Towards a Framework of Interaction and Experience as It Relates to Product Design | Usability | Customer Experience

Towards a Framework of Interaction and Experience As It Relates to Product Design

Theories to Talk About
Over time, we have summarized the following theories as critical contributions in helping designers understand what experience is and if we can design for it. See the Resources section for full citation. Additions are welcome! Alben, Quality of Experience Battarbee, Defining Co-experience Cain, Experience-Based Design Dewey, Experience and Education Forlizzi, Design for Experience Hudspith, Utility, Ceremony, and Appeal Jaasko and Mattelmaki, Observing and Probing Makela and Fulton Suri, Supporting Users' Creativity Margolin, Getting to Know the User Pine & Gilmore, Welcome to the Experience Economy Rhea, Focusing on Customer Experience Alben: Quality of Experience Alben and her colleagues developed a set of criteria for assessing quality of user experience in order to judge entries in the first ACM/interactions Design Awards. The jury was interested in how effective interaction design could provide people with sucessful and satisfying experiences. They defined experience as "…the way it feels in their hands, how well they understand how it works, how they feel about it while they're using it, how well it serves its purpose, and how well it fits into the entire context in which they are using it." If these experiences are successful and engaging, they argue, then they are valuable to users. The criteria fall into two categories: those that directly impact user experience (e.g., learnable and usable), and those that make their contribution indirectly (e.g., understanding of users and effective design process). Understanding of users refers to how well the design team understood the needs, tasks and environments of the users, and how well this understanding was reflected in the process. Effective design process refers to having a well thought-out process that addresses various project concerns and included user involvement, iteration, and multidisciplinary collaboration. Needed refers to whether the product meets some recognized need, and makes some significant social, economic, or environmental contribution. Learnable and Usable refers to how well a product communicates its purpose and operation, and how well it supports different personal styles, given users different knowledge, skills, and strategies for problem solving. Appropriate refers to whether a product solves the right problem at the right level, with a good fit to social, cultural, economic and technical factors.

designers. and whether it performs well within its technological constraints. the concept of co-experience is introduced. including business strategists. Defining Coexperience This article proposes that users be considered the designers of experience. Another key element of EBD is the idea that using ethnography. and industrial design. Battarbee. product and brand managers. argues Cain. the author demonstrates that experiences creatively come to life when they are created together or shared. for example by thinking about how the product might be purchased. marketers. to take into account the social nature of experience. creating a picture of experience that is represented by a framework. attitudes.Aesthetic refers to whether the product is aesthetically pleasing and sensually satisfying. both to individual needs and over time. visual. Manageable refers to whether the designers have taken a more systemmic view of the product. you have a tool for understanding the structure of the experience. and organizing everyday experience in a way that is useful to the people involved in all aspects of design development. Once you have this framework. beliefs. which in turn allows you to 1) frame the problem in the customer's terms. their meaning and identity) and what people use (artifacts and environments and their impact on what people think and do). and disposed of. . do. There is also some reference to contributing factors. One key element of EBD is a simple model of experience that looks at what people think (ideas. installed. and 3) know the levers that will allow you to effect positive changes the experience. information. Mutable refers to how well the product can adapt. and engineers. are methods for examining. and continuity across interaction. Using a study of mobile multimedia messaging. In addition. At the core of EBD. you can understand the relationships between think. maintained. Cain: Experience-Based Design This article introduces the idea of Experience-Based Design (EBD) as a way to make great design a more frequent and predictable outcome by connecting a rigorous understanding of everyday consumer experience with a company's business goals. 2) identify opportunities to change the experience. such as cohesive design. interpreting. what people do (patterns and routines of action. and use. and expectations that are informed by sociocultural systems).

When the individual components and environmental components of an experience are working together. Interaction describes the aspects of experience as they relate to the environment. P stands for defining and framing the problem. arouses curiosity. O stands for identifying opportunities. Dewey: Experience and Education Although Experience and Education is an analysis of "traditional" and "progressive" education. in which particular solution concepts are developed through detailed design and form-giving. it is also a clear and concise statement of Dewey's basic criteria of experience. And E stands for creating embodiments. and is an area where understanding consumer experience is key. An experience should have appropriate interaction between objective and internal conditions. An appropriate experience modifies the person who has the experience. . keeping in line with a company's core competencies and market strengths.a complete and whole experience which changes both the user and the context of use. Continuity describes the aspects of experience as they relate to the individual. and the quality of subsequent experiences.The article concludes by introducing the POSE model. they form a situation -. S stands for inventing solutions. An experience has an active component which changes the context in which experiences are had: society and the physical world and its conditions. He uses continuity and interaction to describe the latitudinal and longitudinal aspects of experience. which brings an understanding of experience together with business goals and objectives. which defines a sequence of developmental targets in moving from problem to embodiment (form). Continuity is desirable when it fosters growth. and carries a person to a new and stronger place in the future. in which concepts for a specific opportunity are developed.

satisfying and rich. A satisfying experience is a process�driven act that is performed in a successful manner. latent needs. A rich experience has a sense of immersive continuity and interaction. he hopes that designers can talk about the emotional and perceptive needs of experience as easily as they currently talk about usability. Simply defined. He proposes a three-dimensional model to help designers derive psychological information -perceptions. they need to consider the psychological experience needs of the user. immersive experiences. money. beliefs. although it is made of paper. Hudspith has used this model successfully with numerous product design classes. He claims that in order for designers to support user experience. These differ from society to society. which may be made up of a series of satisfying experiences. it is how well an artifact accomplishes its intended task. For example. such as Nike or Starbucks. . a usable VCR has easy to use buttons and on-screen programming. Ceremony. For example. Utility is a dimension that has been traditionally addressed by usability studies. has many ceremonies and rituals surrounding its use. are identified in user�product interactions. or how well they become connected to it. and emotions -. Two types of experience. For example. gifts are often artifacts that have high appeal to those who have received them. and Appeal Hudspith's work is meant to help designers think beyond the usability of products that they design.Forlizzi: Design for Experience Forlizzi attempts to understand experience as it is relevant to interaction design. Rituals can be public or personal.from the user: utility. With continued work. Designers are given a set of principles for designing rich. Ceremony describes how well an artifact satisfies human ritual surrounding its use. Hudspith: Utility. and appeal. ceremony. can have appeal. Brands. Appeal describes the emotional aspects of user experience that depend on the user's perception of an artifact.

product use is little understood. social. robust and forgiving. Observing and Probing This paper presents a framework of user experience from the point of view of concept design. which relates to the needs of the user and the utility of the product. resulting from motivated actions in context. It also presents a framework for understanding user experiences. which refers to product simplicity (much like the work of . According to Makela and Fulton Suri. socio-cultural meaning. context and environment. the inventive dimension. experiences are subjective. Margolin uses four dimensions to describe the relationship between the designer and the user: the social dimension. They also advocate that new products uphold the following design principles: open-ended. Experiences are also influenced by previous experiences and expectations for future experiences. the operational dimension.Jaasko and Mattelmaki. we strive to address product* function in our designs. it is much harder to address product use. marketing and brank. Makela and Fulton Suri: Supporting Users' Creativity This paper discusses the role of consumer experience in the design of new digital consumer products. and personal. which relates to values that shape a collective group of people. The authors assert that the most successful new digital products will be the ones that support users' creativity in creating new experiences. flexible. physical and sensory. which adds a social dimension to the more restrictive definition of function. The framework provides a holistic view incoporatiing historic meaning. rather than desiging particular kinds of experiences for them. user-controlled. Margolin: Getting to Know the User As designers. To help designers understand product use. and usability. Margolin asserts that while product function is well understood by designers.

Pine & Gilmore: Welcome to the Experience Economy Pine & Gilmore see the history of economic progress as a four-stage evolution: from agrarian to industrial. They also offer a model for characterizing experiences. product. Each stage is characterized along a number of points.Don Norman)." Pine & Gilmore explore some early examples of the intentional design of experiences. to engage individual customers in a way that creates a memorable event. and hint that constant updating of the experience is necessary for longterm success. and suppliers. *Margolin uses the term 'product milieu' to represent the array of objects. their text is biased in this direction. engaging experiences that command a fee. to the emerging experience economy. that following these principles is no guarantee of success.such as Niketown and the Rainforest Cafe . 2) Harmonize impressions with positive cues." The mark of success. 5) Engage all five senses. 4) Mix in memorabilia. . "An experience occurs whan a company intentionally uses services as a stage and goods as props. Pine & Gilmore claim that "consumers unquestionably desire experiences.and from new media applications such as virtual reality and chat rooms. sellers. activities. They do caution. While they are careful to explain that experiences are not exclusively about entertainment. for them. such as the primary offering (commodity. however. and the aesthetic dimension. service or experience) and relationships bewteen buyers. which relates to individual values and how meaning is attached to products. services and environments that fill the world. is the ability to wrap products and services with deliberately designed. 3) Eliminate negative cues. and principles for designing memorable experiences: 1) Theme the experience. Margolin also believes that designers should help people use their own experience as a source of new products. to service. towards having "an experience" in Dewey's terms. primarily from the "shoppertainment" and "entertailing" world . and now.

and Resolution.physically. customers continually assess the quality of their experiences with the product. and forms a basis for expectations and desires for the next cycle. intellectually. And. advertising. Engagement refers to the initial interaction a customer has with an artifact. Life Context refers to the background of consumer's lives. attitudes. emotionally. This context is mostly unarticulated. customers do move linearly through the stages. the product's "cognitive presence". The article describes each stage in detail. Cheskin research has developed a model to conceptualize how a customer's everyday experience with products moves through a cycle. But taking advantage of these opportunities demands a shift in focus from products themselves to customer experience. attraction. The cycle is comprised of four stages: Life Context. and fits into customers' lives. gives customers something extra.). and communication. This impression then feeds back into Life Context. Engagement. In this stage. including prior experience with the product. Experience refers to the period of ownership and use. Rhea argues that the real opportunities for design come from assessing all the ways in which products and services might influence and benefit customers -. addresses concerns. etc. if they do not become engaged. Briefly. the product must be reliable. and constantly changing. wordof-mouth. needs. solves problems. including everything the consumer thinks.Rhea: Focusing on Customer Experience In this article. feels. and culturally. progressing as long as their product experience remains satisfactory (thus. . they will not buy and therefore not move to the Experience stage). Experience. Rheas states that while the emphasis on any given stage may be different for different products. creating a pleasing experience that meets expectations. and mentions tools to measure "the quality of customer experiences" for each stage. and does (behaviors. perceptions. The importance of this initial involvement is "profound". During use. and may be influenced by a number of factors. Resolution refers to both the experience of disposing of the product and how customers resolve (or think about) their overall experience with the product to form a lasting impression.

Dispon�vel em: http://goodgestreet.com/experience/home.html .

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