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You are on page 1of 14

1

@TecQuipment Ltd 1999

~ No part of this publication may be reproducedor transmittedin

any form or by any means,electronicor mechanical,including

photocopy, recording or any information storageand retrieval

systemwithout the expresspermissionof TecQuipmentlimited.

All due care has been taken to ensurethat the contentsof this

manual are accurateand up to date. However,if any errorsare

discoveredpleaseinform TecQuipmentso the problem may be

rectified.

A Packing Contents list is supplied with the equipment.

Carefullycheckthe contentsof the package(s)againstthe list. If

any items are missing or damaged, contact your local

TecQuipmentagent or TecQuipmentltd immediately.

[

[

[

[

[

Educational

PRODUCTS

CONTENTS

J 1 INTRODUCTION 1.1

Installation 2-1

Preparation 2-2

Routine Care and Maintenance 2-2

3 THEORY 3-1

Calculations of Discharge 5-1

Venturi Meter 5-1

Orifice Meter 5-1

T Rotameter 5-2

Calculations of Head Loss 5-3

Venturi Meter 5-3

Orifice Meter 5-3

Rotameter

r

5-3

Wide-Angled Diffuser 5-4

Right-Angled Bend 5-4

Discussion of Meter Characteristics 5-4

Conclusion 5-5

r

SECTION 1 INTRODUCTION

apparatus is designed to familiarise students with the

typical methods of measuring the discharge of an

essentially incompressible fluid, whilst giving

applications of the Steady-Aow Energy Equation and

Bernoulli's Equation. The discharge is determined

using a venturi meter, an orifice plate meter and a

rotameter. Head losses associated with each meter are

detennined and compared as well as those arising in a

rapid enlargement and a 90° elbow.

The unit is designed for use with the TecQuipment

HI or HID Hydraulic Bench, which provides the

necessary liquid service and evaluation of flow rate.

SECTION 2 DESCRIPTION OF APPARATUS

Rotameter

outlet tube

/

The apparatusis shown in Figure 2.1. Water from the through a rapidly diverging section.the flow continues

Hydraulic Benchentersthe equipmentthrough a venturi along a settling length and through an orifice plate

meter, which consists of a gradually-converging meter. This is manufactured in accordance with

section, followed by a throat. and a long gradually- BSI042. from a plate with a hole of reduceddiameter

diverging section. After a change in cross-section through which the fluid flows.

TecQuipmentFlow Measurement

Following a further settling length and a right-angled direct its free end into the bench measuringdevice.

bend, the flow enters the rotameter. This consistsof a Before continuing, refer to the hydraulic bench

transparenttube in which a float takesup an equilibrium manualto find the methodof flow evaluation.

position. The position of this float is a measureof the 2. With the air purge-valve closed, close the main

flow rate. valve fully then open it by approximately 1/3.

After the rotameter the water returns via a control Switch on the bench and slowly open the bench

valve to the Hydraulic Bench, where the flow rate can valve until water startsto flow. Allow the HIO to fill

be evaluated.The equipmenthas nine pressuretappings with water then openthe benchvalve fully, and then

(A to I) as detailed in Figure 2.2, each of which is close the main HIO valve. Couple the handpump to

connectedto its own manometerfor immediatereadout. the purge valve and pump down until alr the

manometersread approximately 330 mm. Dislodge

Installation any entrappedair from the manometersby gentle

tappingwith the fingers. Check that the water levels

are constant.A steadyrise in levels will be seenif

SeaI~ clip the purgevalve is leaking.

R~meter

outlet tube 3. Check that the tube ferrulesand the top manifold are

free from water blockage, which will suppressthe

manometerlevel. Ferrules blockage can be cleared

by a sharpburst of pressurefrom the hand pump.

Manometer

Routine Care and Maintenance

tapping tube

Do not allow water to stand in the apparatusfor long

periods. After use fully drain the apparatusand dry

externallywith a lint-free cloth.

The control valve is a commercial gate valve. the

internal detailsof which are shown in Figure 2.4. Slight

gland leakagecan be rectified as follows:

s..Ig

---" I. Remove the handwheel retaining nut and the

'-, , :, ~ handwheel.

2. Slacken the nut and remove. The gland packing

ferrule will now be exposed.The headof the ferrule

should be about 2 mm clear of the thread. If this is

not the case, the leak may be rectified by refitting

and tightening nut.

To fit the rotameter and float, push one of the short

piecesof hoseover the elbow outlet and drop over two

hose clips. Push the rotameterinto the hose, and then

carefully drop the float into the rotameter.Pusha short

piece of hose over the top of the rotameter and drop

over two hoseclips. Then pushthe outlet pipe assembly

into the top of this hose. Tighten all four pipe clips

ensuringthat the hoseis securedto the elbow, rotameter

and outlet tube. Finally attach the clear outlet tube,

securing with the pipe clip, and manometer tapping

tube,securingwith a cabletie.

Preparation

Connectthe supplyhosefrom the hydraulic benchto

the inlet of the venturi meter and securewith a hose If the ferrule is flush with the thread,then the gland

clip. Connecta hose to the control valve outlet and requiresrepacking.To do this:

TecQuipment Flow Measurement

replacementnylon '0' rings or asbestoscord.

2. Refit the gland ferrule and nut, ensuring that the

gland ferrule has sufficient clearanceto tighten the

packing when the nut is refitted.

stain and deposit remover is availablefor usewithin the

benchsupply.

r

SECTION 3 THEORY

consequenceof vorticity in the stream. Becausethe

flow is viscousa wall shearstressexists and a pressure

force must be applied to overcomeit. The consequent

increasein flow work appearsas an increasein internal

energy, and becausethe flow is viscous, the velocity

profile at any sectionis non-uniform.

The kinetic energy per unit massat any section is

then greater than y2/2g and Bernoulli's Equation

incorrectly assessesthis term. The fluid mechanics

entailed in all but the very simplest internal flow

problemsare too complex to permit the headloss M to

be determinedby any other meansthan experimental.

Figure 3. 1 The steady-flow energy equation Sincea contractionof streamboundariescan be shown

(with incompressiblefluids) to increaseflow uniformity

and a divergencecorrespondinglydecreasesit, M is

typically negligibly small between the ends of a

contracting duct but is normally significant when the

duct walls diverge.

(3-1)

r

SECTION 4 EXPERIMENTAL PROCEDURE

When the equipment has been set up as in Section 2, this period.recordthe readingsof the manometersin

measurementscan be takenin the following manner: Table 4.1.

2. Repeatthis procedurefor a number of equidistant

Open the apparatusvalve until the rotametershows valuesof rotameterreadingsup to the point in which

a reading of approximately 10 mrn. When a steady the maximumpressuresvaluescan be recordedfrom

flow is maintained measure the flow with the the manometer.

Hydraulic Bench as outlined in its manual. During

r Test number

1:

..

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10

D

:Manometric levels ~

G

"

Rotameter (cm)

Water, W (kg)

Time, T (..~)

Venturi (8)

Mass flow rate Orifice (11)

in (kg/S) Rotameter

Wel~ tank

Venturi (13)

DH/ Inlet Or~ (14)

kinetic head Rotameter

O~ser (16)

Elbow J:!!)J

Table 4.1 Form of results

SECTION 5 RESULTS AND CALCULATIONS

Between tappings (E) and (F) ~12 in Equation (3-1) is

rotameterare all dependentupon Bernoulli's Equation

for their principle of operation. The following have

been preparedfrom a typical set of results to show the

by no means negligible. Rewriting the equation with the

appropriate symbols:

-2

VF

-2

VE-I h..-PL

form of the calculations. ~-2";l' pg pg,

(5-4)

Venturi Meter

contracting duct it, along with the Z tenns, can be

omitted from Equation (3-1) betweenstations (A) and

such that the effect of the head loss is to make the

difference in manometricheight (hE - hF) less than it

would otherwisebe. An alternativeexpressionis:

(B).

From continuity:

(5-5)

pVAAA = pVsAB

(5-1) where the coefficient of discharge K is given by

previous experience in B51042 (1943)1 for the

The discharge, particular geometry of the orifice meter. For the

apparatusprovidedK is given as 0.601.

Q = AsVB = ~ 2g P..6.._fi Reducingthe expressionin exactly the sameway as

-=(AB / AJ2 pg pg for the venturi meter,

(5-2)

Q = AF~ = kAc 2g ;

With the apparatusprovided, the bores of the meter at

~A

AA

= 0.38 andAB = 2.01 x 10-4 m2

t:<'A;'i"A;Y.

(5-6)

Since g = 9.81 m/s2 and are the respective

= 8.46X lO-4(~ - hFf2

.&.,fi

Q

pg pg m3/s

heightsof the manometrictubesA and B in metres,we

havefrom Equation(5-2): Thus

m3/s

(5-3) For exampleif

Taking the density of water as 1<XX>

kg/m3, the mass hE=372 mrn

flow will be:

hF=40mrn

ni = o.962(hA - hs)l/2 kgjs

then

For exampleif (hE- ~f2 = 0.58

r hA = 375 mrn

hB = IIOmrn

and

then

(The correspondingHydraulic Flow Bench assessment

(hA - he)1/2 = 0.51 was0.48 kg/s.)

and

(The correspondingHydraulic Flow Bench assessment

was0.48 kg/s).

t The value of C is given in the 1943 BS1042publication. Figures

given in later editions may vary.

TecQuipment Flow Measurement

acrossthe rotameter(H) - (I) showsthat this difference

is largeand virtually independentof discharge.There is

a term which arisesbecauseof wall shearstressesand

which is therefore velocity dependent,but since the

rotameteris of largebore this term is small. Most of the

observedpressuredifferenceis required to maintain the

float in equilibrium and since the float is of constant

weight. this pressure difference is independent of

discharge.

The causeof this pressuredifferenceis the headloss

associatedwith the high velocity of water around the

float periphery.Sincethis headloss is constantthen the

peripheralvelocity is constant.To maintain a constant

velocity with varying dischargerate, the cross-sectional

areathrough which this high velocity occursmust vary.

This variation of cross-sectionalarea will arise as the

float movesup and down the taperedrotametertube.

From Figure 5.1, if the float radius is Rf and the

local bore of the rotametertube is 2Rtthen:

Jt(Rt" R;

= 2xRlS = Cross-sectional art

=

., Discharge

~,-~

Constantperipheralvelocity

Now 0 = Ie. where I is the distancefrom datum to the

cross-sectionat which the local bore is Rt and e is the

semi-angleof tube taper. Hence I is proportional to

discharge. An approximately linear calibration

characteristicwould be anticipatedfor the rotameter.

TecQulDmentFlow Measurement

Applying Equation (3-1) between (E) and (F) by

By referenceto Equation (3-1) the headloss associated substitutingkinetic and hydrostaticheadswould give an

with eachmetercan be evaluated. elevated value to the head loss for the meter. This is

becauseat an obstructionsuchas an orifice plate, there

Venturi Meter is a small increasein pressureon the pipe wall due to

Applying the equation betweenpressuretappings (A) part of the impact pressureon the plate being conveyed

and (C). to the pipe wall. BS1042 (Section 1.1 1981) gives an

approximateexpressionfor finding the head loss and

generally this can be taken as 0.83 times the measured

pg headdifference.

i.e.

Therefore:

hA - hc = L\HAC AHEF = 0.83 (hE - hF) mm

This can be made dimensionlessby dividing it by the

-2

=0.83 (372 - 40) mm = 275 mm

inlet kinetic head ~. The orifice plate diameter (51.9 mm) is approximately

2g

twice the venturi inlet diameter(26 mm), thereforethe

orifice inlet kinetic head is approximately 1/16 that of

Now,

v.~.

n7: 2g

~~ ' (l:A.-.rk.

kJ.'\~"'+ r

'

the venturi, thus:

44.26 = 276

1-(As/AA)2 Ptf1awP8 16

and Therefore.

-2

VA = VB (AB/A~ )2

-2

Head loss = ifs = 99.6 inlet kinetic heads

276

thus

Rotameter

the inlet kinetic headis:

'\72

~ = 0.144 x 116 EA._.&.

( .

= O.167(hA-~)

?

(r-g pg pg.

For exampleif:

hA = 375 rom

hB = 110rom

hc = 350 mm

then:

AHAC = hA-hc = 25 mm

-2

VA

:f'd1'67(~A -hB) = 0.167)(26-'

2g

= 44.26mm

Therefore,

Figure 5.3 Rotameter head loss

TecQuipment Flow Measurement

The inlet to the bend is at (G) where the pipe bore is

51.9 mIn and outlet is at (H) where the bore is 40 mIn.

.!!l+zJ) = AHHI

f&~

P8 t:i!I) pg Applying Equation(3-1):

-2 "ti:"2

Then as illustrated in Figure 5.3:

.P.Q.+-Y9--=.P1i.+-1L+L\HGH

hH - hI = AHHI pg 2g pg 2$". :J

Inspection of the table of experimentalresults shows The outlet kinetic headis now 2.8 timesthe inlet kinetic

that this head loss is virtually independentof discharge head.For exampleif:

and has a constant value of approximately100rom of hA = 375 mm

water. As has already been shown, this is a hB = 110 mm

characteristic property of the rotameter. For

comparativepurposesit could be expressedin terms of

hG = 98 mm

the inlet kinetic head. However, when the velocity is hH = 88mm

very low the head loss remains the same and so and

becomesmany, many times the kinetic head.

It is instructive to compare the head losses Inlet kinetic head = 2.76 mrn

associatedwith the three meters with those associated Outlet kinetic head = 7.73 mrn

with the rapidly diverging section, or wide-angled then

diffuser, and with the right-angled bend or elbow. The

sameprocedureis adoptedto evaluatetheselosses. MlGH = (98-88) + (21'f!'it73)

Wide-Angled Diffuser = 5.03mID of water

The inlet to the diffuser may be consideredto be at (C)

and the outlet at (D). Applying Equation(3-1): Therefore,

-2 -2

Headloss = 103 = 182inlet kinetic heads

E£.+~=.E!2.+.YP.-+AHCD 276

pg 2g pg 2g

Sincethe arearatio, inlet to outlet, of the diffuser is 1:4, Discussion of the Meter Characteristics

the outlet kinetic headis 1/16of the inlet kinetic head.

There is little to choose in the accuracyof discharge

For exampleif: measurementbetween the venturi meter, the orifice

meter and the rotameter- all are dependentupon the

hA = 375 rnm

sameprinciple. Dischargecoefficientsand the rotameter

hB= Il0rnm

calibration are largely dependenton the way the streain

hc = 350 rnm

from a 'vena contracta'or actualthroat of smallercross-

hD = 360 rnm sectional area than that of the containing tube. This

then effect is negligibly small where a controlled contraction

takes place in a venturi meter but is significant in the

Inlet kinetic head = 44.26mrn orifice meter. The orifice meter dischargecoefficient is

(See venturi meter head loss calculations). The also dependenton the precise location of the pressure

correspondingoutlet kinetic headis: tappings (E) and (F). Such data is given in BSI042

which also emphasisesthe dependenceof the meters

44.26 - 28 mm

-- behaviour on the uniformity of the flow upstreamand

16 downstreamof the meter.

In order to keep the apparatus as compact as

and

possible the dimensions of the equipment in the

Mm = (350-360)+(44.26-28) neighbourhoodof the orifice meter have been reduced

to their limit, consequently some inaccuracy in the

= 3 L46 mm of water assumedvalue of its dischargemay be anticipated.

The considerabledifference in head loss between

Therefore, the orifice meter and the venturi meter should be noted.

i~L46 The orifice meter is much simpler to make and use, for

Headloss is = 0.71 inlet kinetic heads it is comparatively easy to manufacture a suitable

4275

orifice plate and insert it between two existing pipe

flanges which have been appropriatelypressure-tapped

for the purpose. In contrast the venturi meter is large,

comparatively difficult to manufactureand complicated

to fit into an existing flow system.But the low headloss

TecQuiomentFlow Measurement

associatedwith the controlled expansionoccurring in parts of the system are most responsive,in tenns of

the venturi meter gives it an obvious superiority in associatedheadloss, to small improvementin design.

applicationswhere power to overcomeflow lossesmay

be limiting. Discussion of Results

Rotametersand other flow measuringinstruments

tubes may be selected from a very wide range of

specifications.They are unlikely to be comparablewith

the venturi meter from the standpointof head loss but,

If the massflow results are plotted against massflow

ratesfrom the weighing tank methodthe accuracyof the

variousmethodscan be compared.Since all arederived

from Equation (1) similar results would be expected

provided the dischargerangeis not extreme,the easeof from the three methods. The differential mass flow

reading the instrument may well compensatefor the

somewhathigher headloss associatedwith it.

measurement(mmeter - mweightank)could be plotted

The head losses associatedwith the wide-angled againstthe weighing tank massflow resultsfor a better

diffuser and the right-angled bend are not untypical. appraisalof accuracy.

Both could be reducedif it were desirableto do so. The Some overestimation in the venturi meter

diffuser head loss would be minimised if the total termination can be anticipated because its vena

expansion angle of about 50 degreeswere reduced to contracta has been assumedto be negligibly small.

about 10 degrees.The right-angledbend loss would be Similarly, the rotameter determination may well be

substantially reduced if the channel, through which sensitive to the proximity of the elbow and the

water flows, was shapedin the arc of a circle having a associatedinlet velocity distribution. The orifice meter

large radius compared with the bore of the tube is likely to be sensitive to the inlet flow which is

containingthe fluid. associatedwith the separationinducedin the wide-angle

with uncontrollableexpansionof the stream.Attention

should always be paid to increasesin cross-sectional

area and changesof direction of the stream as these

diffuser upstreamof it. Thus both the rotameterand the

orifice metercalibrationswould be likely to changeif a

longer length of straight pipe were introducedupstream

of them.

r

.

0(

"'i

(J

~

ii

~

~ .

."c"

:

.

-c

~

~ .c

u ~

~ =

. ~

c ~

~ ~

i '"

:5 :E

r

Inlet kinetic head: scale D (mm)

TecQulpment Flow Measurement

In the calculationsthe head lossesassociatedwith the The venturi meteroffers the bestcontrol to the fluid.

various meters and flow componentshave been made Its dischargecoefficient is little different from unity and

dimensionless by dividing by the appropriate inlet the head loss it offers is minimal. But it is relatively

kinetic heads.The advantageof the venturi meter over expensive to manufacture and could be difficult to

the orifice meterand rotameteris evident althoughover install in existingpipework.

a considerablerange of inlet kinetic heads the loss The orifice meter is easiest to install between

associatedwith the rotameter is sufficiently small to existing pipe flanges and provided it is manufactured

considerthat it would be more thancompensatedby the and erected in accordancewith BS1042, will give

relative ease in evaluation of mass flow from this accuratemeasurement. The head loss associatedwith it

instrument. is very largecomparedwith that of the venturi meter.

It should also be noted from Figure 5.1 that the The rotameter gives the easiest derivation of

dimensionlesshead lossesof the venturi meter and the discharge,dependentonly on sighting the float and

orifice meter are Reynolds number dependent.This reading a calibration curve. It needs to be chosen

effect is also noticeable with the dimensionlesshead judiciously, however,so that the associatedheadloss is

loss of the elbow. not excessive.

Conclusions

The most direct measurementof fluid dischargeis by

the weightank principle. In installations where this is

impracticable(e.g. on account of size of installation or

gaseousfluid flow), one of the three dischargemeters

describedmay be usedinstead.

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