Synthesis of a Pumping

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Synthesis of a Pumping

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Research Journal

Volume 10, No. 31, Sept. 2016, pages 119–123 Research Article

DOI: 10.12913/22998624/64069

MEMBER IN THE SYSTEM

1

Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, University of Žilina, Univerzitna 1, 010 26 Žilina, Slovakia, e-mail: alzbeta.

sapietova@fstroj.uniza.sk

Accepted: 2016.07.05 To achieve a correct function and maximal effectiveness of a pumping unit, it is

Published: 2016.09.01 necessary to correctly design the input dynamic parameters. This paper will pres-

ent sensitivity analysis, which aims to find appropriate input parameters needed to

realize the prescribed work tasks from the point of view of consideration of flexible

member in the system.

change those objects as well. Therefore, the first

This article represents solutions from the field step in creating a parameterised model is to select

of multibody systems dynamics. The introduc- the critical design inputs that we want to vary to

tion of a suitable optimization process is one of perform “what if” studies [2]. When changing a

the optimal paths how to cope with the most so- critical design input, dependent model character-

phisticated problems of technical practice. As a istics update automatically. The model is param-

result of a large number of optimising problems, eterised by creating parameters and defining how

the classification of these problems is essential in the model depends upon them. The model can be

the analysis of a given task. One of the param- parameterised as it is built, or can be built first

eters significantly affecting the speed and effec- and then the parametric relationships are added.

tiveness of the solution is the correct choice of Adams/View provides several parameteri-

the optimising variables. We start from the fact sation methods. For example the model can be

that not all the optimising variables have the same

parameterised using: points, design variables, pa-

influence on the selected objective functions [1].

rameterisation move tools f(x) a f(ϕ), that let the

The goal of this article is to present a sensitivity

user specify how one objects moves relative to

analysis which will exclude optimising variables

another object, expressions, which are the basis

of lower influence and select parameters which

of all parameterisation.

will serve as design variables in subsequent op-

timising analysis. Reprint is set according to the

above requests.

TOOLS OF PARAMETRIC ANALYSIS FOR

REFINING MODEL PROPERTIES IN THE

PARAMETRISING VIRTUAL PROTOTYPE MSC.ADAMS SOFTWARE ENVIRONMENT

Manual update of the model (trial and error The environment of the ADAMS/View mod-

method) can be time-consuming because it is ule contains the tools of the parametric analysis

rarely as simple as changing just one object in the by means of those properties of the virtual proto-

model. Other objects often depend on the object type model that can be refined:

119

Advances in Science and Technology Research Journal Vol. 10 (31), 2016

Design Study (DS) is a tool for studying the If the user specifies a list of values and the

influence of one parameter on the objective func- Ignore List is not selected, ADAMS/View runs a

tion in a specified range of its changes [3]. simulation using each value, ignoring the number

Design of Experiments (DOE, proposing the of default levels specified.

matrix of experiments) enables the monitoring The DS method enables switching back and

of simultaneous changes of more parameters and forth between using a range and using a list of

find parameters with the highest influence on the values, without re-entering the list each time.

objective function [3]. The output of this method is a table and graph

Design optimisation (DO) tools for optimis- of the dependence of change of the design vari-

ing parameterised initial virtual prototype help able and objective function. The effectiveness of

determine values of the variables by which the the DS method consists in the fact that it is auto-

model generates minimum or maximum of the matically controlled and it automatically gener-

objective function and respects prescribed limi- ates results [4]. In Figure 1, the principle of solu-

tations [3]. For that reason it is convenient to tion when using this method is shown.

combine these tools in order to obtain the optimal The DS method enables effectively varying a

running properties of the VP, even if they can be single design variable (V) across a range of values.

utilised individually. From the simulation and generated results it

is possible to determine the best value of V and

approximate sensitivity of the structure on V for

DESIGN STUDY which the following relation stands:

1 O − O O − Oi −1

Solving the sensitivity analysis by means S i = i +1 i + i (1)

2 Vi +1 − Vi Vi − Vi −1

of DS is suitable for analysing the influence of

one variable on the objective function. In the DS where: O – is the objective value,

method it is necessary to define independent pa- V – is the design variable and I is the itera-

rameters that can be tied to objects. Then the criti- tion number.

cal parameters of the design are organised into a For the design study the table also includes

concise list of values that can be easily reviewed a column of approximate design sensitivities for

and modified. each trial. The approximate design sensitivity is

In ADAMS software there are two ways of the average of the sensitivity with respect to the

defining the design variables. They can either previous trial and the sensitivity with respect to

be specified in a certain range or by a list of the following trial.

their values. If only a range is specified, Ad- Before each measurement a measure is select-

ams/View uses equally spaced levels across ed and it is specified whether to use the minimum,

the range. The number of default levels can be maximum, average or last simulation value of the

specified. measure as the objective value.

120

Advances in Science and Technology Research Journal Vol. 10 (31), 2016

(automated iterations)

The objective values are useful only if the Fig. 3. Kinematic scheme of pumping unit (automat-

outputs from the simulation are objective [5, 6]. ed iterations) and modify DV

These values can only be guaranteed by more

complex and multiple simulations [7]. By em-

ploying Design Study analysis the following can has a weight of m3 and a center of gravity at TW.

be determined: The pitman, AD, is pin-connected at its ends

•• how the performance varies with changes in and has negligible weight.

the design variable,

•• optimal values of the design variable in the

range of input parameters,

SIMULATION OF SOLID MEMBERS

•• the approximate sensitivity of the design vari-

Virtual prototype of pumping unit was mod-

able; i.e. the rate of change of the performance

eled in an environment program ADAMS / View.

with respect to the variable.

This Model was made of the elements for the for-

mation of rigid bodies – LINK (Fig. 3). Created

SENSITIVITY ANALYSIS OF PUMPING optimization variable DV_1 (Design Variable)

UNIT was the driving torque and the objective function

was y coordinate of ED vector position, for which

The pumping unit is used to recover oil measuring function Point-to-Point Measure was

(Fig. 2). When the walking beam ABC is created [8, 9, 10].

horiyontal, the force acting in the wireline at The simulations were performed at the five

the well head is F. The present model solves input values of the drive torque values and y co-

torque which must be exterted by the motor in ordinates of the position vector were recorded at

order to overcome this load. The horse-head C the end (Fig. 4).

weighs m1 and has a center of gravity at Tc. The refinement of the range of input values

The walking beam ABC has a weight of m2 and were made 3 times. If insufficient value of the

a center of gravity at TB, and the counterweight drive torque was used, the body ED moves up

121

Advances in Science and Technology Research Journal Vol. 10 (31), 2016

Fig. 5. DS dependence of input variable (torque) and the objective function (component of position vector)

torque at the intersection of zero but at the val-

ue of -5,5∙10-4. Minimum torque by consider-

ing a flexible body ABC to pull the rope with

oil wells is 870 Nm.

Fig. 6. DS by considering one flexible body

It must be said that in this case the difference

of system (ABC)

between the value of rigid bodies torque at (871

Nm) and a deformable bodies (870 Nm) is neg-

(positive values of measured position) and when ligible, but it should be understood that the ap-

of sufficient value of drive torque is used, the propriate use of elastic bodies by the solver ap-

body moves down (negative values of measured proaches generates more realistic results.

position). Therefore, the minimum value the Figure 8 shows the method of DS depen-

drive torque is the state when the measured value dence of the input variable (torque) and the ob-

of the position vector component approaches to jective function (component of position vector)

zero (green course in the figure 4). The minimal by considering a flexible body [13, 14, 15].

torque of the motor pump station for drawing oil,

which must be developed to pull the rope with oil

wells is 871 Nm (Fig. 5). CONCLUSIONS

SIMULATION OF FLEXIBLE MEMBER tem is usually time and money consuming, and

it does not guarantee the optimal solution. In

For this analysis ABC beam was repla- the last few decades several commercial soft-

ced by elastic (Fig. 6) and analysis was repe- ware applications for solving the dynamics of

ated for the same conditions as the previous. CMSs representing various mechanisms have

The flexible body oscillated around the value been developed. Several computer programs

-5,5∙10-4 (Fig. 7) in the beginning of investi- allowed the automatic generation and solution

gation and after stabilizing body ED is moved of equations of motion. This enables designers

up or down depending on the size of the torque to create a VP of designed mechanical equip-

122

Advances in Science and Technology Research Journal Vol. 10 (31), 2016

Fig. 8. DS dependence of input variable (torque) and the objective function (component of position vector)

ment. The optimisation of these VP means the mization. AIAA Journal, 20(5), 1982, 708-715.

determination of the values of the proposed pa- 7. Arnold, M., Schiehlen, W.: Simulation Techniques

rameters of a given equipment so that the be- for Applied Dynamics, CISM Courses and Lec-

haviour of the system was optimal with regard tures, Springer Wien : New York, vol. 507, 313.

to a chosen criterion – usually a function of 8. Grega R., Homisin J., Puskar M.: The chances for

properly selected design variables. reduction of vibrations of vibrations in mechani-

cal in mechanical system with low-emission ships

Acknowledgements combustion engines, International journal of mari-

time engineering, vol. 157, 2014, 235-240.

This work was supported by the Slovak Grant 9. Mocilan M., Zmindak M., Pastorek P.: Dynamic

Agency VEGA 1/0795/16 and VEGA 1/0234/13. analysis of fuel tank, Procedia Engineering, vol.

136, 2016, 45-49.

10. Vasko M., Guran A., Jakubovicova L., Kopas P.:

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