Cycle time (sec) 40
the work conditions at the job site Dump Truck Volume (CY) 26
that may affect its productivity as Fuel Consumption (gal/hr.) 6.4
shown in the Table, is most Daily Excavator Maintenance (after work hr.) .50
nearly:

a. 1,034-yd3 / day and cycle time of 57-sec


b. 1,034-yd3 / day and cycle time of 68-sec
c. 1,134-yd3 / day and cycle time of 72-sec
d. 1,134-yd3 / day and cycle time of 76-sec

Solution: Note that all the factors are less than 1, as such; the job site
productivity of the excavator per day is given by:

, (. )(. )(. )(. ) ,

The actual cycle time can be determined as follows:


(. )(. )(. )(. )

(answer is d)

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OPERATING COSTS

69. - Question A 160-HP Diesel engine (peak fuel consumption =


0.04-gal/HP-hr) hydraulic excavator operates on a cycle time of 20 seconds
during a 50-min/hr. During the filling of the bucket cycle, the excavator’s
engine is at full power for 5-seconds. The remainder of the time, the
engine operates at half-power. The fuel consumed per hour is most nearly:

a. 3.33-gal/hr
b. 3.63-gal/hr
c. 4.00-gal/hr
d. 4.33-gal/hr

Solution:
Step 1: Calculate the Time Factor (TF):
Time Factor = 50 x 100 = 83.3%
60

Step 2: Calculate the Engine Factor (EF):


Filling the bucket = (5 / 20) x 1 power = 0.25
Rest of Cycle = (15 / 20) x .50 power = 0.375
TOTAL 0.625

Operating Factor = Time Factor x Engine Factor = 0.625 x 0.833 = 0.520

Step 3: Calculate the Fuel Consumed

Fuel consumed = 0.52 x 160-HP x 0.04-gal/HP-hr = 3.33-gal/hr


Hr
(answer is a)

Note: Typical Fuel Consumption Standards:


1. Gas engine = 0.06 gal/HP-hr
2. Diesel engine = 0.04 gal/HP-hr

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EFFECTS OF JOB SIZE ON PRODUCTIVITY

70. - Question A general building contractor has established that


under a set of "standard" work conditions for building construction, a job
requiring 500,000 labor hours is considered standard in determining the
base labor productivity. All other factors being the same, the labor
productivity index will increase to 1.1 or 110% for a job requiring only
400,000 labor-hours. Assume that a linear relation exists for the range
between jobs requiring 300,000 to 700,000 labor hours, the labor
productivity index for a new job requiring 650,000 labor hours under
otherwise the same set of work conditions is most nearly:

a. .50
b. .65
c. .78
d. .85
Solution:
Illustrate the Relationship between Productivity Index and Job Size
The labor productivity index “I” for the new job can be obtained by linear interpolation of
the available data as follows:

, ,
( . . ) .
, ,

The result implies that labor is 15% less productive on the large job than on the
standard project.

1.1
Productivity

1.0

.85

3 4 5 6 7
Labor-hours (00,000)
Figure 1: Linear Interpolation of Productivity
Index and Job Size

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MATERIAL SPECIFICATIONS

71. - Question Which of the following statements regarding construction


material testing are correct:

I. Construction specifications of required quality and components represent part


of the necessary documentation to describe a project.
II. General specifications of work quality are available in numerous fields and
are issued in publications of organizations such as the American Society for
Testing and Materials (ASTM), the American National Standards Institute
(ANSI), or the Construction Specifications Institute (CSI).
III. Distinct specifications are formalized for particular types of construction
activities, such as welding standards issued by the American Welding
Society (AWS), or for particular facility types, such as the Standard
Specifications for Highway Bridges issued by the American Association
of State Highway and Transportation Officials (AASHTO). These general
specifications must be modified to reflect local conditions, policies, available
materials, local regulations and other special circumstances.
IV. Construction specifications normally consist of a series of instructions or
prohibitions for specific operations.
V. Performance specifications have been developed for many construction
operations. They specify the required construction process. These
specifications refer to the requirements of the finished facility. The exact
method by which this performance is obtained is left to the project owner.

a. I & II
b. I, II, & III
c. I, II, III, & IV
d. I, II, III, IV, & V

Solution: Statement V should read “Rather than specifying the required construction process,
these specifications refer to the required performance or quality of the finished facility. The exact
method by which this performance is obtained is left to the construction contractor.” For
example, traditional specifications for asphalt pavement specified the composition of the asphalt
material, the asphalt temperature during paving, and compacting procedures. In contrast, a
performance specification for asphalt would detail the desired performance of the pavement with
respect to impermeability, strength, etc. How the desired performance level was attained would
be up to the paving contractor. In some cases, the payment for asphalt paving might increase
with better quality of asphalt beyond some minimum

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QUALITY CONTROL PROCESS (QA/QC)

72. - Question Which of the following statements about error analysis are true:

I. The expected value (or: most likely; probable value) of a measurement is the value
that has the highest value of being correct.
II. The most probable values are the observed values corrected by an equal part of
the total error.
III. Measurements of a given quantity are assumed to be normally distributed.
IV. The interval between the extremes is known as the 50% confidence interval.
V. The probable error of a quantity that has a mean [ μ ] and a standard deviation [ s ]
represents that the probability is 50% (or; confidence interval) that a measurement of
that quantity will fall within the range of μ ± 0.6745 s or the probable ratio of
precision is μ / 0.6745 s.

a. I & II
b. I, II, & III
c. I, II, III, IV, & V
d. None of the above

Solution: All are true. (answer is c)

Normal Distribution Curve

73. - Question A survey crew’s field book shows the interior angles of a polygon traverse
were measured as: 69°, 168°, 99°, 99°and 107°. The most probable interior angles are most
nearly:

a. 68°, 168°, 99°, 98°and 107°


b. 68.4°, 168.4°, 99.4°, 98.4°and 107.4°
c. 68.6°, 167.6°, 98.6°, 98.6°and 106.6°
d. 67°, 168°, 99°, 99°and 107°
Solution:
The sum of the interior angles of a polygon with n sides is (n - 2) (180°) = (5-2) (180°) = 540°
69°+ 168°+ 99°+ 99°+107° = 542°
The correction to 540° is -2°. As such, subtract 2/5 from all angles to arrive at the most
probable interior angle.
69° – (+2/5) = 68.6°
168° – (+2/5) = 167.6°
99° – (+2/5) = 98.6°
99° – (+2/5) = 98.6°
107° – (+2/5) = 106.6° (answer is c)

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CONCRETE MIX DESIGN


74. - Question A concrete mix design is 1 : 1.9 : 2.8 by weight. The
water cement ratio is 7 gallons of water per sack. The aggregates are SSD
and have specific weight of 165 lb/ft3 for both the fine and coarse
aggregate. The concrete yield in cubic feet per sack of cement is most
nearly:

a) 3.18
b) 3.53
c) 4.10
d) 4.26

Solution: Create a table and compute the ratios:

Material Ratio Weight per Specific Absolute


Sack Weight Volume
(lbf/ft3) (ft3/sack)
Cement 1.0 1 x 94 = 94 195 94/195 = .48
Sand 1.9 1.9 x 94 = 179 165 179/165 = 1.08
Aggregate 2.8 2.8 x 94 = 263 165 263/165 = 1.60
Water 7 / 7.48 = .94
Total = 4.10


p

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75. - Question A highway bridge project requires a concrete mix.


The mix design has the proportions 1 : 2.7 : 3.65, on a weight basis.
Cement content was specified at 5.6 sacks/yd3. The aggregates are SSD
and have specific gravities of 2.65 for both the fine and coarse aggregate.
The specific gravity of the cement is 3.15. The water/cement ratio
(gal/sack) of the concrete mix is most nearly:
a. 5.8
b. 5.5
c. 5.3
d. 6.2

Solution: From the problem statement the proportions are:

Cement : Sand : Gravel

Work on the basis of 1 yd3 of concrete. The concrete consists of cement,


fine aggregate, coarse aggregate, and water.

Weight of cement = (5.6 sacks/yd3)(94 lb/sack) = 526.4 lb/yd3

Volume of cement = (526.4 lb/yd3)(1/3.15)(1 ft3 / 62.4 lb) = 2.68 ft3/yd3

Volume of fine aggregate = (2.7)(526.4 lb/yd3)(1/2.65)( 1 ft3 / 62.4 lb) = 8.59


ft3/yd3

Volume of course aggregate = (3.65)(526.4 lb/yd3)(1/2.65)( 1 ft3 / 62.4 lb) =


11.62 ft3/yd3

Volume of water = 27.0 – 2.68 – 8.59 – 11.62 = (4.11 ft3/yd3)(7.48 gal/ft3) =


30.74 gal/yd3

Water/cement ratio = 30.74 gal/yd3 / 5.6 sacks/yd3 = 5.49 gal/sack

(answer is b)

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CONCRETE MIX DESIGN RATIO 1 : 2: 3

fast facts
The following illustrates an easy way to remember the
components and basics of concrete mix design. The Table
shows an “approximation” technique for a utility concrete mix
design based on using a single bag cement field mixer. The
.
illustration is for a utility grade jobsite mix based on the
proportions of 1 : 2 : 3 with a w/c = .50. See CERM-11 Table
49.2.

Water Cement Sand Gravel


Standard 8.34 #/gal 94 #/sack 165 #/ft3 165 #/ft3
Weight [94#/sack ÷
8.34#/gal = [2 x 94 = [3 x 94 =
11.26gal/sack] 3
[195#/ft ] 188#/sack] 282#/sack]
Proportions w/c = .50 1 2 3
Material
Cement

5gal

Mix Weight  50#  100#  200#  300#


(lbs) (=47#) (=94#) (=188#) (=282#)

Volume:
Mix = 50# + 100# + 200# +300# = 650#
Normal weight of concrete  150#/ft3
650# ÷ 150#/ft3  4-ft3 x 7-sacks  28-ft3  1-yd3

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fast facts
Admixtures in concrete are known as ingredients added to concrete immediately
before or during mixing (other than Portland cement, aggregates, and water).

Six types of concrete admixtures are described below:


1. Accelerators (ASTM C494, Type C): Accelerate setting and enhance early
strength (helpful in cold weather concreting). Example: calcium chloride (ASTM
D98). However, because of its corrosion potential, calcium chloride—especially in
prestressed concrete—has been strictly limited in use. ACI Committee 222
(1988) has determined that total chloride ions should not exceed 0.08% by mass
of cement in prestressed concrete. Many specifying agencies strongly
recommend that calcium chloride should never be added to concrete containing
embedded metals. Although calcium chloride is an effective and economical
accelerator, its corrosion-related problem limited its use and forced engineers to
look for other options, mainly non-chloride accelerating admixtures. A number of
non-chloride compounds—including sulfates, formates, nitrates, and
triethanolamine—are being used to conform to the project specifications.

2. Air entraining (ASTM C260): Improves durability and workability. Example:


salts of wood resins (vinsol resins). Usually specified for exterior applications in
cold weather climates (typical air range of 5% to 6%). Air pockets are formed in
the concrete which provide areas where the concrete can expand into during the
freeze-thaw cycle without damaging the concrete.

3. Retarders (ASTM C494, Type B): Retard the setting time to avoid difficulties
with placing and finishing (typically used in hot weather). Example: lignins.

4. Superplasticizers (ASTM C1017, Type 1): Make high-slump concrete


(required for flowing or pumping concrete) from concrete with normal to low water-
cement ratios, allow for easy placing, and reduce and sometimes eliminate the
need for vibration. Example: lignosulfonates.

5. Water reducers (ASTM C494, Type A): Reduce water requirement to produce
concrete of a certain slump. Example: lignosulfonates.

6. Pozzolans (ASTM C618): Improve the properties of concrete by changing the


properties of the various types of cement; substituted for certain amounts of
cement; reduce temperature rise, alkaliaggregate expansion, and harmful effects
of tricalcium aluminate. Examples are: fly ash, blast furnace slag, ground pumice.

Chapter 3 - Materials |
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WATER CEMENT RATIO


76. - Question The concrete truck jobsite delivery ticket is found
below. The actual w/c ratio is most nearly:

a) .41
b) .48
c) .49
d) .52
Batch Plt. 7 Load 2 Ticket 1487-TCC
Volume 10-CY Mix Description SOG 3000-psi
Truck 41 w/c Date/Time 3/14/11 13:48

Material Target Actual Status Moisture Material Target Actual Status


Sand 14,271-lb 14,080-lb Done 3.8 Cl 0-oz 0-oz
#57 Agg. 17,800-lb 17,700-lb Done 0.0 WR 0-oz 0-oz
Retarder 96-oz 96-oz Done
Air Entrain. 48-oz 48-oz Done
MR 0-oz 0-oz
HRWR 480-oz 480-oz Done
Calcium 0-oz 0-oz
NC Accel 0-oz 0-oz

Type I 4,080-lb 4,045-lb Done Water 1979-lb 1964-lb Done


Flyash 720-lb 755-lb Over

Solution:
Calculate the total weight of the water:
Water = 1964-lb + (Sand 14,080-lb x 3.8%) = 2499-lb 
p
Calculate the total Weight of Cement:
Type1 4045-lb + FlyAsh 755-lb = 4,800-lb

Calculate the w/c ratio, since the units are the same, the ratio can be directly calculated:
w/c = 2,499-lb ÷ 4,800-lb = .5206 (answer is d)

fast facts
ASTM C 150 defines Portland cement as "hydraulic cement (cement that not only hardens by
reacting with water but also forms a water-resistant product) produced by pulverizing clinkers
consisting essentially of hydraulic calcium silicates, usually containing one or more of the forms of
calcium sulfate as an inter ground addition." Clinkers are nodules (diameters, 0.2-1.0 inch [5-25 mm])

of a sintered material that is produced when a raw mixture of predetermined composition is heated to
p
high temperature. The low cost and widespread availability of the limestone, shale’s, and other
naturally occurring materials make Portland cement one of the lowest-cost materials widely used over
the last century throughout the world. Concrete becomes one of the most versatile construction
materials available in the world. Fly ash is one of the residues generated in the combustion of coal.

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CONCRETE STRENGTH TESTING

77. - Question A 6 in. by 12 in. cylinder failed at an axial


compressive force of 120,000-lbf, at 28 days. The ultimate compressive
strength is most nearly:

a. 25,480 psi
b. 4,250 psi
c. 3,800 psi
d. 3,250 psi

SOLUTION:
P
2
f’c = P/A = 120,000 lbf ÷ (π/4)(6 in) = 4,247-psi

(answer = b)

12”

6”

p

Chapter 3 - Materials |
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78. - Question A 6 in. by 12 in. concrete cylinder resisted a


transverse force of 55,000-lbf, at 28 days, in a split tensile cylinder test.
The concrete tensile strength is most nearly:
a. 560 psi
b. 610 psi
c. 375 psi
d. 490 psi
SOLUTION:
fct = 2P/πDL = (2)(55,000-lbf) / π(6-in)(12-in) = 487-psi (answer = d)

P

p

D=6”
12”

fast facts
The extent and size of cracking in concrete structures are affected by the tensile strength of
the concrete. The maximum load, P, that causes the cylinder to split in half is used to
calculate the split tensile strength. The tensile strength of concrete is relatively low, about
10% to 15% of the compressive strength.

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79. - Question The common proportion of ingredients in reinforced cement


concrete is:

a. Portland cement (1-part), clean sand (2 to 4 parts) and coarse aggregate


(1 to 2 parts)
b. Portland cement (1-part), clean sand (1 to 2 parts) and coarse aggregate
(2 to 4 parts)
c. Portland cement (1-part), clean sand and coarse aggregate (2 to 4 parts)
d. Any of the above

Solution: b = answer; reinforced concrete proportions are most nearly:


[1 to 2 to 3]; [cement, sand, aggregate]

80. - Question Segregation in concrete results in:


a. Honey combing
b. Porous layers
c. Surface scaling
d. All of the above

Solution: d = answer

81. - Question An aggregate which may contain some moisture in the pores but
has a dry surface is known as:
a. Very dry aggregate
b. Dry aggregate
c. Saturated surface dry aggregate
d. Moist aggregate

Solution: b = answer

82. - Question The aggregate having all the pores filled with water but has a dry
surface is known as:
a. Very dry aggregate
b. Dry aggregate
c. Saturated surface dry aggregate
d. Moist aggregate

Solution: c = answer

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83. - Question A moist aggregate is one:


a. Where all the pores are filled with water and also has a wet surface
b. Where all the pores are filled with water but has its surface dry
c. That does not contain any moisture either in the pores or the surface
d. That may contain some moisture in the pores but has a dry surface

Solution: answer is a

84. - Question The surface moisture of aggregates increases the


water-cement ratio in the mix and results in which of the following:
a. Increases the strength
b. Decreases the strength
c. Has no effect on the strength
d. Reduces the volume of the mix

Solution: b = answer

85. - Question Which of the following statements is correct:


a. The larger the size of the coarse aggregate, the less is
required of the quantity of fine aggregate and cement.
b. If very dry aggregates are used, the workability of the mix is
likely to be reduced.
c. Bulking is caused due to the formation of a thin film of surface moisture
around the sand particles.
d. All of the above.

Solution: answer is d; note that increase in the volume of sand due to the presence of moisture
is referred to as the bulking of sand. The ratio of the volume of moist sand to the volume of dry
sand is known as the bulking factor. As such, fine sands bulk more than coarse sands.

Chapter 3 - Materials 131


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ASPHALT PERFORMANCE

86. - Question A new local highway exit ramp is under construction. According
to the project specification, the American Association of State Highway and
Transportation Officials (AASHTO) design structural number for the road is 4. The
material specifications are as follows:

Material Layer Experience


Thickness Coefficient
(in)
Dense Graded 12 0.11
Aggregate
Crushed Stone Base 6 0.14
Course

The Superpave plant mix asphalt concrete surface course with an experience
coefficient of 0.44 is to be placed on the top of the specified subbase and base course
materials. The required surface course thickness (in.) to meet the AASHTO project
specification requirements is most nearly:

a. 2 
b. 3 p
c. 4
d. 5

Solution: The AASHTO structural number can be used to find the structural
Number (SN) to solve for the surface thickness. The SN is the sum of products of the
layer thicknesses and strength coefficients (ai = layer coefficient; Di = thickness of layer
(inches)):

SN = a1D1 + a2D2 + a3D3

Rearrange the equation to determine D1


D1 = SN - a2D2 - a3D3
A1

D1 = 4 – (0.14)(6-in) - (0.11)(12-in)
0.44

D1 = 4.18-in (answer is 5-in)

Chapter 3 - Materials |
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87. - Question The Highway Authority has scheduled for the next 3-months to
replace the wearing surface of a major Interstate roadway. The scope of work for the
overlay project is to mill and pave while maintaining the AASHTO structural number of
6.6. The original pavement consists of 10-in Portland cement treated base having a
strength coefficient of 0.20, and an 8-in dense graded aggregate subbase. For a 3.2-
mile portion of the project, the paving contract specification is to mill and replace 6-in of
the surface with recycled asphalt concrete having a surface course strength coefficient
of 0.42 with the remaining 3-in of the original pavement having a strength of 0.30. The
minimum strength coefficient for the subbase is most nearly:

a. 0.075
b. 0.102 
c. 0.150 p
d. 0.205

Solution: Restate the information in the question and outline the numerical terms:

Graphic Material Layer Layer Equation


Representation Thickness Coefficient Subscript
D (in) (a)
Topping (Asphalt 6 0.42 a1D1
Concrete) Mill
Topping (Asphalt 3 0.30 a2D2
Concrete) Remaining
Dense Graded 8 Find a3D3
Aggregate subbase
Portland cement 10 0.20 a4D4
Base Course

The AASHTO pavement structural number can be used to find the structural
Number (SN) to solve for the surface thickness (ai = layer coefficient; Di = thickness of
layer (inches):

SN = a1D1 + a2D2 + a3D3 + a4D4


Substitute terms and use the equation to determine D1

6.6 = (0.42)(6-in) + (0.30)(3-in) + (a3)(8-in.) + (0.20)(10-in)


a3 = 0.1475

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INDEX

Equivalent Uniform Annual Cost, 75, 76


Arrow Diagramming Method, 91, 101
forward pass, 93, 94, 95, 101
average end area, 28
linear interpolation, 120
bank-measure, 17
load factor, 19, 20
Benefit-Cost Ratio, 72
loose–measure, 17
breaking strength, 108
Net Present Worth, 72, 77
compacted, 17, 19, 20, 21, 23
predecessor, 86, 90
compressive strength, 128
Rate of Return, 77, 83
concrete mix, 124
Relative Compaction, 24
critical path analysis, 97
successor, 90
differential leveling, 41
swell factor, 18, 19, 20, 21
dummy activities, 91, 101
Uniform Series Present Worth Factor, 72
effective annual interest rate, 70

INDEX |
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INDEX 135
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INDEX |
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Practice Exams PE Civil Exam
________________________________________________________________

Four Practice Exams


for

PE Civil
Practice Exams PE Civil Exam
________________________________________________________________

Four Practice Exams for PE Civil


First Edition
Copyright © 2015,EITExperts Publication, LLC. All rights reserved.
All content is copyrighted by EITExperts publication, LLC. All right reserved. No part may be
used for any purpose other than personal use. For written permission, please constant
support@eitexperts.com.

EIT Experts
P.O. Box 20803
San Jose, CA, 95120

ISBN : 978-0-9961215-7-6

i
Practice Exams PE Civil Exam
_______________________________________________________________

Preface

Beginning January 2015, the National Council of Examiners for Engineering and
Surveying (NCEES) changed the Civil Engineering Specification for Civil PE
exam. Now Civil PE are offered in the following Disciplines;

Transportation
Construction
Structure
Geotechnical Engineering
Water Resource and Environmental

Each discipline is divided to two areas of breadth and Depth.


The breadth part is common for all disciplines and includes the following
specifications.

a) Project Planning
b) Means and Methods
c) Soil Mechanics
d) Structural Mechanics
e) Hydraulics and Hydrology
f) Geometrics
g) Materials
h) Site Development

In this book we have presented four Style PE Civil Practice exam to prepare you
for the breadth part of exam. Problems in each specification have been separated.
This way you may concentrate on your area of strength if you want to.

I hope you find this book helpful for passing the PE Civil exam.

Shawn (Shahriar) Jahanian, Ph.D, PE


EITEXPERTS publishing company
www.eitexperts.com
July 2015

I
Practice Exams PE Civil Exam
_______________________________________________________________

Table of Content

Part 1 : First PE Style Exam …………………………… 1


Part 2 : Second PE Style Exam …………………………….62
Part 3 : Third PE Style Exam ……………………………126
Part 4 : Fourth PE Style Exam …..………………………...194

II
Practice Problems PE Style Exam (AM)
_________________________________________________________________

First PE Style Exam


(AM)
Questions

1
Practice Problems PE Style Exam (AM)
_________________________________________________________________

1) Find the remaining amount of soil after excavation and embankment in cubic yard
considering swell coefficient as 0.26 and shrinkage coefficient as 0.1.

STA 12+10

Fill = 50 cf, C=0 cf

STA 12+40

Fill= 0, C= 60 cf

STA 12+70

Fill = 35 cf, C=20 cf

A) 32 B) 47 C) 78 D) 62

2
Practice Problems PE Style Exam (AM)
_________________________________________________________________

2) Find the elevation of BM2 if the following readings are given if the elevation of
BM1 is 01+30:

Station BS FS

BM1 3.3

TP 2.4 1.5

BM2 1.2

A) 1+30 B) 1+31.2
C) 1+33 D) 1+31.8

3
Practice Problems PE Style Exam (AM)
_________________________________________________________________

3) For the pre-cast concrete bridge box girder which one is the most likely closer to
the required volume of concrete for one box? Thickness is 8” for two sides and bottom
chord and 4” for the top chord. Each corner has 3 by 3 inches hunches. Length of bridge
is given equal to 200’

A) 1500 cf
B) 1000 cf
C) 1825 cf
D) 1250 cf

4) Which one of these 4 cost functions shows more increasing in rate of expenses
over the time? (Horizontal axis shows time and vertical axis shows costs.)

A) B) C) D)

4
Practice Problems PE Style Exam (AM)
_________________________________________________________________

5) For the following paths find the critical path using the CPM?

Activity Time
A. 4 weeks
B. 16 weeks
C. 8 weeks
D. 24 weeks
E. 28 weeks
F. 4 weeks
G. 8 weeks
H. 4 weeks

A) 44 B) 48
C) 60 D) 64

6) A dump-hauler has a purchase price of $109,000. Freight for delivery is $5000.


Tires are an additional 25,000 with the estimated life time of 4500 hours. The hauler
expected to operate 1500 hours annually and for 11 years. Maintenance fees for the
hauler is estimated at $18000. What is the before-tax estimated hourly cost of operation
excluding operator labor cost?

A) 35 B) 41

C) 23 D) 15

7) How many 4 by 8 in samples required for a 7000 sf shear wall with 180 cy3 of
concrete?

A) 2 specimens
B) 3 specimens
C) 4 specimens
D) 5 specimens

5
Practice Problems PE Style Exam (AM)
_________________________________________________________________

8) For the wall form work, if the height of wall is equal to 10 ft. and the distance
between inclined supports is 3 ft. find the force in the support assuming the 45 degree
angle for it.

A) 7500 lb.
B) 10607 lb.
C) 1500 lb.
D) 150 lb.

9) If the maximum moisture content is given equal to 17% and specific gravity of
soil is given equal to 2.67 find the dry density according to the modified proctor test
procedure.
A) 125 pcf
B) 95 pcf
C) 115 pcf
D) 150 pcf

10) In the temporary structure in the referred picture if the soil is un-drained stiff clay
which one is correct?

A) Soil pressure has a uniform distribution.


B) Soil pressure has a trapezoidal form
C) Soil pressure is triangular and the maximum pressure is at base.
D) Soil pressure is triangular and the maximum pressure is at top.

6
Practice Problems PE Style Exam (AM)
_________________________________________________________________

11) Which one of the following compactors shall be used for the compaction just
behind the retaining wall?

A) A) sheepsfoot compactor B) Smooth drum


B) C) Small plate compactor D) pneumatic

12) A fine grained soil has a Liquid Limit (LL) of 70% and a Plasticity limit (PL) of
30%. The soil can be classified as:

A) CL
B) CI
C) CH
D) MI

13) For a fully braced retaining wall in the basement of a 10 stories building, which
formula will give the pressure at the bottom of the wall. (Height of wall is equal to 10 ft.)

A) P= Soil density * 10 * Ka (active soil pressure)


B) P= Soil density * 10 * K0 (at rest soil pressure)
C) P= Soil density * 10 * Kp (passive soil pressure)
D) P= Soil density * 10 * Ka (active soil pressure) * 10/2

7
Practice Problems PE Style Exam (AM)
_________________________________________________________________

14) The ground water level is at 9ft. below ground. What is the total stress at 15 ft.
below ground? Consider a footing on top layer with the width of 10 ft. which makes a
pressure of 150 psf. Use both figures to find the pressure.

ft

ft

A) 2200 psf
B) 1778 psf
C) 1200 psf
D) 1860 psf

8
Practice Problems PE Style Exam (AM)
_________________________________________________________________

15) A soil sample has 30% passing the No. 4 sieve and 10% passing the No. 200
sieve. The coefficient of uniformity is greater than 4. Classify the soil according to the
Unified Soil Classification System.

A) SP-SM
B) SW-SM
C) SP
D) GW

16) For the shown footing, find the maximum compressive stress. (P= 1000 lb. M=
500 lb-ft. B=D=width of footing = 9 ft.)

A) 20.3 psf
B) 8.2 psf
C) 16.5 psf
D) 12.3 psf

17) Referring to the figure, find the maximum tension force at the bottom chord if the
force is equal to 1000 lb. the length of span is 20 ft.(4@5’), and height of the truss is
given equal to 5 ft.

A) 1200 N
B) 1000 N
C) 5000 N
D) 2000 N

9
Practice Problems PE Style Exam (AM)
_________________________________________________________________

18) Which model has just compressive force in the diagonal members?

A) Warren and roof trusses


B) Howe truss
C) K and Warren trusses
D) Pratt truss

19) If a design engineer wants to use one of the following sections as a simple beam
on the sloped roof, which section(s) may give a better results?

A) I section
B) Z and angle sections
C) I and channel sections
D) Channel, Z, and Angle sections

10
Practice Problems PE Style Exam (AM)
_________________________________________________________________

20) For the beam in the referred picture find the maximum bending moment at the
mid-span.

A) 6 KN-m
B) 16.6 KN-m
C) 14.3 KN-m
D) 8.3 KN-m

21) What is the ratio between plastic section modulus and elastic section modulus and
(shape factor) for the rectangular section as follows:

A) 1.5
B) 1.33
C) 2
D) 1.7

11
Practice Problems PE Style Exam (AM)
_________________________________________________________________

22) A contractor need to make a concrete with target strength of 4 KSI and 0.5KSI as
standard deviation. What should be the average of compressive strength tests for the
concrete mix design?

A) 4.7 KSI
B) 3.3 KSI
C) 4.1 KSI
D) 4.0 KSI

23) Concrete curing shall be maintained above 50 oF and in a moist condition for at
least:

A) 3 days after placement.


B) 10 days after placement.
C) 15 days after placement.
D) 7 days after placement.

24) Find the maximum bending moment on a beam with the length of 20 ft. for the
two 2000 lb. moving load (crane wheels) with the distance of 4 ft.

A) 20000 lb-ft
B) 16000 lb-ft
C) 19200 lb-ft
D) 18000 lb-ft

12
Practice Problems PE Style Exam (AM)
_________________________________________________________________

25) If the PVC station of 100+00 at 59 ft. elevation is connected to the PVT station at
104+00 referring to the following figure, find the station of the crest.

A) 101+23 ft.
B) 102+00 ft.
C) 101+50 ft
D) 101+15 ft.

26) A car is traveling at 50 mph in a county at night on a steep wet road with 6%
uphill slope. Find the stopping sight distance.

A) 300 ft.
B) 389 ft.
C) 112 ft.
D) 241 ft.

13
Practice Problems PE Style Exam (AM)
_________________________________________________________________

27) In a close traverse, what is the bearing of NC?

A) S5E
B) N85W
C) S85E
D) N5W

28) A horizontal curve is designed with a 1500 ft. radius. The tangent length is 400
ft. and the PT station is 20+00. Find the length of the curve?

A) 382 ft.
B) 540 ft.
C) 420 ft.
D) 781 ft.

14
Practice Problems PE Style Exam (AM)
_________________________________________________________________

29) In the following intersections layouts, which one is strongly recommended in the
both urban and the rural areas for the local road or street.

A B C D

30) A district road with a bituminous pavement (friction coefficient=0.16) has a


horizontal curve of 700 ft. If the design speed is given equal to 45 mph find the super-
elevation.

A) 3%
B) 5%
C) 7%
D) 9%

31) Degree of curve is

A) Equal to the interior angle.


B) Bearing of the curve.
C) Defined in degree.
D) Proportion to the reciprocal of the radius.

15
Practice Problems PE Style Exam (AM)
_________________________________________________________________

32) Spiral (transition) curves

A) are never used.


B) have a particular radius.
C) are used to produce a transition between two tangents.
D) are used to produce a gradual transition from tangents to circular curve.

33) Which one has more pressure at the depth of h?

A) B) C)

D) They have equal pressure

34) A 3h storm over a 150 km2 area produces a total runoff volume of 7*106 m3
With a peak discharge of 360 m3/Sec. What is the total excess precipitation?

A) 1.4 cm
B) 2.6 cm
C) 3.6 cm
D) 4.6 cm

35) A 3h storm over a 150 km2 area produces a total runoff volume of 7*106 m3 with
a peak discharge of 360 m3/Sec. find the unit hydrograph discharge?

A) 78 m3/s.cm
B) 120 m3/s.cm
C) 210 m3/s.cm.
D) 260 m3/s.cm

16
Practice Problems PE Style Exam (AM)
_________________________________________________________________

36) What is the flow rate for a street V channel finished (clean) concrete channel with
a width of 1’, channel slope of 0.5%, with a “normal” water depth of 0.5’?

A) 0.55 cfs
B) 1.20 cfs
C) 0.25 cfs
D) 2.41 cfs

37) Rainfall intensity is

A) The amount of precipitation per second.


B) The runoff after a rainfall.
C) The amount of precipitation per hour.
D) The design storm.

38) What is the definition According to the US environment protection (EPA) which
area needs permit for the land disturbing and it will called as “disturb”?

A) 10 or more acres C) 1 or more acres


B) 100 or more acres D) 1000 or more acres

39) 8 MGD (million gallon per day) of water flows into the new schedule-40 steel
pipe network as shows below. Find the rate of flow in the upper branch.

8”, L=200’, C80


D=8”,L=150

4”, L= 100, C=100

A) 1.1 MGD
B) 6.2 MGD
C) 5.0 MGD
D) 1.95 MGD

17
Practice Problems PE Style Exam (AM)
_________________________________________________________________

40) In a drainage project for an underground subway station if the required amount of
well drawdown is 3 ft. in the 50 ft. depth of the aquifer. The hydraulic conductivity is
given equal to 120 gal/(day-ft2), well radius is equal to 0.3 ft. and the water table recover
at radius of 1000 ft. find the required pumping flow rate ?

A) 13524 gal/day
B) 71020 gal/day
C) 18520 gal/day
D) 5624 gal/day

18
Practice Problems PE Style Exam (AM)
_________________________________________________________________

Solutions
First Style exam

19
Practice Problems PE Style Exam (AM)
_________________________________________________________________

1) Find the remaining amount of soil after excavation and embankment in cubic yard
considering swell coefficient as 0.26 and shrinkage coefficient as 0.1.

STA 12+10

Fill = 50 cf, C=0 cf

STA 12+40

Fill= 0, C= 60 cf

STA 12+70

Fill = 35 cf, C=20 cf

A) 32 B) 47 C) 78 D) 62

The Answers is A

This method is used widely and most of the estimators use this method where length is
much greater than width.
Earthworks Formulas
( )
=

L=Distance between
Also, 1 mile = 5280 ft. = 1760yards and 1 yard = 3 ft.
Each station introduce with the distance from the origin in feet, so STA 12+10 means:
1210 ft. Then distance between 2 stations in this problem is given equal to 30 ft. using the
average area method:
Vcut(a-b)= (0+60)/2 * 30 = 30*30 = 900 cf
Vfill(a-b)= (50+0)/2*30 = 25*30= 750 cf
Vcut(b-c)= (20+60)/2 * 30 = 40*30 = 1200 cf

20
Practice Problems PE Style Exam (AM)
_________________________________________________________________

Vfill(b-c)= (0+35)/2*30 = 17.5*30= 525 cf


Total volume of excavation = 900+1200 = 2100 cf = 77.8 cy
Total volume of embankment = 750+525= 1275 cf = 47.2 cy = CCY (Compacted
material)
BCY= CCY /(1-Shrikage) = 47.2/(1-0.1) = 52.4 cy This is the required amount of soil at
bank after excavation.
The remaining volume between required BCY and excavation is the amount of soil that
will not be used = 77.8 -52.4 = 25.4 cy
The remaining volume of excavated soil after swelling (LCY) that should be hauled out
of the site = excavation at bank * (1+swell) = 25.4*(1+0.26) = 32 cy

21
Practice Problems PE Style Exam (AM)
_________________________________________________________________

2) Find the elevation of BM2 if the following readings are given if the elevation of
BM1 is 01+30:

Station BS FS

BM1 3.3

TP 2.4 1.5

BM2 1.2

A) 1+30 B) 1+31.2
C) 1+33 D) 1+31.8

The Answers is B

The height between two points are given equal to: Back sight (BS) - Foresight (FS) =
height, positive answer means FS is higher than the BS.
BM1 to TP = BS-FS= 3.3-1.5= +1.8
TP to BM2 = BS-FS= 2.4-1.2= +1.2
Elevation at BM2 = Elevation at BM1 + height = 130 + 1.8 + 1.2 = 133=1+33

22
Practice Problems PE Style Exam (AM)
_________________________________________________________________

3) For the pre-cast concrete bridge box girder which one is the most likely closer to
the required volume of concrete for one box? Thickness is 8” for two sides and bottom
chord and 4” for the top chord. Each corner has 3 by 3 inches hunches. Length of bridge
is given equal to 200’

A) 1500 cf
B) 1000 cf
C) 1825 cf
D) 1250 cf

The Answers is C

To find the answer the section can be divided in the certain geometric shapes. Then the
area of each section can be found. Volume is equal to the area multiplied by the length of
girder. All dimensions in inches have been converted to ft by dividing by 12.
A= ((36*4+(66-4-8 ) *8*2+(36*8)+4*(3*3)/2))/(12*12) = 9.125 sf (area of section)
Volume = 9.125*200= 1825 cf

23
Practice Problems PE Style Exam (AM)
_________________________________________________________________

4) Which one of these 4 cost functions shows more increasing in rate of expenses over
the time? (Horizontal axis shows time and vertical axis shows costs.)

A) B) C) D)

The Answers is A

The question shows different cost functions. The choice B shows the decreasing in rate
over the time (Log function), choices C shows the constant expenses over the time.
Choice A, is an exponential function and shows for rate of change over the time than D.

24
Practice Problems PE Style Exam (AM)
_________________________________________________________________

5) For the following paths find the critical path using the CPM?

Activity Time
I. 4 weeks
J. 16 weeks
K. 8 weeks
L. 24 weeks
M. 28 weeks
N. 4 weeks
O. 8 weeks
P. 4 weeks

A) 44 B) 48
C) 60 D) 64

The Answers is D

The critical path is the path with the longest time.

Paths’ Lengths
ACDFH = 44
ACDGH = 48
ACEFH = 48
ACEGH = 52
BCDFH = 56
BCDGH = 60
BCEFH = 60
BCEGH = 64

25
Practice Problems PE Style Exam (AM)
_________________________________________________________________

6) A dump-hauler has a purchase price of $109,000. Freight for delivery is $5000.


Tires are an additional 25,000 with the estimated life time of 4500 hours. The hauler
expected to operate 1500 hours annually and for 11 years. Maintenance fees for the
hauler is estimated at $18000. What is the before-tax estimated hourly cost of operation
excluding operator labor cost?

A) 35 B) 41

C) 23 D) 15

The Answers is C

The best way to estimate the hourly cost is to find all expenditures and cost for a year,
then the hourly cost can be estimated prorate:
The total hauler cost = 109000+5000= $114,000
The hauler price per year: 114,000+/12= $ 9500 per year
Tires will work 4500 hr and every year 1500 years of operation is expected so:
4500/1500=3 years is the life time for the tires
Therefore, tire costs for a year is become: 21000/3 = $7000
Total annual expenditures = $9500+$7,000+$18000 = $34,500
Hourly rate = 34500/1500 hr/year = 23

26
Practice Problems PE Style Exam (AM)
_________________________________________________________________

7) How many 4 by 8 in samples required for a 7000 sf shear wall with 180 cy3 of
concrete?

A) 2 specimens
B) 3 specimens
C) 4 specimens
D) 5 specimens

The Answers is B

P70-71, ACI 318-08, 5.6.2.1 and 5.6.2.4.


Based on the code instructions, 3 specimens are required for the 4 by 8 in cylinder
samples and for each 150 cy 3 or 5000 sf needs one sample. So for 180cy3 2 samples are
required and for the 7000 sf also 2 samples are required. So, with this size of samples 3
samples are required.

27
Practice Problems PE Style Exam (AM)
_________________________________________________________________

8) For the wall form work, if the height of wall is equal to 10 ft. and the distance
between inclined supports is 3 ft. find the force in the support assuming the 45 degree
angle for it.

A) 7500 lb.
B) 10607 lb.
C) 1500 lb.
D) 150 lb.

The Answers is B

P18, ASCE 37-02, 4.7.1.


Concrete density = 150 lb/cf (ASCE 7-10, Chapter 3, 3.1 and C3, table C3-1 & C3-2.)

Cc= 150*10 = 1500 psf/ft., is the lateral pressure at the base of the wall.
The pressure is distributed in the triangular form so the problem is like a beam with
triangular load.
We need to find the reaction of this beam then we can find the force in the lateral support.
So we can find RA as: RA
(1500 * 10/2)*1/3*3 = 7500 lb.

To find the force in the soldier


α=45 degree
F= RA/ Cos 45 = 7500/ Cos 45= 10606.6 lb.

28
Practice Problems PE Style Exam (AM)
_________________________________________________________________

9) If the maximum moisture content is given equal to 17% and specific gravity of
soil is given equal to 2.67 find the dry density according to the modified proctor test
procedure.
A) 125 pcf
B) 95 pcf
C) 115 pcf
D) 150 pcf

The Answers is C

According to the modified proctor test procedure, the dry density is equal to:
62.4
= = = 114.59 /
1 0.17 + 1/2.67
+

29
Practice Problems PE Style Exam (AM)
_________________________________________________________________

10) In the temporary structure in the referred picture if the soil is un-drained stiff clay
which one is correct?

A) Soil pressure has a uniform distribution.


B) Soil pressure has a trapezoidal form
C) Soil pressure is triangular and the maximum pressure is at base.
D) Soil pressure is triangular and the maximum pressure is at top.

The Answers is B

This is the definition for the temporary structures. In the clay soil the pressure has
trapezoid form and in sand it is uniform. In none of the conditions it has triangular form.

30
Practice Problems PE Style Exam (AM)
_________________________________________________________________

11) Which one of the following compactors shall be used for the compaction just
behind the retaining wall?

C) A) sheepsfoot compactor B) Smooth drum


D) C) Small plate compactor D) pneumatic

The Answers is C

As general rule, heavy compactor equipment cannot be driven within 3 feet (0.3 m) of the
back of the wall and based on definitions in this zone (settlement zone) only the small
plate compactor shall be used.

31
Practice Problems PE Style Exam (AM)
_________________________________________________________________

12) A fine grained soil has a Liquid Limit (LL) of 70% and a Plasticity limit (PL) of
30%. The soil can be classified as:

A) CL
B) CI
C) CH
D) MI

The Answers is C

For the fine grained soil according to the unified chart easily the soil classification can be
defined as follows:
PI= LL-PL So, PI = 70-30 = 40%

So the soil is classified as CH.

32
Practice Problems PE Style Exam (AM)
_________________________________________________________________

13) For a fully braced retaining wall in the basement of a 10 stories building, which
formula will give the pressure at the bottom of the wall. (Height of wall is equal to 10 ft.)

A) P= Soil density * 10 * Ka (active soil pressure)


B) P= Soil density * 10 * K0 (at rest soil pressure)
C) P= Soil density * 10 * Kp (passive soil pressure)
D) P= Soil density * 10 * Ka (active soil pressure) * 10/2

The Answers is B

Rankine and Coulomb theories assume that wall moves slightly and then active and
passive pressure will start acting on the wall. If the wall is fully braced or considered as at
rest, then K0 or at rest soil pressure coefficient shall be considered. Since in all
basements, walls are designed as perimeter walls and braced with floors, and other walls,
K0 shall be considered for them.

33
Practice Problems PE Style Exam (AM)
_________________________________________________________________

14) The ground water level is at 9ft. below ground. What is the total stress at 15 ft.
below ground? Consider a footing on top layer with the width of 10 ft. which makes a
pressure of 150 psf. Use both figures to find the pressure.

ft

ft

A) 2200 psf
B) 1778 psf
C) 1200 psf
D) 1860 psf

The Answers is B

To solve the problem, the amount of density for each layer shall be estimated.
For the first layer (Brown Silty Sand):

= . = 2.65 ∗ 62.4 = 104.65 /


( ) .

= (1 + ) = 104.65 ∗ (1 + 0.205) = 125.32 /

34
Practice Problems PE Style Exam (AM)
_________________________________________________________________

Total stresses are equal to:

( ) = ℎ = 125.32 ∗ 9 = 1127.88

( ) = ℎ = 104.65 ∗ 6 = 627.9

Foundation stress is estimated from the figure as:

Depth = 15’ width of footing is = 10ft. so stress shall be found in 3d and it is equal to =
0.15 q = 0.15*150 = 22.5 psf

So the total stress = 22.5+1127.88+627.9= 1778.28

35
Practice Problems PE Style Exam (AM)
_________________________________________________________________

15) A soil sample has 30% passing the No. 4 sieve and 10% passing the No. 200
sieve. The coefficient of uniformity is greater than 4. Classify the soil according to the
Unified Soil Classification System.

A) SP-SM
B) SW-SM
C) SP
D) GW

The Answers is D

According to the Unified Soil classification table the soil can be classified as GW. See
the below table.

10% passing Sieve #200 30% passing through #4 means less than 50% on #4

Uniformity is> 4

10% passing means more than 50% larger than #200 sieve and 30% passing from #4
means less than half is smaller than #4 so the soil can be (GW, GP, GM, or GC). The
uniformity bigger than 4 shows the soil is classified as GW.

36
Practice Problems PE Style Exam (AM)
_________________________________________________________________

16) For the shown footing, find the maximum compressive stress. (P= 1000 lb. M=
500 lb-ft. B=D=width of footing = 9 ft.)

A) 20.3 psf
B) 8.2 psf
C) 16.5 psf
D) 12.3 psf

The Answers is C

To find the stresses under the foundation three different conditions might be happened
which are shown in the below picture.

So, the eccentricity is equal to:


e= M/P = 500/1000 = 0.5 < D/6 = 9/6= 1.5
So, the method in “b” shall be used because the footing has not tension.
Max. Stress = P/(B*L) * ( 1+ 6e/L) = 1000/(9*9) * (1+6*0.5/9) = 16.46 psf

37
Practice Problems PE Style Exam (AM)
_________________________________________________________________

17) Referring to the figure, find the maximum tension force at the bottom chord if the
force is equal to 1000 lb. the length of span is 20 ft.(4@5’), and height of the truss is
given equal to 5 ft.

A) 1200 N
B) 1000 N
C) 5000 N
D) 2000 N

The Answers is B

To find the force in the bottom chord easily find the bending moment at mid-span.
M/height of truss will give the forces in top and bottom chord. So:
M= PL/4 = 1000*20/4 = 5000 lb.
F= M/d = 5000/5 = 1000 lb.

38
Practice Problems PE Style Exam (AM)
_________________________________________________________________

18) Which model has just compressive force in the diagonal members?

A) Warren and roof trusses


B) Howe truss
C) K and Warren trusses
D) Pratt truss

The Answers is B

Pratt truss has all tension members while Howe has all compression members. All other
types have a mix of compression and tension diagonals. Since the question asked for just
compression the answer is Howe truss.

39
Practice Problems PE Style Exam (AM)
_________________________________________________________________

19) If a design engineer wants to use one of the following sections as a simple beam
on the sloped roof, which section(s) may give a better results?

A) I section
B) Z and angle sections
C) I and channel sections
D) Channel, Z, and Angle sections

The Answers is D

Angles and Z sections have 2 principle axis other than the X and Y axis, because are
asymmetric sections. So, if they use on top of the sloped roof the actual load will work on
their real axis and consequently it creates the minimum bending moments. With a proper
selection of roof angle and principle axis angles the biaxial bending moment on sloped
roof will be converted to the uniaxial bending moment. Channel has a center of rotation
which will help to decrease the effect of horizontal vector on the sloped roofs. So. All
three sections are suitable for the sloped roofs. I sections are the most deficient sections
on the sloped roofs, because always they face the biaxial bending moment and
consequently the designed sections have more weight that the Z, angle, or channels.

40
Practice Problems PE Style Exam (AM)
_________________________________________________________________

20) For the beam in the referred picture find the maximum bending moment at the
mid-span.

A) 6 KN-m
B) 16.6 KN-m
C) 14.3 KN-m
D) 8.3 KN-m

The Answers is C

Using the super position law, the mid span bending moment is the sum of the bending
moment from the simple span beam and the cantilever over hang.
So :
Simple span beam (mid span) = wl^2/8 = 3*4^2/8 = 6 KN-m
Overhang creates negative bending moment and the concentrated moment is positive so:
The negative bending moment at support = M-wL^2/2 = 20- 3*1.5^2/2 = +16.625
At the mid span half of this bending moment will be added to the mid span bending
moment (simple beam effect) so, the total moment = 16.625/2 + 6 = 14.3 KN-m

41
Practice Problems PE Style Exam (AM)
_________________________________________________________________

21) What is the ratio between plastic section modulus and elastic section modulus and
(shape factor) for the rectangular section as follows:

A) 1.5
B) 1.33
C) 2
D) 1.7

The Answers is A

Elastic section modulus = I/C = (bh3/12)/(h/2) = bh2/6


Plastic section modulus = ΣAy = b*(h/2) * (h/4) * 2 = bh2/4
Shape factor = (bh2/4) / (bh2/6) = 3/2 =1.5

42
Practice Problems PE Style Exam (AM)
_________________________________________________________________

22) A contractor need to make a concrete with target strength of 4 KSI and 0.5KSI as
standard deviation. What should be the average of compressive strength tests for the
concrete mix design?

A) 4.7 KSI
B) 3.3 KSI
C) 4.1 KSI
D) 4.0 KSI

The Answers is A

P67, ACI 318-08, 5.3.2.1


The required compressive strength for the f’c<5 KSI is given by the following formula:
f′ = f′ + 1.34S
Ss = to the standard deviation of the samples and 1.34 according to the normal
distribution function represents the 90% success in the samples and 10% failure.
So:
f′ = 4.0 + 1.34 ∗ 0.5 = 4.67 KSI

43
Practice Problems PE Style Exam (AM)
_________________________________________________________________

23) Concrete curing shall be maintained above 50 oF and in a moist condition for at
least:

A) 3 days after placement.


B) 10 days after placement.
C) 15 days after placement.
D) 7 days after placement.

The Answers is D

P77, ACI 318-08, 5.11.


This is the definition of code.
Concrete curing shall be maintained above 50 oF and in a moist condition for at least 7
days after placement.

44
Practice Problems PE Style Exam (AM)
_________________________________________________________________

24) Find the maximum bending moment on a beam with the length of 20 ft. for the
two 2000 lb. moving load (crane wheels) with the distance of 4 ft.

A) 20000 lb-ft
B) 16000 lb-ft
C) 19200 lb-ft
D) 18000 lb-ft

The Answers is D

The maximum bending moment for the moving load does not occur in the mid span. The
maximum bending moment for the 2 equal moving load is equal to:

= (1 − )
2 2
Where “a” is the distance between loads, L is the length of span, and P is the moving
load. So, M= 2000*20/2*(1-4/(2*20)) = 18000 lb-ft

45
Practice Problems PE Style Exam (AM)
_________________________________________________________________

25) If the PVC station of 100+00 at 59 ft. elevation is connected to the PVT station at
104+00 referring to the following figure, find the station of the crest.

A) 101+23 ft.
B) 102+00 ft.
C) 101+50 ft
D) 101+15 ft.

The Answers is A

P3-149, AASHTO Geometric Design-Green Book 2011, 2011, 6th ed., 3.4.6.
400 ft. vertical curve, therefore:
• PVI is at STA 100+00 and PVT is at STA 102+00
Elevation of the PVI is 59’ + 0.02(200) = 63 ft.
Elevation of the PVT is 63’ – 0.045(200) = 54 ft.
High point elevation requires figuring out the equation for a vertical curve
• At x = 0, y = c => c=59 ft.
• At x = 0, dY/dx = b = G1 = +2.0%
• a = (G2 – G1)/2L = (-4.5 – 2)/(2(4)) = - 0.8125
2
• y = -0.8125x + 2x + 59
• High point is where dy/dx = 0
• dy/dx = -1.625x + 2 = 0
• x = 1.23 stations = 01+23
Station of the crest = (1+23)+100+00=101+23

46
Practice Problems PE Style Exam (AM)
_________________________________________________________________

26) A car is traveling at 50 mph in a county at night on a steep wet road with 6%
uphill slope. Find the stopping sight distance.

A) 300 ft.
B) 389 ft.
C) 112 ft.
D) 241 ft.

The Answers is B

P3-2, AASHTO Geometric Design-Green Book 2011, 2011, 6th ed., 3.2.2.

According to the AASHTO 2004 code, the stopping sight distance for horizontal curves is
equal to:

= 1.47. (2.5). +
30(0.347 + )

G is the slope of the road, for the uphill road = +0.06 (it will be negative for the downhill)
Friction coefficient = f = 0.1
V= 50 mph
S= 1.47 . 2.5 . 50 + 502/(30*(0.347+0.06) = 388.5 ft.

47
Practice Problems PE Style Exam (AM)
_________________________________________________________________

27) In a close traverse, what is the bearing of NC?

A) S5E
B) N85W
C) S85E
D) N5W

The Answers is C

A bearing of a line is the direction of the line with respect to any given meridian and is
described by 900 quadrant in which the line falls and by the acute angle between the line
and the meridian within the quadrant.

Since line BC lies in the second quadrant and so the angle should be measured between
line and S, So the angle is: 90-5 = 85o and the direction is S and E, So, S85E is the
answer.

48
Practice Problems PE Style Exam (AM)
_________________________________________________________________

28) A horizontal curve is designed with a 1500 ft. radius. The tangent length is 400
ft. and the PT station is 20+00. Find the length of the curve?

A) 382 ft.
B) 540 ft.
C) 420 ft.
D) 781 ft.

The Answers is D

P3-18, AASHTO Geometric Design-Green Book 2011, 2011, 6th ed., 3.3.
Since we know R and T we can use T = R.tan(delta/2) to get delta
400=1500 tan(delta/2) then delta = 29.86 degrees
D = 5729.6/R. Therefore D = 3.82
L = 100(delta)/D = 100(29.86)/3.82 = 781 ft.

49
Practice Problems PE Style Exam (AM)
_________________________________________________________________

29) In the following intersections layouts, which one is strongly recommended in the
both urban and the rural areas for the local road or street.

A B C D

The Answers is C

P10-1, AASHTO Geometric Design-Green Book 2011, 2011, 6th ed., 10.2.

According to the AASHTO definitions, the full and half cloverleaf intersections and
trumpet are recommended for the rural highways (A, B, and D) and not recommended for
the local roads. The diamond (C) is recommended for the urban and rural local roads.

50
Practice Problems PE Style Exam (AM)
_________________________________________________________________

30) A district road with a bituminous pavement (friction coefficient=0.16) has a


horizontal curve of 700 ft. If the design speed is given equal to 45 mph find the super-
elevation.

A) 3%
B) 5%
C) 7%
D) 9%

The Answers is A

P3-43, AASHTO Geometric Design-Green Book 2011, 2011, 6th ed., 3.3.5.
For 70 mph, f = 0.16
2
Rv = V /15(f+e) or e + f = V2/15 R , then: e (super elevation) = 45^2/(15*700)-0.16 =
0.03

51
Practice Problems PE Style Exam (AM)
_________________________________________________________________

31) Degree of curve is

A) Equal to the interior angle.


B) Bearing of the curve.
C) Defined in degree.
D) Proportion to the reciprocal of the radius.

The Answers is D

P3-18, AASHTO Geometric Design-Green Book 2011, 2011, 6th ed.


This is the definition in AASHTO code.

52
Practice Problems PE Style Exam (AM)
_________________________________________________________________

32) Spiral (transition) curves

A) are never used.


B) have a particular radius.
C) are used to produce a transition between two tangents.
D) are used to produce a gradual transition from tangents to circular curve.

The Answers is D

P3-59, AASHTO Geometric Design-Green Book 2011, 2011, 6th ed., 3.3.8.

This is the definition for the spiral curve.

53
Practice Problems PE Style Exam (AM)
_________________________________________________________________

33) Which one has more pressure at the depth of h?

A) B) C)

D) They have equal pressure

The Answers is D

According to the fluid mechanic principles, the pressure is not related to the shape, so at
the depth of “h” the amount of pressure is the same for all shapes.

54
Practice Problems PE Style Exam (AM)
_________________________________________________________________

34) A 3h storm over a 150 km2 area produces a total runoff volume of 7*106 m3
With a peak discharge of 360 m3/Sec. What is the total excess precipitation?

A) 1.4 cm
B) 2.6 cm
C) 3.6 cm
D) 4.6 cm

The Answers is D

According to the unit hydrograph definition:


V=total volume of runoff = Ad(area of the drainage watershed) * Pave(average
precipitation)
Pave= V/Ad = 7*106/ (150)*106 = 0.046 m = 4.6 cm
.

55
Practice Problems PE Style Exam (AM)
_________________________________________________________________

35) A 3h storm over a 150 km2 area produces a total runoff volume of 7*106 m3 with
a peak discharge of 360 m3/Sec. find the unit hydrograph discharge?

A) 78 m3/s.cm
B) 120 m3/s.cm
C) 210 m3/s.cm.
D) 260 m3/s.cm

The Answers is A

According to the unit hydrograph definition:


V=total volume of runoff = Ad(area of the drainage watershed) * Pave(average
precipitation)
Pave= V/Ad = 7*106/ (150)*106 = 0.046 m = 4.6 cm

Qp,unit = Peak discharge/Pave = 360/4.6 = 78.2

56
Practice Problems PE Style Exam (AM)
_________________________________________________________________

36) What is the flow rate for a street V channel finished (clean) concrete channel with
a width of 1’, channel slope of 0.5%, with a “normal” water depth of 0.5’?

A) 0.55 cfs
B) 1.20 cfs
C) 0.25 cfs
D) 2.41 cfs

The Answers is A

n is 0.015,
hydraulic radius= (d Cos α)/2
1’
α = Arch tan (0.5/0.5) =45o
So, HR = 0.5* (cos 45) / 2 = 0.176
d=0.5’
S is 0.005 ft/ft, so
V = 2.2 ft/sec
Q = V*A= 2.2 ft/sec*(0.5*0.5)/2*2 sq.ft. = 0.55 cfs

57
Practice Problems PE Style Exam (AM)
_________________________________________________________________

37) Rainfall intensity is

A) The amount of precipitation per second.


B) The runoff after a rainfall.
C) The amount of precipitation per hour.
D) The design storm.

The Answers is C

This is the definition.

58
Practice Problems PE Style Exam (AM)
_________________________________________________________________

38) What is the definition According to the US environment protection (EPA) which
area needs permit for the land disturbing and it will called as “disturb”?

A)10 or more acres B) 1 or more acres

C) 100 or more acres D) 1000 or more acres

The Answers is B

US environment protection (EPA) effective March 10, 2003 any activity in the area of 1
or more acres needs NPDES (National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System) permit.

59
Practice Problems PE Style Exam (AM)
_________________________________________________________________

39) 8 MGD (million gallon per day) of water flows into the new schedule-40 steel
pipe network as shows below. Find the rate of flow in the upper branch.

8”, L=200’, C80


D=8”,L=150

4”, L= 100, C=100

A) 1.1 MGD
B) 6.2 MGD
C) 5.0 MGD
D) 1.95 MGD

The Answers is B

Parallel pipes have three principles that govern the distribution of flow between the two
branches. 1- head loss are the same for each branch 2- head loss at each junction is the
same as each branches, 3- the total flow rate is the sum of the flow rates in the two
branches. According to the 3rd principle, Vt = Va + Vb
So:
Diameter = 8” flow area = 50.24 in2
Diameter = 4” flow area = 12.56 in2
Using the Hazen-Williams expression for the velocity of flow in the pipe:
V= (0.55CD0.63hf0.54)/L0.54
V1= 0.55 * 80 * (8/12)0.63 * hf0.54 / 2000.54 = 1.95 hf0.54
The same for lower branch:
V2=2.28 hf0.54
. hf1=hf2
V1*A1/V2*A2 = (1.95 * 50.24) / (2.28*12.56) = 3.42, V2=0.29 V1
Vt =V1+V2 = V1.A1+0.29 V1.A2 = 1.29 V1.A1=1.29 Q1, then Q1= 5MGD/1.29 =
6.2MGD

60
Practice Problems PE Style Exam (AM)
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40) In a drainage project for an underground subway station if the required amount of
well drawdown is 3 ft. in the 50 ft. depth of the aquifer. The hydraulic conductivity is
given equal to 120 gal/(day-ft2), well radius is equal to 0.3 ft. and the water table recover
at radius of 1000 ft. find the required pumping flow rate ?

A) 13524 gal/day
B) 71020 gal/day
C) 18520 gal/day
D) 5624 gal/day

The Answers is A

( − )
=
1
( )
2
Where, K= hydraulic conductivity = 120 gal/ (day-ft2)
For the maximum drawdown of well we need to check it at the well center, so:
y1= 5 ft. and, y2=50-3 = 47 ft.
Since we want to find the Q at the center of well we do not need the information about
the radius of well and radial distance and r1=r2

120(50 − 47 )
= = 13524.17 /
1000
( )
0.3

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Second PE Style Exam


(AM)
Questions

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1) Find the net excavation in cubic yard.

STA 12+10

Fill = 50 cf, C=0 cf

STA 12+40

Fill= 0, C= 60 cf

STA 12+70

Fill = 35 cf, C=20 cf

A) 31 B) 10 C) 20 D) 50

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2) The elevation of station C is given equal to 01+20. If the back sight on A is 3.5 ft.
and the foresight for C in 5.1, another foresight reading on B shows 2.2 ft. Find the
elevation of the point B.

A) 1+20.5 B) 1+22.9
C) 1+17.1 D) 1+18

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3) For the pre-stressed concrete bridge girder which one is the most likely closer to
the required volume of concrete for this girder if the length of girder is given equal to 30
ft. Height = 3 ft.

A) 3.95 cf
B) 152.3 cf
C) 118.8 cf
D) 145.8 cf

4) A precast concrete wall with the thickness of 8”, height of 8’ and width of 6’. A
hauler truck should carry these precast walls. The capacity of the hauler is 20 US tons.
How many pieces of wall can be transported by the hauler?
A) 10 B) 8
C) 12 D) 3

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5) A project is described by the following precedence table. The project manager


wants to decrease the normal project time by 4 days. Most nearly, how much will it cost
to reduce the project completion time by three days?

Activity Predecessors Normal Crash Normal Crash


time (days) time cost daily cost daily

A - 8 6 50 100

B A 2 1 80 140

C A 6 4 80 100

D B 2 1 100 150

E C 6 3 90 200

F E 3 1 80 160

G D,F 4 2 120 300

A) $200 B) $120
C) $180 D) $140

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6) The amount of sales for contract has given equal to $1,000,000 including
$100,000 for tax and $70,000 for the insurance. At the end of the project contractor has
owned $50,000 of equipment and tools (assets) in addition $400000 assets that he does.
Contractor paid $650,000 for the man power, equipment, and materials for this project.
Find the gross profit, operation profit, net profit, and return on assets.

Choice Gross profit Operational Net profit Return on


profit assert

A 18% 40% 83% 35%

B 35% 83% 18% 40%

C 40% 18% 35% 83%

D 83% 35% 40% 18%

7) The test strength of the 4 by 8 in. cylinder sample is taken as the average of the
strength of

A) 2 specimens
B) 3 specimens
C) 4 specimens
D) 5 specimens

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8) For the scaffolding as shown in the picture estimate the axial force in the
bracings.

CH=200 lb

10’ 10’

A) 200 lb.
B) 141lb
C) 100 lb.
D) 282 lb.

9) In a proctor test the maximum dry density is given equal to 125 lb/cf with 20% of
water content. If the sample dry density of the road pavement equal to 123, what is the
amount of the relative compaction?

A) 90%
B) 95%
C) 98%
D) 100%

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10) The water content of soil is defined as the ratio of

A) Volume of water to volume of voids in soil


B) Volume of water to volume of given soil
C) Weight of water to weight of air in voids
D) Weight of water to weight of solids of given mass of soil.

11) Design of a footing on the loose sand requires which one of the following
activities:

A) It is not possible
B) Loose sand should always be compacted prior to put footing on it.
C) No need for compaction because we design the footing based on the soil
strength.
D) Compaction is required if the modified proctor test is less than 50% for the
natural ground.

12) A fine grained soil has a Liquid Limit (LL) of 40% and a plasticity Index of 30%.
The soil can be classified as:

A) CL
B) CI
C) CH
D) MI

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13) The diagram below shows the results of a standard compaction test. The Optimum
Moisture Content (O.M.C.) of the soil is

A) 12%
B) 17.5%
C) 18%
D) 22%

14) The ground water level is at 9ft. below ground. What is the total stress at the
bottom of the blue clay (i.e. at 23ft. below ground)?

ft

ft

ft

A) 2200 psf
B) 1759 psf
C) 1200 psf
D) 1860 psf

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15) A soil sample has 70% passing the No. 4 sieve and 10% passing the No. 200
sieve. The coefficient of uniformity is 4 and the fines are non-plastic. Classify the soil
according to the Unified Soil Classification System.

A) SP-SM
B) SW-SM
C) SP
D) GW-GM

16) For the shown footing, find the maximum compressive stress. (P= 1000 lb. M=
3000 lb-ft. B=D=width of footing = 9 ft.)

A) 60 psf
B) 30 psf
C) 49 psf
D) 12 psf

17) Referring to the figure, find the force in the member DB.

A) 1200 N
B) 800 N
C) 400 N
D) 600 N

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Practice Problems PE Style Exam (AM)
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18) Referring to the figure, adding a horizontal force P at point C and considering the
combination of all loads will:

A) Increase the forces in EC P=1000 N


B) Decrease the forces in EC
C) Increase the force in AC
D) Decrease the force in AC

19) If a design engineer wants to use one of the following sections as a simple beam,
which section has biaxial bending moment even if the load applies along the Y direction?

A) B) C) D)

20) For the beam in the referred picture which one shows the correct bending moment
diagram?

A B

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C D

21) The rate of change of bending moment is equal to

A) Shear force
B) Slope
C) Deflection
D) None of these

22) For an existing concrete water reservoir the contractor has tested the existing
compressive strength of concrete in 50 different location. The average of these tests
shows the value of 4.1 KSI and the standard deviation shows the value of 0.5 KSI. If the
contractor wants to take the risk of 10% for the rehabilitation of the structure, find the
target strength of the structure that should be considered for the new design? (Use normal
distribution function.)

A) 3.43 KSI
B) 4.77 KSI
C) 4.1 KSI
D) 4.6 KSI

23) Proper proportioning of concrete, ensures

A) Desired durability and workability


B) Water tightness of the structure
C) Adequate strength
D) A&C

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24) The shear force at the center of a simply supported beam of span carrying a
uniformly distributed load of per unit length over the whole span is

A)

B)

C)

D) Zero

25) A 400 ft. equal tangent crest vertical curve has a PVC station of 100+00 at 59 ft.
elevation. The initial grade is 2.0 percent and the final grade is -4.5 percent. Determine
the elevation of the high point of the curve.

A) 60.23 ft.
B) 54.00 ft.
C) 50.43 ft.
D) 104+00 ft.

26) A car is traveling at 30 mph in a county at night on a flat wet road. Find the
stopping sight distance.
A) 300 ft.
B) 197 ft.
C) 112 ft.
D) 241 ft.

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27) A roadway is being designed using a 45 mph design speed. One section of the
roadway must go up and over a small hill with an entering grade of 3.2 percent and an
existing grade of -2.0 percent. How long must the vertical curve be?

A) 115 ft.
B) 450 ft.
C) 317 ft.
D) 270 ft.

28) A horizontal curve is designed with a 1500 ft. radius. The tangent length is 400
ft. and the PT station is 20+00. What is the PI station?

A) 16+16.3
B) 12+16.3
C) 12+18.2
D) 16+18.2

29) In the following intersections layouts, which one is strongly recommended in the
urban area and not recommended in the rural areas for the collectors.

A B C D

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30) A district road with a bituminous pavement (friction coefficient=0.16) has a


horizontal curve of 500 ft. If the design speed is given equal to 45 mph find the super-
elevation.

A) 1 in 10
B) 1 in 20
C) 1 in 30
D) 1 in 40

31) Design of horizontal and vertical alignments, super-elevation, sight distance and
grades, is worst affected by

A) length of the vehicle


B) height of the vehicle
C) width of the vehicle
D) speed of the vehicle

32) First operation during the detailed survey of a hill road, is

A) hydrological and soil surveys


B) adjustment of alignment along with curves
C) derivation of longitudinal and cross-sections
D) fixation of Bench Marks

33) A syphon is used

A) to fill up a tank with water at higher level from a lower level


B) to connect water reservoirs at different levels intervened by a hill
C) to supply water to a town from higher level to lower level
D) none of these

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34) A 2h storm over a 111 km2 area produces a total runoff volume of 4*106 m3
With a peak discharge of 260 m3/Sec. What is the total excess precipitation?

A) 1.4 cm
B) 2.6 cm
C) 3.6 cm
D) 4.0 cm

35) A 2h storm over a 111 km2 area produces a total runoff volume of 4*106 m3 with
a peak discharge of 260 m3/Sec., find the unit hydrograph discharge?

A) 72 m3/s.cm
B) 120 m3/s.cm
C) 210 m3/s.cm.
D) 260 m3/s.cm

36) What is the flow rate for a rectangular finished (clean) concrete channel with a
base width of 8’, channel slope of 0.5%, with a “normal” water depth of 2’?

A) 140 cfs
B) 8.5 cfs
C) 100 cfs
D) 200 cfs

37) The ratio of the depth of flow to the hydraulic radius for the most economical
trapezoidal section, in open channel flow is

A) 0.5
B) 1
C) 2
D) 1.2

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38) When does the silt fence barrier (below picture) be used for the sediment control?

A) It may be constructed of hay and it operates by intercepting and ponding


sediment-laden runoff.
B) It may be constructed of fence and it operates by intercepting and ponding
sediment-laden runoff.
C) It is a mechanical system spillway
D) It is a silt fence ditch check and shall be used at 100’ spacing.

39) 5 MGD (million gallon per day) of water flows into the new schedule-40 steel
pipe network as shows below. Find the rate of flow in the upper branch.

8”, L=200’, C80


D=8”,L=150 12”,L=300

4”, L= 100, C=100

A) 1.1 MGD
B) 3.9 MGD
C) 5.0 MGD
D) 1.95 MGD

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40) Which one is not correct for design a bridge?

A) Live (truck) loads distribution is prorated to the tributary width (distance


between girders) only.
B) Truck loads shall be multiplied by the impact factor.
C) A bridge in the horizontal curve shall be designed for the centrifugal force.
D) For design of the bridge piers, all vertical and horizontal loads shall be
combined according to the AASHTO code.

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Solutions
Second Style Exam

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1) Find the net excavation in cubic yard.

STA 12+10

Fill = 50 cf, C=0 cf

STA 12+40

Fill= 0, C= 60 cf

STA 12+70

Fill = 35 cf, C=20 cf

A) 31 B) 10 C) 20 D) 50

The Answers is A

This method is used widely and most of the estimators use this method where length is
much greater than width.
Earthworks Formulas
( )
=

L=Distance between
Also, 1 mile = 5280 ft. = 1760yards and 1 yard = 3 ft.
Each station introduce with the distance from the origin in feet, so STA 12+10 means:
1210 ft. Then distance between 2 stations in this problem is given equal to 30 ft. using the
average area method:
Vcut(a-b)= (0+60)/2 * 30 = 30*30 = 900 cf
Vfill(a-b)= (50+0)/2*30 = 25*30= 750 cf
Vcut(b-c)= (20+60)/2 * 30 = 40*30 = 1200 cf

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Vfill(b-c)= (0+35)/2*30 = 17.5*30= 525 cf


Total volume of excavation = 900+1200 = 2100 cf = 77.8 cy
Total volume of embankment = 750+525= 1275 cf = 47.2 cy
Net excavation= excavation – embankment = 77.8 - 47.2 = 30.6 cy

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2) The elevation of station C is given equal to 01+20. If the back sight on A is 3.5 ft.
and the foresight for C in 5.1, another foresight reading on B shows 2.2 ft. Find the
elevation of the point B.

A) 1+20.5 B) 1+22.9
C) 1+17.1 D) 1+18

The Answers is B

The height between two points are given equal to: Back sight (BS) - Foresight (FS) =
height, positive answer means FS is higher than the BS.
This is a tricky question! Since we have the elevation of point “C” and FS at C and B, we
can consider BS for C and FS for B and no need for the information about A, so:
BS at C= 5.1 FS at B= 2.2
BS-FS= 5.1-2.2= +2.9
Elevation at B = Elevation at C + height = 120 + 2.9 = 122.9=1+22.9

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3) For the pre-stressed concrete bridge girder which one is the most likely closer to
the required volume of concrete for this girder if the length of girder is given equal to 30
ft. Height = 3 ft.

A) 3.95 cf
B) 152.3 cf
C) 118.8 cf
D) 145.8 cf

The Answers is C

To find the answer the section can be divided in the certain geometric shapes. Then the
area of each section can be found. Volume is equal to the area multiplied by the length of
girder. All dimensions in inches have been converted to ft by dividing by 12.

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3’
1.29’
A=
2.5*0.5+((2.5+(6+2+2)/12)*0.5*1.5/12)+(6+(6+2+2))/12*0.5*2/12)+0.5*1.29+(6/12+2+
2/12)*0.5*3.5/12+(2+2/12)*7.5/12 = 3.95 sf
Volume = 3.95*30= 118.725 cf

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4) A precast concrete wall with the thickness of 8”, height of 8’ and width of 6’. A
hauler truck should carry these precast walls. The capacity of the hauler is 20 US tons.
How many pieces of wall can be transported by the hauler?
A) 10 B) 8
C) 12 D) 3

The Answers is B

Concrete density is equal to 150 pcf, ASCE 7-10, table C3. So the weight of each piece
will be equal to:
W= 150 * (8/12 * 8 * 6) = 4800 lbs
1 US Ton = 2000 lbs, each wall = 4800/2000=2.4 ton,
Therefore; 20/2.4 = 8.33, so the truck can take 8 walls.

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5) A project is described by the following precedence table. The project manager


wants to decrease the normal project time by 4 days. Most nearly, how much will it cost
to reduce the project completion time by three days?

Activity Predecessors Normal Crash Normal Crash


time (days) time cost daily cost daily

A - 8 6 50 100

B A 2 1 80 140

C A 6 4 80 100

D B 2 1 100 150

E C 6 3 90 200

F E 3 1 80 160

G D,F 4 2 120 300

A) $200 B) $120
C) $180 D) $140

The Answers is D

According to the table the CPM chart represents the following free floats:

C E F
A

B D G

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Practice Problems PE Style Exam (AM)
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Free floats are:


Path 1: A-B-D-G= 16
Path 2: A-B-D-E-F-G=25
Path 3: A-C-E-F-G= 27 critical path
In order to reduce the overall project duration by 4 days, the most inexpensive operation
is to allocate additional resources (crash) to activities C, D, and A.
For 4 days we can consider C for 2 days and A for the other 2 days. So
The critical path with be equal to 27-4 = 23 days.
The additional costs will be equal to:
For C: 100-80 = $20 daily, 2*20=$40 for two days
For A: 100-50 = $50 daily, 2*50=$100 for two days.
The total additional cost due the project crash = 100+40= $140

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6) The amount of sales for contract has given equal to $1,000,000 including
$100,000 for tax and $70,000 for the insurance. At the end of the project contractor has
owned $50,000 of equipment and tools (assets) in addition $400000 assets that he does.
Contractor paid $650,000 for the man power, equipment, and materials for this project.
Find the gross profit, operation profit, net profit, and return on assets.

Choice Gross profit Operational Net profit Return on


profit assert

A 18% 40% 83% 35%

B 35% 83% 18% 40%

C 40% 18% 35% 83%

D 83% 35% 40% 18%

The Answers is B

Net income= 1000000-650000-100000-70000 = $180000


Total Assets = $50000+400000=$450000
Return on assets=net income/total assets = 180000/450000= 0.4*100= 40%
Operation profit margin ratio = earnings before interest and taxes/sales= (1000000-
100000-70000)/1000000=0.83*100= 83%

Net profit margin ratio=net income/sales = 180000/1000000=0.18*100 = 18%


Gross profit margin ratio = gross profit/sales= (1000000-650000)/1000000=
0.35*100=35%

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7) The test strength of the 4 by 8 in. cylinder sample is taken as the average of the
strength of

A) 2 specimens
B) 3 specimens
C) 4 specimens
D) 5 specimens

The Answers is B

P70-71, ACI 318-08, 5.6.2.1 and 5.6.2.4.


Based on the code instructions, 3 specimens are required for the 4 by 8 in cylinder
samples and 2 for the 6 by 12 in.

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8) For the scaffolding as shown in the picture estimate the axial force in the
bracings.

CH=200 lb

10’ 10’

A) 200 lb.
B) 141lb
C) 100 lb.
D) 282 lb.

The Answers is B

Height = 10’, width = 10’, so the angle of bracing is equal to:


Arc tan (10/10) = 45 degree
F= (200/2(since there are 2 bracings)) / Cos 45 = 141.4 lb. say 141 lb.

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9) In a proctor test the maximum dry density is given equal to 125 lb/cf with 20% of
water content. If the sample dry density of the road pavement equal to 123, what is the
amount of the relative compaction?

A) 90%
B) 95%
C) 98%
D) 100%

The Answers is C

RC or relative compaction is the relation between dry density of the specimen to the
maximum dry density. Maximum dry density can be obtained through test in the lab by
adding the certain amount of water. So in fact the water content is just the additional data.
So, RC=123/125*100 = 98.4%

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10) The water content of soil is defined as the ratio of

A) Volume of water to volume of voids in soil


B) Volume of water to volume of given soil
C) Weight of water to weight of air in voids
D) Weight of water to weight of solids of given mass of soil.

The Answers is D

.
This is the definition for the water content.
w= mw/ms * 100%

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11) Design of a footing on the loose sand requires which one of the following
activities:

A) It is not possible
B) Loose sand should always be compacted prior to put footing on it.
C) No need for compaction because we design the footing based on the soil
strength.
D) Compaction is required if the modified proctor test is less than 50% for the
natural ground.

The Answers is D

The compaction is required if the modified proctor test RC<50% for the natural ground or
RC<90% for the compacted fills. Choice B is not correct because it is not always required
and the RC value should be evaluated.

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12) A fine grained soil has a Liquid Limit (LL) of 40% and a plasticity Index of 30%.
The soil can be classified as:

A) CL
B) CI
C) CH
D) MI

The Answers is A

For the fine grained soil according to the unified chart easily the soil classification can be
defined as follows:

So the soil is classified as CL.

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Practice Problems PE Style Exam (AM)
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13) The diagram below shows the results of a standard compaction test. The Optimum
Moisture Content (O.M.C.) of the soil is

A) 12%
B) 17.5%
C) 18%
D) 22%

The Answers is B

A typical proctor test curve shows the moisture content with the optimum water content
to make the zero air void and maximize the compaction effects. So, to find the optimum
water content the highest amount of density which represents compaction shall be
considered.

So, the maximum density happens when the water content is 17.5%.

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14) The ground water level is at 9ft. below ground. What is the total stress at the
bottom of the blue clay (i.e. at 23ft. below ground)?

ft

ft

ft

A) 2200 psf
B) 1759 psf
C) 1200 psf
D) 1860 psf

The Answers is B

To solve the problem, the amount of density for each layer shall be estimated.
For the first layer (Brown Silty Sand):

= . = 2.65 ∗ 62.4 = 104.65 /


( ) .

= (1 + ) = 104.65 ∗ (1 + 0.205) = 125.32 /

For the second layer (Blue Clay):


0.35
= = = 0.538
(1 − ) (1 − 0.35)

1 1
= . = 2.70 ∗ 62.4 = 109.54 /
(1 + ) 1 + 0.538

Effective stresses are equal to:

No effective stress for the first layer shall be considered since it is not saturated, but for
the next two layers which are located below water table the effective stress can be
estimated. Water density = 62.4 lb/cf.

So, the effective stress = total stress – pore pressure

( ) = ℎ = 125.32 ∗ 9 = 1127.88

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( ) = ℎ = 104.65 ∗ 6 − 62.4 ∗ 6 = 253.5

( ) = ℎ = 109.54 ∗ 8 − 62.4 ∗ 8 = 377.12

Effective Stress = 1127.88+253.5+377.12 = 1758.5 psf

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15) A soil sample has 70% passing the No. 4 sieve and 10% passing the No. 200
sieve. The coefficient of uniformity is 4 and the fines are non-plastic. Classify the soil
according to the Unified Soil Classification System.

A) SP-SM
B) SW-SM
C) SP
D) GW-GM

The Answers is A

According to the Unified Soil classification table the soil can be classified as SP-SM. See
the below table.

10% passing Sieve #200 70% passing through #4 means less than 50% on #4

Uniformity is 4 the fines are non-plastic

10% passing means more than 50% larger than #200 sieve and 70% passing from #4
means more than half is smaller than #4 so the soil can be (SW, SP, SM, or SC). The
uniformity of 4 shows the soil is classified between SP-SM because it is not between 1
and 3 or greater than 4. So, clearly from these information the soil is SP-SM.

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16) For the shown footing, find the maximum compressive stress. (P= 1000 lb. M=
3000 lb-ft. B=D=width of footing = 9 ft.)

A) 60 psf
B) 30 psf
C) 49 psf
D) 12 psf

The Answers is C

To find the stresses under the foundation three different conditions might be happened
which are shown in the below picture.

So, the eccentricity is equal to:


e= M/P = 3000/1000 = 3 > D/6 = 9/6= 1.5
So, the method in “C” shall be used because the footing has tension.
Y=3(9/2-3) = 4.5 , Stress = 2*1000/(9*4.5)= 49.38 psf

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17) Referring to the figure, find the force in the member DB.

A) 1200 N
B) 800 N
C) 400 N
D) 600 N

The Answers is B

The member DB is perpendicular to ED and DC, so with no calculation, ΣFy=0, then F


DB = 800N.

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18) Referring to the figure, adding a horizontal force P at point C and considering the
combination of all loads will:

A) Increase the forces in EC P=1000 N


B) Decrease the forces in EC
C) Increase the force in AC
D) Decrease the force in AC

The Answers is B

This load combination shows:


The effect of vertical forces create tension force in the EC and the P force creates
compression. Tension force = (800*3+400*6)/3 = 1600 N, adding a 1000 N compressive
force will decrease the force in EC without effect on AC. So, the actual force in EC after
combination is: 1600-1000=600 N

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19) If a design engineer wants to use one of the following sections as a simple beam,
which section has biaxial bending moment even if the load applies along the Y direction?

B) B) C) D)

The Answers is C

Angles have 2 principle axis other than the X and Y axis, because are asymmetric
sections. So, when a load applies in Y direction, because of the angle between principle
axis and Y axis, forces will be apply on both axis and create the biaxial forces and thus
biaxial bending moment.

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20) For the beam in the referred picture which one shows the correct bending moment
diagram?

A B

C D

The Answers is C

Forces are applied at the end of the overhangs and creates equal amount of the bending
moment at the end of the beam. So, “C” is correct.

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21) The rate of change of bending moment is equal to

A) Shear force
B) Slope
C) Deflection
D) None of these

The Answers is A

This is the definition in the strength of materials. Slope= dy/dx (derivation of deflection
y), Bending Moment = M = ds/dx (derivation of slope), Shear force= dM/dx (derivation
of bending moment),
So the shear force is the rate of changes (differential) of the bending moment.

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22) For an existing concrete water reservoir the contractor has tested the existing
compressive strength of concrete in 50 different location. The average of these tests
shows the value of 4.1 KSI and the standard deviation shows the value of 0.5 KSI. If the
contractor wants to take the risk of 10% for the rehabilitation of the structure, find the
target strength of the structure that should be considered for the new design? (Use normal
distribution function.)

A) 3.43 KSI
B) 4.77 KSI
C) 4.1 KSI
D) 4.6 KSI

The Answers is A

P67, ACI 318-08, 5.3.2.1


The required compressive strength for the f’c<5 KSI is given by the following formula:
f′ = f′ + 1.34S
Ss = to the standard deviation of the samples and 1.34 according to the normal
distribution function represents the 90% success in the samples and 10% failure. That
formula is used for design the concrete mixes and so, the safety margin in concrete mixes
will be 1.34 Ss. Inversely for the existing structures the formula should be written as:
f′ = f′ − 1.34S
This will give the safety factor with the 90% probability of success for the existing
concrete, because for the existing concrete the 1.34Ss will make the safety margin and the
existing average should be decreased prorate to the probability of failure.
So:
f′ = 4.1 − 1.34 ∗ 0.5 = 3.43 KSI
Note: in the normal distribution function, for Z=1.34, the probability of success is given
as 0.9099. (See next page.)

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23) Proper proportioning of concrete, ensures

A) Desired durability and workability


B) Water tightness of the structure
C) Adequate strength
D) A&C

The Answers is D

P63, ACI 318-08, 5.1.1


This is the general definition in the code that the proportioning of the concrete shall
maintain the required strength, durability and workability. Water tightness may be
considered as an additional requirements that may be maintained by using some
admixtures.

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24) The shear force at the center of a simply supported beam of span carrying a
uniformly distributed load of per unit length over the whole span is

A)

B)

C)

D) Zero

The Answers is D

The shear force diagram for the simple beam is shown in the figure, so the shear force =
0.

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25) A 400 ft. equal tangent crest vertical curve has a PVC station of 100+00 at 59 ft.
elevation. The initial grade is 2.0 percent and the final grade is -4.5 percent. Determine
the elevation of the high point of the curve.

A) 60.23 ft.
B) 54.00 ft.
C) 50.43 ft.
D) 104+00 ft.

The Answers is A

P3-149, AASHTO Geometric Design-Green Book 2011, 2011, 6th ed., 3.4.6.
400 ft. vertical curve, therefore:
• PVI is at STA 102+00 and PVT is at STA 104+00
Elevation of the PVI is 59’ + 0.02(200) = 63 ft.
Elevation of the PVT is 63’ – 0.045(200) = 54 ft.
High point elevation requires figuring out the equation for a vertical curve
• At x = 0, y = c => c=59 ft.
• At x = 0, dY/dx = b = G1 = +2.0%
• a = (G2 – G1)/2L = (-4.5 – 2)/(2(4)) = - 0.8125
2
• y = -0.8125x + 2x + 59
• High point is where dy/dx = 0
• dy/dx = -1.625x + 2 = 0
• x = 1.23 stations
Find elevation at x = 1.23 stations
2
• y = -0.8125(1.23) + 2(1.23) + 59
• y = 60.23 ft.

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26) A car is traveling at 30 mph in a county at night on a flat wet road. Find the
stopping sight distance.

A) 300 ft.
B) 197 ft.
C) 112 ft.
D) 241 ft.

The Answers is B

P3-2, AASHTO Geometric Design-Green Book 2011, 2011, 6th ed., 3.2.2.

According to the AASHTO 2004 code, the stopping sight distance for horizontal curves is
equal to:

= 1.47. (2.5). +
30(0.347 + )

G is the slope of the road, for the flat road = 0


Friction coefficient = f = 0.1
V= 30 mph
S= 1.47 . 2.5 . 30 + 302/(30*0.347) = 196.71 ft.

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27) A roadway is being designed using a 45 mph design speed. One section of the
roadway must go up and over a small hill with an entering grade of 3.2 percent and an
existing grade of -2.0 percent. How long must the vertical curve be?

A) 115 ft.
B) 450 ft.
C) 317 ft.
D) 270 ft.

The Answers is C

P3-149, AASHTO Geometric Design-Green Book 2011, 2011, 6th ed., 3.4.6.
The K-value method of analysis used in the green book is a simplified method of
choosing a stopping sight for the crest vertical curve.

= =
| − |

For 45 mph we get K=61, therefore L = KA = (61)(5.2) = 317.2 ft.

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28) A horizontal curve is designed with a 1500 ft. radius. The tangent length is 400
ft. and the PT station is 20+00. What is the PI station?

A) 16+16.3
B) 12+16.3
C) 12+18.2
D) 16+18.2

The Answers is D

P3-18, AASHTO Geometric Design-Green Book 2011, 2011, 6th ed., 3.3.
Since we know R and T we can use T = R.tan(delta/2) to get delta
400=1500 tan(delta/2) then delta = 29.86 degrees
D = 5729.6/R. Therefore D = 3.82
L = 100(delta)/D = 100(29.86)/3.82 = 781 ft.
PC = PT – PI = 2000 – 781 = 12+18.2
PI = PC +T = 12+18.2 + 400 = 16+18.2.
Note: cannot find PI by subtracting T from PT!

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29) In the following intersections layouts, which one is strongly recommended in the
urban area and not recommended in the rural areas for the collectors.

A B C D

The Answers is C

P10-1, AASHTO Geometric Design-Green Book 2011, 2011, 6th ed., 10.2.

According to the AASHTO definitions, the full and half cloverleaf intersections and
trumpet are recommended for the rural highways (A, B, and D), and the diamond (C) is
recommended for the urban.

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30) A district road with a bituminous pavement (friction coefficient=0.16) has a


horizontal curve of 500 ft. If the design speed is given equal to 45 mph find the super-
elevation.

A) 1 in 10
B) 1 in 20
C) 1 in 30
D) 1 in 40

The Answers is A

P3-43, AASHTO Geometric Design-Green Book 2011, 2011, 6th ed., 3.3.5.
For 45 mph, f = 0.16
2
Rv = V /15(f+e) or e + f = V2/15 R , then: e (super elevation) = 45^2/(15*500)-0.16 =
0.11 say 0.1

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31) Design of horizontal and vertical alignments, super-elevation, sight distance and
grades, is worst affected by

A) length of the vehicle


B) height of the vehicle
C) width of the vehicle
D) speed of the vehicle

The Answers is D

P3-18, AASHTO Geometric Design-Green Book 2011, 2011, 6th ed.


This is the definition in AASHTO code. Super elevation, curves, stopping sight distance
are all have relation with the speed of vehicle. There is no relation between them and the
choices A, B, and C.

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32) First operation during the detailed survey of a hill road, is

A) hydrological and soil surveys


B) adjustment of alignment along with curves
C) derivation of longitudinal and cross-sections
D) fixation of Bench Marks

The Answers is D

This is the definition in job site and surveying order. It is required to first fix the Bench
Marks (BM) according to local agencies files. B and C will be conducted with reference
to the BMs. A is an individual action but to do so, the proper location for tests shall be
chosen based on the BMs.

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33) A siphon is used

A) to fill up a tank with water at higher level from a lower level


B) to connect water reservoirs at different levels intervened by a hill
C) to supply water to a town from higher level to lower level
D) none of these

The Answers is B

A siphon is a bent or curved tube that carries fluid from a container at a high elevation to
another container at lower elevation however, the fluid seems to flow “uphill” in a
siphon. See the following picture.

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34) A 2h storm over a 111 km2 area produces a total runoff volume of 4*106 m3
With a peak discharge of 260 m3/Sec. What is the total excess precipitation?

A) 1.4 cm
B) 2.6 cm
C) 3.6 cm
D) 4.0 cm

The Answers is C

According to the unit hydrograph definition:


V=total volume of runoff = Ad(area of the drainage watershed) * Pave(average
precipitation)
Pave= V/Ad = 4*106/ (111)*106 = 0.036 m = 3.6 cm

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35) A 2h storm over a 111 km2 area produces a total runoff volume of 4*106 m3 with
a peak discharge of 260 m3/Sec., find the unit hydrograph discharge?

A) 72 m3/s.cm
B) 120 m3/s.cm
C) 210 m3/s.cm.
D) 260 m3/s.cm

The Answers is A

According to the unit hydrograph definition:


V=total volume of runoff = Ad(area of the drainage watershed) * Pave(average
precipitation)
Pave= V/Ad = 4*106/ (111)*106 = 0.036 m = 3.6 cm
According to the unit hydrograph definition:

Qp,unit = Peak discharge/Pave = 260/3.6 = 72.2

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36) What is the flow rate for a rectangular finished (clean) concrete channel with a
base width of 8’, channel slope of 0.5%, with a “normal” water depth of 2’?

A) 140 cfs
B) 8.5 cfs
C) 100 cfs
D) 200 cfs

The Answers is A

n is 0.015, Rh is 8*2 sq.ft./(2+8+2) ft, S is 0.005 ft/ft, so


V = 8.5 ft/sec
Q = V*A= 8.5 ft/sec*16 sq.ft. = 140 cfs

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37) The ratio of the depth of flow to the hydraulic radius for the most economical
trapezoidal section, in open channel flow is

A) 0.5
B) 1
C) 2
D) 1.2

The Answers is C

The most efficient open channel cross section will maximize the flow for the given
Manning coefficient, slope, and flow area. The most efficient trapezoid channel is always
one which the flow depth is twice the hydraulic radius. If the side slope is adjustable, the
sides of the most efficient trapezoid should be inclined at 60 degree.

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38) When does the silt fence barrier (below picture) be used for the sediment control?

A) It may be constructed of hay and it operates by intercepting and ponding


sediment-laden runoff.
B) It may be constructed of fence and it operates by intercepting and
ponding sediment-laden runoff.
C) It is a mechanical system spillway
D) It is a silt fence ditch check and shall be used at 100’ spacing.

The Answers is B

Choice “A” is the definition for bale slope barrier, “C” is the definition of a spillway, “D”
is the ditch with silt fencing. The barrier should be used at the toe of a slope when the
ditch does not exist.

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39) 5 MGD (million gallon per day) of water flows into the new schedule-40 steel
pipe network as shows below. Find the rate of flow in the upper branch.

8”, L=200’, C80


D=8”,L=150 12”,L=300

4”, L= 100, C=100

a. MGD
B) 3.9 MGD
C) 5.0 MGD
D) 1.95 MGD

The Answers is B

.
Parallel pipes have three principles that govern the distribution of flow between the two
branches. 1- head loss are the same for each branch 2- head loss at each junction is the
same as each branches, 3- the total flow rate is the sum of the flow rates in the two
branches. According to the 3rd principle, Vt = Va + Vb
So:
Diameter = 8” flow area = 50.24 in2
Diameter = 4” flow area = 12.56 in2
Using the Hazen-Williams expression for the velocity of flow in the pipe:
V= (0.55CD0.63hf0.54)/L0.54
V1= 0.55 * 80 * (8/12)0.63 * hf0.54 / 2000.54 = 1.95 hf0.54
The same for lower branch:
V2=2.28 hf0.54
. hf1=hf2
V1*A1/V2*A2 = (1.95 * 50.24) / (2.28*12.56) = 3.42, V2=0.29 V1
Vt =V1+V2 = V1.A1+0.29 V1.A2 = 1.29 V1.A1=1.29 Q1, then Q1= 5MGD/1.29 =
3.87MGD

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40) Which one is not correct for design a bridge?

A) Live (truck) loads distribution is prorated to the tributary width (distance


between girders) only.
B) Truck loads shall be multiplied by the impact factor.
C) A bridge in the horizontal curve shall be designed for the centrifugal
force.
D) For design of the bridge piers, all vertical and horizontal loads shall be
combined according to the AASHTO code.

The Answers is A

P4-33, AASHTO LRFD Bridge Design Specification 2010, 5th ed. 4.6.2.
Live load distribution is prorated to the tributary width, slab, and girders’ stiffness in the
AASHTO bridge design manual, 2010. Dead loads are distributed only with the tributary
width. So A is not correct. All other choices are definitions and correct.

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Third PE Style Exam


(AM)
Questions

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1) For the given following data on precedence relationship and duration network, find the
project duration (total float) by using the critical path method (CPM).

Activity Description Predecessors Duration

A Field Surveying - 10

B Soil studies - 15

C Conceptual design A 12

D Structural Basic A 14
design

E Architectural Basic B,C 20


Design

F Landscape Basic B,C 10


Design

G Structural Detail D,E 10


Design

H Architectural Detail D,E 20


Design

I Material take off F,G 5

A) 116 B) 44
C) 57 D) 55

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2) A surveyor recorded the following leveling measurements. Then he changed the position
of the level with the new height of the level and read 2 new numbers for the BS and FS for the
same spots (A&B) that he read in the first measurements. If the height of level in the first
measurement was 3.5 ft and in the second reading was 4.5 ft, find the elevation of “B” for both
measurements.

Station BS FS

A, Elevation = 130 3.3

B 1.5

A) 1+30 B) 1+31.2
C) 1+33 D) 1+31.8

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3) You are a contractor and have made a bid sheet for a construction project as follows.
Excavation for this project is to occur in the winter meaning it will take more time for the
crew to complete this task. You have calculated that this extra time will increase the labor
cost by 27%. How much are you charging the client for the excavation work given the new
situation?

A) $271,252
B) $318,553
C) $336,352
D) $395,007

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4) Which one is a stable structure?

A)

B)

C)

D)

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5) For a retaining wall with 9’ height find the maximum lateral pressure on the wall forms.

A) 150 psf B) 1350 psf


C) 1500 psf D) 1000 psf

6) The following formwork should support the 22’ by 20’ slab. Find the live load from
personnel and equipment acting temporary during construction on this formwork if it is
classified as heavy duty construction.

A) LL=75 psf B) LL= 73 psf


C) LL= 37.5 psf D) LL=70 psf

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7) An auger works on the pile foundations as shown in the following picture. The pile diameter
is given equal to 4’ and pile depth is 60’. If price of auger including the freight expenses is
$1,000,000. The expected cost including 20% profit for each cubic yard is determined as
$100 per cubic yard. How many piles should this auger make to compensate the original
price from the profit?

A) 1200 pile
B) 2000 piles
C) 1786 piles
D) 2500 piles

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8) The clay stratum is shown in the profile below. It is known that the voids ratio of the red
point is 0.9. Assume the compression index is known to be 0.64. Determine the value of
pressure when voids ratio is 0.8.

Elev.: 0 ft.
Unit weight:
130lb/ft3

Elev.: -30ft

Unit weight:
Elev.: -35ft
120lb/ft3

A) 3000lb/ft2 B) 4000lb/ft2 C) 6000lb/ft2 D) 5000lb/ft

9) A shallow foundation is to be constructed below the ground surface in a uniform


cohesionless sand. It is found that the bearing capacity ratio for cohesion of soil below the
foundation, N , is 50. What is the bearing capacity ratio for the vertical effective stress at the
elevation of the foundation base, N ?

A) 38 B)43 C) 60 D)74

10) In which condition the soil may have the maximum consolidation?

A) Soil with passing less than 30% from sieve #4


B) Soil with passing more than 80% from sieve #200 with high plasticity index
C) GC
D) ML

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11) As shown in the figure below, a clay layer exists between two sandy soil layers. The
underground water level is 1 m below the ground. The second sandy soil layer contains
confined water. At a point A, which is 7 m below the ground (in the second sandy soil layer),
the head of water pressure is 1 m above the ground. It is known that the unit weight of soil
above the water level is 16.5 kN/m3, the saturated unit weight of the first layer of sandy soil
below the water level is 19.2 kN/m3, the saturated unit weight of the second layer of sandy
soil is 20.2 kN/m3, the saturated unit weight of the clay soil is 18.4 kN/m3, Determine the
effective vertical soil pressure at point A.

H0=1m

1
H1=2 m
W. L. Sandy soil 1
H2=1m 1sat

H3=2 m 2 Clay

H4=2 m 3sat
Sandy soil 2
A

A) 23 kPa B) 35 kPa C) 51 kPa D) 88 kPa

12) What is the cause for the swell of soils during the excavation?

A) Occures in the clayey soil when a higher moisture content existed than pior to excavation.
B) Occures in the fine sand during excavation becasuse of increasing the void ratios
C) Occures in all type of soils due to increasing the prosity
D) Swell is just an assumption to have safety factor for the earth work estimations.

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13) An uniform desposit soil is shown in the following diagram. Information of soil in each
layer is given. Calculate the effective stress for a soil element at point A.

Gs=2.6, S=53%, w = 30%, =


H1=4m 14 /

H2=2m Gs=2.6, S=100%, w = 40%, =


/ A

A) 90kPa B) 80kPa C) 85kPa D) 75kPa

14) For the following beam if load w=3 KN/m what force should apply on BD so that the shear
Force at A is zero?

W =3 KN/m F=?

A B C D
4m 2m 2m

A) 24KN.
B) 44KN.
C) 64KN.
D) 84KN.

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15) In the below picture, find the maximum shear and moment in a simply supported beam that is
loaded with uniform load of w0.

A) V= w0L, M= w0L2/4
B) V= w0L/2, M= w0L/8
C) V= w0L/2 , M= w0L2/8
D) V= 2 w0L, M= w0L2/12

16) A 10 ft long simply supported concrete beam subject to a uniformly distributed load is
reinforced with two #6 bars at a depth of 13 in. The cross section is 6 in wide and 16 in tall.
The factored shear load at the supports is 6.6 kips. Assume # 3 stirrups are used for shear
support. f = 60000 psi, f = 4000 psi. Determine the required spacing for shear
reinforcement at the supports in the beam.

A) 8 in B) 44 in
C) 6.5 in D) 24 in

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17) Refer to the picture below, which pattern shows the pure shear crack in the reinforced
concrete beam test results?

A) 37 B) 18
C) 28 D) 30

18) A circular beam with 6” diameter that is 20 ft long is fixed to a wall at one end and free at
the other. A uniformly distributed load of 0.3 kip/ft respectively are applied to the beam. The
beam is fully braced. Find the maximum elastic stress.

A) 25 KSI B) 50 KSI
C) 41 KSI D) 34 KSI

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19) A set of interior columns are being designed. The columns are continuously braced
perpendicular to the frame. The girders between the columns are W 16 X 45 members and
the Columns are W 12 X 79. The columns span 35 feet apart and are 20 feet in height.
Assume Fy = 50ksi and Fu = 65ksi. Columns are not braced in plane. The base of each
column is tied to the foundation and all other connections are rigid. Determine the available
critical stress assuming K = 1.2.

A) 29.5 ksi B) 27 ksi

C) 25 ksi D) 23.5 ksi

20) A gutter at the side of a street has a curb height of 8 inches, slope along the length of the
street of 0.7%, and Manning n=0.032. The pavement slopes from the center of the street to the
gutter at 5%. What is the flow capacity of this gutter?

A) 4.9 cfs
B) 8.0 cfs
C) 11.1 cfs
D) 14.7 cfs

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21) Water from a 175-ac light industrial watershed is collected and drained by a trapezoidal open
channel. The channel (Manning' roughness coefficient, = 0.02) has a 4.5-ft-wide bottom
and 1:1 sides. The channel direction is perpendicular to a road where twin, side-by-side 54-
in-diameter corrugated metal pipe (CMP) culverts take the water under the roadway. The
average slope of the channel and culverts is 0.75% (i.e., 0.0075 ft/ft). The time for runoff
from the farthest part of the watershed to begin contributing to the flow is 35 min. - Using the
rational method and assuming the intensity after 35 min is 2 in/hr, what is the runoff?

A) 308 B) 180

C) 228 D) 340

22) A parking lot adjoining a shopping center has a surface area of 3.5 acres. A rainstorm that
delivers rainfall at a rate of 2.5 inches/hour occurs. The parking area has a runoff coefficient
C=0.7. What is the peak runoff from the parking lot during this rainstorm?

A) 0.62 cfs B) 2.5 cfs C) 6.13 cfs D) 25 cfs

23) A 10 acre basin stores approximately 7.0 inches of water. What is the runoff for the
given basin for a 2-hr storm with an average of 0.5 in/hr of rainfall?

A) 0 inches B) 0.02 inches C) 0.05 inches D) 0.10 inches

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24) A horizontal pipeline carries water at a discharge of 13.5 cfs. Upstream of a contraction the
pipe diameter is 24 inches and pressure is 14 psi, while downstream of the contraction the
diameter is 18 inches. Neglecting head loss, what is the pressure downstream?

A) 11.2 psi
B) 13.7 psi
C) 14.2 psi
D) 15.9 psi
25) Which one has more pressure at the depth of h = 10 ft? (the inclined surfaces has the
measure of angle of 60 degree.)

A) 624 psf B) 62.4 psf C) 312 psf D) 1248 psf

26) Find the bending moment in the below beam for the concentrated load given equal to 5 Kips?

10ft 10ft

H= 5ft

A) 25 Kips-ft B) 5 kips-ft
C) 0.00 Kips-ft D) none of them

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27) An equal-tangent crest vertical curve is to connect grades of +2.0% and -3%. The design
sight distance on the curve is 645 ft. Determine the minimum length of the curve to meet the
sign distance requirement. (Assume the height of driver’s eyes above the roadway surface is
3.5 ft, and the height of object above the roadway surface is 2.0 ft.)

A) 689.50 B) 963.91 C) 734.30 D) 878.40

28) A horizontal circular curve has an intersection angle of 16. The length of middle ordinate
(M) is 8.00 ft. The radius (ft) of the curve is most nearly

PI

T T

M =8.00 ft
PC LC PT

R I =16 R

A) 401.9 B) 786.4 C) 4.0 D) 822.0

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29) Given the following traffic count data:

Time Interval No. of Vehicles

8:00-8:15 1400

8:15-8:30 1600

8:30-8:45 2200

8:45-9:00 1800

The peak hour factor is closest to:

A) 0.795 B) 0.880

C) 0.650 D) 0.945

30) A sieve analysis on a non-organic soil reveals that 82% of the soil passes No. 200 sieve
(0.075 mm). The liquid limit of the soil is 24%, and the soil has a medium toughness and a
very slow dilatancy. Classify the soil according to the Unified Soil Classification system
(USCS).

A) GC B) ML C) CL D) CH

31) In a falling head permeability test on a soil sample, the following data are available:

Cross-sectional area of soil = 60 cm2


Length of soil = 10 cm
Initial head =120 cm
Final head = 108 cm
Duration of test = 20 minutes
Diameter of tube = 8 mm
Determine the coefficient of permeability of the soil, k.

A) 7.4 cm/sec B) 7.36 × 10 cm/sec


C) 5.8× 10 cm/sec D) 4.60 × 10 mm/sec

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32) A concrete mixture has a 60:40 ratio of coarse aggregates to fine aggregates. When mixed
separately, 250lbs of coarse aggregates are capable of fitting in a 3ft3 container and 200lbs of
fine aggregates are capable of fitting in a 2ft3 container. Determine the bulk density of the
concrete mixture with a 50:50 ratio.

A) 80lb/ft3
B) 87lb/ft3
C) 90lb/ft3
D) 97lb/ft3

33) Find the bending moment in the below beam for the uniform load given equal to 5 Kips/ft?

A) 250 kips-ft
B) 125 kips-ft
C) 62.5 kips-ft
D) 500 kips-ft

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34) For the shown structure, the horizontal length is 10ft and vertical length is given as 8 ft. The
force applied at the mid-span and is equal to 20 Kips. The inclined support is a roller support.
Find the bending moment in the structure?

A) 50 kips-ft B) 40 kips-ft C) 0.00 kips-ft D) 60 kips-ft

35) Given a soil fill sample with a weight of 62 lbs and a total volume of 864 in3 and a water
content of 15%, determine the percent relative compaction of the sample if the maximum dry
unit weight is 115pcf.

A) 93.8% B) 95.2%
C) 102% D) 127%

36) For the reinforced concrete slabs like the following picture, if the width is given equal to 20’,
then what would be the maximum length of the slab if the designer wants to have two way
slab and have the following reinforcement arrangement?

Length (L) Width (W) =20’

A) 40’ B) 10’

C) 20’ D) 50’

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37) For the following excavation shown below the contractor has used the nailing system to
secure the project. Who should be the first person for inspection of the nailing system?

A) Trained person B) Site supervisor

C) Competent person D) anyone in the site with engineering degree


38) Find the zone of influence for the following excavation where there is no soldier piles.
Neglect the brick made counterforts.

Depth of excavation = 30 ft
A) 22.6 ft B) 30 ft C) 32 ft D) 21.2 ft

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39) Refer to the figures, the net excavation (yd3) from section 78 (14+20) (100s of ft) to section
80 (15+80) is most nearly:

Cut= 0.00 ft2 Fill=555.6 ft3 Sec. 80, 15+80

Cut= 0.00 ft2 Fill=680.2 ft3 Sec. 79, 15+00

Cut= 421.3 ft2 Fill=0.00 ft3 Sec. 78, 14+20

A) 3462 B) 59788

C) 4000 D) 2214

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40) The site manager put the mark of “C” and the following numbers on the lath stake. The
ground elevation is given equal to +20.00. The surveyor measured 1’ for the distance
between horizontal line and the ground surface. With that sign what would be the final
elevation:

19

1’

A) +21.90 B) +19.10

C) +17.10 D) +18.10

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Solutions
Third Style Exam

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1) For the given following data on precedence relationship and duration network, find the
project duration (total float) by using the critical path method (CPM).

Activity Description Predecessors Duration

A Field Surveying - 10

B Soil studies - 15

C Conceptual design A 12

D Structural Basic A 14
design

E Architectural Basic B,C 20


Design

F Landscape Basic B,C 10


Design

G Structural Detail D,E 10


Design

H Architectural Detail D,E 20


Design

I Material take off F,G 5

A) 116 B) 44
C) 57 D) 55

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The Answers is C

This is the project scheduling problem.


The Activity on Branch representation for this project including durations is:

F-10
2 4 I-5
B-15
E-20
G-10 5
0 C-12

A-10 H-20
1 3
D-14

Project duration can be calculated as:


Path 0-1-2 = 22
Path 0-2 = 15 <22, this is a interfering float (subsequent task)
So, the total float for 0-1-2 is 22 days
Path 2-3-4=20+10= 30
Path 1-3=14 <20, this is a interfering float (subsequent task)
Path 2-4= 10 <30, this is a interfering float (subsequent task)
So the total float for 2-3-4 is 30 days
Path 2-3-4-5 =35
Path 1-3-5=34 <35 so the total float for 2-3-4-5 is 35 days
So the project total float (0-1-2-3-4-5) will be: 22+35= 57 days

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2) A surveyor recorded the following leveling measurements. Then he changed the position
of the level with the new height of the level and read 2 new numbers for the BS and FS for the
same spots (A&B) that he read in the first measurements. If the height of level in the first
measurement was 3.5 ft and in the second reading was 4.5 ft, find the elevation of “B” for both
measurements.

Station BS FS

A, Elevation = 130 3.3

B 1.5

A) 1+30 B) 1+31.2
C) 1+33 D) 1+31.8

The Answers is D

This is the surveying problem for the using of the level measures. The height between two points
are given equal to: Back sight (BS) - Foresight (FS) = height, positive answer means FS is higher
than the BS.
The tricky part is the height of the level does not effect on the elevation measurements, so there
is no relation between the heights of level for different readings.
A to B = BS-FS= 3.3-1.5= +1.8
Elevation at B = Elevation at A + height = 130 + 1.8 = 131.8=1+31.8

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3) You are a contractor and have made a bid sheet for a construction project as follows.
Excavation for this project is to occur in the winter meaning it will take more time for the
crew to complete this task. You have calculated that this extra time will increase the labor
cost by 27%. How much are you charging the client for the excavation work given the new
situation?

A) $271,252
B) $318,553
C) $336,352
D) $395,007

Answer “C” is correct:

The new labor cost for the excavation = $75,636+$75,636*27% = $96057.72 The cost of the
equipment stay the same, thus the direct cost of the excavation is = $96057.72+$175,194 =
$271,251.72.
The charge to the client is $271,251.72*1.24=$336,352.13

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4) Which one is a stable structure?

A)

B)

C)

D)

The Answers is D

Choice “A” is a mechanism because of 4 pinned connections.


Choice “B”, Calculations shows that it is an indeterminate structure and thus stable, but it is not
correct, because one of the bays without diagonals make a mechanism.
Choice “C” is the definition for the geometric instability, if all reactions passes through one point
although it satisfies the number of equations.
Choice “D” is the answer, the spring represents the fact of material stiffness in the calculations.

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5) For a retaining wall with 9’ height find the maximum lateral pressure on the wall forms.

A) 150 psf B) 1350 psf


C) 1500 psf D) 1000 psf

The Answers is B

This is the job site work problem. ASCE 37-02, 4.7.1

According to the ASCE 37-02 the lateral pressure from fresh concrete is to be taken as the
hydrostatic pressure:
= ∗
W= concrete density = 150pcf so, Cc=150*9 =1350 psf

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6) The following formwork should support the 22’ by 20’ slab. Find the live load from
personnel and equipment acting temporary during construction on this formwork if it is
classified as heavy duty construction.

A) LL=75 psf B) LL= 73 psf


C) LL= 37.5 psf D) LL=70 psf

The Answers is B

ASCE 37-02
Area of the formwork = 22*20 = 440 sf > 400 sf
So, the following reduction may be used for the actual live load on the form work:
15
= 0.25 +

For the heavy duty construction Lo = 75 psf


AI =the influence area greater than 400 sf = 440 sf
So, Cp= 0.96*75 = 72.4 psf

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7) An auger works on the pile foundations as shown in the following picture. The pile diameter
is given equal to 4’ and pile depth is 60’. If price of auger including the freight expenses is
$1,000,000. The expected cost including 20% profit for each cubic yard is determined as
$100 per cubic yard. How many piles should this auger make to compensate the original
price from the profit?

A) 1200 pile
B) 2000 piles
C) 1786 piles
D) 2500 piles

The Answers is C

Volume of each pile = = ∗ ℎ = 3.14 ∗ 2 ∗ 60 = 753.6 = 27.9 28


Cost of each pile = 28*100 = $2800, Profit = 20%, So Profit = $2800*0.2 = $560
Number piles = $1,000,000 /$560 = 1785.7 = 1786 piles

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8) The clay stratum is shown in the profile below. It is known that the voids ratio of the red
point is 0.9. Assume the compression index is known to be 0.64. Determine the value of
pressure when voids ratio is 0.8.

Elev.: 0 ft.
Unit weight:
130lb/ft3

Elev.: -30ft

Unit weight:
Elev.: -35ft
120lb/ft3

A) 3000lb/ft2 B) 4000lb/ft2 C) 6000lb/ft2 D) 5000lb/ft

The Answers is C

Step1: Initial effective consolidation stress can be calculated based on the information mentioned
above,
= +
= (130 / )(30 ) + (120 / − 62.5 / )(35 − 30 ) = 4188 /
Step2: Based on the equation shown below, the voids ratio can be solved by,
. .
= 10 = (4188 / )10 . = 6000 /
~6000lb/ft2

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9) A shallow foundation is to be constructed below the ground surface in a uniform


cohesionless sand. It is found that the bearing capacity ratio for cohesion of soil below the
foundation, N , is 50. What is the bearing capacity ratio for the vertical effective stress at the
elevation of the foundation base, N ?

A) 38 B)43 C) 60 D)74

The Answers is A

Step 1:
From the figure shown, it can be found that when = , the friction angle is 36.

Step2:
For a friction angle of 36, the bearing capacity ratio for the vertical effective stress at the
elevation of the foundation base, , is 38.

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10) In which condition the soil may have the maximum consolidation?

A) Soil with passing less than 30% from sieve #4


B) Soil with passing more than 80% from sieve #200 with high plasticity index
C) GC
D) ML

The Answers is B

Choice “A” Less than passing from Seive #4 means the soil is granular and no consulidation will
occure for these kind of soils. Elastic setlemnt expected which is not the question, however it is
usually less than consulidation.

Choice “C” is in the same concept with “A”

Coice “D” shows silt, consulidation is likely but the it is less than clay.

Choice “B” shows Clay soil because of size and the plasticity, so the consolidation of this soil
has the maximum value.

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11) As shown in the figure below, a clay layer exists between two sandy soil layers. The
underground water level is 1 m below the ground. The second sandy soil layer contains
confined water. At a point A, which is 7 m below the ground (in the second sandy soil
layer), the head of water pressure is 1 m above the ground. It is known that the unit weight
of soil above the water level is 16.5 kN/m3, the saturated unit weight of the first layer of
sandy soil below the water level is 19.2 kN/m3, the saturated unit weight of the second
layer of sandy soil is 20.2 kN/m3, the saturated unit weight of the clay soil is 18.4 kN/m3,
Determine the effective vertical soil pressure at point A.

H0=1m

1
H1=2 m
W. L. Sandy soil 1
H2=1m 1sat

H3=2 m 2 Clay

H4=2 m 3sat
Sandy soil 2
A

A) 23 kPa B) 35 kPa C) 51 kPa D) 88 kPa

The Answers is C

Effective stress  is equal to the total stress  minus pore water pressureu.  =  − u.
The total stress  is calculated by  = γ H + γ H + γ H + γ H = (16.5 kN/
m )(2 m) + (19.2 kN/m )(1 m) + (18.4 kN/m )(2 m) + (20.2 kN/m )(2 m) = 129.4 kPa
The pore water pressure u is calculated by u = γ H = (9.8 kN/m )(1 m + 2 m + 1 m + 2 m +
2 m) = 78.4 kPa
The effective stress  is
u =  − u = 129.4 kPa − 78.4 kPa = 51 kPa

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12) What is the cause for the swell of soils during the excavation?

A) Occures in the clayey soil when a higher moisture content existed than pior to excavation.
B) Occures in the fine sand during excavation becasuse of increasing the void ratios
C) Occures in all type of soils due to increasing the prosity
D) Swell is just an assumption to have safety factor for the earth work estimations.

The Answers is A

Choice “A” is the definition.

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13) An uniform desposit soil is shown in the following diagram. Information of soil in each
layer is given. Calculate the effective stress for a soil element at point A.

Gs=2.6, S=53%, w = 30%, =


H1=4m 14 /

H2=2m Gs=2.6, S=100%, w = 40%, =


/ A

A) 90kPa B) 80kPa C) 85kPa D) 75kPa

The Answers is C

Step 1: From the diagram, we can see that there are two layers of soil. For each layer, we need to
calculate the unit weight. Equation about unit weight is given as,
+
=
1+
The voids ratio is unknown. Therefore, we need to calculate voids ratio of each layer first.
Step 2: Equation of void ratio of soil is shown as,

To determine the value of void ratio, we need to find volume of voids, , and volume of
solids, . To determine the voids ratio, we can deduce its equation by,

= = = = = =

Therefore, for each layer, the voids ratio can be calculated by,
30%
= = (14 / ) = 0.80
(9.8 / )(53%)

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40%
= = (14 / ) = 0.57
(9.8 / )(100%)
Step 3: For the layer above groundwater level, the unit weight is equal to,
+ 2.6 + (53%)(0.8)
= = (9.8 / ) = 16.5 /
1+ 1 + 0.80
For the layer below groundwater level, the unit weight is equal to,
+ 2.6 + (100%)(0.57)
= = (9.8 / ) = 19.8 /
1+ 1 + 0.57
Step 4: The total stress at point A can be then calculated as,
= + = (16.5 / )(4 ) + (19.8 / )(2 ) = 105.6
The pore water pressure is given as,
u= = (9.8 / )(2 ) = 19.6
Effective pressure at point A can be finally calculated by,
= − = 105.6 − 19.6 = 86
~85kPa

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14) For the following beam if load w=3 KN/m what force should apply on BD so that the shear
Force at A is zero?

W =3 KN/m F=?

A B C D
4m 2m 2m

A) 24KN.
B) 44KN.
C) 64KN.
D) 84KN.

The Answers is A

To solve the problem the typical solution is to writ the equation of equilibrium, but a short
cut method is given as follows:

VB= F/2,

Because the beam BD is symmetric.

Then for the shear force at A we can write: VA = -WL+F/2 = 0

-3*4 + F/2 = 0

So; F=24 KN

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15) In the below picture, find the maximum shear and moment in a simply supported beam that
is loaded with uniform load of w0.

A) V= w0L, M= w0L2/4
B) V= w0L/2, M= w0L/8
C) V= w0L/2 , M= w0L2/8
D) V= 2 w0L, M= w0L2/12

The Answers is C

Step 1: Free body diagram:

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Step 2: Find the reactions:

from symmetry, R1 = R2. And summing vertical


forces:

∑Fy = 0, R1 = R2 = w0L/2

Step 3: Draw the Shear diagram

The load q = -w0 and Shear diagram is result of


integration of loud diagram (Fig. B):

= − = −
2

So the maximum shear occurs when x=0

V= w0L/2

Step 4: Draw the Moment diagram; Moment diagram is result of integration of shear diagram.
Nothing that the moment at x = 0 is zero.

= − − =0+ − = ( − )
2 2 2 2

It can be seen that the maximum bending moment occurs at the center of the beam where the
shear stress is zero (at the middle of the beam).

When = M=

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16) A 10 ft long simply supported concrete beam subject to a uniformly distributed load is
reinforced with two #6 bars at a depth of 13 in. The cross section is 6 in wide and 16 in tall.
The factored shear load at the supports is 6.6 kips. Assume # 3 stirrups are used for shear
support. f = 60000 psi, f = 4000 psi. Determine the required spacing for shear
reinforcement at the supports in the beam.

A) 8 in B) 44 in
C) 6.5 in D) 24 in

The Answers is C

ACI 318-08, 11.1 & 11.2

Step 1: Determine the shear condition of the beam by comparing the given factored

shear force to the shear capacity of the concrete. Use the appropriate equation.

1
=2 = 2(6 )(13 ) 4000 = 9.87
1000

Now determine the factors to be tested based on an applied load factor. According to

The resistance factors table a factor of 0.75 is to be used for shear and torsion.

= (0.75)(9.87 ) = 7.4

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(0.75)(9.87 )
= = 3.7
2 2

3.7 6.6 7.4

Use the required spacing equations


Step 2: Determine the required spacing at the supports and check to make sure this does not
exceed the maximum. If it does then the maximum spacing will be used in place of the required
spacing. The area of the shear reinforcing steel(Av) will be 2 times the area of a # 3 bar since
shear reinforcement passes through the cross section twice. The area of a # 3 bar can be found on
the appropriate table Use A = 0.11 in2.

= (2)(0.11 ) = 0.22

(0.22 )(60000 )
= = = 44
50 (50 )(6 )

(0.22 )(60000 )
= = = 46
0.75 0.75(6 ) 4000

Now calculate the maximum allowed spacing.


13
= = = 6.5 24
2 2
6.5 in spacing controls the spacing at the supports cannot exceed this
6.5 in

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17) Refer to the picture below, which pattern shows the pure shear crack in the reinforced
concrete beam test results?

A) 37 B) 18
C) 28 D) 30

The Answers is D

The pure shear crack happens at the supports and at the web of the beam. It is inclined. Bending
crack is vertical and shear-flexure cracks have the inclined to vertical pattern.

So, Choice “D” shows the pure shear crack pattern.

Choice “A” shows the pure flexural crack, Choices “B” and “C” shows the shear-flexure
interaction pattern.

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18) A circular beam with 6” diameter that is 20 ft long is fixed to a wall at one end and free at
the other. A uniformly distributed load of 0.3 kip/ft respectively are applied to the beam.
The beam is fully braced. Find the maximum elastic stress.

A) 25 KSI B) 50 KSI
C) 41 KSI D) 34 KSI

The Answers is D

Step 1: The maximum moment will be at the fixed end of the beam. Equations for moment for
beams can be found in AISC table 3-23.

wL
M =
2

Step 2: Calculate the bending moment, moment of inertia, and section modulus:

kip
0.3 (20 ft)
ft
M = = 60 kip − ft
2

Ix= πd4/64 = 63.617, Sx = I/C = 63.617/(6/2) = 21.205 in3

Fb= M/Sx = 60 *12 / 21.205 = 33.95 KSI

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19) A set of interior columns are being designed. The columns are continuously braced
perpendicular to the frame. The girders between the columns are W 16 X 45 members and
the Columns are W 12 X 79. The columns span 35 feet apart and are 20 feet in height.
Assume Fy = 50ksi and Fu = 65ksi. Columns are not braced in plane. The base of each
column is tied to the foundation and all other connections are rigid. Determine the available
critical stress assuming K = 1.2.

A) 29.5 ksi B) 27 ksi

C) 25 ksi D) 23.5 ksi

The Answers is D

Step 1: We need to determine the slenderness ratio for our column. First determine the effective
length of the column and the radius of gyration for our member. The effective length is Kl = 24 ft
for our column. Find the appropriate radius of gyration.

For a W 12 X 79 member r = 3.05 in.

Calculate the slenderness ratio as a function of the effective length and the radius of
gyration using appropriate equation.

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in
Kl (1.2)(20ft)(12 ft )
= = 94.4
r 3.05in

Step 2: Using the appropriate table we can associate the slenderness ratio of our column
with an available critical stress.

If we interpolate between a slenderness ratio of 94 and 95 on this table we can


approximate the available critical stress to be 23.5 ksi.
~23.5 ksi

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20) A gutter at the side of a street has a curb height of 8 inches, slope along the length of the
street of 0.7%, and Manning n=0.032. The pavement slopes from the center of the street to
the gutter at 5%. What is the flow capacity of this gutter?

A) 4.9 cfs
B) 8.0 cfs
C) 11.1 cfs
D) 14.7 cfs

The Answers is B

Step 1: When the gutter is full, the water extends a distance =8/0.05=160 inches=13.3 feet from
the curb. The cross sectional area A=0.5(13.3)(8/12)=4.44 ft2, and wetted perimeter P=
8/12+13.3 = 14 ft, hydraulic radius Rh=(4.44)/(14)=0.317 ft.
K
Step 2: Manning’s equation for the discharge Q  ARh2 / 3 S 1/ 2 , where K=1 for metric units,
n
K=1.49 for USCS units, n = Manning roughness coefficient

Rh=A/P = hydraulic radius, A = cross sectional area, P = wetted perimeter, S = channel slope, so
Q=(1.49/0.032)(4.44)(0.317)2/3 (.7/100)1/2 = 8.0 cfs.

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21) Water from a 175-ac light industrial watershed is collected and drained by a trapezoidal
open channel. The channel (Manning' roughness coefficient, = 0.02) has a 4.5-ft-wide
bottom and 1:1 sides. The channel direction is perpendicular to a road where twin, side-by-
side 54-in-diameter corrugated metal pipe (CMP) culverts take the water under the roadway.
The average slope of the channel and culverts is 0.75% (i.e., 0.0075 ft/ft). The time for
runoff from the farthest part of the watershed to begin contributing to the flow is 35 min. -
Using the rational method and assuming the intensity after 35 min is 2 in/hr, what is the
runoff?

A) 308 B) 180

C) 228 D) 340

The Answers is C

The runoff is given by the rational formula.

= =( . ) ( )=

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22) A parking lot adjoining a shopping center has a surface area of 3.5 acres. A rainstorm that
delivers rainfall at a rate of 2.5 inches/hour occurs. The parking area has a runoff
coefficient C=0.7. What is the peak runoff from the parking lot during this rainstorm?

A) 0.62 cfs B) 2.5 cfs C) 6.13 cfs D) 25 cfs

The Answers is C

Step 1: The rational formula is

Q=CiA

where Q is the discharge, C is the runoff coefficient, i is the rainfall intensity in inches/hour, and
A is the drainage area in acres.

Step 2: Solve for Q = (0.7) (2.5) (3.5) = 6.13 cfs

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23) A 10 acre basin stores approximately 7.0 inches of water. What is the runoff for the given
basin for a 2-hr storm with an average of 0.5 in/hr of rainfall?

A) 0 inches B) 0.02 inches C) 0.05 inches D) 0.10 inches

The Answers is B

Use the NRCS Rainfall-Runoff method to determine the amount of runoff.


Step 1: Define all variables

= .

= ∗ . =

Step 2: Solve for runoff (Q)


( . ) ( . ∗ ) .
= = = = .
. . ∗ .

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24) A horizontal pipeline carries water at a discharge of 13.5 cfs. Upstream of a contraction the
pipe diameter is 24 inches and pressure is 14 psi, while downstream of the contraction the
diameter is 18 inches. Neglecting head loss, what is the pressure downstream?

A) 11.2 psi
B) 13.7 psi
C) 14.2 psi
D) 15.9 psi

The Answers is B

p1 V12 p V2
z1    z2  2  2
Step 1: The Bernoulli equation states that  2g  2 g , where z =
elevation, p = pressure, V = average velocity, g = acceleration of gravity , and = specific
weight of water. Let point 1 be upstream of the contraction, and point 2 downstream.

Step 2: Since pipe is horizontal, z1=z2. Area A1= D2/4 = 3.14 ft2, A2= 3.14(18/12)2/4=
1.77ft2. V1=Q1/A1= (13.5)/(3.14)= 4.3 ft/sec, V2=Q2/A2= (13.5)/(1.77)=7.63 ft/sec. Also
p1=14 psi = 14(144)=2020 lbs/ft2, p1/ =4900/62.4 = 32.3 ft.

p2 p1 V12 V22
  
Step 3: Rearranging the Bernoulli Eq gives   2 g 2 g =32.3 + (4.3)2/2/32.2 -
(7.63)2/2/32.2 = 31.7 ft; p2=31.7(62.4 lbs/ft3)/144=13.7 psi.

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25) Which one has more pressure at the depth of h = 10 ft? (the inclined surfaces has the
measure of angle of 60 degree.)

A) 624 psf B) 62.4 psf C) 312 psf D) 1248 psf

The Answers is A

This question is about the fluid mechanics.


According to the fluid mechanic principles, the pressure is not related to the shape, so at the
depth of “h” the amount of pressure is:
P= γ . h
So, 62.4 * 10 = 624 lb/ft2

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26) Find the bending moment in the below beam for the concentrated load given equal to 5
Kips?

10ft 10ft

H= 5ft

A) 25 Kips-ft B) 5 kips-ft
C) 0.00 Kips-ft D) none of them

The Answers is C

This is a tricky question!

This is not a beam, so there is not a bending moment. This is a truss with axial forces.

So M=0.00

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27) An equal-tangent crest vertical curve is to connect grades of +2.0% and -3%. The design
sight distance on the curve is 645 ft. Determine the minimum length of the curve to meet the
sign distance requirement. (Assume the height of driver’s eyes above the roadway surface is
3.5 ft, and the height of object above the roadway surface is 2.0 ft.)

A) 689.50 B) 963.91 C) 734.30 D) 878.40

The Answers is B

P 3-152, AASHTO Geometric Design-Green Book 2011, 2011, 6th Ed.

Step 1:

If we assume that the curve length (L) is greater than the sight distance (S), under the standard
criteria of the heights of driver’s eyes and objects above the roadway surface, the minimum
curve length is

=
2,158

Step 2:

The grades of the two tangents are g1=+2.0% and g2=-3.0%, respectively. Therefore, the
absolute value of algebraic difference in grades (%) is

=| − | = |2 − (−3)| = 5

Step 3:

The minimum curve length is

(5)(645)
= = ≅ 963.91
2,158 2,158

which is greater than the sight distance, so the assumption that is correct.

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28) A horizontal circular curve has an intersection angle of 16. The length of middle ordinate
(M) is 8.00 ft. The radius (ft) of the curve is most nearly

PI

T T

M =8.00 ft
PC LC PT

R I =16 R

A) 401.9 B) 786.4 C) 4.0 D) 822.0

The Answers is D

The relationship between the length of middle ordinate (M), radius of the curve (R), and

intersection angle (I) is M = R 1 − cos , which can be arranged into


M 8 ft
R= = ≅ 822.04 ft
I 16°
1 − cos 1 − cos
2 2

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29) Given the following traffic count data:

Time Interval No. of Vehicles

8:00-8:15 1400

8:15-8:30 1600

8:30-8:45 2200

8:45-9:00 1800

The peak hour factor is closest to:

A) 0.795 B) 0.880

C) 0.650 D) 0.945

The Answers is A

Page 4-4, Equations 4-2 and 4-3, HCM 2010

Solution for Question 1:

V 1400  1600  2200  1800


PHF    0.795 ,
4  V15 4  2200

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30) A sieve analysis on a non-organic soil reveals that 82% of the soil passes No. 200 sieve
(0.075 mm). The liquid limit of the soil is 24%, and the soil has a medium toughness and a
very slow dilatancy. Classify the soil according to the Unified Soil Classification system
(USCS).

A) GC B) ML C) CL D) CH

The Answers is A

Step 1:
Because 82% of the soil is smaller than No. 200 sieve size, which is larger than 50%, the soil is
fine-grained according to the Unified Soil Classification table
Step 2:
Because the liquid limit (24%) is less than 50%, the soil is low plastic. Therefore, the second
letter of the USCS group symbol is L.
Step 3:
Because the soil is non-organic, the first letter of the USCS group symbol is not O. Because the
soil has a medium toughness and a very slow dilatancy, it contains more clay than silt. The first
letter of the USCS group symbol is C according to the Unified Soil Classification table.
Therefore, the soil is classified as CL according to USCS.

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31) In a falling head permeability test on a soil sample, the following data are available:

Cross-sectional area of soil = 60 cm2


Length of soil = 10 cm
Initial head =120 cm
Final head = 108 cm
Duration of test = 20 minutes
Diameter of tube = 8 mm
Determine the coefficient of permeability of the soil, k.

A) 7.4 cm/sec B) 7.36 × 10 cm/sec


C) 5.8× 10 cm/sec D) 4.60 × 10 mm/sec

The Answers is B

Step 1:
From a falling head test, coefficient of permeability, k, is calculated by
2.303aL h
k= log ( )
At h
Where a = area of reservoir tube; L = length of flow; A=cross-sectional area of soil; tE=elapsed
time during falling head test; h1=initial head; h2=final head.
Step 2:
From the given information, it is known that
( )
= = = 0.503 cm , L = 10 cm, A = 60 cm , t = 20 minutes = 20 minutes ×

60 = 1200 seconds, h = 120 cm,h = 108 cm.

Therefore,
2.303aL h 2.303(0.503cm )(10 cm) 120 cm
k= log = log
At h (60 cm )(1200 seconds) 108 cm

= 7.36 × 10 cm/sec

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32) A concrete mixture has a 60:40 ratio of coarse aggregates to fine aggregates. When mixed
separately, 250lbs of coarse aggregates are capable of fitting in a 3ft3 container and 200lbs
of fine aggregates are capable of fitting in a 2ft3 container. Determine the bulk density of
the concrete mixture with a 50:50 ratio.

A) 80lb/ft3
B) 87lb/ft3
C) 90lb/ft3
D) 97lb/ft3

The Answers is C

Step 1. Determine the bulk unit weights of each type of aggregate with the following
formula:

250 83
= =
3

200 100
= =
2

Step 2. Since it’s a 60:40 ratio, simply take the percentage of each density and divided by 2.

= 0.6(83) + 0.4(100) = 90

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33) Find the bending moment in the below beam for the uniform load given equal to 5 Kips/ft?

A) 250 kips-ft
B) 125 kips-ft
C) 62.5 kips-ft
D) 500 kips-ft

The Answers is C

This is a tricky question!

In general this is a truss and technically there is not bending moment in whole structure. But the
members may get the flexure if the forces are not applied on the joints.

In this case, there is uniform force on the 2 members of the truss. So each member individually
will have bending moment. Therefore,

M= 5*102/8 = 62.5 kips-ft

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34) For the shown structure, the horizontal length is 10ft and vertical length is given as 8 ft. The
force applied at the mid-span and is equal to 20 Kips. The inclined support is a roller
support.
Find the bending moment in the structure?

A) 50 kips-ft B) 40 kips-ft C) 0.00 kips-ft D) 60 kips-ft

The Answers is C

This question shows the condition for the instable structure. If all reactions of a structure passes
through one point then we cannot write the equation of equilibrium and we will lose one
equation.

So, this is the instable structure:

Then before any actions occures in this structure the structure will fail and thus there is no
bending moment in this structure.

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35) Given a soil fill sample with a weight of 62 lbs and a total volume of 864 in3 and a water
content of 15%, determine the percent relative compaction of the sample if the maximum
dry unit weight is 115pcf.

A) 93.8% B) 95.2%
C) 102% D) 127%

The Answers is A

Step 1

The relative compaction cannot exceed 100%. That being known answers C and D are eliminated. To
determine the relative compaction we must determine the dry unit weight of the fill sample. Then we can
compare it to the maximum dry unit weight.

62
1 62
864 0.5
12
= = = = 107.8
,% 15% 1.15
1+ 1+
100% 100%

Step 2

The relative compaction is the dry unit weight of the sample divided by the maximum unit weight:

107.8
× 100% = × 100% = 93.8%
, 115

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36) For the reinforced concrete slabs like the following picture, if the width is given equal to
20’, then what would be the maximum length of the slab if the designer wants to have two
way slab and have the following reinforcement arrangement?

Length (L) Width (W) =20’

A) 40’ B) 10’

C) 20’ D) 50’

The Answers is A

ACI 318-08, 13.6.1.2. : Panels shall be rectangular with a ratio of longer to shorter span less
than or equal to 2 for the 2 way slabs. (Also see below picture)

According to the code, ≤2

So, = 2 ∗ 20 = 40′
The slab can have 40’ to be considered as a two way slab. Thus the distribution of bending
moment in both direction needs reinforcement for negative and positive bending moment in both
directions.

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37) For the following excavation shown below the contractor has used the nailing system to
secure the project. Who should be the first person for inspection of the nailing system?

A) Trained person B) Site supervisor

C) Competent person D) anyone in the site with engineering degree

The Answers is A

The competent person is not necessarily have sufficient knowledge about the nailing. Choices
“B” and “D” are also are not correct. For all excavations a trained person should be the first who
enter.

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38) Find the zone of influence for the following excavation where there is no soldier piles.
Neglect the brick made counterforts.

Depth of excavation = 30 ft
A) 22.6 ft
B) 30 ft
C) 32 ft
D) 21.2 ft

The Answers is A

Adjacent Construction Project Manual, Office of Joint Development & Adjacent Construction,
September 16, 2013 (Revision 5)
An envelope starting at a point two feet below the lowest point of the underground structure or
excavation continuing upward at a forty five (45) degree angle from the horizontal at the vertical
projection of the outside limits of the Public structure.
An envelope starting at a point two feet below the lowest point of Public structure continuing
upwards at a forty five (45) degree angle from the horizontal, up to the horizontal projection of
the outside limits of the adjacent underground structure or excavation, projected at grade level.
So, depth of excavation = 30 and according to the code 2’ should be added so, 30+2 =32
Horizontal distance considering the 45 degree = 32*Cos (45) = 22.6 ft

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39) Refer to the figures, the net excavation (yd3) from section 78 (14+20) (100s of ft) to section
80 (15+80) is most nearly:

Cut= 0.00 ft2 Fill=555.6 ft3 Sec. 80, 15+80

Cut= 0.00 ft2 Fill=680.2 ft3 Sec. 79, 15+00

Cut= 421.3 ft2 Fill=0.00 ft3 Sec. 78, 14+20

A) 3462 B) 59788

C) 4000 D) 2214

The Answers is D

Use Average End Area Method (NCEES P. 167, Earthwork Formula):


Sec 80 & 79: No excavation, both sections shows embankment:
( . . )
= ∗ (1580 − 1500) = 49432

Sec 79 & 78: There is excavation and embankment between these two sections:
( . )
= ∗ (1500 − 1420) = 27208
( . )
= ∗ (1500 − 1420) = 16852

Net excavation: =∑ –∑ = 49432 + 27208 − 16852 = 59788

Net excavation in yd3= = 2214.37 yd3

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40) The site manager put the mark of “C” and the following numbers on the lath stake. The
ground elevation is given equal to +20.00. The surveyor measured 1’ for the distance
between horizontal line and the ground surface. With that sign what would be the final
elevation:

19

1’
A) +21.90 B) +19.10

C) +17.10 D) +18.10

The Answers is B

The sign of “C” means: Cut is required. And the horizontal line shows the reference point for it.
The number on stake shows the required cut below the horizontal line.
So, the final elevation will be equal to 1.9’ below the horizontal line. Since the distance between
the ground and the horizontal is 1’, then it is necessary for the (1.9-1) =0.9’ for excavation. The
final ground elevation will be: +20.00 – 0.9 = 19.10

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Fourth PE Style Exam


(AM)
Questions

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1) The Building Cost Index (BCI) for structural iron work developed by which formula?

A) BCI = 68.36 hours of skilled worker at 20-city average of bricklayers + carpenters +


structural ironworkers rate+25 cwt of standard steel shapes at the mill price prior to 1996.
B) BCI = 200 hours of common labor at 20-city average of common labor rates + 25 cwt of
standard steel structural shape prior to 1996
C) Fabricated 20-city price from 1996+1.128 tons of Portland cement + 1088 board-ft of 2x4
lumber
D) Both A & C

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2) You are replacing 12, 18” wide 2 use beams and 10, 24” wide 1-use beams. How much

does labor cost for this project?

A) $135.10
B) $72.60
C) $75.00
D) $145.50

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3) A project is described by the following precedence table. The project manager wants to
decrease the normal project time by 4 days. Most nearly, how much will it cost to reduce the
project completion time by four days?

Activity Predecessors Normal time Crash Normal Crash


(days) time cost daily cost daily

A - 8 6 50 100

B A 2 1 80 140

C A 6 4 80 100

D B 2 1 100 150

E C 6 3 90 200

F E 3 1 80 160

G D,F 4 2 120 300

A) 200 B) 120
C) 180 D) 140

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3) A dump-hauler has a purchase price of $109,000. Freight for delivery is $1000. Tires are an
additional 21,000 with the estimated life time of 4500 hours. The hauler expected to operate
1500 hours annually and for 11 years. Maintenance fees for the hauler is estimated at
$18000. What is the before-tax estimated hourly cost of operation excluding operator labor
cost?

A) 35 B) 41
C) 24 D) 15

4) In the activity network below, what is the total float of Task 5?

A) 0 B) 1
C) 2 D) 3

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5) The Figure below shows a scaffolding for a bridge as a heavy construction. If the deck
thickness of the bridge is given equal to 4’, and the span length between scaffolding columns is
given equal to 4’, find the axial force in those columns for the dead and personnel and equipment
combination. (No variable material on the scaffolding will be stored.)

A) P= 2400 lbs
B) P=13440 lbs
C) P= 9600 lbs
D) P= 1200 lbs

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6) If the weight of the white car is 1.5 US tons, for lifting up by a crane like the left figure,
find the minimum safe resistive moment for the crane to prevent of an accident shown in the
right figure if the required lever arm is 30’. If the weight of crane is given equal to 10 tons, then
find the required distance between cranes jacks on the ground

30’

A) MR< 90,000 lb-ft B) MR= 90,000 lb-ft


C) MR≥ 90,000 lb-ft D) None of the answers

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7) For the following haul road crown what is the maximum possible slope?

A) 6%
B) 12%
C) 3%
D) 1%

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8) Point A is 5 m below the ground. The underground water level is 2 m below the ground.
There are two deposits of sandy soil at the site. The first deposit of soil has a depth of 3 m, and a
total unit weight (above the water level) of 13.2 kN/m3, a saturated unit weight of 16.5 kN/m3.
The second deposit of soil has a saturated unit weight of 17.6 kN/m3. Determine the effective
vertical soil pressure at point A.

1
H1=2 m
W. L. Sandy soil 1
H2=1m 1sat

H3=2 m 2sat
Sandy soil 2
A

A) 23.5 kPa B) 48.7 kPa C) 53.2 kPa D) 72.4 kPa

9) A footing is founded at the depth of Df below the ground surface as embedded


foundation. Another footing with the same size is on top of the soil. Which one shows more
bearing capacity?

A) No changes in bearing stress because the area is important


B) Buried one has more bearing stress
C) Surface one has more bearing stress
D) It depends on the soil parameters.

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10) A 2.4m thick clay layer is between two saturated 3m sand layers. The average effective
vertical stress in the clay (at the depth of 5.4 m) is given equal to 30 kPa. Determine the total
stress at the depth of 5.4m.

A) 54 B) 84 C) 79 D) 30

11) Determine the lateral force (per unit length of wall) on the frictionless retaining wall, as
shown in the figure below. The soil behind of the wall is clean sand with a saturated unit weight
of 20.0 kN/m3 and angle of internal friction of 36. Groundwater level is at the surface of the
ground.

Groundwater Level

sat =20 kN/m3


H=6 m
=36

A) 124.1 kN/m B) 202.1 kN/m


C) 224.1 kN/m D) 420.1 kN/m

12) A uniform deposit soil is shown in the following diagram. Information of soil in each
layer is given. Assume that the effective stress at point A is 100kPa, determine the value of H2.

H1=3m γ = 16 /

H2 γ = 17 /

H3=2m
γ = 18 / A

A) 2.00m B) 2.50m C) 3.00m D) 3.50m

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13) Information of a soil is shown in the following diagram. Assume that the surcharge is
40kPa acting at the top of soil as shown in the diagram. If the effective pressure at point A is
150kPa. Determine the water content of this soil.

H1=6m G = 2.7, e = 1.0

A) 15.6% B) 14.2% C) 13.3% D) 12.1%

14) A load of 12000 lb is going to put 10 ft from the left support on a long beam. If the
maximum permissible bending stress is 24,000 psi. Determine the minimum section modulus for
the supposed beam. E = 30 × 106 psi.

A) 12 in3

B) 35 in3

C) 40 in3

D) 25 in3

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15) Determine h if the maximum slope on the beam shown below is measured as -0.02 rad.

b = 4 in E = 200 kpsi w = 100 lb/in L = 3 ft

A) 4.38 in
B) 5.26 in
C) 6.15 in
D) 7.07 in

16) A 15 ft long reinforced concrete cantilever beam is subject to factored shear of 105 kips
at the fixed end. The shear support from the concrete is 57 kips. The beam cross section is 18 in
by 28 in. f = 60000 psi, f = 4000 psi. The depth of the steel is 25 in. #3 stirrups are used.
Determine the required spacing for the shear reinforcement at the support.

A) 12 in B) 4.4 in
C) 12.5 in D) 3.9 in

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17) The column shown is a W 21 X 50 steel member. The applied dead load is 7 kips.
Neglect self-weight. The column length is 12 ft tall. The column is not braced along the length.
Assume Fy = 50ksi. Determine the effective length of the column.

A) 12 ft B) 14.4 ft
C) 24.2 ft D) 9.5 ft

18) A simply supported and fully braced beam spans 30 ft and carries a dead and live
distributed load of 0.5 kip/ft and 0.8 kip/ft respectively. Using the 1.2D + 1.6L combination. If
the Plastic section modulus is given equal to 55 in3 for the assumed section, find the maximum
stress in the section. (The beam made of steel with 50 KSI strength.)

A) 50 KSI B) 46 KSI
C) 30 KSI D) 38 KSI

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19) The top beam of the system is a W 18 X 60 members, the column is a W 14 X 74


members, and the middle two beams are W 21 X 73 members. The total height of the column is
30 ft. The length of all beams is 35 ft. Assume Fy and Fu are 50 ksi and 65 ksi respectively.
Assume there is no reduction in stiffness for inelastic buckling and connections are pinned.
Assume sidesway is not prevented. Determine the effective length factor for the column top half
of the column.

A) k = 2.1 B) k = 1.33
C) k = 1.0 D) k = 1.2

20) Three rain gages are located within or nearby a watershed, whose total area is 1100 acres.
Using the Thiessen polygon method, the portions of the watershed associated with gages A, B,
and C are 520, 310, and 270 acres, respectively. For a particular storm, it is determined that the
excess rainfall for these 3 portions of the watershed is 0.95, 1.23, and 1.44 inches, respectively.
What is the volume of runoff from this watershed for this storm?

A) 19.2 MG
B) 28.3 MG
C) 34.3 MG
D) 44.7 MG

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21) At the design discharge, an existing single circular culvert has the following
characteristics: headwater elevation = 5.5 ft above invert, culvert diameter= 2.5 ft, critical depth
= 1.9 ft, uniform depth = 1.7 ft, and the outlet is free. Which of the following describes the
culvert flow under these conditions?

A) Inlet control, inlet is not submerged, critical flow at the inlet


B) Inlet control, inlet is submerged with orifice flow control
C) Outlet control, inlet is submerged
D) Outlet control, inlet is not submerged

22) Runoff from a 3-acre site is to be drained by a channel. The time of concentration for
this site is 40 minutes. The site has a runoff coefficient C=0.2. Rainfall quantities to be used for
design are 0.5 inches for a storm of duration 20 minutes, 0.7 inches for duration 40 minutes, and
0.9 inches for duration 60 minutes. For what discharge should this channel be designed?

A) 0.7 cfs B) 0.63 cfs C) 1.04 cfs D) 40 cfs

23) Given the following hyetograph what is the total precipitation?

A) 1.4 inches B) 1.9 inches C) 3.8 inches D) 5.0 inches

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24) All three pipes in the figure below have the same length and are connected in parallel.
The diameters are given. Determine the ratio of velocities in the branches. Assume the friction
factor for all the lines to be the same.

A) V to V toV = 1 to 1.223 to 1.684 C) V to V toV = 1 to 1.118 to 1.224

B) V to V toV = 1 to 2.3 to 3.1 D) V to V to V = 1 to 1.118 to 1.224

25) What is the approximate runoff for a watershed with the given hydrograph?

A) 4.7 ft3 B) 14,500 ft3 C) 17,000 ft3 D) 23,500 ft3

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26) Two pipelines carry water from a common starting point to a common end point. The
two pipes have the same friction factor f and diameter, but pipe 1 is twice as long as pipe 2.
What fraction of the discharge between the start and end points flows through pipe 1?

(A) 34% (B) 41% (C) 50% (D) 67%

27) A 600 ft long equal-tangent crest vertical curve connects grades of +4.0% and -2.5%. The
point of vertical intersection (PVI) is located at station 123+00 with an elevation of 62.80 ft.
What is the elevation of the PVT?

A) 55.30 ft B) 70.30 ft C) 73.50 ft D) 65.30 ft

28) A horizontal circular curve has a radius of 120 ft. The station of PC is sta 22+10.00. At
point X (station 22+60.00) on the curve, a stake is to be placed. The deflection angle between
tangent PI-PC and chord X-PC is most nearly

PI

T T
X Station

22+60.00
PC LC PT
Station
22+10.00

R=120 ft d
R

A) 14°56 12" B) 13°06 12"


C) 11°56 12" D) 11°44′43"

29) What is the minimum Average Daily Traffic (ADT) passing in one lane with the speed of
50 mph in the level terrain?

A) 1500-2000 B) 400-1500

C) >2000 D) = 2000
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30) Particle size analysis was carried out on a soil with the results shown in the following
table. Classify the soil according to the Unified Soil Classification system (USCS).

Size Percent Passing


12.5 mm 100
9.5 mm 60
No. 4 (4.75 mm) 40
No. 20 (0.85 mm) 30
No. 60 (0.25 mm) 10
No. 200 (0.075 mm) 4

A) GC B) GP C) SP D) SM

31) The subgrade of a highway is compacted from a natural soil layer. It is known that the
natural soil has a total unit weight of 20 kN/m3, and a dry unit weight of 18 kN/m3. It needs to
be compacted to attain a dry unit weight of 19 kN/m3 and a water content of 15%. What is the
total unit weight of the compacted soil?

A) 21.85 B) 22.85 C) 23.85 D) 24.85

32) An engineer specifies that the concrete structure must have a strength to withstand an
object with a diameter of 0.75 inches and a force of 2500 lbs. Determine the required average
compressive strength for a plant where the standard deviation is unknown given the equations.
The following table may be consulted:
= + . = + . −

Specified Compressive Required Average Compressive


Strength, f’c (psi) Strength, f’cr (psi)
< 3000 f’c + 1000
3000 to 5000 f’c + 1200
> 5000 f’c + 1400

A) 5659 psi
B) 6259 psi
C) 6659 psi
D) 7059 psi

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33) The stress-strain test of a steel bar shows in the following graph. Which point shows the
yield stress?

A) C
B) B
C) A
D) D

34) A circular foundation on the soil with a diameter of 10 feet is tested to find the allowable
bearing capacity. If the soil fails under a force of 500,000 lb, and the factor of safety considered
as 3, find the allowable stress of soil.

A) 14.7 psi B) 44.2 psi C) 56.7 psi D) 113.4 psi

35) A new roadway construction requires the sub base soil to have a dry density of 125 pcf
and optimum moisture content (OMC) of 12.5%. A smooth drum roller will be used to compact
the soil in 4-inch-thick lifts while the width is 32 ft. The soil has been tested in place and the
results show moisture content of 6%. The water must be added to the stationing length of 100ft
to obtain the required moisture content for compaction. How many gallons per yard must be
added to meet the requirements?

A) 3.42 gal/yd2
B) 5.63 gal/yd2
C) 2.34 gal/yd2
D) 2.93 gal/yd2

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36) For the reinforced concrete slabs like the following picture, if the width is given equal to
20’, then what would be the maximum length of the slab if the designer wants to have two way
slab and have the following reinforcement arrangement? (The slab supported by edge beam in
two sides and there is no edge beam at the other sides.)

Edge beams No edge beam Edge beam

20’

A) 40’ B) It’s impossible to have two way slab


C) 20’ D) 55

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37) For the following bridge shown in the following picture, what is the maximum distance
between the net and the bridge deck that a fall can be arrested by that net?

Maximum fall arrested height net

A) 10’ B) 15’

C) 30’ D) 20’

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38) For the excavation shown in the below figure, find the lateral earth pressure on each
supporting structures if the spacing of them are about 10’. (Ka=0.3, Soil density = 150 pcf)

Spacing=10’ 20’ including height of foundation

A) 11250 lb/ft B) 1125 lb/ft

C) 9000 lb/ft D) 900 lb/ft

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39) 100 yd3 of bank run soil is excavated and stockpiled before being transported and
subsequently compacted. Swell and shrinkage factors for the soil are given equal to 0.30 and
0.12 respectively. The final volume of the compacted earth is most nearly.

A) 130 B) 65
C) 88 D) 112

40) For the following picture which shows a ditch checks for erosion control, which answer
is the best description of both ditches?

Figure 1 Figure 2

A) 1: Rock ditch for grade <6%, 2: Bale ditch for grade >6%
B) 1: Bale ditch for grade >6%, 2: Rock ditch for grade <6%,
C) 1: Rock ditch for grade >6%, 2: Bale ditch for grade <6%
D) 1: Rock ditch for grade >2%, 2: Bale ditch for grade <2%

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Solutions
Fourth Style Exam

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1) The Building Cost Index (BCI) for structural iron work developed by which formula?

A) BCI = 68.36 hours of skilled worker at 20-city average of bricklayers + carpenters +


structural ironworkers rate+25 cwt of standard steel shapes at the mill price prior to 1996.
B) BCI = 200 hours of common labor at 20-city average of common labor rates + 25 cwt of
standard steel structural shape prior to 1996
C) Fabricated 20-city price from 1996+1.128 tons of Portland cement + 1088 board-ft of 2x4
lumber
D) Both A & C

The Answers is D

The Engineering News-records BCI is developed with the explanation of both A & C. The
explanation of “B” is about the Construction Cost Index (CCI).

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2) You are replacing 12, 18” wide 2 use beams and 10, 24” wide 1-use beams. How much

does labor cost for this project?

A) $135.10
B) $72.60
C) $75.00
D) $145.50

The Answers is A

12 – 18”, 2 use = $6.05 * 12 = $72.6


10 – 24”, 1 use = $6.25*10 = $62.5
Total = $72.6+$62.5 = $135.1

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3) A project is described by the following precedence table. The project manager wants to
decrease the normal project time by 4 days. Most nearly, how much will it cost to reduce the
project completion time by four days?

Activity Predecessors Normal time Crash Normal Crash


(days) time cost daily cost daily

A - 8 6 50 100

B A 2 1 80 140

C A 6 4 80 100

D B 2 1 100 150

E C 6 3 90 200

F E 3 1 80 160

G D,F 4 2 120 300

A) 200 B) 120
C) 180 D) 140

The Answers is D

According to the table the CPM chart represents the following free floats:

A C E F

B D G

Free floats are:

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Path 1: A-B-D-G= 16

Path 2: A-B-D-E-F-G=25

Path 3: A-C-E-F-G= 27 critical path

In order to reduce the overall project duration by 4 days, the mot inexpensive operation is to
allocate additional resources (crash) to activities C, D, and A.

For 4 days we can consider C for 2 days and A for the other 2 days. So

The critical path with be equal to 27-4 = 23 days.

The additional costs will be equal to:

For C: 100-80 = $20 daily, 2*20=$40 for two days

For A: 100-50 = $50 daily, 2*50=$100 for two days.

The total additional cost due the project crash = 100+40= $140

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3) A dump-hauler has a purchase price of $109,000. Freight for delivery is $1000. Tires are an
additional 21,000 with the estimated life time of 4500 hours. The hauler expected to operate
1500 hours annually and for 11 years. Maintenance fees for the hauler is estimated at
$18000. What is the before-tax estimated hourly cost of operation excluding operator labor
cost?

A) 35 B) 41
C) 24 D) 15

The Answers is C

The best way to estimate the hourly cost is to find all expenditures and cost for a year, then the
hourly cost can be estimated prorate:

The total hauler cost = 109000+1000= $110,000

The hauler price per year: 110,000+/11= $10,000 per year

Tires will work 4500 hr and every year 1500 years of operation is expected so: 4500/1500=3
years is the life time for the tires

Therefore, tire costs for a year is become: 21000/3 = $7000

Total annual expenditures = $10,000+$7,000+$18000 = $35,000

Hourly rate = 35000/1500 hr/year = 23.3 say $24.00

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4) In the activity network below, what is the total float of Task 5?

A) 0 B) 1
C) 2 D) 3

The Answers is A

The complete solution to this problem requires calculating the ES, LS, EF, LF, and the float (as
follows).

ES LS EF LF Float

1 0 0 3 3 0

2 3 7 13 17 4

3 3 3 9 9 0

4 9 9 17 17 0

5 17 17 21 21 0

Therefore, task 5 has a total float of 0.

Short Cut

There is no need to calculate anything in this problem. Task 5 is the finishing task of this project
and therefore, must be on the critical path. All tasks that are on critical path have always zero
floats. Therefore, (A) is the correct answer.

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5) The Figure below shows a scaffolding for a bridge as a heavy construction. If the deck
thickness of the bridge is given equal to 4’, and the span length between scaffolding columns is
given equal to 4’, find the axial force in those columns for the dead and personnel and equipment
combination. (No variable material on the scaffolding will be stored.)

A) P= 2400 lbs
B) P=13440 lbs
C) P= 9600 lbs
D) P= 1200 lbs

The Answers is B

According to the load classification, the 75 psf live load is used for the heavy construction with
motorized buggies and heavy equipment. There is no variable material on scaffolding so only the
live load of the personnel and their equipment shall be considered.
The area on each column is less than 400sf so no reduction of live loads shall be considered.
Concrete density = 150 pcf
So, Dead load = 4*150= 600 lb/sf
Live load= 75 lb/sf
U=1.2D+1.6L = 1.2*600+1.6*75= 840 lb/sf
For the 4’*4’ scaffolding grid the axial force will be equal to: 840*4*4= 13440 lbs

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6) If the weight of the white car is 1.5 US tons, for lifting up by a crane like the left figure,
find the minimum safe resistive moment for the crane to prevent of an accident shown in the
right figure if the required lever arm is 30’. If the weight of crane is given equal to 10 tons, then
find the required distance between cranes jacks on the ground

30’

A) MR< 90,000 lb-ft B) MR= 90,000 lb-ft


C) MR≥ 90,000 lb-ft D) None of the answers

The Answers is C

The resistive moment should be equal to or bigger than the overturning moment.
Moverturning= Force * Lever arm = 1.5* 2000 lbs * 30’ = 90,000 lb-ft
So, to have the safe lifting the resistive moment (MR) should be bigger than the overturning
moment: MR≥ 90,000 lb-ft

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7) For the following haul road crown what is the maximum possible slope?

A) 6%
B) 12%
C) 3%
D) 1%

The Answers is C

The ideal crown slope is 3%. Lower slopes my allow water to pool on the road and more than
3% cause the uneven tire wear.

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8) Point A is 5 m below the ground. The underground water level is 2 m below the ground.
There are two deposits of sandy soil at the site. The first deposit of soil has a depth of 3 m, and a
total unit weight (above the water level) of 13.2 kN/m3, a saturated unit weight of 16.5 kN/m3.
The second deposit of soil has a saturated unit weight of 17.6 kN/m3. Determine the effective
vertical soil pressure at point A.

1
H1=2 m
W. L. Sandy soil 1
H2=1m 1sat

H3=2 m 2sat
Sandy soil 2
A

A) 23.5 kPa B) 48.7 kPa C) 53.2 kPa D) 72.4 kPa

The Answers is B

Effective stress  is equal to the total stress  minus pore water pressure . =  − .
Step 1:
The total stress  is calculated by = + + =( . / )( )+
( . / )( )+( . / )( )= .
Step 2:
The pore water pressure is calculated by = =( . / )( + )=
.
Step 3:
The effective stress  is
=− = . − . = .

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9) A footing is founded at the depth of Df below the ground surface as embedded


foundation. Another footing with the same size is on top of the soil. Which one shows more
bearing capacity?

A) No changes in bearing stress because the area is important


B) Buried one has more bearing stress
C) Surface one has more bearing stress
D) It depends on the soil parameters.

The Answers is B

According to the below picture and using any different expressions to find the ultimate bearing
stress (i.e. Terzaghi’s theory, Hansson, etc.) , the more depth of footing increase the q0 and thus
the bearing pressure. So the more depth, the more bearing stress. So the footing which is
embedded shows more bearing more than the on surface footing with the same size.

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10) A 2.4m thick clay layer is between two saturated 3m sand layers. The average effective
vertical stress in the clay (at the depth of 5.4 m) is given equal to 30 kPa. Determine the total
stress at the depth of 5.4m.

A) 54 B) 84 C) 79 D) 30

The Answers is B

The relation between total stresses, pore pressure, and effective stresses are described as:

= − =( − )

At the depth of 5.4m the pore water pressure = u = 5.4 ∗ 10 = 54 KPa.

Total stress = effective stress + pore pressure


Total stress = 30+54 = 84 KPa

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11) Determine the lateral force (per unit length of wall) on the frictionless retaining wall, as
shown in the figure below. The soil behind of the wall is clean sand with a saturated unit weight
of 20.0 kN/m3 and angle of internal friction of 36. Groundwater level is at the surface of the
ground.

Groundwater Level

sat =20 kN/m3


H=6 m
=36

A) 124.1 kN/m B) 202.1 kN/m


C) 224.1 kN/m D) 420.1 kN/m

The Answers is C

Step 1:

Based on the Rankine theory, the Rankine active earth pressure coefficient K = tan 45° −
°
=tan 45° − = 0.260.

Step 2:
At the surface of the ground, the vertical effective stress and the pore water pressure are both
zero, σ = u = 0.
At the base of the wall,
kN kN
σ =  − u = (γ − γ )H = 20 − 9.8 (6 m) = 61.2 kPa
m m
kN
u = γ H = 9.8 (6 m) = 58.8 kPa
m
Step 3:
The active lateral earth pressure at the base of the wall, σ , is
σ = K σ = 0.260 × 61.2 kPa = 15.9 kPa

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Step 4:
Based on the distributions of lateral earth pressure and pore water pressure,

15.9 kPa 58.8 kPa


Lateral earth pressure Hydrostatic pressure

the lateral force (per unit length of wall) on the wall, P , is


1 1 1 1
P = P + P = σ H + uH = (σ + u)H = (15.9 kPa + 58.8 kPa)(6 m) = 224.1 kN/m
2 2 2 2
where P is the lateral force due to soil solids and P is the lateral force due to the pore water.

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12) A uniform deposit soil is shown in the following diagram. Information of soil in each
layer is given. Assume that the effective stress at point A is 100kPa, determine the value of H2.

H1=3m γ = 16 /

H2 γ = 17 /

H3=2m
γ = 18 / A

A) 2.00m B) 2.50m C) 3.00m D) 3.50m

The Answers is A

Step 1: From the diagram, we can see that there are three layers of soil. For the first layer above
groundwater level, the unit weight is equal to,

= 16 /

For the second layer above groundwater level, the unit weight is equal to,

= 17 /

For the third layer below groundwater level, the unit weight is equal to,

= 18 /

Step 2: The total stress at point A can be then calculated as,

= + + = (16 / )(3 ) + (17 / ) + (18 / )(2 )


= (84 + 17 )

The pore water pressure is given as,

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u= = (9.8 / )(2 ) = 19.6

Effective pressure at point A can be finally calculated by,

= − = (84 + 17 ) − 19.6 = 100

Solve the equation above,

=2

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13) Information of a soil is shown in the following diagram. Assume that the surcharge is
40kPa acting at the top of soil as shown in the diagram. If the effective pressure at point A is
150kPa. Determine the water content of this soil.

H1=6m G = 2.7, e = 1.0

A) 15.6% B) 14.2% C) 13.3% D) 12.1%

The Answers is C

Step 1: From the diagram, we can see that there is only one layer of soil. The effective pressure
at point A can be calculated by,

= + = 40 + (6 ) = 130

Solving this equation, we can know the value of density of this soil as,

= 15 /

Step 2: According to equations of the density of this soil can be described as,

+
=
1+

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Therefore,

+ 2.7 +
= = (9.8 / ) = 15 /
1+ 1+1

= 36%

According to the following equation water content of soil is,

(36%)(1.0)
= = = 13.3%
2.7

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14) A load of 12000 lb is going to put 10 ft from the left support on a long beam. If the
maximum permissible bending stress is 24,000 psi. Determine the minimum section modulus for
the supposed beam. E = 30 × 106 psi.

A) 12 in3

B) 35 in3

C) 40 in3

D) 25 in3

The Answers is C

Step 1: Reaction at point B, the left support:

∑MA = 0 (point A is the right support)

0 = - RB (30) + P (20)

RB = 12000(20)/30

RB= 8000 lb

Step 2: Draw free body diagram of the section under the load and determine the maximum
moment:

∑MV = 0 0= - RB (10) + M
= 8000 (10 ft)

= 80,000 lb·ft

Step 3: Calculate the S, Section Modulus, from the maximum normal stress:

= < 24000 psi

, ∙ ( )
S> =

S > 40 in3

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15) Determine h if the maximum slope on the beam shown below is measured as -0.02 rad.

b = 4 in E = 200 kpsi w = 100 lb/in L = 3 ft

A) 4.38 in
B) 5.26 in
C) 6.15 in
D) 7.07 in

The Answers is B

Step 1: The slope at the free end of cantilever beam is the maximum. Using any mechanics of
material book, the maximum slope can be calculated as

− − −
= = = = −0.02
24 ℎ 2 ℎ
24
12
Step 2: determine h

(100 / )(36 )
ℎ = = = 145.8
(0.02)2 (0.02)2 200 × 10 (4 )

ℎ = 5.26

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16) A 15 ft long reinforced concrete cantilever beam is subject to factored shear of 105 kips
at the fixed end. The shear support from the concrete is 57 kips. The beam cross section is 18 in
by 28 in. f = 60000 psi, f = 4000 psi. The depth of the steel is 25 in. #3 stirrups are used.
Determine the required spacing for the shear reinforcement at the support.

A) 12 in B) 4.4 in
C) 12.5 in D) 3.9 in

The Answers is D

ACI 318-08, 11.1 & 11.2

Step 1: The given ultimate shear at the support is greater than the shear that the concrete
can support. Knowing this we will calculate required spacing using the appropriate
relationships. Determine the shear that will need to be carried by the steel and the spacing
to do so. This will require a resistance factor to be considered. Use the resistance factor
table. For shear use 0.75.

= − = 84.33

#3 stirrups are used for this system. Look up the area for a #3 bar at the appropriate table.
The area is 0.11 in2 the total shear area will be double since it crosses the cross section
twice.

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= (2)(0.11 ) = 0.22

Determine the required spacing.

(0.22 )(60000 )(25 )


= = = 3.91
(84330 )

Step 2: Calculate the maximum spacing and make sure they are not less than the required
spacing calculated. To know which set of maximums to use calculate the limit and test
against Vs.

1
4 = 4(18 )(25 ) 4000 = 113.84
1000

113.84 84.33

Use first set of maximums.

= = 12.5 24
2

Both of these are greater than the value we calculated for spacing.

~3.9 in

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17) The column shown is a W 21 X 50 steel member. The applied dead load is 7 kips.
Neglect self-weight. The column length is 12 ft tall. The column is not braced along the length.
Assume Fy = 50ksi. Determine the effective length of the column.

A) 12 ft B) 14.4 ft
C) 24.2 ft D) 9.5 ft

The Answers is D

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Step 1: We first need to determine an effective length factor for the column. The top end of our
system is fixed in translation but free in rotation, and the bottom end is fixed in both translation
and rotation. See the appropriate table which is shown above. For our system select an effective
length factor of 0.8 for design.

Step 2: Calculate the effective length for our column.


KL = (0.8)(12 ft) = 9.6 ft
The column size and applied load are extra information.

~9.5 ft

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18) A simply supported and fully braced beam spans 30 ft and carries a dead and live
distributed load of 0.5 kip/ft and 0.8 kip/ft respectively. Using the 1.2D + 1.6L combination. If
the Plastic section modulus is given equal to 55 in3 for the assumed section, find the maximum
stress in the section. (The beam made of steel with 50 KSI strength.)

A) 50 KSI B) 46 KSI
C) 30 KSI D) 38 KSI

The Answers is B

Step 1: Substitute the distributed dead load (wD) and distributed live load (wL) into the equation
to get the factored distributed load (wu).

kip kip kip


w = 1.2w + 1.6w = 1.2 0.5 + 1.6 0.8 = 1.88
ft ft ft

Now we calculate the maximum moment on the beam. Maximum moment equations for a
distributed load on a simple beam can be found in AISC table 3-23.

kip
w L 1.88 (30 ft)
ft
M = = = 211.5 kip − ft
8 8

.ϕM = ϕM

ϕM = ϕF Z = Stress . Z

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Take the maximum moment on the beam and set this equal to our moment capacity then find a
required section modulus.

in
M = 211.5 kip − ft 12 = stress .55
ft

= 46.1 KSI

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19) The top beam of the system is a W 18 X 60 members, the column is a W 14 X 74


members, and the middle two beams are W 21 X 73 members. The total height of the column is
30 ft. The length of all beams is 35 ft. Assume Fy and Fu are 50 ksi and 65 ksi respectively.
Assume there is no reduction in stiffness for inelastic buckling and connections are pinned.
Assume sidesway is not prevented. Determine the effective length factor for the column top half
of the column.

A) k = 2.1 B) k = 1.33
C) k = 1.0 D) k = 1.2

The Answers is A

In fact the question is tricky!


Since all connections are pinned there is no stiffness for the beams and the frame is sidesway
permitted and we do not need to use the following expressions:
I
∑( )
L
G =τ =
I
∑( )
L
I

L
G =τ =
I

L
So, none of the beams are considered in this frame and just a cantilever column shall be
considered and we may use the following table:

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So for the cantilever column: K= 2.1

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20) Three rain gages are located within or nearby a watershed, whose total area is 1100 acres.
Using the Thiessen polygon method, the portions of the watershed associated with gages A, B,
and C are 520, 310, and 270 acres, respectively. For a particular storm, it is determined that the
excess rainfall for these 3 portions of the watershed is 0.95, 1.23, and 1.44 inches, respectively.
What is the volume of runoff from this watershed for this storm?

A) 19.2 MG
B) 28.3 MG
C) 34.3 MG
D) 44.7 MG

The Answers is C

Step 1: The volume of runoff is equal to the product of the watershed area and the excess
rainfall depth.

Step 2: Here the volume = (0.95 in)(1/12 ft/in)(520 acres)(43560 ft2/acre)+ (1.23 in)(1/12
ft/in)(310 acres)(43560 ft2/acre) + (1.44 in)(1/12 ft/in)(270 acres)(43560 ft2/acre)=4.59x106 ft3 =
34.3 MG (million gallons)

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21) At the design discharge, an existing single circular culvert has the following
characteristics: headwater elevation = 5.5 ft above invert, culvert diameter= 2.5 ft, critical depth
= 1.9 ft, uniform depth = 1.7 ft, and the outlet is free. Which of the following describes the
culvert flow under these conditions?

A) Inlet control, inlet is not submerged, critical flow at the inlet


B) Inlet control, inlet is submerged with orifice flow control
C) Outlet control, inlet is submerged
D) Outlet control, inlet is not submerged

The Answers is B

Step 1: Since the critical depth is greater than the uniform depth, the culvert slope is steep.
Therefore the culvert is under inlet control.

Step 2: Since the headwater elevation above the invert is more than 1.2 times the pipe diameter,
the inlet will be submerged, and an orifice flow condition exists at the inlet.

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22) Runoff from a 3-acre site is to be drained by a channel. The time of concentration for
this site is 40 minutes. The site has a runoff coefficient C=0.2. Rainfall quantities to be used for
design are 0.5 inches for a storm of duration 20 minutes, 0.7 inches for duration 40 minutes, and
0.9 inches for duration 60 minutes. For what discharge should this channel be designed?

A) 0.7 cfs B) 0.63 cfs C) 1.04 cfs D) 40 cfs

The Answers is B

Step 1: Apply the rational formula:

Q=CiA

where Q is the discharge in cfs, C is the runoff coefficient for the watershed, i is the

rainfall intensity in inches/hour, and A is the watershed area in acres.

Step 2: In applying the rational method, rain falling over a time period equal to the time

of concentration of the watershed should be used. In this case, the time of concentration

is given as 40 minutes, or 0.67 hours, and the corresponding rainfall amount is 0.7 inches. So
the rainfall intensity is

i = (0.7 inches)/(0.67 hour) = 1.04 inches/hour

Step 3: Solver for the discharge Q = C i A= (0.2) (1.04) (3) = 0.63 cfs

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23) Given the following hyetograph what is the total precipitation?

A) 1.4 inches B) 1.9 inches C) 3.8 inches D) 5.0 inches

The Answers is B

The total precipitation is the sum of all the rainfall over a given period of time for a watershed.

Step 1: Determine the time interval


The time frame given is in half hour increments.

Step 2: Determine the rainfall for each interval

Time (hr) 0-0.5 0.5-1.0 1.0-1.5 1.5-2.0 2.0-2.5 2.5-3.0


Intensity (in/hr) 0.5 0.8 1.0 0.8 0.5 0.2
Rainfall (in) 0.25 0.40 0.50 0.38 0.25 0.10
Total Rainfall (in) 0.25 0.65 1.15 1.53 1.78 1.88

Rainfall (hr 0-0.5)= 0.5 ∗ 0.5 ℎ = 0.25


Rainfall (hr 0.5-1.0)= 0.8 ∗ 0.5 ℎ = 0.40 etc.

Step 3: Determine total rainfall


Total rainfall = 0.25+0.40+0.50+0.38+0.25+0.10=1.88 inches

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24) All three pipes in the figure below have the same length and are connected in parallel.
The diameters are given. Determine the ratio of velocities in the branches. Assume the friction
factor for all the lines to be the same.

A) V to V toV = 1 to 1.223 to 1.684 C) V to V toV = 1 to 1.118 to 1.224

B) V to V toV = 1 to 2.3 to 3.1 D) V to V to V = 1 to 1.118 to 1.224

The Answers is C

hL,A = hL,B = hL,C


hL = f ( )( )

fA( )( ) = f ( )( ) = f ( )( )
( ) = ( ) = ( )
( ) = ( ) = ( )
. .
2 2 2
1 VA = 1.2 VB = 1.5VC
Let Vc = 1
Then
1.5 (1)2 = 1.2 VB2
. ( )
VB = [ ]
.
VB =1.118
Also
1.5 (1)2 = VA2
. ( )
VA = [ ]
.
VA = 1.224
V to V toV = 1 to 1.118 to 1.224

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25) What is the approximate runoff for a watershed with the given hydrograph?

A) 4.7 ft3 B) 14,500 ft3 C) 17,000 ft3 D) 23,500 ft3

The Answers is C

Runoff volume is the area under a hydrograph

Step 1: Divide the area under the hydrograph into easily calculable areas

. ∗( . . )
Triangle 1 = ∗ 3600 = 8190
. ∗( . . )
Triangle 2 = ∗ 3600 = 6300
. ∗( . . )
Triangle 3 = ∗ 3600 = 2700

Step 2: Determine the total area


Total = 8190 + 6300 + 2700 = 17190
This is an approximate due to triangle approximation.

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Practice Problems PE Style Exam (AM)
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26) Two pipelines carry water from a common starting point to a common end point. The
two pipes have the same friction factor f and diameter, but pipe 1 is twice as long as pipe 2.
What fraction of the discharge between the start and end points flows through pipe 1?

A) 34% B) 41% C) 50% D) 67%

The Answers is B

Step 1: For 2 pipes in parallel, the head loss in each pipe is equal.

Step 2: Using the Darcy Weisbach equation, equating the head losses in pipes 1 and 2 gives f1
(L1/D1) V12/2g = f2 (L2/D2) V22/2g

Step 3: Given that f1 = f2, D1 = D2, we get that V12/V22 = (L2/L1)=0.5, or V1/V2 =(0.5)1/2
= 0.71. Since the diameters and pipe areas are the same Q1/Q2 = 0.71. Then Q1/(Q1+Q2)=
1/(1+1/0.71)=0.41 = 41%

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27) A 600 ft long equal-tangent crest vertical curve connects grades of +4.0% and -2.5%. The
point of vertical intersection (PVI) is located at station 123+00 with an elevation of 62.80 ft.
What is the elevation of the PVT?

A) 55.30 ft B) 70.30 ft C) 73.50 ft D) 65.30 ft

The Answers is A

P3-151, AASHTO Geometric Design-Green Book 2011, 2011, 6th ed


Step 1:
The horizontal distance between the vertex (PVI) and the Point of Vertical Tangency (PVT) is
half of the curve length.
PVI

g1=4.0% g2 =-2.5%

PVT
PVC

L = 600 ft

600
= = 300
2 2
Step 2:
The grade between PVI and PVT is g2=-2.5%. Therefore, the vertical distance between PVI and
PVT is

ℎ = = (−2.5%) × 300 = −7.50


2
Step 3:
The elevation of PVT is
+ ℎ = 62.80 − 7.50 = 55.30

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28) A horizontal circular curve has a radius of 120 ft. The station of PC is sta 22+10.00. At
point X (station 22+60.00) on the curve, a stake is to be placed. The deflection angle between
tangent PI-PC and chord X-PC is most nearly

PI

T T
X Station

22+60.00
PC LC PT
Station
22+10.00

R=120 ft d
R

A) 14°56 12" B) 13°06 12"


C) 11°56 12" D) 11°44′43"

The Answers is C

Step 1:
The curve length between X and PC is
l = (sta 22 + 60.00) − (sta 22 + 10.00) = 50 ft
Step 2:
° °( )
The angle for curve length l is d = = = 23.873°.
( )

Step 3:
The deflection angle between tangent PI-PC and chord X-PC is half of the angle for curve length
l
1 23.873°
α= d= = 11.9366° ≅ 11°56 12"
2 2

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29) What is the minimum Average Daily Traffic (ADT) passing in one lane with the speed of
50 mph in the level terrain?

A) 1500-2000 B) 400-1500

C) >2000 D) = 2000

The Answers is C

AASHTO, A policy on Geometric design of Highways and Streets, Table V-I

This is the definition in the code.


For the 50 mph in the level terrain, or 40 mph in the rolling terrain, and 30 mph in the
mountanious terrain the design volume for each lane (ADT) is considered as: >2000

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30) Particle size analysis was carried out on a soil with the results shown in the following
table. Classify the soil according to the Unified Soil Classification system (USCS).

Size Percent Passing


12.5 mm 100
9.5 mm 60
No. 4 (4.75 mm) 40
No. 20 (0.85 mm) 30
No. 60 (0.25 mm) 10
No. 200 (0.075 mm) 4

A) GC B) GP C) SP D) SM

The Answers is B

Step 1:
Because only 5% of the soil is smaller than No. 200 sieve size, the soil is coarse-grained
according to the Unified Soil Classification table
Step 2:
The gravel fraction of the soil is those larger than No. 4 sieve size, which is (100-40)=60. The
sand fraction of the soil is those larger than No. 200 sieve size but less than No. 4 sieve size,
which is (40-5)=35. Since 60>35, there are more gravels than sands in the coarse fraction of the
soil. The first letter of the USCS group symbol is G according to the Unified Soil Classification
table
Step 3:
Because the clay+silt fraction of the soil (fraction smaller than No. 200 sieve size) is very small
(4%), the gravel contains little fines (clean). Therefore, the second letter of the USCS group
symbol is either W or P.

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Step 4:
From the gradation curve table, it is known that the grain size corresponding to 10% finer on
grain size curve ( ) is 0.25 mm, the grain size corresponding to 30% finer on grain size curve
( ) is 0.85 mm, the grain size corresponding to 60% finer on grain size curve ( ) is 9.5 mm.
Therefore, the coefficient of uniformity ( )is
9.5
= = = 38
0.25
The coefficient of curvature ( )is
( ) (0.85 )
= = = 0.30
(0.25 )(9.5 )
Step 5:
Because is outside of the range of 1 to 3, the soil is poorly graded. Therefore, the second letter
of the USCS group symbol is P.

Therefore, the soil is classified as GP according to USCS.

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31) The subgrade of a highway is compacted from a natural soil layer. It is known that the
natural soil has a total unit weight of 20 kN/m3, and a dry unit weight of 18 kN/m3. It needs to
be compacted to attain a dry unit weight of 19 kN/m3 and a water content of 15%. What is the
total unit weight of the compacted soil?

A) 21.85 B) 22.85 C) 23.85 D) 24.85

The Answers is A

Step 1:
From the given information, it is known that after compaction the subgrade soil has a dry
unit weight ( ) of 19 kN/m3 and a water content () of 15%.
Step 2:
The total unit weight of the compacted soil is

= ( + )= ×( + %) = .

Note: It can be calculated to see that the water content of the compacted soil is higher
than that of the uncompacted soil, therefore water must be added during compaction.
However, this is irrelevant to the question in this problem.

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32) An engineer specifies that the concrete structure must have a strength to withstand an
object with a diameter of 0.75 inches and a force of 2500 lbs. Determine the required average
compressive strength for a plant where the standard deviation is unknown given the equations.
The following table may be consulted:
= + . = + . −

Specified Compressive Required Average Compressive


Strength, f’c (psi) Strength, f’cr (psi)
< 3000 f’c + 1000
3000 to 5000 f’c + 1200
> 5000 f’c + 1400

A) 5659 psi
B) 6259 psi
C) 6659 psi
D) 7059 psi

The Answers is D

Step 1. Determine the pressure exerted on the structure with the following equation:

2500
= = 5659
∗ 0.75
4

Step 2. Use the chart provided to calculate the required average compressive strength.
NOTE: f’c > 5000psi.

= + 1400

= 5659 + 1400 = 7059

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33) The stress-strain test of a steel bar shows in the following graph. Which point shows the
yield stress?

A) C
B) B
C) A
D) D

The Answers is D

This is the definition for the strain stress curve. All practice codes consider lower yield point
as the yield stress.

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34) A circular foundation on the soil with a diameter of 10 feet is tested to find the allowable
bearing capacity. If the soil fails under a force of 500,000 lb, and the factor of safety considered
as 3, find the allowable stress of soil.

A) 14.7 psi B) 44.2 psi C) 56.7 psi D) 113.4 psi

The Answers is A

Step 1:

The normal stress at failure, , is calculated by = , where P= normal force at

failure; A=cross-sectional area of sample over which force acts.


Step 2:

From the given information, it is known that = , = =


( ∗ )
= . . Therefore, = = = . .
.

Step 3:
The ultimate compressive strength, , is equal to the normal stress at failure. = =
. .
Step 4:
The allowable stress of soil = qu/FS = 44.209/3 = 14.73 psi

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35) A new roadway construction requires the sub base soil to have a dry density of 125 pcf
and optimum moisture content (OMC) of 12.5%. A smooth drum roller will be used to compact
the soil in 4-inch-thick lifts while the width is 32 ft. The soil has been tested in place and the
results show moisture content of 6%. The water must be added to the stationing length of 100ft
to obtain the required moisture content for compaction. How many gallons per yard must be
added to meet the requirements?

A) 3.42 gal/yd2
B) 5.63 gal/yd2
C) 2.34 gal/yd2
D) 2.93 gal/yd2

The Answers is D

= ( )×
8.33 /
%− %
×
100
32 × 100 ( . ) × (4 /12 / ) 12.5% − 6%
= 125 × × = 1040.42 / .
8.33 / 100
1040.42 / .
= = 2.93 /
(32 × 100 / )/9 /
*See Fundamentals of Building Construction: Materials and Methods Wiley

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36) For the reinforced concrete slabs like the following picture, if the width is given equal to
20’, then what would be the maximum length of the slab if the designer wants to have two way
slab and have the following reinforcement arrangement? (The slab supported by edge beam in
two sides and there is no edge beam at the other sides.)

Edge beams No edge beam Edge beam

20’

A) 40’ B) It’s impossible to have two way slab


C) 20’ D) 55

The Answers is B

ACI 318-08, 13.6.1.6. & 7: For panel with beams between supports on all sides moment
distribution is permitted.
According to the code the stiffness of beams will create the support on all sides, therefore the
two way slab can be created. Panels with beams on two parallel edges is the one way slab so at
no circumstances the designer cannot create the two way slab unless the designer add two beams
on other edges or design the slab without beams on all edges. (i.e., according to the code 13.2.4.,
beams should be monolithic (or fully composite with slab) to make the two way slab, or
according to 13.2.1., the slabs without beams on all sides the slab can have the two way slab
behavior.
So, in this question the slab is the one way slab at all conditions.

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37) For the following bridge shown in the following picture, what is the maximum distance
between the net and the bridge deck that a fall can be arrested by that net?

Maximum fall arrested height net

A) 10’ B) 15’

C) 30’ D) 20’

The Answers is C

OSHA 29 CFR 1926.502(c)


According to the code: 30’

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38) For the excavation shown in the below figure, find the lateral earth pressure on each
supporting structures if the spacing of them are about 10’. (Ka=0.3, Soil density = 150 pcf)

Spacing=10’ 20’ including height of foundation

A) 11250 lb/ft B) 1125 lb/ft

C) 9000 lb/ft D) 900 lb/ft

The Answers is A

Adjacent Construction Project Manual, Office of Joint Development & Adjacent


Construction, September 16, 2013 (Revision 5)
Lateral Earth Pressure and Groundwater Pressure. The basic horizontal earth pressures shall be
computed using the active earth pressure. The resultant or total active earth pressure shall be
multiplied by a stiffness factor depending upon the required stiffness. The resulting load shall be
redistributed on the cofferdam in a trapezoidal pressure diagram. The stiffness factors shall be
applied to both the cofferdam design and the bracing system. The stiffness factors shall be
assigned as follows:
1. Use stiffness factor = 1.25 for a soldier pile and lagging or a sheet pile support system.
2. Use stiffness factor = 1.5 for a slurry wall, secant and tangent pile wall support system.
So: = ∗ℎ∗ ∗ 1.25 = 150*20*0.3*1.25=1125 psf
Pressure * spacing of the soldiers = 1125*10 = 11250 lb/ft

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39) 100 yd3 of bank run soil is excavated and stockpiled before being transported and
subsequently compacted. Swell and shrinkage factors for the soil are given equal to 0.30 and
0.12 respectively. The final volume of the compacted earth is most nearly.

A) 130 B) 65
C) 88 D) 112

The Answers is C

Swell is measures with respect to the banked condition. The stockpiled and transported volume
will be: = (1 + )∗ = (1 + 0.30) ∗ 100 = 130
Shrinkage coefficient gives the compacted volume, so the answer is:
= (1 − ℎ )∗ = (1 − 0.12) ∗ 100 = 88

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40) For the following picture which shows a ditch checks for erosion control, which answer
is the best description of both ditches?

Figure 1 Figure 2

A) 1: Rock ditch for grade <6%, 2: Bale ditch for grade >6%
B) 1: Bale ditch for grade >6%, 2: Rock ditch for grade <6%,
C) 1: Rock ditch for grade >6%, 2: Bale ditch for grade <6%
D) 1: Rock ditch for grade >2%, 2: Bale ditch for grade <2%

The Answers is C

Experiences show that for the grade< 6% the bale ditch check the erosion, and the rock ditch
works for grade >6%.

267
CHAPTER 7

WATER TANK

7.1 INTRODUCTION

As per Greek philosopher Thales, “Water is the source of every creation.” In day to day life one
cannot live without water. Therefore water needs to be stored for daily use. Over head water tank
and underground water reservoir is the most effective storing facilities used for domestic or even
industrial purpose.

Depending upon the location of the tank the tanks can be named as overhead, on ground or
underground. The tanks can be made in different shapes usually circular and rectangular shapes
are mostly used. The tanks can be made of RCC or even of steel. The overhead tanks are usually
elevated from the roof top through column. In the other hand the underground tanks are rested on
the foundation. Different types of tanks and their design procedure is discussed in subsequent
portion if this chapter.

The water tanks in this chapter are designed on the basis of no crack theory. The concrete used
are made impervious.

7.2 TYPES OF WATER TANK

Basing on the location of the tank in a building s tanks can be classified into three categories.
Those are:

• Underground tanks
• Tank resting on grounds
• Overhead tanks

In most cases the underground and on ground tanks are circular or rectangular is shape but the
shape of the overhead tanks are influenced by the aesthetical view of the surroundings and as
well as the design of the construction.

Steel tanks are also used specially in railway yards. Basing on the shape the tanks can be
circular, rectangular, square, polygonal, spherical and conical. A special type of tank named
Intze tank is used for storing large amount of water for an area.

The overhead tanks are supported by the column which acts as stages. This column can be
braced for increasing strength and as well as to improve the aesthetic views.
WATER TANK

7.3 BASIS OF DESIGN

One of the vital considerations for design of tanks is that the structure has adequate resistance to
cracking and has adequate strength. For achieving these following assumptions are made:

• Concrete is capable of resisting limited tensile stresses the full section of concrete
including cover and reinforcement is taken into account in this assumption.
• To guard against structural failure in strength calculation the tensile strength of
concrete is ignored.
• Reduced values of permissible stresses in steel are adopted in steel are adopted in
design.

7.4 CIRCULAR TANK

The simplest from of water tank is circular tank for the same amount of storage the circular tank
requires lesser amount of material. More over for its circular shape it has no corner and can be
made water tight easily. It is very economical for smaller storage of water up to 20000000 liters
and with diameter in the range of 5 to 8 m. The depth of the storage is between 3 to 4 m. The
side walls are designed for hoop tension and bending moments.

7.4.1 PERMISSIBLE STRESSES IN CONCRETE

To ensure impervious concrete mixture linear than M 20 grade is not normally recommended to
make the walls leak proof the concretes near the water face need to such that no crack occurs. To
ensure this member thicknesses are so designed that stress in the concrete is lesser then the
permissible as given in table 7.1.

7.4.2 THE PERMISSIBLE STRESS IN STEEL

The stress in steel must not be allowed to exceed the following values under different positions
to prevent cracking of concrete.

• When steel is placed near the face of the members in contact with liquid 115 N/ sq
mm for ms Bars and 150 N/ sq mm for HYSD bars.
• When steel is placed on face away from liquid for members less then 225 mm in
thickness same as earlier.
• When steel is placed on the face away from the liquid for members 225 mm or
more in thickness: 125 N/ sq mm for M.S. bars and 190 N/sq mm for HYSD bars.

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WATER TANK

Table 7.1 Permissible Stresses In Concrete (For calculations relating to resistance to concrete)

Permissible Stresses
Grade of Concrete Shear = a/bd
Direct Tension σst Tension Due to bending
(N/mm2) σcbt (N/mm2) (N/mm2)

M 15 1.1 1.5 1.5

M 20 1.2 1.7 1.7

M 25 1.3 1.8 1.9

M 30 1.5 2.0 2.2

M 35 1.6 2.2 2.5

M 40 1.7 2.4 2.7

7.4.3 BASE FOR FLOOR SLAB

The floor slab should be strong enough to transmit the load from the liquid and the structure
itself to the ground without subsidence. The floor slab is usually 150 to 200 mm thick and is
reinforced with nominal reinforcement, which may be provided in the form of mesh both at top
and bottom face of the slab. Before laying the slab the bade has to be rammed and leveled then
a75 mm thick layer of lean concrete of M 100 grade should be laid and cured. This layer should
be covered with tar to enable the floor slab act independently on the bottom layer. I n water
logged soils the bottom layer of concrete should preferably be of M 15 grade.

Minimum reinforcement required for 199mm thick sections is 0.3 % of the area of concrete
section which reduced linearly to 0.2% for 450 mm thick sections. In case of floor slab for tank
resting on ground the minimum reinforcement from practical consideration should not be less
then 0.3% of the gross sectional area of the floor slab.

If the thickness of the section (wall, floor or roof slab of the tank) works out to be 225 mm and
above two layers of reinforcing steel shall be placed, one near each of the section to make up the
minimum reinforcement requirements.

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WATER TANK

7.4.4 DESIGN METHOD

The design of circular tanks can be carried out by one of the following three methods:

• Mr. H Carpenter’s method


• Approximate method
• I.S. method

7.4.4.1 Mr. H Carpenter’s method

For a tank of given dimensions the following expressions are used:

• Maximum cantilever B.M= FwH 3 (7-1)


• Position of maximum hoop tension = K H above base
Maximum Hoop tension (T)= wHD(1 − k )
1
• (7-2)
2

The value of coefficient k and f depend upon H/D and H/t ratio, which is tabulated in Table 7.2.

DESIGN PROCEDURE:

Step 1: Dimensions

• Dimension of the tank.

Basing on the amount of water that needs to be stored the dimensions of the tanks
are calculated.

Total volume of water=


∏ D2 × H (7-3)
4
Where, D= Diameter of the tank

H= Height of the liquid

• Thickness of the wall.

Depending upon the depth of liquid (H) the thickness of the wall is assumed from
the empirical formula

t = (30 H + 50 ) mm (7-4)

267
WATER TANK

or, t = 150 mm whichever is greater.

This thickness t is then converted in meter.

Table 7.2 Coefficient of f and k for bending moment and tension

Factor F K

H/t 10 20 30 40 10 20 30 40
0.1 0.075 0.047 0.036 0.028 - - - -
0.2 0.046 0.028 0.022 0.015 - 0.50 0.45 0.40
0.3 0.032 0.019 0.014 0.010 0.55 0.43 0.38 0.33
0.4 0.024 0.014 0.010 0.007 0.50 0.39 0.35 0.30
0.5 0.020 0.012 0.009 0.006 0.45 0.37 0.32 0.27
1.0 0.012 0.006 0.005 0.003 0.37 0.28 0.24 0.21
2.0 0.006 0.003 0.002 0.002 0.30 0.22 0.19 0.16
4.0 0.004 0.002 0.002 0.001 0.27 0.20 0.17 0.14

Step 2: Determination of the value of coefficient F and k

By knowing the values of H/D and H/t from table 7.2 we can obtain the value of F and k.

Step 3:

By using the values of coefficients F and k the following dimensions are calculated

• Maximum bending moment at the base = FwH 3


Maximum circumferential or hoop tension T = wHD(1 − k )
1

2
• Position of maximum circumferential tension h = kH

Step 4:

• The thickness provided for the wall from maximum bending moment
consideration should be checked.
• Sufficient area of steel must be provided at the height h to resist maximum
tension.

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WATER TANK

• Above height h the area of reinforcement can be uniformly decreased and below
this the area of steel is maintained constant.

Figure 7.1: Hydrostatic Pressure Distribution

7.4.4.2 Approximate Method

• In this method it is assumed that the cantilever effect of the wall will be present
for a height of approximately one fourth of the height of wall that is H/4 or 1 m
whichever is more.

• The hydrostatic pressure distribution on the wall is shown in Figure 6.1 (a) the
pressure varies from zero at A to maximum value at B. This is represented by ordinate
BC of the pressure triangle ABC. Draw a horizontal line intersecting the pressure
diagram at P at a height of H/4 or 1m whichever is more. Thus the cantilever action will
be effective up to the height (h) =BP and hoop tension will be predominant from P to A
having its maximum value at P.

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WATER TANK

• The bottom height of the wall i.e. h = BP will be designed as a cantilever fixed at
B and subjected to a triangular load given by area PBC of pressure triangle. The load
from cantilever action thus varies from zero at P to wH at B.

The maximum hoop tension per unit height at P

w(H − h )D
1
T= (7-5)
2

• Reinforcement for hoop tension may be provided near both faces. The spacing of
hoop reinforcement (rings) is kept uniform from P to B. At heights above P, the spacing
of rings can be increased.

6.4.4.3 I.S. Code Method

• From the capacity of the water tank the values of tank diameters (D) and depth of
water (H) are determined.

• Approximate thickness of wall: The value t is determined by the following


formula:

t = (30 H + 60 ) mm

or, t = 150 mm whichever is greater.

Then the value of t is converted into meters.


H2
• Ratio is determined and respective co-efficient values for tension, bending
Dt
moments and shears are found out from tables.

• Hoop tension

Hoop tension is determined from the following formula


1
T= w × H × D × (coefficient determined from table 7.3) in kN/m
2
Where, w = wt of water in kN/ m 3

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WATER TANK

Table 7.3 Coefficient for bending moment in cylindrical tank wall (Fixed at base and free at top)

H2/Dt Coefficient at point


0.1H 0.2H 0.3H 0.4H 0.5H 0.6H 0.7H 0.8H 0.9H 1.0H
0.4 1.0005 0.0014 0.0021 0.0007 -0.0042 -0.0150 -0.0302 -0.0529 -0.0816 -0.1205
0.8 0.0011 0.0037 0.0063 0.0800 -0.0079 0.0023 -0.0068 -0.0024 -0.0465 -0.0795
1.2 0.0012 0.0042 0.0077 0.0103 0.0112 0.0090 0.0022 -0.0108 -0.0311 -0.0602
1.6 0.0011 0.0041 0.0075 0.0107 0.0121 0.0111 0.0058 -0.0051 -0.0232 -0.0505
2.0 0.0010 0.0035 0.0068 0.0099 0.0120 0.0115 0.0075 -0.0021 -0.0185 -0.0436
3.0 0.0006 0.0024 0.0047 0.0071 0.0090 0.0097 0.0077 0.0012 -0.0119 -0.0333
4.0 0.0003 0.0015 0.0028 0.0047 0.0066 0.0077 0.0069 0.0023 -0.0080 -0.0268
5.0 0.0002 0.0008 0.0016 0.0029 0.0046 0.0059 0.0059 0.0028 -0.0058 -0.0222
6.0 0.0001 0.0003 0.0008 0.0019 0.0032 0.0046 0.0051 0.0029 -0.0041 -0.0187
8.0 0.0000 0.0001 0.0002 0.0008 0.0016 0.0028 0.0038 0.0029 -0.0022 -0.0146
10.0 0.0000 0.0000 0.0001 0.0004 0.0007 0.0019 0.0029 0.0028 -0.0012 -0.0122
12.0 0.0000 -0.0001 0.0001 0.0002 0.0003 0.0013 0.0023 0.0026 -0.0005 -0.0104
14.0 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 0.0001 0.0008 0.0019 0.0023 -0.0001 -0.0090
16.0 0.0000 0.0000 -0.0001 -0.0001 -0.0001 0.0004 0.0013 0.0019 -0.0001 -0.0079

• Bending Moment

Maximum bending moment is determined from the following


Formula : M= (coefficient from table 7.4) × wH 3 kN/m (7-6)

Table 7.4 Coefficient for tension in cylindrical tank wall (Fixed at base and free at top)

H2/Dt Coefficient at point


0.0H 0.1H 0.2H 0.3H 0.4H 0.5H 0.6H 0.7H 0.8H 0.9H
0.4 0.149 0.134 0.120 0.101 0.082 0.066 0.049 0.029 0.014 0.004
0.8 0.263 0.239 0.215 0.109 0.160 0.130 0.096 0.063 0.034 0.030
1.2 0.283 0.271 0.254 0.234 0.209 0.180 0.142 0.099 0.054 0.016
1.6 0.265 0.268 0.268 0.266 0.250 0.226 0.185 0.134 0.075 0.023
2.0 0.234 0.251 0.273 0.285 0.285 0.274 0.232 0.172 0.104 0.031
3.0 0.134 0.203 0.267 0.322 0.357 0.362 0.330 0.262 0.157 0.052
4.0 0.067 0.164 0.256 0.339 0.403 0.429 0.409 0.334 0.210 0.073
5.0 0.025 0.137 0.245 0.346 0.428 0.477 0.469 0.398 0.259 0.092
6.0 0.018 0.119 0.234 0.344 0.441 0.504 0.514 0.447 0.301 0.112
8.0 -0.011 0.104 0.218 0.335 0.443 0.534 0.575 0.530 0.381 0.151
10.0 -0.001 0.098 0.208 0.323 0.437 0.542 0.608 0.589 0.410 0.179
12.0 -0.005 0.097 0.202 0.312 0.429 0.543 0.628 0.633 0.494 0.211
14.0 -0.002 0.098 0.200 0.306 0.420 0.539 0.639 0.666 0.541 0.241
16.0 0.000 0.099 0.199 0.304 0.431 0.531 0.641 0.687 0.582 0.265
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WATER TANK

• Determination of shear force

Design shear force is found out from the following formula


T = (coefficient from table 7.5) × wH 3 kN/m

Table 7.5 Coefficient for shear at the base

H2/Dt Coefficient H2/Dt Coefficient

0.40 0.436 5.00 0.213


0.80 0.374 6.00 0.197
1.20 0.339 8.00 0.174
1.60 0.317 10.00 0.158
2.00 0.299 12.00 0.145
3.00 0.262 14.00 0.135
4.00 0.236 16.00 0.127

• Reinforcement is provided for hoop tension near both faces.

7.5 RECTANGULAR TANKS

In case of small amount of water storage rectangular tanks are more economical then circular
because the construction of circular tanks requires complicated and costly formwork. Moreover
compartmentation in a rectangular tank is much easier then the circular tanks. Moreover uses of
rectangular tanks make the full use of the space available. The main components of a rectangular
tank are side wall, base slab and roof slab.

6.5.1 DESIGN OF SIDE WALLS

Let, L = length of the tank


B = width of the tank
H = height of the tank

The design of the sidewalls is carried out by approximate method. The method is broadly
categorizes as follows:

272
WATER TANK

• Tank wall having ratio of L/B less then 2.


• Tank wall having ratio of L/B greater than 2.

Tank wall having ratio of L/B lesser than 2:

• The tank walls are designed as horizontal slabs continuous al along and subjected
to a triangular load due to the water pressure varying from zero at the top to maximum
height of h =H/4 of 1 m above the base whichever is greater.

• For the bottom portion the wall is considered as a vertical cantilever fixed at the
base and subjected to triangular loading given by the area P.F.G of the diagram varying
from zero at P and maximum wH at the base.

• Maximum pressure

Maximum pressure (p) for design of wall for horizontal bending per unit height at level
of P = w (H-h) per m (7-7)

Figure 7.2: Pressure and Load distribution on Wall

273
WATER TANK

• Determination of bending moments

1
B.M at the end of the span = pB 2 (producing tension on water force)
12
1
B.M at the center of span = pB 2 (producing tension on outer force)
16

• Direct tension or pull in long walls

The water pressures on short walls are transformed into tension to the long walls.

Pressure due to water


P = w(H − h ) × 1 × B (7-8)

Direct tension or pull transformed to each long wall


T = w(H − h )B
1
(7-9)
2

Figure 7.3: Plan showing pressure-causing pull in long walls

• Direct tension or pull on short walls

Direct tension or pull on short walls


TB = w(H − h )L
1
(7-10)
2

274
WATER TANK

Figure 7.4 : Plan showing pressure- causing pull in short walls

• Cantilever moment in short walls.


h h 1
Maximum cantilever B.M in short walls = wH × × = wHh 2 (7-11)
2 3 6

Tank wall having ratio of L/B greater then 2:

• For rectangular tanks in which ratio of length to width is more than 2, the long
walls are treated as vertical cantilever fixed art the base while the short walls are treated
as horizontal slabs (bending horizontally) spanning between the long walls and fixed at
ends. The lower portion of the short wall for a height of h = H/4 or 1 m whichever is
greater is considered to act as vertical cantilever fixed at the base.

• Bending moments.
1 H 1
Maximum bending moment in long walls = w × H × H × = wH 3 (7.12)
2 3 6

For short walls the maximum bending moment at level P may be taken as follows:

B.M at ends of span


pB 2 = w(H − h )B 2
1 1
(7-13)
12 12
275
WATER TANK

B.M at center of span


pB 2 = w(H − h )B 2
1 1
(7-14)
16 16

• Pull in long wall and short walls

Direct tension or pull transformed to each long wall


TL = w(H − h )B
1
(7-15)
2

Direct tension or pull on short walls


TB = w(H − h ) × 1 (7-16)

Since the short wall as well as long walls are subjected to bending moment and direct
tension or pull (acting at center of wall) it will be necessary to design the wall section for
combined effect of these two.

Figure 7.5 : Plan showing pressure causing pull in short walls

276
WATER TANK

Reinforcement:

• Long wall

Long wall which act as cantilever fixed to the base reinforcement for moment is vertical
and for the direct tension or pull it is horizontal.

• Short wall
In case of short wall above (h) from base the wall bends horizontally and hence the
reinforcement for the B.M as well as tension are provided in horizontal directions.

For lower portion of the short walls for height (h) the main reinforcement is vertical
whereas for the tension reinforcement is horizontal.

Analysis of Tank Wall Section Subjected To Combined Effect Of Bending


And Direct Tension

Figure 7.6 : Section subjected to bending moment


277
WATER TANK

Let assume that two equal and opposite force of magnitude equal to T act on the main
reinforcement the wall section can thus be considered to be subjected to a net
BM=M-Tx and a pull T.
Area of reinforcement is separately calculated for the bending moment and tension or pull and
then added together to get the total reinforcement.

Step 1:

• Area of steel for net B.M

M − Tx
Ast1 =
leverarm × stres sin steel

M − Tx
= (7-17)
jdσ st

Notes:

Safe stress in steel in bending or σ st is taken =115 N/ mm 2 if it is placed on the water face or
within a distance of 225 m from the water face.

If steel is placed at a distance of 225 mm away from water face value of σ st = 125 N/ mm 2

• Area of steel for direct tension

T
Ast2 =
safe ⋅ stress ⋅ in ⋅ steel
T
= (7-18)
σ sc
Safe stress in steel for direction =115 N/ mm 2

• Total area of steel

Ast = Ast1 + Ast2 (7-19)

278
WATER TANK

6.5.2 DESIGN OF BASE SLAB

• For tank resting on ground the base slab should be so designed that it can transfer
the load of the liquid as well as the self-weight of the structure to the ground. The floor
slab is normally made 150 mm to 250 mm thick with 3% of the gross sectional area
reinforced. The reinforcement provided as mesh at both top and bottom of the slab.

• For overhead tanks the floor slab is designed as a one way or a two way slab
based on the length to width ratio of the tank. If L/B>2 the slab is designed as one-way
slab and if L/B, 2, the floor slab is designed as two way slabs. The bending moment due
to water load and self-weight need to be counted for slab design. The vertical wall is also
to be considered.

B H

wH 3
(a) wH 3
6 (b)
Plan of the tank 6
B.M. at the end of tank base of overhead tank

Figure 7.7: Plan and Bending Moment Diagram of Rectangular Tank

The bending moment at the mid span of base slab will comprise of the following:

• Sagging moment due to weight of water.


• Sagging moment due to weight of slab.
• Hogging moment due to water pressure on the long walls.

Let wd =weight of base slab per sqm


And h =depth of water in the tank

279
WATER TANK

∴ Net Moment at mid span


1 1 1
M c = whB 2 + wd B 2 − wh 3 (7-20)
8 8 6
The value of M c will be maximum when
d (M c )
=0
d ( h)
1 1
∴ wB 2 − wh 2 = 0
8 6
1
⇒ h2 = B2
4
B
⇒h=
2

Therefore the maximum positive B.M at mid span occurs when the depth of water in the tank
=1/2*the width of the tank.

3
wB 2 B wd B 2 1 ⎛ B ⎞
Mc = × + − w⎜ ⎟
8 2 8 6 ⎝2⎠
wB 3 wd B 2
= +
24 8

1 2
The direct tension on the slab = wh (7-21)
2
B
Here, h =
2
Due to the pressure of water on long walls
1 1
T = wh 2 = wB 2 (7-22)
2 8

If height of tank itself is less then B/2 then the actual height of water in the tank shall be
considered for finding out the values for B.M and tension. In case of large height of tank the B.M
at mid span may be negative. In such condition tank mid span section is designed by considering
the tank full of water.

6.5.3 DESIGN OF ROOF

Tank roof of small capacity tank are designed as one-way slab or two-way slab basing on the
length and width ratio. For large capacity tank the roof may be supported by beam supported on
column in regular interval. Flat slab type construction is found suitable and economical for tank
roofs.

280
WATER TANK

6.5.4 DESIGN OF UNDERGROUND RECTANGULAR TANK

While designing an underground tank the most crucial condition of the tank need to be kept
under consideration. And that is when the empty and the soil surrounding the wall is wet. In this
case the wall has to sustain the soil pressure.

Figure 7.8 : Soil Pressure on Tank

Design of long walls

Maximum bending moment occurs for the case tank empty and surrounding soil is water logged.
Long walls are designed as cantilever.

281
WATER TANK

Figure7.9 : Moment diagram in tank walls

Pressure exerted by wet soil

wh(1 − sin θ )
P= (7-23)
1 + sin θ

Considering 1m run in the tank wall

1
M max (Tension near water face)= ph 2 (7-24)
33.5
1
M max (Tension away from water face) = ph 2 (7-25)
15

Thickness of wall is determined from the cracking consideration

⎛ 6M ⎞
D= ⎜⎜ ⎟⎟ (7-26)
σ
⎝ ct ⎠
b

Steel area is calculated as follows

M
As = (7-27)
σ st jd
282
WATER TANK

Horizontal reinforcement are provided at 3% of gross area up to 100mm thick section. It can be
reduced to 0.2% up to 450 mm thick section. For 225 mm thickness provide two layers of
reinforcement.

Design of short wall

Short walls are designed as spanning between the long walls.


Intensity of earth pressure at bottom = P
1
Maximum moments at corners = pL2 (7-28)
12

Horizontal bars are determined as long wall. And vertical bars are provided with half spacing of
horizontal bars.

Design of slab

1
The maximum moment at mid section = wL2 (7-29)
3
Distributing steel is provided usually 0.003 bt mm 2 /width.

Where, t = thickness of the slab


b = unit width

Minimum reinforcement

• The percentage of reinforcement in base or floor slab resting on ground must not
be less then 0.15% of the gross section.
• Minimum cover to all reinforcement should be 25 mm or the diameter of the main
bar which ever is greater.

283
WATER TANK

7.6 DESIGN OF A ROOF TOP WATER TANK

Design Data:

Six storied building with 2 flat in each story.

Step 1:

Water requirement:

• Water consumption rate = 40 gpcd.


• Number of persons= no of flats X 6 =12 X 6 =72 persons (considering six persons
per flat)
• Total water requirement=72 X 40=288 gal/day

2880
∴ Daily water requirement = cft ≈ 462 cft/day
6.24

Step 2:

Tank dimension:

• Let inside Dimension

L=15 ft =4.572 m
B =7 ft =2.1336 m
So L/B=15/7>2
462
• Height of water level= = 4.4 ft
15 × 7
• Free board = 0.5 ft.

So, final height = 4.4+0.5=4.9 ft ≈ 5 ft

284
WATER TANK

15 ft 6.5 in

7 ft

10 ft 18 ft

Step 3:

Maximum bending Moment:

Figure 7.10 : Bending Moment Diagram on Tank Walls

285
WATER TANK

Approximate Analysis:

Figure 7.11 : Load diagram on tank wall

• Part 1

Here, h =H/4 or 1 m (larger height to be considered)

• Part 2

H-H/4) or (H-1) m to be considered.

For L/B>2

We have, h = H/4=5/4=1.25 ft ≈ 0.381 m <1m


∴ h =1 m =3.28 ft

Step 4:

Design for long wall:

wH 3
Moment M =
6
Here, w= 9.81 kN/ m 3 ≈ 10 kN/ m 3
H=5ft=1.524 m

286
WATER TANK

10 × 1.524 3
∴M = = 5.9 kN-M
6
5.9 × 1000
= = 4351.35 lb-ft
4.448 × 0.3043
= 4.351 k-ft
=52.22 k-in

Check for

1
M max = f c kjbd 2
2
52.22 × 1000
⇒ d2 =
0.5 × 1350 × 0.378 × 0.874 × 12
⇒ d = 4.41inch

Overall depth=4.41+1+1.5X4/8=6.16 inch (considering # 4 bars)


Here,

f c = 0.45 f c' = 0.45 × 3000 = 1350 psi


f y = 40ksi
f s = 0.5 f y = 20ksi
Es 29 × 10 6
n= = ≈9
E c 57500 3000
f 20
r= s = = 14.8
f c 1.35
n 9
k= = = 0.378
n + r 9 + 14.81
k
j = 1 − = 0.874
3

Let us take overall thickness of wall=6.5 inch


So effective depth =6.5-1-1.5 X4/8=4.75 inch

Then,

M 52.22 × 1000
As = = = 0.63in 2 / ft
f s jd 20000 × 0.874 × 4.75
As (min) = 0.3% (of cross sectional area)
0.3
⇒ × 6.5 × 12 = 0.234in 2 / ft
100

287
WATER TANK

So, As = 0.63in 2 / ft (provide # 4 bar @ 4 inch c/c)

B
Direct tension in the wall, TL = w( H − h) ×
2
2.1336
= 10(1.524 − 1) ×
2
= 5.59kN / m
5.59 × 1000 × 0.3048
= = 383.06lb / ft
4.448

TL 383.06
∴ As = = = 0.019in 2 / ft
Fs 20000
As (min) = 0.234in 2 / ft

So # 3 bar @ 5.5 inch c/c to be provided

Since steel is provided on both faces therefore steel to be provided on both faces as # 3 bar @ 11
inch c/c.

Step 5:

Design for short wall:

• Force P=w (H-h)=10 x (1.524-1)= 5.24 kN/ m 2 =359.07 lb/ft (per m run)

• Effective span in horizontally spaced slab = 7+6.5/12=7.54ft =2.3 m


Pl 2 w( H − h) B 2
• Bending moment at end, M = =
12 12
5.24 × 2.3 2
∴M = = 2.31 kN-m (per m run)
12
=1703.83 lb-ft = 20.45 k in (per ft run)

• Reduction in moment due to tensile steel = Tx

=383.06 x 1.5/12=47.88 lb-ft=0.575 k-in

• Design moment

Design moment = M-Tx


= 20.45-0.575
= 19.875 k-in
288
WATER TANK

• Steel requirement

M − Tx 19.875
As = = = 0.24in 2 / ft
f s jd 20 × 0.874 × 4.75
As (min) = 0.234in 2 / ft
∴ As = 0.24in 2 / ft

We will use # 3 bar @ 5.5 inch c/c.

• At mid section

PL2 1 PL2
M = = × = 10.23kin
24 2 12
10.23
∴ As = = 0.123in 2 / ft < As (min)
20 × 0.874 × 4.75

So As will be provided as # 3 bar @ 5.5 c/c at mid section.

Step 6:

Cantilever effect on short column:

• Maximum moment

wHh 2 10 × 1.524 × 12
M max = kN .m = = 2.54kN .m
6 6

= 1873.50 lb-ft

= 22.482 k-in

• Steel requirement

M 22.482
As = = = 0.271in 2 / ft > As (min) = 0.234in 2 / ft
f s jd 20 × 0.874 × 4.75

So, use # 3 bar @ 4.5 inch c/c.

289
WATER TANK

Step 7:

Design of base slab

• L/B>2, so we will design for one way slab

• Minimum thickness of base slab

For 60-grade steel,

L 7 × 12
t= = = 4.2 inch
20 20

For 40 grade steel,

⎛ fy ⎞
⎟⎟ = 4.2⎛⎜ 0.4 +
40000 ⎞
t = 4.2⎜⎜ 0.4 + ⎟ = 3.36inch ≈ 3.5inch
⎝ 100000 ⎠ ⎝ 100000 ⎠

• Let thickness = 6inch

6 4.5 × 7 × 15 × 62.5
Total weight of base slab= × 150 + = 0.36 ksf
12 7 × 1.5 × 1000

6
• Effective width, B= 7 + 2 × = 7.5 ft
12 × 2
7.5 2
• Moments, M max = 0.36 × = 2.53 kft=30.375 k-in
8
30.375
• Depth d = =3.37 inch (OK)
0.9 × 1.35 × 0.874 × 0.378 × 12

30.373
∴ As = = 0.41in 2 / ft
20 × 0.874 × 4.25
⎡ 4 ⎤
⎢⎣d = 6 − 1 − 1.5 × = 4.25inch⎥
8 ⎦

Use # 4 bar @ 5inch c/c. So # 4 bar @ 10 inch c/c should be used at each face.

290
WATER TANK

Step 8: Detailing

Figure 7.12: Detailing of example

291
WATER TANK

# 3 bar @ 11 in c/c

# 3 bar @ 5.5 in

# 4 bar @ 4 in c/c
A A

# 3 bar @ 5.5 in c/c

# 4 bar @ 5 in c/c

Section A-A

Figure 7.12: Detailing of example (continued)

292
WATER TANK

7.7 DESIGN OF UNDERGROUND WATER TANK

General data:

• Volume to be stored= 2 × 462 = 924 cft


(For two days store daily requirement 462 cft)
• Angle of repose φ dry = 30 o , φ wet = 6 o
• Unit weight of soil=w=125 pcf=20 kN/ m 2
• Most critical condition: Empty water tank and wet soil.

Step 1: Tank dimension

Let inside dimension, L=15 ft = 4.512 m.


B =7 ft = 2.1336 m.
924
So height of water level = = 8.8 ft
15 × 7
Free board = 0.3 ft

Final height = 8.8+ 0.5 = 9.3ft ≈ 2.896 m.

1 − sin θ
..h=9.5 P = wh
1 + sin θ

Figure 7.13: Cross section of ground water tank

293
WATER TANK

Figure 7.14: Moment diagram of tank wall

Step 2: Design of long walls

1 − sin θ
• Pressure exerted by wet soil = wh (7-30)
1 + sin θ
1 − sin 6
= 20 × 2.896 × = 46.96kN / m 2
1 + sin 6

∴ p = 46.96kN / m 2

ph 2 46.96 × 2.896 2
• Tension near the water face= = = 11.76 kN-m
33.5 33.5
11.76 × 1000 12
= ×
4.448 × 0.3048 1000

=104.05 k-in (Per inch run)

So, tension near water face/ ft run=104.05 x 0.3048 = 31.72 kip inch

• Tension away from water face

ph 2 46.96 × 2.896 2
M max = = = 26.26 kN/m
15 15

=232.40 k-in (per inch run)

=70.84 kin (per ft run)

294
WATER TANK

• From cracking consideration the thickness of wall is determined.

Let, D = Total thickness

Fct × bD 2
M =
6
6M 6 × 70.80
∴ D2 = = = 86.18in 2
f et × b 0.411 × 12

D = 9.28 in ≈ 9.5 in

Here f ct = (6 → 8) f c '
Let, f ct = 7.5 f c ' = 7.5 × 3000 = 411 psi
M max = 70.84 k-in

∴ Effective depth =9.5-1.5 = 8 inch


∴ d = 8 inch

Step 3: Vertical reinforcement (long walls)

M 70.84
• Steel requirement, As = = = 0.51in 2 / ft
f s jd 20 × 0.874 × 8
As (min) = .003bt = .003 × 12 × 9.5 = 0.342in 2 / ft
As = 0.51in 2 / ft

So use# 4 bar @ 4.5 inch c/c (inner force)

• Steel requirements for M=31.72 kip in

31.72
As = = 0.227in 2 / ft < As (min)
20 × 0.874 × 8
∴ As = 0.342in 2 / ft

So, use # 4 bar @ 7 inch c/c (Outer force)

295
WATER TANK

Step 4: Horizontal reinforcement (long walls)

• Minimum steel requirements

As (min) = .003bt = 0.342in 2 / ft

Use # 4 bar @ 7 inch c/c

Step 5: Design of shot wall

• Earth pressure at the bottom P=46.96 kN/ m 2


PL2
• Maximum moment at the center, M =
12
46.96 × 2.375 2
∴M =
12
=22.07 k-in (per m length)
=195.35k-in (per in length)
=59.55 k-in (per ft length)

9.5
L =7+ = 7.79 ft = 2.375 m
12

In FPS system,
PL2 0.963 × 7.79 2
M = = × 12 = 58.44 k-in (per ft length)
12 12

• Now,
fc
M max = kjbd 2
2
2 × 195.36
⇒d = = 4.72inch < 8inch
1.35 × 0.37 × 0.874 × 3.28 × 12

Step 6: Vertical reinforcement (shot wall)

M 39.55
As = = = 0.48in 2 / ft
f s jd 20 × 0.874 × 8

Use # 4 bar @ 5 inch c/c.

296
WATER TANK

Step 7: Horizontal reinforcement (shot wall)

As (min) = 0.342in 2 / ft

Use # 4 bar @ 7 inch c/c that is 14 inch c/c both side.

Step 8: Design of base slab

• Thickness provided = 9.5 inch

• Minimum reinforcement = 0.003bt = 0.342 in 2 / ft

Use # 3 bar @ 3.5 inch c/c.

297
WATER TANK

Step 9: Detailing

7 ft

7 ft

15 ft

..h=9.5

9.5 in 18 ft

10ft

Figure 7.15: Tank dimension

298
WATER TANK

# 4 Bar @ 8 in c/c

#4 Bar @7 in c/c

# 4 Bar @ 4 in c/c

Section A-A

# 4 Bar @ 7 in c/c

# 4 Bar @8 in c/c

299
WATER TANK

300
Figure 716: Detailing of example (continued)
UWU/Civil & Environmental Engineering                               CVNG 3016 – Design of Environmental Engineering Systems   2010  

CVNG 3016 DESIGN OF ENVIRONMENTAL SYSTEMS

TOPIC: Design of Reinforced Concrete Liquid Retaining Structures

LECTURER:  Dr. William Wilson 

 
DESIGN OF REINFORCED CONCRETE TANKS (ACI 318 / ACI 350) 

Recommended Reading:
A. Codes
1. ASCE7-05 - Minimum Design Loads for Buildings and other Structures
2. ACI 318-06 – Building Code requirements for Reinforced Concrete
3. ACI 350R – 06 – Environmental Engineering Concrete Structures.

B. Technical Literature
1. Munshi, Javeed A. Rectangular Concrete Tanks (Rev. 5th Ed.), Portland Cement
Association, 1998.
2. Portland Cement Association, 1992. Underground Concrete Tanks
3. Portland Cement Association, 1993. Circular Concrete Tanks without prestressing

 
RECTANGULAR TANKS 
Design Considerations 
• Flexure   – bending in walls and base 

• Shear - wall-to-base, wall-to-wall junctions

• Tension - horizontal tension in walls, base

• Deflection – vertical/ horizontal deflections of wall

• Cracking - thermal, flexural, tension cracks

• Flotation - when base is located below water table level


• in reality neither of these
• Base Fixity - (i) Fixed (ii) Pinned conditions may actually exist
• Both may need to be investigated
Loading Conditions 
Condition 1 - Internal Water Pressure only (before backfilling, i.e. leakage test)
Condition 2 - External Earth Pressure only (before filling tank)
Condition 3 - Tank full and Soil backfilled (resistance provided by soil is ignored)

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UWU/Civil & Environmental Engineering                               CVNG 3016 – Design of Environmental Engineering Systems   2010  

Moments
pinned base
fixed base

+
-
Fv (shear)

(a) Liquid pressure in Tank (b) Vertical Forces


Fv

Fv M Ft M (-)

Fv
M (+)
Ft
Ft

Fv M Ft M (-) Fv

Fv Fv

(c) Horizontal Forces

FIGURE 1 – FORCES IN RECTANGULAR TANK WALLS

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UWU/Civil & Environmental Engineering                               CVNG 3016 – Design of Environmental Engineering Systems   2010  

STRENGTH DESIGN METHOD 

Basic Requirement:

Design Strength ≥ Required Strength

∅(Nominal Strength) ≥ U

φ Rn ≥ U
(ACI 318 Sect. 9.2) U = 1.4 (D + F) (2.1)

(ACI 350 cl. 2.6.5) U = 1.7 (D + F) (2.2)

D = dead load
F = liquid pressure

Sanitary Durability Factors - ACI 350 applies sanitary durability factors (based on crack width
calculations) to obtain the Required Strength

Required Strength = Sanitary Coefficient x U

Ur = Cs x U (2.3)

Sanitary Coefficients are:


Cs = 1.3 (bending)
Cs = 1.65 (direct tension / hoop tension)
Cs = 1.3 (shear beyond shear capacity of concrete – stirrup design)
Cs = 1.0 (concrete shear)

Strength Design Requirements


(a) Flexural Reinforcement

Design Strength ≥ 1.3U

∅Mn ≥ 1.3(1.4MD+ 1.7 ML+1.7 MF) (2.4)

(b) Direct Tension Reinforcement

Design Strength ≥ 1.65U

∅Nn ≥ 1.65(1.4ND+ 1.7NL+1.7NF) (2.6)

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UWU/Civil & Environmental Engineering                               CVNG 3016 – Design of Environmental Engineering Systems   2010  

(c) Stirrup Shear Reinforcement

Design Strength ≥ 1.3 (Vc - ∅Vc)

∅Vs ≥ 1.3 (Vu - ∅Vc) (2.7)

(d) Concrete Shear and Compression Reinforcement

Design Strength ≥ 1.0 U

∅Vn ≥ 1.0Vu (2.8)

(e) Minimum reinforcement (ACI 318-05 cl. 10.5)

• Concrete sections with t ≥ 24″ use


3
f c′ bw d minimum temperature and
As, min = b w d ≥ 200 (2.9) shrinkage reinforcement at each
fy fy
face based on 12″ thickness.
• Size of rebar ≤ #11
(f) Minimum cover = 2 in. • Max. spacing of rebar ≤ 12″
• Minimum cover in tank walls = 2″

(g) Minimum thickness for walls over 10 ft. high = 12 ins.

Serviceability for Normal Sanitary Exposure (ACI 350, cl. 2.6.6)

Crack Control

Maximum Design crack width


• Severe exposure = 0.010 in.
• Aesthetics = 0.008 in.

Crack width calculation is based on the following equation:

z=f s 3 d c A (2.10)
Where,

Z is a quantity limiting distribution of flexural reinforcement


(ACI 350 limits)
z ≤ 115 kips/in (crack width = 0.010 in)
z ≤ 95 kips/in (crack width = 0.008 in)

4
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fs = calculated stress in reinforcement at service loads, ksi


dc = concrete cover to centroid of closest rebar
A = effective area of concrete surrounding flexural reinforcement with same
centroid divided by the number of bars, in2.

The maximum spacing it given by,


Z3
bw = 2 3 (2.11)
2d c f s

A= 2dcbw
t

dc

bw

Fig. 1.0 - Calculation of A

5
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EXAMPLE 1 Rectangular Tank 

20'-0″
30'-0″
10'-0‫״‬

2.5'
Longitudinal Section Cross Section
20'-0″

350

30'-0″

Plan
Fig. E1 – Plan and sections of Tank

Design Data

Weight of Liquid, w = 70 lbs/ft3


Weight of Soil, γs = 100 lbs/ft3
ka = 0.3
'
fc = 4000 psi
fy = 60,000 psi
Wall thickness, t = 18 in.
Base slab projection beyond wall = 2.5 ft.
Water pressure at base, p = wa = 70 x 10 = 700 lbs/ft2

6
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Design for Vertical Bending Moments 

Wall considered fixed at base and free at top

Using PCA Charts to calculate moments (Table 3-29: case 3 – Long side)
Ratio of length/height = b/a = 30/10 = 3.0 (long side)
Ratio of width/height = c/a = 20/10 = 2.0 (short side)

Mx = CMx x pa2/1000
= CMx x 700 x 102 / 1000
= CMx x 70 ft-lbs
= CMx x 0.84 in-kips

For sanitary structures - Mu = Sanitary coef x 1.7 x M


Mux = 1.3 x 1.7 x Mx
Mux = 1.3 x 1.7 x CMx x 0.84 in-kips
= 1.86 x CMx

Maximum positive moment at 0.7 a (CMx = +10) Mux = +18.6 kips-in


Maximum negative moment at bottom (CMx = -129) Mux = -239.9 kips-in

a = 10'

M = + 18.6 kips-in

V = 3500 lbs M = - 239.9 kips-in

Fig E2 – Vertical Moments at mid-length

Assuming No. 5 bars at 12in. c/c


Cover = 2 in.
Wall thickness = 18 in.

d = 18 – 2 – 5/16 = 15.7 in. (db = 5/8 in.)

7
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M 239.9
= =0.0225
0.9x4x12x (15.7 )
2
φ f c bd
′ 2

(From Appendix A) ω = 0.023

f c' 4
∴ A s =ωbd = 0.023x12x15.7x = 0.29in 2
fy 60

Check minimum steel (ACI 318-05 cl. 10.5)

3
fc'
4000 3
Asmin = x12x15.7=0.595in 2 ≥ 200 bwd/fy
bw d=
fy 60000
200b w d 200x12x15.7
= = =0.628in 2 (governs)
fy 60,000

(ACI 318 -05 cl. 10.5.3) Use 4/3 of As required by analysis

As = 4/3 x 0.29 = 0.39in2


Provide No. 5 @ 9 in c/c on inside face (As =0.41 in2)

Design for Horizontal Bending Moments 

2590 2590 lbs


-65.6 1890 lbs -65.6 in-kip

1890 +35.93 in-kip 1890


2590

2590

1890 +35.93
1890

-65.6 1890 lbs -65.6

2590 2590

Fig. E3- Horizontal Forces (un-factored) at mid-height of tank)


NB: Shear Forces calculations on Page 9 below

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(a) At Corner - Horizontal Moment Steel

Muy = 1.3 x 1.7 x 65.66

Muy = 145.1 in-kips

Mu 145.1
= =0.0136
φ f c bd 0.9x4x12x15.7 2
1 2

(From Appendix A)

ω = 0.014

f c' 4
A s =ωbd =0.014x12x15.7x =0.18in 2
fy 60

(b) Steel required for Direct Tension in Long Wall

Factored tension Nu = 1.65 x 3213 = 5301 lbs/ft width

Nu 5301
As= = =0.1in 2
0.9f y 0.9x60,000

Direct tension steel is equally distributed on inside and outside faces of wall.

0.1
Total steel required on inside face = 0.18+ =0.23in 2
2
200b w d
As,min = =0.625in 2 (governs)
fy

4/3 of As required by analysis = 4/3 x 0.23 = 0.31 in2

Provide No.5 @ 12 in (As = 0.31 in2) horizontal steel on inside face of long walls.

9
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(c) Horizontal steel near centre of outside face of wall

Design for M = 40.91 in-kips

(d) Crack Control - Check Maximum Spacing of bars

239.9
Maximum un-factored moment M= =108.6in-kips
(1.7x1.3)
Stress in steel reinforcement

M
fs =
A s jd
As = 0.41 in2/ft d = 15.7 in

29,000
n= =8
57 ( 4000 )
0.41
ρ= = 0.00218
(12 x 15.7 )
k = 2 ρ n + ( ρ n ) − ρ n = 0.17
2

j = 1 – k/3 = 0.94

108.6
∴ fs = =17.95ksi
0.41x0.94x15.7

z3
s m ax =
( 2 x d c2 x f s3 )
φ
dc = cover + = 2 + 0.313=2.313in
2
z = 115 kips/in

fs = 17.95 ksi

115 3
s max = =24.6in>9in OK
2x2.313 2 x17.95 3
 

10
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Design for Shear Forces  
Using PCA Charts to calculate moments (Table 2-17: CASE 3 – Long side)
Ratio of length/height = b/a = 30/10 = 3.0 (long side)
Ratio of width/height = c/a = 20/10 = 2.0 (short side)

Shear, V = Cs x p x a

(a) Check Shear at bottom of Wall

Maximum shear at bottom of long wall,

V = 0.50 x 700 x 10 = 3500 lbs

∴ Vu =1.7x3500=5950 lbs

Since tensile force from adjacent wall is small

Vc =2 fc' bd

=2 4000x12x15.7 = 23,831 lbs


 
φ Vc = 0.85 x 23,831= 20,256lbs > 5950 lbs  
 
  OK 
 
(b) Check Shear at side edge of long wall

V = 0.37 x 700 x 10 = 2590 lbs


Vu = 1.7 V = 1.7 x 2590 = 4403 lbs

Wall subjected to simultaneous tensile force due to shear in short side wall;
(ACI 318 cl.11.3.2.3) gives allowable shear as:

⎛ Nu ⎞
V c = 2 ⎜ 1+ ⎟ f c' b d
⎜ 500A g ⎟⎠

Nu = tension in long wall due to shear in short wall.

Shear in short side wall V = 0.27 x 700 x 10 = 1890 lbs.

11
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Nu = -1.7 x 1890 = -3213 lbs

Ag = 18 x 12 = 216 in2

⎛ -3213 ⎞ 1
Vc =2 ⎜1+ ⎟ f c bd
⎝ 500x216 ⎠

=1.94 4000x12x15.7 = 23,116 lbs

φVc = 0.85 x 23,116 = 19,649 lbs > 4403 lbs


OK

(e) Shrinkage and Temperature Reinforcement

Assuming the walls will be in one pour of 30 ft long.

Minimum Temperature and Shrinkage reinforcement

A st
(Fig 1-2) =0.0033
bh
1
A st = x12x18=0.356in 2 (No. 5 @ 10”)
2
< 0.41 in2 (No. 5 @ 9”) OK

Summary of Reinforcement 

Inside face – vertical No. 5 @ 9 in


Outside face – vertical No. 5 @ 10 in (Use No. 5 @ 9 in for consistency)
Inside face – horizontal No. 5 @ 12 in
Outside face – horizontal No. 5 @ 12 in

12
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BASE SLAB DESIGN 

• Design as a 2-way spanning slab, simply supported at edges.

• Assume that the pressure beneath the slab is uniform and is generated by the weight
of the walls spread over entire area.
10'
12″

30'

Vs = 4150 lbs 3500 lbs


Vls

2500 lbs Mls = 8497 ft-lb

Mss = 15,413 ft-lb


2500 lbs

3500 lbs
k
Fig E4 – Forces on Base Slab

Unit weight of concrete = 150 lbs/ft3

13
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Wall Dead load = 150 ( 2 x 1.5 x 10 x ( 30 + 0.75) + ( 20+0.75) ) = 231,750 lbs


Factored DL = 1.4(231,750) = 324,450 lbs
324,450
p= = 509 lbs/ft 2
( 30.75 x 20.75)
Using PCA Tables
Mss (short span) = 78 x 509 x 202 /1000 = 15,881 ft-lb = 191 in-k
Mls (long span) = 43 x 509 x 202 / 1000 = 8755 ft-lb = 105in-k
Vss = 0.24 x 509 x 20 = 2443 lbs = 2.4 k
Vls = 0.42 x 509 x 20 = 4276 lbs = 4.3 k
Ft (long span) = 0.4 x 700 x 10 = 2800 lbs

Design of Short Span

2.4k
191 in-k
12″

3.5 k

Assume slab thickness, h = 12 ins.


For #6 bars and 2″ cover
d = 12 – 2 – 0.75/2 = 9.625 ins.

Short Span

(a) Mid-span Moment Steel


(NB: ACI 350 is silent on use of sanitary coefficient for slabs, but we will apply
same here)

Muy = 1.3 x 191

Muy = 248.3 in-kips

Mu 248.3
= = 0.062
φfcbd 0.9 x 4 x 12 (9.625)2
' 2

(From Appendix A)

14
UWU/Civil & Environmental Engineering                               CVNG 3016 – Design of Environmental Engineering Systems   2010  

ω = 0.064

f c' 4
A s =ωbd =0.064 x 12 x 9.7x = 0.49in 2
fy 60

(b) Steel required for Direct Tension in short span

Factored tension Nu = 1.65 x 3500 = 5775 lbs/ft width

Nu 5775
As= = =0.11in 2
0.9f y 0.9x60,000

Direct tension steel is equally distributed on inside and outside faces of slab.

0.11
Total steel required on top face = 0.49+ =0.55 in 2
2
200b w d 200 (12 x 9.7 )
As,min = = = 0.39 in 2
fy 60000
4/3 of As required by analysis = 4/3 x 0.55 = 0.73 in2

Provide No.6 @ 7 in crs. (As = 0.75 in2) steel on top face of slab in short
direction.

(c) Long Span


Muy = 1.3 x 105 in-kips

Muy = 136.5 in-kips

d = 12 -2 -0.625- 0.625/2 = 9.0625

Mu 136.5
= = 0.0385
φfc bd 0.9 x 4 x 12 x 9.06252
1 2

(From Appendix A)

ω = 0.039

15
UWU/Civil & Environmental Engineering                               CVNG 3016 – Design of Environmental Engineering Systems   2010  

f c' 4
A s =ωbd =0.039 x 12 x 9.0625x = 0.283 in 2
fy 60

Steel required for Direct Tension in long span

Factored tension Nu = 1.65 x 2800 = 4620 lbs/ft width

Nu 4620
As= = =0.085in 2
0.9f y 0.9x60,000

Direct tension steel is equally distributed on inside and outside faces of slab.

0.085
Total steel required on top face = 0.283+ =0.326 in 2
2
200b w d 200 (12 x 9.7 )
As,min = = = 0.39 in 2 (governs)
fy 60000
4/3 of As required by analysis = 4/3 x 0.31 = 0.41 in2

Provide No.5 @ 8 in crs

 
(b) Check Shear at side edge of long span

V = 4276 lbs
Vu = 1.0 V = 4276 lbs

Wall subjected to simultaneous tensile force (ACI 318 cl.11.3.2.3) gives allowable
shear as:

⎛ Nu ⎞
V c = 2 ⎜ 1+ ⎟⎟ f c' b d
⎜ 500A
⎝ g ⎠

Nu = 3500 lbs

Ag = 12 x 12 = 144 in2

16
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⎛ -3500 ⎞ '
Vc =2 ⎜1+ ⎟ fc bd
⎝ 500 x 144 ⎠

=1.90 4000x12 x 9.7= 14,008 lbs

φVc = 0.85 x 14,008 = 11,907 lbs > 4276 lbs


OK

(e) Shrinkage and Temperature Reinforcement

Assuming the walls will be in one pour of 30 ft long.

Minimum Temperature and Shrinkage reinforcement

A st
(Fig 1-2) =0.0033
bh
1
A st = x 0.0033x12x12=0.238 in 2 < 0.73 in2
2

OK

Summary of Reinforcement

Top face – short direction (mid-span) No. 6 @ 7 in crs


Top face – short direction (edges) No. 5 @ 7 in crs (for consistency)
Top face - long direction (mid-span) No. 5 @ 7 in (for consistency)
Bottom face - both direction (edges) No. 5 @ 7 in
Bottom face both direction (mid-span) No. 5 @ 12 in

17
UWU/Civil & Environmental Engineering                               CVNG 3016 – Design of Environmental Engineering Systems   2010  

Rectangular Tank 

No. 5 @ 10 in c/c
No. 5 @ 12 in. c/c
No. 5 @ 12 in. c/c

No. 5 @ 9 in. c/c


No. 5 @ 10 in c/c
No. 6 @ 7 in. c/c Water
No. 5 @ 7 in. c/c stop
Water stop

No. 5 @ 7 in. c/c both ways

Section showing Reinforcement Details for Rectangular Tank

Dr. William Wilson


17 March 2010

18
CHAPTER 9

STAIR CASES

9.1 GENERAL FEATURES

Stair cases are provided for connecting successive floors. It is comprised with flights of steps
with inter mediate landings which provides rest to the user and support for the flight. A passage
is provided at the start of staircase then for the vertical rise a flight is provided with rise and
tread. Rise provided in the steps is normally 6 inch which conforms with the comfort of the user.
Tread provided is 9.5 inch which can be more if the number of user is more depending on the
type of building. The width of the stair can be between 3.5ft to 5 ft depending on the use.
Generally public buildings should be provided with larger width.

Going is the horizontal projection of the inclined flight between the first and the last riser. A
flight is generally consist of two landings with going in between of 10 to 12 steps.

Staircases can be designed in many forms as per the requirement of the user and the facility and
space available in the construction. Design procedure of few types are discussed in this chapter.

9.2 TYPES OF STAIR CASES

Stair cases can be of varying geometrical shapes and structural behavior. Some of the most
common types of staircases are shown is subsequent discussion.
STAIR CASES

9.2.1 DOG LEGGED STAIR CASE

LANDING

PASSAGE

Figure 9.1 : Dog legged stair case

Most commonly used in buildings. It comprises with two flights and a landing or lobby in
between. Normally the landing is provided at mid height. The landing acts as a support of the
flight and landing is supported by beams or wall.

321
STAIR CASES

9.2.2 OPEN WELL STAIR CASE

Open
well

UP UP

Figure 9.2 : Open well stair case

322
STAIR CASES

Generally adopted in public building where adequate space can be provided for staircases. It ahs
quarter landings which provide more comfort to user. Moreover the open well provide adequate
ventilation. The flights are consisted of lesser steps in comparison to dog legged staircases.

9.2.3 TREAD RISER STAIR CASE

This type of staircase is normally used for aesthetic beautification. No support for landing is
provided. The tread and riser is constructed as folded plates. The construction of this types of
staircase is costly as reinforcement required is more.

Tread

Riser

Figure 9.3 : Tread Riser Stair Case

323
STAIR CASES

9.2.4 CANTILEVER STAIR CASE

Cantilever
slab

Rise

Figure 9.4 : Cantilever Stair Case

In this type of staircase cantilever horizontal tread are projected from a wall or an inclined beam.
This type of staircase needs complicated formwork and normally used for aesthetic
beautification.

324
STAIR CASES

9.3 DESIGN OF DOGLEGGED STAIR CASE

Step 1: General arrangement

LANDING

PASSAGE

Figure 9.5 : Dog legged stair case (general arrangement)


325
STAIR CASES

The figure above shows the plan of the stair hall. Let the rise be 6 inch and trade be 9.5 inch. The
width of each flight is 3.5 inch.

10
Height of each flight = = 5 ft.
2
5 × 12
No of risers required = = 10 risers in each flight.
6
No of tread in each flight = 10-1 = 9.
Space occupied be trades = 9 × 9.5 = 7.125 ft.
Width of landing =4.5 ft.
Width of passage =4.5 ft.
Size of stair hall = 7 ft × 16.125 ft.

Step 2: Design constants

For steel f y = 40,000 psi


And for concrete f c′ = 3000 psi

Step 3: Determination of loading

The landing slab acts together with the going as a single slab. The bearing of the slab into the
wall may be considered 6.5 inch.

6.5
Then the effective span = 7.125 + 4.5 + = 12.17 ft.
12
l
Considering one-way slab with both end continuous minimum thickness is .
28
l 12.17
So, t = = = 5.22inches ≈ 6 inches.
28 28
6
• Self weight of the slab = × 150 × 1 = 75 plf.
12
⎛ 1 Tread Riser ⎞ Tread
• Self weight of the steps = ⎜ × × × 150 ⎟ ÷
⎝2 12 12 ⎠ 12
⎛ 9.5 6 ⎞ 9.5
= ⎜ 0.5 × × × 150 ⎟ ÷
⎝ 12 12 ⎠ 12
=37.5 plf.
326
STAIR CASES

• Floor finish = 20 plf.

Total dead load =75+37.5+20=132.5.

Live load = 100 plf.

So, Design factored load = 1.4 × 132.5 + 1.7 × 100 =355.5 plf.

Step 4: Bending Moment Calculation

• Maximum Moment

wl 2 1
M max = = × 355.5 × 12.17 2 = 6581.60 lb-ft =78.97 k-in.
8 8

• Check for depth

3 87
ρ max = 0.75 ρ b = 0.75 × 0.85 × 0.85 × × = 0.0278
40 87 + 140

M max
d2 =
⎛ fy ⎞
φρf y b⎜1 − 0.59 ρ ⎟
⎜ f c ⎟⎠

78.97
=
⎛ 40 ⎞
0.9 × 0.0278 × 40 × 12 × ⎜1 − 0.59 × 0.0278 × ⎟
⎝ 30 ⎠

∴ d = 2.9 inch

And t = 2.9+1=3.9 inch (with 1 inch clear cover)

t =3.9 inch < 6 inch (Ok)

d available = 6-1 = 5 inch

327
STAIR CASES

Step 5: Reinforcement Calculation

• Distribution Bar.

Minimum reinforcement is provided as temperature and shrinkage reinforcement.

Temperature and shrinkage reinforcement,


Ast = 0.002 × b × t = 0.002 × 12 × 6 = 0.144in 2 / ft

# 3 bar can be used.

The spacing will be,

0.11 × 12
S= = 9 inch c/c.
0.144

• Longitudinal Steel.

This is selected by trial.

Assumed M As f y
Trial ‘a’ (inch) Steel Area, As = a= Comments
⎛ a⎞ 0.85 f c ′ × b
No φf y ⎜ d − ⎟
⎝ 2⎠ (inch)
2
(inch )
78.97 0.49 × 40
As = = 0.49 a= = 0.64 Not OK
Trial-1 a=1.0 ⎛ 1⎞ 0.85 × 3 × 12
0.9 × 40⎜ 5 − ⎟
⎝ 2⎠
78.97 0.47 × 40
As = = 0.47 a= = 0.61 OK
Trial-2 a=0.6 ⎛ 0.6 ⎞ 0.85 × 3 × 12
0.9 × 40⎜ 5 − ⎟
⎝ 2 ⎠

So, As = 0.47inch 2 is provided.

It can be furnished by using # 4 bar.

0.22 × 12
Spacing = = 5.62 ≅ 6 inch center to center.
0.47

328
STAIR CASES

Step 6: Detailing

The following points are to be remembered in detailing:

• The main reinforcement should be bent to follow the bottom profile of the stair.
• Near the landing the reinforcement should be taken straight up and then bent in
the compression zone of landing.
• For tensile stress in the landing zone separate set of bars should be used as shown
in the detailing.

• The length of each type of bar on either side of the crossing should be at least
equal to 2 ft 2 inches.
• All the bars of the tensile reinforcement should be taken into the supports and
anchorage and development length requirement must be fulfilled.
• Distribution bars should be used parallel to the width of the steps.

LANDING

# 3 bar @ 9
inch c/c

# 4 bar @ 6
inch c/c
PASSAGE

# 3 bar @ 9
inch c/c
# 4 bar @ 6
inch c/c

Figure 9.6: Detailing of Stair Case

329
STAIR CASES

PASSAGE

LANDING

Figure 9.6.: Detailing of Stair Case (continued)

330
STAIR CASES

9.4 DESIGN OF OPEN WELL STAIR CASE

4.5
ft

7.67 ft
4.79 4.5
ft ft

4.5 ft 4 ft

13.79 ft
Figure 9.7 : Plan View of Open Well Stair Case
331
STAIR CASES

Step 1: General Arrangements

Width of steps= 4.5 ft


Height of first flight =4.5 ft
Height of 2nd flight = 3 ft Total height between the floors = 15 ft
First landing= 4.5 ft
2nd landing = 4.5 ft
Riser raised in first flight = 9
Riser = 6 inch
Tread = 11.5 inch
The size of stair hall= 13.79 ft × 16.17 ft

Step 2: Design Constants

Let for steel f y = 40000 psi


And for concrete f c′ = 3000 psi

Step 3: Design of First Flight

The bearing of the landing slab into the wall is 6.5 inch.
6.5
Therefore the effective span = 7.67 + 4.5 + = 12.71 ft
12
l
Considering one-way slab with both end continuous minimum thickness is
28
l 12.71
So, t = = = 5.45inches ≈ 5.5inches
28 28

5.5
• Self weight of the slab = × 150 × 1 = 68.75 plf
12
⎛ 1 tread riser ⎞ tread
• Self weigh of the steps = ⎜ × × × 150 ⎟ ÷
⎝2 12 12 ⎠ 12
⎛ 11.5 6 ⎞ 11.5
= ⎜ 0.5 × × × 150 ⎟ ÷ = 37.5 plf
⎝ 12 12 ⎠ 12
• Floor finish=20 plf

• Live load = 100 plf [can be determined by table 1.1 of ACI code]

332
STAIR CASES

Total Dead load =68.75+37.5+20=126.25 plf

Design factored load = 1.4 × 126.25+1.7 × 100=346.75 plf

Bending Moment Calculation:

wl 2 1
• M max = = × 346.75 × 12.712 = 7001.93 lb-ft =84.02 k-in
8 8

• Check for the depth

3 87
ρ max = 0.75 ρ b = 0.75 × 0.85 × 0.85 × × = 0.0278
4 87 + 40
M max 84.02
d2 = =
⎛ fy ⎞ ⎛ 40 ⎞
φρf y b⎜⎜1 − 0.59 ρ ⎟⎟ 0.9 × 0.0278 × 40 × 12 × ⎜1 − 0.59 × 0.0278 × ⎟
⎝ f c′ ⎠ ⎝ 3 ⎠

d = 2.99 inch ≈ 3 inch


Provide 1inch clear cover
t=3+1=4 inch<6 inch or 5.5 inch
So, Design is OK.
Available d =5.5-1=4.5 inch

Reinforcement Calculation:

• Distribution Bar

Only minimum reinforcement is provided as temperature and shrinkage reinforcement.

Temperature and shrinkage reinforcement


Ast = 0.002 × bt = 0.002 × 12 × 5.5 = 0.132in 2 / ft

So # 3 Bar can be used.


0.11 × 12
Spacing = = 10 inch c/c.
0.132

333
STAIR CASES

• Longitudinal bar

This is selected through trials.

Assumed M As f y
Trial ‘a’ (inch) Steel Area, As = a= Comments
⎛ a⎞ 0.85 f c ′ × b
No φf y ⎜ d − ⎟
⎝ 2⎠ (inch)
(inch2)
84.02 0.58 × 40
As = = 0.58 a= = 0.76 Not OK
Trial-1 a=1.0 ⎛ 1⎞ 0.85 × 3 × 12
0.9 × 40⎜ 4.5 − ⎟
⎝ 2⎠
84.02 0.56 × 40
As = = 0.56 a = = 0.73 OK
Trial-2 a=0.7 ⎛ 0.7 ⎞ 0.85 × 3 × 12
0.9 × 40⎜ 4.5 − ⎟
⎝ 2 ⎠

So, As = 0.56in 2 can be provided. It can be furnished by using # 4 bar.


0.22 × 12
Spacing= = 4.71 ≈ 5 inch c/c.
0.56

Step 4: Design of Second Flight

Let the bearing of the landing slab into the wall is 6.5 inch.
6.5 6.5
The effective span= + 4.5 + 4.79 + 4.5 + = 14.87 ft
12 12
l
Considering one way slab with both end continuous minimum thickness is
28
l 14.87
So, t= = = 6.5inch
28 28

6.5
• Self weight of the slab = × 150 × 1 = 81.25 plf
12
⎛ 1 tread riser ⎞ tread
• Self weight of the steps = ⎜ × × × 150 ⎟ ÷
⎝2 12 12 ⎠ 12
⎛ 11.5 6 ⎞ 11.5
= ⎜ 0.5 × × × 150 ⎟ ÷
⎝ 12 12 ⎠ 12
=37.5 plf

334
STAIR CASES

• Floor finish=20 plf

Total dead load =81.25+37.5+20=138.75


Live load = 100 plf

So, designed factored load=1.4 × 138.75+1.7 × 100=364.25 plf

Bending Moment Calculation:

wl 2 1
• M max = = × 364.25 × 14.87 2 = 10067.73 lb-ft = 120.81 k-in.
8 8

• Check for depth:

3 87
ρ max = 0.75 ρ b = 0.75 × 0.85 × 0.85 × × = 0.0278
4 87 + 40
M max 120.81
d2 = =
⎛ fy ⎞ ⎛ 40 ⎞
φρf y b⎜⎜1 − 0.59 ρ ⎟⎟ 0.9 × 0.0278 × 40 × 12 × ⎜1 − 0.59 × 0.0278 × ⎟
⎝ f c′ ⎠ ⎝ 3 ⎠

d=3.59 ≈ 4 inch
Provide 1-inch clear cover
t=4+1=5 inch <6.5 inch
So, design is Ok
d available = 6.5 − 1 = 5.5inch

Reinforcement Calculation:

• Distribution Bar

Only minimum reinforcement is provided as temperature and shrinkage reinforcement.


Temperature and shrinkage reinforcement
Ast = 0.002 × 12 × 6.5 = 0.156in 2 / ft

If # 3 bar is used as distribution reinforcement


0.11 × 12
Spacing= = 8.46 ≈ 8 inch c/c.
0.156

335
STAIR CASES

• Longitudinal bar

This is selected through trials.

Assumed M As f y
Trial ‘a’ (inch) Steel Area, As = a= Comments
⎛ a⎞ 0.85 f c ′ × b
No φf y ⎜ d − ⎟
⎝ 2⎠ (inch)
(inch2)
120.81 0.67 × 40
As = = 0.67 a= = 0.88 Not OK
Trial-1 a=1.0 ⎛ 1⎞ 0.85 × 3 × 12
0.9 × 40⎜ 5.5 − ⎟
⎝ 2⎠
120.81 0.66 × 40
As = = 0.66 a= = 0.86 OK
Trial-2 a=0.85 ⎛ 0.85 ⎞ 0.85 × 3 × 12
0.9 × 40⎜ 5.5 − ⎟
⎝ 2 ⎠

So, As = 0.66in 2 can be provided. It can be furnished by using # 4 bar.

0.22 × 12
Required spacing= = 4 inch c/c.
0.66

336
STAIR CASES

Step 5: Detailing

# 3 Bar @10 inch c/c

# 4 bar
@5 inch c/c 11.5 inch
6 inch
# 4 bar @5 inch c\c

4.5 ft 7.67 ft 4 ft

Figure 9.8: First Flight


337
STAIR CASES

11.5 inch
# 4 bar @ 4 inch c\c
6 inch
# 3 Bar
# 4 bar @ 8 inch c/c
@ 4 inch c/c

4.5 ft 7.67 ft 4.5 ft

# 3 Bar
@ 8 inch c/c

Figure 9.9: Second Flight

338
www.eenadupratibha.net
APPSC & AEE – 2012
CIVIL ENGINEERING
Note: Answers Marked in Red Circle
PAPER – III
Exam held on 1-7-2012
1. The limiting value of cant gradient for all gauges is
(1) 1 in 360 (2) 1 in 720 (3) 1 in 1000 (4) 1 in 2000
2. If ‘R’ is the radius of a circular curve, then the versine on a chord of length ‘C’

t
is given by

(1) 
C2
4R
.ne C
(2) 
8R
C2
(3) 
8R
C
(4) 
4R
3.

ha
The correct relation between curve lead (CL), switch lead (SL) and lead of

ib
crossing (L) is given by

at
(1) CL = L – SL (2) SL = L + CL

pr
(3) L = CL – SL (4) L = (CL + SL)/2
4.
u
The grade compensation on a 4° curve on a broad gauge railway track is

d
a
(1) 0.20% (2) 0.16% (3) 0.12% (4) 0.08%
5.

en
A treadle bar is used for

.e
(1) interlocking points and single (2) setting points and crossings

6.
ww(3) setting marshalling yard signals (4) track maintenance
The background color of the informatory sign board is

7.
w (1) red (2) yellow
Limiting values of Poisson’s ratio are
(3) green (4) white

(1) -1 and 0.5 (2) -1 and -0.5 (3) 1 and -0.5 (4) 0 and 0.5
8. A beam of square cross-section with side 100 mm is placed with one diagonal,
vertical. If the shear force acting on the section is 10 kN, the maximum shear
stress is
N N N N
(1) 1  (2) 1.125  (3) 2  (4) 2.25 
mm2 mm2 mm2 mm2
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9. Slope at the end of the simply supported beam of span l with uniformly dis-
tributed load w/unit length over the entire span is given by
wl2 wl3 wl3 wl2
(1)  (2)  (3)  (4) 
16EI 16EI 24EI 24EI
10. A linear arch has
(1) normal thrust only (2) shear force only
(3) normal thrust and shear force (4) None of these

11.

et
If a circular shaft is subjected to a torque “T” and moment ‘M’, the ratio of

n
maximum bending stress and maximum shear stress is
2M
(1) 
a. M
(2) 
M
(3) 
2T
(4) 
T

ibh 2T T M
12.
t
If the diameter of a shaft subjected to torque alone is doubled, then horse

a
r
power P can be increased to
(1) 16 P

up (2) 8 P (3) 4 P (4) 2 P

d
13. A shaft turns at 150 rpm under a torque of 1500 Nm. Power transmitted is

na
(1) 15 π kW (2) 10 π kW (3) 7.5 π kW (4) 5 π kW
14.

.ee
In a particular material, if the modulus of rigidity is equal to the bulk modulus,
then the Poisson’s ratio will be

ww 1
(1) 
8
(2) 
4
1 1
(3) 
2
(4) 1

15.
w
The number of independent equations to be satisfied for static equilibrium of
a plane structure is
(1) 1 (2) 2 (3) 3 (4) 4
16. Castigliano’s first theorem is applicable
(1) for statically determinate structures only
(2) when the system behaves elastically
(3) only when principle of superposition is valid
(4) None of the above
17. If one end of the prismatic beam AB with fixed ends is given a transverse dis-
www.eenadupratibha.net
placement ‘∆’ without any rotation, then the transverse reactions at A or B due
to displacement is
6 EI ∆ 6 EI ∆ 12 EI ∆ 12 EI ∆
(1)  (2)  (3)  (4) 
l2 l3 l2 l3
18. In column analogy method, the area of analogous column for a fixed beam of
span ‘L’ and flexural rigidity EI is taken as
L L L L
(1)  (2)  (3)  (4) 
EI 2EI 3EI 4EI
19.
t
The three moments equation is applicable only when

e
n
(1) the beam is prismatic

a.
(2) there is no settlement of supports

bh
(3) there is no discontinuity such as hinges with the span

i
t
(4) the spans are equal

a
pr
u
20. What is the degree of static indeterminacy of the structure shown in figure?
(1) 1

a d
(2) 2

en
.
(3) 3
e
w
(4) 4
21.
w
The strain energy of a structure due to bending is given by

w∫
(1) ∫
M2 dx

EI ∫ ∫ 1 M2 dx
(2) 
2

EI (3)
2M2 dx

EI
1 M2 dx
(4) 
3

2EI
22. In the displacement method of structural analysis, the basic unknowns are
(1) displacements (2) force
(3) displacements and force (4) None of the above
23. The deformation of a spring produced by a unit load is called
(1) Stiffness (2) Flexibility
(3) Unit strain (4) None of these
24. A fixed beam AB of span L is subjected to a clockwise moment M at a distance
www.eenadupratibha.net
‘a’ from end ‘A’. Fixed end moment at end ‘A’ will be
M M
(1)  (L - a) (L - 3a) (2)  a(2L - 3a)
L2 L2
Ma M
(3)  (L - a) (4)  (L - a) (2L - a)
L2 L2
25. The absolute maximum bending moment in a simply supported beam of span
20 m due to a moving udl of 4 t/m spanning over 5 m is
(1) 87.5 t-m at the support (2) 87.5 t-m near the mid point

et
(3) 3.5 t-m at the mid point (4) 87.5 t-m at the mid point
26.

.n
The degree of static indeterminacy of a rigid jointed space frame is
(1) m + r – 2j
a (2) m + r – 3j

i
(3) 3m + r – 3j
bh (4) 6m + r – 6j
27.

at
A symmetrical parabolic arch of span 20 m and rise 5 m is hinged at the spring-

r
ings. If supports uniformly distributed load of 2 tones per meter run of the

p
u
span. The horizontal thrust in tones at each of the springings is
(1) 8

ad (2) 16 (3) 20 (4) Zero

n
28. The horizontal thrust due to rise in temperature in a semi-circular two hinged

. e
arch of radius R is proportional to

e 1 1

w
(1) R (2) R2 (3)  (4) 2
R R
29.

ww
In the frame shown in the figure, the support ‘D’ settles by ‘δ’. The fixed end
moment in the horizontal member of the frame will be (other symbols have the
usual meaning)
EI δ
(1) 
8
6EI δ
(2) 
16
3EI δ
(3) 
16
EI δ
(4) 
16
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30. Figure shows a portal frame with one end fixed and other hinged. The ratio of
MBA
the fixed end moments 
MCD
due to side sway will be
(1) 1.0
(2) 2.0
(3) 2.5
(4) 3.0
31.
et
The amount of irrigation water required to meet the evapotranspiration needs

a.n
of the crop during its full growth is called
(1) effective rainfall (2) consumptive use

ibh
(3) consumptive irrigation requirement (4) net irrigation requirement
32.

at
Hydrograph is the graphical representation of

pr
(1) runoff and time (2) surface runoff and time

du
(3) ground water flow and time (4) rainfall and time
33.
a
Cyclonic precipitation is caused by lifting of an air mass due to

n
e
(1) Pressure difference (2) Temperature difference

.e
(3) Natural topographical barriers (4) None of these
34.
w
If it rains between 2 PM and 3 PM and the entire basin area just starts con-

w
tributing water at 3 PM to the outlet, then the time of concentration will be

35.
w
(1) 15 minutes (2) 20 minutes
The elementary profile of a dam is
(3) 30 minutes (4) 60 minutes

(1) a rectangle (2) a trapezoidal


(3) an equilateral triangle (4) a right angled triangle
36. In a chute spillway, the flow is usually
(1) uniform (2) sub critical (3) critical (4) supercritic
37. Vertical drop fall is satisfactory for a height upto
(1) 0.5 m (2) 1.5 m (3) 3.5 m (4) 5.0 m
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38. A land is known as water logged
(1) when the permanent wilting point is reached
(2) when the gravity drainage has ceased
(3) when capillary fringe reaches the root zone of plants
(4) none of these
39. A hyetography is a graphical representation of
(1) rainfall intensity and time (2) rainfall depth and time
(3) discharge and time (4) cumulative rainfall and time
40.
et
The peak of a 4-hour flood hydrograph is 240 m3/sec. If the rainfall excess is

.n
80 mm and base flow which is constant is 40 m3/sec, then the peak of 4-hour

a
unit hydrograph will be
(1) 20 m3/sec

ibh (2) 25 m3/sec (3) 30 m3/sec (4) 35 m3/sec


41.

at
If ‘p’ is the precipitation, ‘a’ is the area represented by a rain gauge, and ‘n’ is

r
the number of rain gauges in a catchment area, then the weighted mean rain-

p
u
fall is

(1) 
a
Σ a2d
Σ ap3 Σ ap
(2) 
Σ ap
(3) 
Σa
Σ ap5
(4) 
Σ a3

n
n
42.

ee
For medium silt whose average grain size is 0.16 mm, Lacey’s silt factor is

.
likely to be

43.
ww
(1) 0.30 (2) 0.45 (3) 0.70 (4) 1.32
According to Indian standards, the number of raingauge stations for an area of

w
5200 km2 in plains should be
(1) 10 (2) 15 (3) 20 (4) 30
44. The maximum permissible limit for fluoride in drinking water is
(1) 0.1 mg/litre (2) 1.5 mg/litre (3) 5 mg/litre (4) 10 mg/litre
45. Standard EDTA (ethylene diamine tetra acetic acid) solution is used to deter-
mine the
(1) hardness of water (2) turbidity of water
(3) dissolved oxygen in water (4) residual chlorine in water
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46. Turbidity is measured on
(1) Standard silica scale (2) Standard cobalt scale
(3) Standard platinum scale (4) Platinum cobalt scale
47. The length of rectangular sedimentation tank should not be more than
(1) B (2) 2 B (3) 4 B (4) 8 B
48. Orthotolidine test is used for determination of
(1) dissolved oxygen (2) residual chlorine
(3) biochemical oxygen demand (4) None of these
49.
et
The suitable layout of distribution system for a city with roads of rectangular
pattern is

a.n
h
(1) grid iron system (2) dead end system

i
(3) ring system

t b (4) radial system

a
50. A sewer that receives the discharge of a number of house sewers is called

pr
(1) house sewer (2) lateral sewer

du
(3) intercepting sewer (4) submain sewer
51.
a
The correct relation between theoretical oxygen demand (TOD), biochemical

n
e
oxygen demand (BOD) and chemical oxygen demand (COD) is given by

.e
(1) TOD > BOD > COD (2) TOD > COD > BOD

52.
ww
(3) BOD > COD > TOD (4) COD > BOD > TOD
In a BOD test 1.0 ml of raw sewage was diluted to 100 ml and the dissolved

w
oxygen concentration of diluted sample at the beginning was 6 ppm and it was
4 ppm at the end of 5-day incubation at 20°C. The BOD of raw sewage will be
(1) 100 ppm (2) 200 ppm (3) 300 pmm (4) 400 ppm
53. The minimum dissolved oxygen which should always be present in water in
order to save the aquatic life is
(1) 1 ppm (2) 4 ppm (3) 10 ppm (4) 40 ppm
54. Temporary hardness in water is caused by the presence of
(1) Bicarbonates of Ca and Mg (2) Sulphates of Ca and Mg
(3) Chlorides of Ca and Mg (4) Nitrates of Ca and Mg
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55. Blue baby disease (methemoglobinemia) in children is caused by the presences
of excess
(1) chlorides (2) nitrates (3) fluorides (4) lead
56. Two samples of water, A and B have pH values of 4.4 and 6.4 respectively.
How many times more acidic is sample A than sample B ?
(1) 0 (2) 50 (3) 100 (4) 200
57. Dechlorination of water is achieved by adding
(1) Sodium thiosulphate (2) Sodium sulphate

et
(3) Sodium biosulphate (4) None of these
58.

.n
The efficiency of a sedimentation tank does not depend upon

a
(1) depth of the tank (2) detention time

bh
(3) length of the tank

i
(4) horizontal velocity of water
59.

at
Which one of the following would contain water with the maximum amount of
turbidity?

pr
u
(1) lakes (2) oceans (3) rivers (4) wells
60.

ad
The waste stabilization ponds can be

en
(1) aerobic (2) anaerobic (3) facultative

e
(4) all of the above
61.

w.
For a slab supported on its four edges with corners held down and loaded uni-

w
formly, the Marcus correction factor to the moments obtained by Grashoff

w
Rankine’s theory
(1) is always less than 1 (2) is always greater than 1
(3) is equal to 1 (4) None of the above
62. The permissible diagonal tensile stress in the reinforced brick work is
(1) zero (2) about 0.1 N/mm2
(3) 0.3 N/mm2 to 0.7 N/mm2 (4) None of the above
63. The limits of percentage P of longitudinal reinforcement in a column are given
by
(1) 0.15 % to 2% (2) 0.8% to 0.4%
(3) 0.8% to 0.6% (4) 0.15% to 0.6%
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64. In a pile of length l, the points of suspension from the ends for lifting it are
located at
(1) 0.207 l (2) 0.25 l (3) 0.293 l (4) 0.333 l
65. The partial safety factor for steel as per IS 456 – 1978 is taken as
(1) 1.15 (2) 1.35 (3) 1.50 (4) 1.65
66. According to IS 456 – 1978, the maximum strain in concrete at the outermost
compression fibre in the limit state design of flexural members is
(1) 0.0020 (2) 0.0035 (3) 0.0050 (4) 0.0065
67.
t
In a spherical dome subjected to concentrated load at crown or uniformly dis-

e
n
tributed load, the meridionat force is always
(1) Zero
a. (2) Tensile (3) Compressive

bh
(4) None of these

i
68.
t
In a doubly reinforced rectangular beam, the allowable stress in compression

a
r
steel is

up
(1) equal to the permissible stress in the tension steel

d
(2) more than permissible stress in the tension steel

a
n
(3) less than permissible stress in the tension steel

69.
.ee
(4) None of these
Loss of stress with time at constant strain in steel is called

ww
(1) relaxation (2) creep (3) ductility (4) shrinkage

w
70. In the limit state design of concrete structures, the strain distribution is
assumed to be
(1) linear (2) non-linear (3) parabolic (4) rectangular
71. If ‘P’ is the prestressing force applied at a maximum eccentricity ‘g’ at mid
span (figure), to balance the concentrated load ‘W’, the balancing load will be
(1) 2.5 Pg/L
(2) 3.0 Pg/L
(3) 3.5 Pg/L
(4) 4.0 Pg/L
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72. Yield line theory results in
(1) elastic solution (2) upper bound solution
(3) lower bound solution (4) unique solution
73. For ultimate load design of prestressed concrete girders used for bridges, com-
bination of load factors used is (here L.L. and D.L. are line load and dead load
respectively)
(1) 1.5 D.L. + 2.5 L.L. (2) 1.0 D.L. + 2.0 L.L.
(3) 1.0 D.L. + 2.5 L.L. (4) 2.0 D.L. + 2.0 L.L.
74.
t
A reinforced concrete slab is 75 mm thick. The maximum size of reinforce-

e
n
ment bar that can be used is

a
(1) 12 mm diameter
. (2) 10 mm diameter

bh
(3) 8 mm diameter

i
(4) 6 mm diameter
75.
t
In the design of two way slab restrained at all edges, torsional reinforcement

a
r
required is

up
(1) 0.75 times the area of steel provided at mid span in the same direction

d
(2) 0.375 times the area of steel provided at mid span in the same direction

a
n
(3) 0.375 times the area of steel provided in the shorter span

76.
.ee
(4) None of these
PERT technique of network analysis is mainly useful for

ww
(1) small projects (2) large and complex projects

w
(3) research and development projects (4) deterministic activities
77. In PERT analysis, the time estimates of activities and probability of their
occurrence follow
(1) Normal distribution curve (2) Poission’s distribution curve
(3) β - distribution curve (4) Binomial distribution curve
78. Critical path
(1) is always longest (2) is always shortest
(3) may be longest (4) may be shortest
79. The time by which a particular activity can be delayed without affecting the
preceding and succeeding activities is known as
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(1) free float (2) Total float
(3) Independent float (4) Interfering float
80. Economic saving of time results by crashing
(1) Cheapest critical activity (2) Cheapest non – critical activity
(3) Costliest critical activity (4) Costliest non – critical activity
81. Slack time refers to
(1) An activity (2) An event
(3) Both event and activity (4) None of the above
82.
et
A tractor has purchase price of Rs. 4.7 lacks and could save the organization

.n
an amount of Rupees one lack per year on operating costs. The salvage value

a
after the amortization period is 10% of the purchased price. The capital recov-

bh
ery period will be

i
(1) 3.7 years

at (2) 4.2 years (3) 5 years (4) 7.8 years


83.
r
Site order book is used for recording

p
u
(1) Instructions of the executive engineer

ad
(2) Construction measurements

n
(3) Requisition of plants and equipments

e
e
(4) Indents for materials to be ordered
84.

w.
The system of organization introduced by F.W. Taylor is known as

ww
(1) Effective organization
(3) Line organization
(2) Functional organization
(4) Line and staff organization
85. The original cost of an equipment is Rs. 10,000. Its salvage value at the end of
its total useful life of live years is Rs. 1,000. Its book value at the end of two
years of its useful life (as per straight line method of evaluation of deprecia-
tion) will be
(1) Rs. 8,800 (2) Rs. 7,600 (3) Rs. 6,400 (4) Rs. 5,000
86. Grader is used mainly for
(1) Trimming and finishing (2) Shaping and trimming
(3) Finishing and shaping (4) Finishing, shaping and trimming
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87. The flow net of the activities of a project are shown in the network given in
figure indicating the duration of the activities along their arrows. The critical
path of the activities is along
(1) 1 → 2 → 4 → 5 → 7 → 8
(2) 1 → 2 → 3 → 6 → 7 → 8
(3) 1 → 2 → 3 → 5 → 7 → 8
(4) 1 → 2 → 4 → 5 → 3 → 6 → 7 → 8
88. Capital recovery factor at 15% p.a. discrete compounding for 4 years is 0.35. Rs.

et
10,000 deposited now at 15% p.a. discrete compounding will yield an amount
‘X’ at the end of each 4 – year – period in perpetuity. The value of ‘X’ is
(1) Rs. 7,500

a.n (2) Rs. 6,666 (3) Rs. 6,000 (4) Rs. 9,000
89.
h
A machine costs Rs. 16,000 by constant rate of declining balance method of

ib
t
depreciation, its salvage value after an expected life of 3 years is Rs. 2,000.

a
The rate of depreciation is
(1) 0.25

pr (2) 0.30 (3) 0.40 (4) 0.50


90.
u
The relation between ‘D’ in hectares/cumec, depth of water ‘∆’ in meters and

d
a
the base period B in days is given by

en 1.98B
(1) ∆ = 
8.64B
(2) ∆ = 
5.68B
(3) ∆ = 
8.64D
(4) ∆ = 

e
D D D D
91.

w.
If P is the percentage of water required for normal consistency, water to be
added for determination of initial setting time is

92.
ww
(1) 0.75 P (2) 0.85 P (3) 0.085 P (4) 0.075 P
According to IS 399 – 1963, the weight of the timber is specified at
(1) 10% moisture content (2) 12% moisture content
(3) 8% moisture content (4) 14% moisture content
93. Due to attack of dry rot, the timber
(1) Shrinks (2) Cracks
(3) Reduces to powder (4) Reduces its weight
94. Plywood is made from
(1) Bamboo fibre (2) Teak wood only
(3) Common timber (4) Asbestos sheets
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95. For a 50 kg bag of cement, water required is
(1) 22.5 liters (2) 20.5 liters (3) 18.5 liters (4) 23.5 liters
96. The standard size of a brick is
(1) 19.5 cm × 9.5 cm × 9.5 cm (2) 18 cm × 8 cm × 8 cm
(3) 19 cm × 9 cm × 9 cm (4) 18.5 cm × 8.5 × 8.5 cm
97. Initial setting cement is caused due to
(1) 3 CaO.SiO2 (2) 2 CaO.SiO2
(3) 3 CaO.Al2O3 (4) 4 CaO.Al2O3.Fe2O3
98.
et
Clay and silt content in a good brick earth must be at least
(1) 25%

a.n (2) 30% (3) 40% (4) 50%


99.
h
For construction of structures under water the type of lime used is

ib
t
(1) Pure lime (2) Fat lime

ra
(3) Quick lime (4) Hydraulic lime
100.
p
Cement is said to be of good quality if

u
d
(1) It is not smooth when rubbed in between fingers

na
(2) It’s colour is greenish gray

.ee
(3) A handful of cement thrown into a bucket of water does not float
(4) None of the above
101.

ww
The most valuable timber may be obtained from

w
(1) Sal (2) Re Sander (3) Sandle (4) Teak
102. Soundness test of cement determines
(1) Durability (2) Tensile strength
(3) Quality of free lime (4) Initial setting
103. A badly mixed cement concrete results in
(1) Bleeding (2) Honeycombing
(3) Segregations (4) None of above
104. Inner part of a timber log surrounding the pitch is called
(1) Annual ring (2) Cambium layer
(3) Medullary sheath (4) Heart wood
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105. Portland Pozzolana cement possesses
(1) Lower heat of hydration (2) Water tightness
(3) Lower shrinkage on drying (4) All the above
106. If P, Y and Z are the weights of the cement, fine aggregates, and coarse aggre-
gates respectively and W/C is the water cement ratio, the minimum quantity of
water to be added to first batch, is obtained by the equation.
(1) 0.1 P + 0.3 Y + 0.1 Z = (W/C) × P
(2) 0.2 P + 0.5 Y + 0.1 Z = (W/C) × P

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(3) 0.3 P + 0.1 Y + 0.01 Z = (W/C) × P

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107.
a n
(4) 0.5 P + 0.3 Y + 0.01 Z = (W/C) × P

.
The main advantage of steel member, is

bh
(1) Its high strength

i
(2) Its long service life

at
(3) Its water tightness (4) All the above
108.

pr
As per ISI, rolled steel beam sections are classified into

du
(1) Three series (2) Four series (3) Five series (4) Six series

a
109. With a percentage increase of carbon in steel, decreases

en
(1) Hardness (2) Ductility (3) Brittleness (4) Strength
110.
.e
The critical load for a column of length ‘l’ hinged at both ends and having flex-

w
ural rigidity EI, is given by

ww π2 EI
(1) Pc = 
l3
π (EI)2
π2 EI
(2) Pc = 
l2

(3) Pc =  (4) None of these


l2
111. Slenderness ratio of compression member is
Moment of Inertia Radius of gyration
(1)  (2) 
Radius of gyration Effective length
Radius of gyration Moment of Inertia
(3)  (4) 
Area of cross − sec tion Area of cross − sec tion
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112. The most economical section for a column is
(1) Hexagonal (2) Rectangular
(3) Tubular section (4) Solid round
113. If W and L are the total superimposed load and the span of a plate girder in
meters, the approximate self weight of the girder, is taken as
WL WL WL WL
(1) M =  (2) M =  (3) M =  (4) M = 
300 100 400 200
114. According to IS 800 – 71, the minimum thickness of vertically stiffened web

t
plate shall not be less than

e
n
d d d d

.
(1)  (2)  (3)  (4) 

a
95 250 225 200
115.
h
Stiffness are used in a plate girder

ib
t
(1) To reduce compressive strength (2) To reduce the shear stress

ra
(3) To avoid the buckling of web plate (4) To take the bearing stress
116.

up
The minimum pitch of rivet holes of diameter ‘d’ should not be less than

ad
(1) 1.5 d (2) 2.5 d (3) d (4) 2d

n
117. In propped cantilever loaded as shown in figure, the plastic hinge will form at

ee
(1) 0.414 L from B

.
(2) 0.414 L from A

ww
(3) L/2 from B

w
(4) L/2 from A
118. A uniform beam shown in figure has the plastic moment Mp for span AB and
0.9 Mp for span BC. The correct virtual work equation is
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119. A steel beam of rectangular cross – section is clamped at both ends. Plastic
deformation is just observed when the udl on the beam is 10 kN/m. At the
instant of collapse, the load on the beam will be
(1) 10 kN/m (2) 15 kN/m (3) 20 kN/m (4) 30 kN/m
No Answer. Nearest option is (2)
120. One of the criteria for the effective width of flange of T – beam is
lo
bf =  + bw + 6Df
6

t
In the above formula, lo signifies

e
n
(1) Effective span of T – beam

a.
(2) distance between points of zero moments in the beam

bh
(3) Clear span of the beam

i
t
(4) Distance between points of maximum moments in the beam

a
121.
r
The trap used for a water closet is called

p
du
(1) Gully trap (2) Anti – siphon trap

a
(3) Intercepting trap (4) P – trap
122.

en
A soil has a bulk density of 22 kN/m2 and water content 10%. The dry densi-

e
ty of soil is

w.
(1) 18. 6 kN/m2 (2) 20.0 kN/m2

w
(3) 22.0 kN/m2 (4) 23.2 kN/m2
123.
w
Which of the following is a measure of particle size range?
(1) Effective size (2) Uniformity co – efficient
(3) Co – efficient of curvature (4) None of the above
124. If the plasticity index of a soil mass is zero the soil is
(1) Sand (2) Silt (3) Clay (4) Clayey silt
125. According to IS – classification, the range of silt size particles is
(1) 4.75 mm to 2.00 mm (2) 2.00 mm to 0.425 mm
(3) 0.425 mm to 0.075 mm (4) 0.075 mm to 0.002 mm
126. Which one of the following clays behaves like dense sand ?
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(1) Over – consolidated clay with a high over – consolidation ratio
(2) Over – consolidated clay with a low over – consolidation ratio
(3) Normally consolidated clay
(4) Under - consolidated clay
127. Relationship between dry density rd, percentage of air voids ηa, water content
w and specific gravity G of any soil is

et
128.

a.n
The ratio of the undisturbed shear strength to the remoulded shear strength, in

h
cohesive soils under undrained conditions is
(1) Zero

tib (2) 1

ra
(3) Greater than 1 (4) Between 0 and 1
129.
p
The critical height of unsupported vertical cut in a cohesive soil is given by

u
ad
en
.e
w
130. A plate load test is useful to estimate

w
(1) Bearing capacity of foundation (2) Settlement of foundation

131. w
(3) Both (1) and (2) (4) None of these
The correct increasing order of the surface areas of the given soils is
(1) Silt, sand, colloids, clay (2) Sand, silt, colloids, clay
(3) Sand, silt, clay colloids (4) Clay, silt, sand, colloids
132. For a given soil sample,
Cc = Co - efficient of gradation
Cu = Co - efficient of uniformity
D10 = effective size
D30 = diameter through which 30 percent of the total soil mass is passing.
If Cc = 1.0, Cu = 4.0, then the value of D30 / D10 would be
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(1) 2.00 (2) 1.75 (3) 1.50 (4) 1.25
133. The total settlement of a compressible soil stratum 2 m deep and having a coef-
ficient of volume compressibility of 0.02 cm2/kg under a pressure increment
of 2 kg/cm2 will be
(1) 2 cm (2) 4 cm (3) 8 cm (4) 10 cm
134. The determination of ultimate bearing capacity on eccentrically loaded square
footing depends upon the concept of useful
(1) square (2) width (3) triangle (4) circle
135.
t
In consolidation testing, curve fitting method is used to determine

e
n
(1) Compression index (2) Swelling index

a.
(3) Co-efficient of consolidation (4) None of these
136.

bh
Westergaard’s analysis for stress distribution beneath loaded areas is applica-

i
t
ble to

ra
(1) sandy soils (2) clayey soils (3) stratified soils (4) silty soils
137.

up
If the true bearing of a line AB is 269° 30' then the azimuth of the line AB is

ad
(1) 0° 30' (2) 89° 30' (3) 90° 30' (4) 269° 30'

n
138. In the quadrantal bearing system, a whole circle bearing of 293° 30’ can be

. e
expressed as

e
(1) W 23° 30' N (2) N 66° 30' W

ww
(3) S 113° 30' N (4) N 23° 30' W

w
139. Which of the following methods of contouring is most suitable for a hilly ter-
rain?
(1) Direct method (2) Square method
(3) Cross-sections method (4) Tachometric method
40. If a 30 m length can be taped with a precision of ± 0.01 m, then the standard
error in measuring 1.08 km with the same precision will be
(1) ± 0.54 m (2) ± 0.45 m (3) ± 0.36 m (4) ± 0.06 m
141. If in triangle ABC, b=300 m and angle ∠ABC = 60°, then the radius of the cir-
cular curve passing through the points A, B and C will be
(1) 86.6 m (2) 100.0 m (3) 173.2 m (4) 300.6 m
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142. Which one of the following specifications for length of base line refers to the
“Third order triangulation system”?
(1) 0.5 to 3 km (2) 1.5 to 5 km (3) 5 to 15 km (4) 10 to 20 km
143. If the co-ordinates of A are 100 N and 200 E and those of C are 100 S and 200
E, then the length AC is
(1) 400.00 (2) 282.84 (3) 244.94 (4) 200.00
144. The maximum limit of water absorption for aggregate suitable for road con-
struction is
(1) 0.4 %

et (2) 0.6 % (3) 0.8 % (4) 1.0 %

n
145. Which of the following represents hardest grade of bitumen?
(1) 30/40
a. (2) 60/70 (3) 80/100 (4) 100/120
146.

bh
For the construction of water bound macadam roads, the correct sequence of

i
t
operations after spreading the coarse aggregate is

ra
(1) dry rolling, wet rolling, application of screening and application of filler

up
(2) dry rolling, application of filler, wet rolling and application of screening

d
(3) dry rolling, application of screening, wet rolling and application of filler

a
n
(4) dry rolling, application of screening, application of filler and wet rolling
147.

ee
The thickness of bituminous carpet varies from

.
(1) 20 to 25 mm (2) 50 to 75 mm

ww
(3) 75 to 100 mm (4) 100 to 120 mm

w
148. Expansion joints in cement concrete pavements are provided at an interval of
(1) 10 m (2) 15 m
(3) 18 m to 21 m (4) 25 m to 30 m
149. A summit curve is formed at the intersection of a 3% up gradient and 5% down
gradient to provide a stopping distance of 128 m. The length of summit curve
needed will be
(1) 271 m (2) 298 m (3) 322 m (4) 340 m
150. Which one of the following binders is recommended for a wet and cold climate
(1) 80/100 penetration asphalt (2) tar
(3) cut back (4) emulsion