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ABSTRACT

Turbidity is a measure of the amount of particulate matter, organic or inorganic


impurities that is suspended in water, such as clay, silt, finely divided organic
materials, plankton and inorganic materials. Units for turbidity are Turbidity Unit (TU)
or Nephlometric Turbidity Unit (NTU). The turbidity can be reduced by the addition
of coagulant, such as alum dose. Alum dose requires an optimum pH to function
optimally. Alkaline condition is favourable for alum dose to function optimally.
Optimum alum dose also must be controlled because the insufficient of alum dose
will cause the inefficient coagulation and flocculation process, while the excessive of
the usage of alum dose will cause the repelling force and white precipitate of
aluminium hydroxide. The experiment is done generally by adding the alum dose in
different dosage into the prepared sample at pH of 7.0 to 7.1, followed by mixing at
high speed and low speed. Turbidity is then determined by turbidity meter. In
conclusion, the optimum alum dose for turbidity removal from water using jar test is
estimated to be at 60 mg/l although the graph pattern shows an indecisive trend.
Further alum dose higher than 60 mg/l should be added to show a more complete
graph pattern in identifying the optimum alum dose. By doing this, the optimum
dose can be determined more decisively. Thus, the objective in this experiment is
achieved.

OBJECTIVE

To determine the optimum alum dose for turbidity removal from water using jar
test.
INTRODUCTION

Turbidity is a measure of the amount of particulate matter, organic or inorganic


impurities that is suspended in water, such as clay, silt, finely divided organic
materials, plankton and inorganic materials. Units for turbidity are Turbidity Unit (TU)
or Nephlometric Turbidity Unit (NTU). Turbidity is normally being determined by
using jar test. Jar testing is an experimental method where optimal conditions are
determined empirically rather than theoretically. Jar test are meant to mimic the
conditions and processes that take place in the clarification portion of water and
wastewater treatment plants. The values that are obtained through the experiment
are correlated and adjusted in order to account for the actual treatment system.
Flocculation is the agglomeration of the suspended particles in the water, which
potentially reduce the turbidity in water. By enhancing the flocculation, addition of
coagulant into the water, naming coagulation can be done. Coagulant can neutralise
the effect of the charges on the suspended particles, thus reducing the repulsive
force. The proper type and concentration of coagulant are essential to the
coagulation process. The coagulant choice will depend on the conditions at the plant.
The concentration of coagulant also depends on the water conditions, and a jar test
can be used to determine the correct concentration to use at any given time. So, by
determine the optimum dose and increase coagulant dose as required, the
effectiveness of coagulation and flocculation can be enhanced. Besides that,
effectiveness may increase by adjusting flocculators’ speed or changing flow rate of
the paddles.

MATERIALS AND APPARATUS

Apparatus

Beakers, plastic pipette, burette, retort stand and clamp, filter funnel, automated
mixer and turbidity measurement machine.
Materials

Kaolin (clay) suspension, 2.0 g/l alum solution, sulphuric acid and sodium hydroxide
solution

EXPERIMENTAL PROCEDURE

Note: Prior to the jar test procedure, each 500 ml sample must be corrected to the
required pH using H2SO4 or NaOH. In order to obtain the correct amount of
acid or alkali for each sample, a separate titration must be carried out for
each alum dose- pH combination. The pH and turbidity of the sample before
treatment must be determined.

For this experiment, the following formula should be understand:

M 1V 1 = M 2V 2

Six 1 litre beakers were filled with 500 ml of the given kaolin (clay) suspension (SS
about 50 mg/l). A burette was filled with 50 ml alum solution of concentration 2.0 g/l.
The certain amount of H2SO4 or NaOH that would yield a final pH of 7 – 7.1 was
added to the beakers. The alum solution corresponding to doses of 0 (control), 5, 10,
20, 40 and 60 mg/l were added to the beakers. The samples were then mixed at high
speed (80 rpm) for 1 minute. The mixing speed was reduced to 30 rpm and the
mixing was continued for 15 minutes. The stirrer was stopped and the flocs was
allowed to settle for 20 minutes. The turbidity of the supernatant was determined.
Graph of turbidity versus alum dose was plotted.