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PERTEMUAN

10
MKANIKA FLUIDA
Adhitio
Adhitio 2

fluids (CHAP 14)


1. FLUIDS, DENSITY, AND PRESSURE
2. FLUIDS AT REST
3. MEASURING PRESSURE
4. PASCAL’S PRINCIPLE
5. ARCHIMEDES’ PRINCIPLE
6. THE EQUATION OF CONTINUITY
7. BERNOULLI’S EQUATION
LIST Adhitio 3

1. FLUIDS, DENSITY, AND PRESSURE -


LIST Adhitio 4

1. FLUIDS, DENSITY, AND PRESSURE -


Density
A fluid, in contrast to a solid,is a
substance that can flow. Density is
a scalar property;
its SI unit is the kilogram per cubic
meter
LIST Adhitio 5

1. FLUIDS, DENSITY, AND PRESSURE -


Pressure
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1. FLUIDS, DENSITY, AND PRESSURE -


Sample Problem. Atmospheric pressure and force
LIST Adhitio 7

2. FLUIDS AT REST -
LIST Adhitio 8

2. FLUIDS AT REST -
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2. FLUIDS AT REST -

For example, to find the


atmospheric pressure at a
distance d above level 1 in
Fig.14-3,we substitute
LIST Adhitio 10

2. FLUIDS AT REST -
Sample Problem. Gauge pressure on a scuba diver
LIST Adhitio 11

2. FLUIDS AT REST -
Sample Problem. Balancing of pressure in a U-tub
LIST Adhitio 12

3. MEASURING PRESSURE -
LIST Adhitio 13

3. MEASURING PRESSURE -
The Mercury Barometer

Figure 14-5a shows a very basic


mercury barometer, a device used to
measure the pressure of the
atmosphere
LIST Adhitio 14

3. MEASURING PRESSURE -
The Open-Tube Manometer
  open-tube manometer (Fig. 14-6) measures the
An
gauge pressure of a gas.
HHMMM…….

TARIK NAPAS PANJANG

TAHAN SEBENTAR YA….

ADHITIO 15
LIST Adhitio 16

4. PASCAL’S PRINCIPLE -
LIST Adhitio 17

4. PASCAL’S PRINCIPLE -
Demonstrating Pascal’s Principle
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4. PASCAL’S PRINCIPLE -
Pascal’s Principle and the Hydraulic Lever

  we move the input piston


If
downward a distance , the
output piston moves upward a
distance , such that the same
volume V of the
incompressible liquid is
displaced at both pistons. Then
LIST Adhitio 19

5. ARCHIMEDES’ PRINCIPLE -
LIST Adhitio 20

5. ARCHIMEDES’ PRINCIPLE -
LIST Adhitio 21

5. ARCHIMEDES’ PRINCIPLE -
LIST Adhitio 22

5. ARCHIMEDES’ PRINCIPLE -
Floating
LIST Adhitio 23

5. ARCHIMEDES’ PRINCIPLE -
Apparent Weight in a Fluid
LIST Adhitio 24

5. ARCHIMEDES’ PRINCIPLE -
Sample Problem. Floating, buoyancy, and density

 The floating block is stationary.


Thus, writing Newton’s second law
for components along a vertical y
axis with the positive direction
upward ( ) ,we have
LIST Adhitio 25

5. ARCHIMEDES’ PRINCIPLE -
Sample Problem. Floating, buoyancy, and density
LEPAS PERLAHAN

LEGA RASANYA YA……

ADHITIO 26
LIST Adhitio 27

6. THE EQUATION OF CONTINUITY -


LIST Adhitio 28

6. THE EQUATION OF CONTINUITY -


Here are four assumptions that we make about our ideal
fluid;they all are concerned with flow :

1. Steady flow. In steady (or laminar) flow, the velocity of


the moving fluid at any fixed point does not change with
time. The gentle flow of water near the center of a quiet
stream is steady ; the flow in a chain of rapids is not.
Figure 14-12 shows a transition from steady flow to non
steady (or nonlaminar or turbulent) flow for a rising
stream of smoke. The speed of the smoke particles
increases as they rise and , at a certain critical speed ,
the flow changes from steady to non steady.

2. Incompressible flow. We assume, as for fluids at rest,


that our ideal fluid is incompressible ; that is, its density
has a constant , uniform value.
LIST Adhitio 29

6. THE EQUATION OF CONTINUITY -


3. Non viscous flow. Roughly speaking , the viscosity of a
fluid is a measure of how resistive the fluid is to flow. For
example, thick honey is more resistive to flow than
water, and so honey is said to be more viscous than
water. Viscosity is the fluid analog of friction between
solids; both are mechanisms by which the kinetic energy
of moving objects can be transferred to thermal energy.
In the absence of friction, a block could glide at constant
speed along a horizontal surface. In the same way, an
object moving through a non viscous fluid would
experience no viscous drag force—that is , no resistive
force due to viscosity; it could move at constant speed
through the fluid.

4. Irrotational flow. Although it need not concern us


further, we also assume that the flow is irrotational. To
test for this property, let a tiny grain of dust move with
LIST Adhitio 30

6. THE EQUATION OF CONTINUITY -


The Equation of Continuity
LIST Adhitio 31

6. THE EQUATION OF CONTINUITY -


The Equation of Continuity

  which is the volume flow rate of the fluid (volume past a given
in
point per unit time). Its SI unit is the cubic meter per second
(m3/s). If the density  of the fluid is uniform, we can multiply by
that density to get the mass flow rate (mass per unit time) :
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6. THE EQUATION OF CONTINUITY -


Sample Problem. A water stream narrows as it falls
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7. BERNOULLI’S EQUATION -
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7. BERNOULLI’S EQUATION -

 let us apply Bernoulli’s equation to fluids at rest, by putting .


The result is

if we take y to be a constant ( y = 0 , say) so that the fluid


does not change elevation as it flows.Equation then
becomes
LIST Adhitio 35

7. BERNOULLI’S EQUATION -
Sample Problem. Bernoulli principle of fluid through a narrowing pipe
LIST Adhitio 36

7. BERNOULLI’S EQUATION -
Sample Problem. Bernoulli principle for a leaky water tank
LIST Adhitio 37

PROBLEMS -
 The plastic tube in figure has a cross-sectional area of
1 5.00 . The tube is filled with water until the short arm
(of length d = 0.800 m) is full. Then the short arm is
sealed and more water is gradually poured into the
long arm. If the seal will pop off when the force on it
exceeds 9.80 N, what total height of water in the long
arm will put the seal on the verge of popping?
A piston of cross-sectional area a is used in a hydraulic
2 press to exert a small force of magnitude fon the
enclosed liquid. A connecting pipe leads to a larger
piston of crosssectional area A.
(a) What force magnitude F will the larger piston
sustain without moving?
(b) If the piston diameters are 3.80 cm and 53.0 cm,
what force magnitude on the small piston will
balance a 20.0 kN force on the large piston?
LIST Adhitio 38

PROBLEMS -
 The intake in figure has cross-sectional area of
3 0.74 and water flow at 0.40 m/s. At the outlet,
distance D = 180 m below the intake, the cross-
sectional area is smaller than at the intake and the
water flows out at 9.5 m/s into equipment.What is
the pressure difference between inlet and outlet ?