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PERTEMUAN

10
MKANIKA FLUIDA

fluids (CHAP 14)

1. FLUIDS, DENSITY, AND PRESSURE
2. FLUIDS AT REST
3. MEASURING PRESSURE
4. PASCAL’S PRINCIPLE
5. ARCHIMEDES’ PRINCIPLE
6. THE EQUATION OF CONTINUITY
7. BERNOULLI’S EQUATION

1. FLUIDS, DENSITY, AND PRESSURE -

Density
A fluid, in contrast to a solid,is a
substance that can flow. Density is
a scalar property;
its SI unit is the kilogram per cubic
meter

Pressure

1. FLUIDS, DENSITY, AND PRESSURE -

Sample Problem. Atmospheric pressure and force

2. FLUIDS AT REST -

2. FLUIDS AT REST -

2. FLUIDS AT REST -

For example, to find the

atmospheric pressure at a
distance d above level 1 in
Fig.14-3,we substitute

2. FLUIDS AT REST -
Sample Problem. Gauge pressure on a scuba diver

2. FLUIDS AT REST -
Sample Problem. Balancing of pressure in a U-tub

3. MEASURING PRESSURE -

3. MEASURING PRESSURE -
The Mercury Barometer

Figure 14-5a shows a very basic

mercury barometer, a device used to
measure the pressure of the
atmosphere

3. MEASURING PRESSURE -
The Open-Tube Manometer
open-tube manometer (Fig. 14-6) measures the
An
gauge pressure of a gas.
HHMMM…….

TAHAN SEBENTAR YA….

4. PASCAL’S PRINCIPLE -

4. PASCAL’S PRINCIPLE -
Demonstrating Pascal’s Principle

4. PASCAL’S PRINCIPLE -
Pascal’s Principle and the Hydraulic Lever

we move the input piston

If
downward a distance , the
output piston moves upward a
distance , such that the same
volume V of the
incompressible liquid is
displaced at both pistons. Then

5. ARCHIMEDES’ PRINCIPLE -

5. ARCHIMEDES’ PRINCIPLE -

5. ARCHIMEDES’ PRINCIPLE -

5. ARCHIMEDES’ PRINCIPLE -
Floating

5. ARCHIMEDES’ PRINCIPLE -
Apparent Weight in a Fluid

5. ARCHIMEDES’ PRINCIPLE -
Sample Problem. Floating, buoyancy, and density

The floating block is stationary.

Thus, writing Newton’s second law
for components along a vertical y
axis with the positive direction
upward ( ) ,we have

5. ARCHIMEDES’ PRINCIPLE -
Sample Problem. Floating, buoyancy, and density
LEPAS PERLAHAN

6. THE EQUATION OF CONTINUITY -

Here are four assumptions that we make about our ideal
fluid;they all are concerned with flow :

1. Steady flow. In steady (or laminar) flow, the velocity of

the moving fluid at any fixed point does not change with
time. The gentle flow of water near the center of a quiet
stream is steady ; the flow in a chain of rapids is not.
Figure 14-12 shows a transition from steady flow to non
steady (or nonlaminar or turbulent) flow for a rising
stream of smoke. The speed of the smoke particles
increases as they rise and , at a certain critical speed ,
the flow changes from steady to non steady.

2. Incompressible flow. We assume, as for fluids at rest,

that our ideal fluid is incompressible ; that is, its density
has a constant , uniform value.

6. THE EQUATION OF CONTINUITY -

3. Non viscous flow. Roughly speaking , the viscosity of a
fluid is a measure of how resistive the fluid is to flow. For
example, thick honey is more resistive to flow than
water, and so honey is said to be more viscous than
water. Viscosity is the fluid analog of friction between
solids; both are mechanisms by which the kinetic energy
of moving objects can be transferred to thermal energy.
In the absence of friction, a block could glide at constant
speed along a horizontal surface. In the same way, an
object moving through a non viscous fluid would
experience no viscous drag force—that is , no resistive
force due to viscosity; it could move at constant speed
through the fluid.

4. Irrotational flow. Although it need not concern us

further, we also assume that the flow is irrotational. To
test for this property, let a tiny grain of dust move with

6. THE EQUATION OF CONTINUITY -

The Equation of Continuity

6. THE EQUATION OF CONTINUITY -

The Equation of Continuity

which is the volume flow rate of the fluid (volume past a given
in
point per unit time). Its SI unit is the cubic meter per second
(m3/s). If the density  of the fluid is uniform, we can multiply by
that density to get the mass flow rate (mass per unit time) :

6. THE EQUATION OF CONTINUITY -

Sample Problem. A water stream narrows as it falls

7. BERNOULLI’S EQUATION -

7. BERNOULLI’S EQUATION -

The result is

if we take y to be a constant ( y = 0 , say) so that the fluid

does not change elevation as it flows.Equation then
becomes

7. BERNOULLI’S EQUATION -
Sample Problem. Bernoulli principle of fluid through a narrowing pipe

7. BERNOULLI’S EQUATION -
Sample Problem. Bernoulli principle for a leaky water tank

PROBLEMS -
The plastic tube in figure has a cross-sectional area of
1 5.00 . The tube is filled with water until the short arm
(of length d = 0.800 m) is full. Then the short arm is
sealed and more water is gradually poured into the
long arm. If the seal will pop off when the force on it
exceeds 9.80 N, what total height of water in the long
arm will put the seal on the verge of popping?
A piston of cross-sectional area a is used in a hydraulic
2 press to exert a small force of magnitude fon the
enclosed liquid. A connecting pipe leads to a larger
piston of crosssectional area A.
(a) What force magnitude F will the larger piston
sustain without moving?
(b) If the piston diameters are 3.80 cm and 53.0 cm,
what force magnitude on the small piston will
balance a 20.0 kN force on the large piston?