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mekflu ppt

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You are on page 1of 38

10

MKANIKA FLUIDA

Adhitio

Adhitio 2

1. FLUIDS, DENSITY, AND PRESSURE

2. FLUIDS AT REST

3. MEASURING PRESSURE

4. PASCAL’S PRINCIPLE

5. ARCHIMEDES’ PRINCIPLE

6. THE EQUATION OF CONTINUITY

7. BERNOULLI’S EQUATION

LIST Adhitio 3

LIST Adhitio 4

Density

A fluid, in contrast to a solid,is a

substance that can flow. Density is

a scalar property;

its SI unit is the kilogram per cubic

meter

LIST Adhitio 5

Pressure

LIST Adhitio 6

Sample Problem. Atmospheric pressure and force

LIST Adhitio 7

2. FLUIDS AT REST -

LIST Adhitio 8

2. FLUIDS AT REST -

LIST Adhitio 9

2. FLUIDS AT REST -

atmospheric pressure at a

distance d above level 1 in

Fig.14-3,we substitute

LIST Adhitio 10

2. FLUIDS AT REST -

Sample Problem. Gauge pressure on a scuba diver

LIST Adhitio 11

2. FLUIDS AT REST -

Sample Problem. Balancing of pressure in a U-tub

LIST Adhitio 12

3. MEASURING PRESSURE -

LIST Adhitio 13

3. MEASURING PRESSURE -

The Mercury Barometer

mercury barometer, a device used to

measure the pressure of the

atmosphere

LIST Adhitio 14

3. MEASURING PRESSURE -

The Open-Tube Manometer

open-tube manometer (Fig. 14-6) measures the

An

gauge pressure of a gas.

HHMMM…….

ADHITIO 15

LIST Adhitio 16

4. PASCAL’S PRINCIPLE -

LIST Adhitio 17

4. PASCAL’S PRINCIPLE -

Demonstrating Pascal’s Principle

LIST Adhitio 18

4. PASCAL’S PRINCIPLE -

Pascal’s Principle and the Hydraulic Lever

If

downward a distance , the

output piston moves upward a

distance , such that the same

volume V of the

incompressible liquid is

displaced at both pistons. Then

LIST Adhitio 19

5. ARCHIMEDES’ PRINCIPLE -

LIST Adhitio 20

5. ARCHIMEDES’ PRINCIPLE -

LIST Adhitio 21

5. ARCHIMEDES’ PRINCIPLE -

LIST Adhitio 22

5. ARCHIMEDES’ PRINCIPLE -

Floating

LIST Adhitio 23

5. ARCHIMEDES’ PRINCIPLE -

Apparent Weight in a Fluid

LIST Adhitio 24

5. ARCHIMEDES’ PRINCIPLE -

Sample Problem. Floating, buoyancy, and density

Thus, writing Newton’s second law

for components along a vertical y

axis with the positive direction

upward ( ) ,we have

LIST Adhitio 25

5. ARCHIMEDES’ PRINCIPLE -

Sample Problem. Floating, buoyancy, and density

LEPAS PERLAHAN

ADHITIO 26

LIST Adhitio 27

LIST Adhitio 28

Here are four assumptions that we make about our ideal

fluid;they all are concerned with flow :

the moving fluid at any fixed point does not change with

time. The gentle flow of water near the center of a quiet

stream is steady ; the flow in a chain of rapids is not.

Figure 14-12 shows a transition from steady flow to non

steady (or nonlaminar or turbulent) flow for a rising

stream of smoke. The speed of the smoke particles

increases as they rise and , at a certain critical speed ,

the flow changes from steady to non steady.

that our ideal fluid is incompressible ; that is, its density

has a constant , uniform value.

LIST Adhitio 29

3. Non viscous flow. Roughly speaking , the viscosity of a

fluid is a measure of how resistive the fluid is to flow. For

example, thick honey is more resistive to flow than

water, and so honey is said to be more viscous than

water. Viscosity is the fluid analog of friction between

solids; both are mechanisms by which the kinetic energy

of moving objects can be transferred to thermal energy.

In the absence of friction, a block could glide at constant

speed along a horizontal surface. In the same way, an

object moving through a non viscous fluid would

experience no viscous drag force—that is , no resistive

force due to viscosity; it could move at constant speed

through the fluid.

further, we also assume that the flow is irrotational. To

test for this property, let a tiny grain of dust move with

LIST Adhitio 30

The Equation of Continuity

LIST Adhitio 31

The Equation of Continuity

which is the volume flow rate of the fluid (volume past a given

in

point per unit time). Its SI unit is the cubic meter per second

(m3/s). If the density of the fluid is uniform, we can multiply by

that density to get the mass flow rate (mass per unit time) :

LIST Adhitio 32

Sample Problem. A water stream narrows as it falls

LIST Adhitio 33

7. BERNOULLI’S EQUATION -

LIST Adhitio 34

7. BERNOULLI’S EQUATION -

The result is

does not change elevation as it flows.Equation then

becomes

LIST Adhitio 35

7. BERNOULLI’S EQUATION -

Sample Problem. Bernoulli principle of fluid through a narrowing pipe

LIST Adhitio 36

7. BERNOULLI’S EQUATION -

Sample Problem. Bernoulli principle for a leaky water tank

LIST Adhitio 37

PROBLEMS -

The plastic tube in figure has a cross-sectional area of

1 5.00 . The tube is filled with water until the short arm

(of length d = 0.800 m) is full. Then the short arm is

sealed and more water is gradually poured into the

long arm. If the seal will pop off when the force on it

exceeds 9.80 N, what total height of water in the long

arm will put the seal on the verge of popping?

A piston of cross-sectional area a is used in a hydraulic

2 press to exert a small force of magnitude fon the

enclosed liquid. A connecting pipe leads to a larger

piston of crosssectional area A.

(a) What force magnitude F will the larger piston

sustain without moving?

(b) If the piston diameters are 3.80 cm and 53.0 cm,

what force magnitude on the small piston will

balance a 20.0 kN force on the large piston?

LIST Adhitio 38

PROBLEMS -

The intake in figure has cross-sectional area of

3 0.74 and water flow at 0.40 m/s. At the outlet,

distance D = 180 m below the intake, the cross-

sectional area is smaller than at the intake and the

water flows out at 9.5 m/s into equipment.What is

the pressure difference between inlet and outlet ?

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