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Lab.

/Assignment

GEOP 3041 – General Geophysics


Spring 2018

Note: Write the question number and then give your answer/illustrations. Print your
assignment on both sides of your paper, staple & submit before 25th April, 2018.

I. The gravity field g(x) over a 2-D horizontal circular cylinder is given by the following
equation.

Az
g ( x) 
x  z2
2

Where A = πR2 Gσ , R being the radius of the cylinder, G- the Universal gravitational
constant and σ – the density contrast. Z- is the depth to the centre of the cylinder.

(i) Compute g(x), at x = -100 to 100 at an interval of 5 units assuming z = 3 units, R = 1.5,
G = 1 and σ =1.

(ii) Compute g(x), at x = -100 to 100 at an interval of 5 units assuming z = 5 units, R = 2.5,
G = 1 and σ =1.

(iii) Compute g(x) = at x = - 100 to 100 at an interval of 5 units assuming z = 4.5


R = 2.0, G = 1 and σ =1.

Draw neat sketches for g(x) for all the three cases and observe the change in shape of g(x).
Verify the depth to target by half width method. Discuss what do you understand from the
shape of these three anomalies. Give your comments.

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II. Following is the field gravity anomaly due to a spherical structure. Estimate the depth to
the centre of the body by means of (a) half width method ( depth Z = 1.3 X1/2 ) and (b)
amplitude gradient ratio method treating the target as a 3-D body. Assuming the density
contrast as 1 gm/cc calculate the radius of the sphere.

Gravity anomaly due to a spherical structure is given as:

Az
g ( x) 
(x  z 2 )3/ 2
2

where 'z' is the depth to the centre of sphere and A = (4/3)πR3 Gσ


Find the horizontal & vertical derivatives of g(x) [dg(x)/dx and dg(x)/dz]. Compute these
derivatives for the depth that you estimate from the above anomaly by half width method for x =
-50 to 50 assuming A = 1. Plot the derivatives on the same graph and verify whether the point
of intersection of the derivatives correspond to the depth assumed or not.

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III. Following is the table of raw gravity data observed over mineral exploration with
time, latitude and elevation. Compute the necessary corrections (DRIFT, LATITUDE,
FREE AIR & BOUGER) and obtain Bouger gravity anomaly with a measurement
interval of 50 m. Plot Bouger anomaly.

Gravity
Reading
S. No. Station mGals Time Latitude Elevation(m)
GB 06 4967.185 12:12:47 30.8204500 1899.000
1 BC-01 4986.765 12:44:44 30.8258500 1731.746

2 BC-03 4984.475 13:01:05 30.8252333 1747.315

3 BC-05 4981.740 13:30:09 30.8248333 1769.795

4 BC-07 4980.970 13:47:23 30.8244333 1785.467

5 BC-09 4979.385 14:13:19 30.8241667 1798.435


GB 4960.450 14.15.20 30.8204500 1899.000
6 BC-11 4978.750 14:22:42 30.8235500 1805.201

7 BC-13 4977.465 14:32:12 30.8230167 1818.261

8 BC-15 4973.595 14:41:50 30.8225333 1838.946

GB 06 4966.735 14:57:52 30.8204500 1899.000


GB 06 4966.235 15:39:05 30.8204500 1899.000
9 BC-17 4972.225 15:47:14 30.8219000 1855.334

10 BC-19 4970.450 15:57:12 30.8211500 1862.239

11 BC-21 4969.710 16:08:46 30.8204500 1871.006

12 BC-23 4969.530 16:18:28 30.8198333 1887.389

13 BC-25 4964.060 16:27:45 30.8190333 1906.284

14 BC-27 4961.555 16:38:24 30.8182000 1928.963

15 BC-29 4957.775 16:49:46 30.8171333 1935.650

GB 06 4966.500 18:14:01 30.8204500 1899.000

GB stands for Gravity Base (Base station reading)

Hint:

Prepare the following Table before you start doing:

SNo Raw Time Time Drift Drift Lat. Lat. Elev. FAC BC S=FAC Bouger
Anomaly=
g Mts. Diff. corr. corr. m + BC
gobs - DriftCor-
Lat.corr-S- gbase

Procedure:

Drift: gobs - drift rate x time diff. between of successive readings.

Drift rate: Plot time at base along x-axis and the observed gravity values at base along y-
axis and obtain an approximate straight line. Slope of this straight line yields the drift
rate. (Change in gravity values/time in mts).

Latitude correction: Lat. correction = 0.811 Sin (2Ø) mGals/km (Ø- is the latitude).
Subtract this value from the drift corrected data. (Here the station interval is 50 m)

Free air correction: FAC = 0.3086 mGal/m ( Depending on elevation at the point of
measurement obtained FAC).

Bouger correction: BC = 0.04192 hσ mGals (h is the elevation in m and σ is density)


Density σ = 2.5 gm/cc

Bouger anomaly (gba ) = gobs – (sum of corrections) – gbase

Plot gba along y-axix & the station interval along x-axix to get the graph of Bouger
anomaly. Find the depth by half width method.

*****

IV. A magnetic survey in a mineralized zone along a line provided the following data.
Interval of measurement is 500m. Length of the profile is about 12 km. Plot x-y graph of
the anomaly and obtain the depth to the cavity by half width.

No Distance in m Reading in nT
1 0 1500
2 500 1510
3 1000 1520
4 1500 1550
5 2000 1595
6 2500 1650
7 3000 1720
8 3500 1640
9 4000 1580
10 4500 1540
11 5000 1510
12 5500 1500

Plot the magnetic anomaly distance versus magnetic values and estimate the depth to the
source by half width/half maxima method.

*****
V. Calculate the magnetic latitude from the given table of inclination. Plot the relation
between inclination versus latitude.

Use the formula tan(inclination) = 2 tan(latitude)


No. Mag. Inclination
In degrees
1 10
2 15
3 20
4 25
5 30
6 35
7 40
8 45
9 50
10 55
11 60
12 65
13 70
14 75
15 80
16 85

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VI. Construct the Time-Distance response of a 24 channel seismic unit for reflection
and refraction of P wave for the two layer case as given hereunder.

T(x) = Sqrt( 4h1*h1 + x*x)/v

Where h – is the depth/thickness


v - is the velocity
x- Geophone locations
v h1 = 10m, x = 10,20,30 …..240
v = 1500m/s
Reflection

V1 & v2 are the velocities of top & bottom


layers. h – is the thickness.

Refraction h = 10 m, x = 10, 20, 30 …….240m


v1 = 1500 m/s & v2 = 2500 m/s
The distance between the source and the first receiver (Offset) = 10 m.
Find the critical & cross over distances.

*****

VII. Following is the SP anomaly over a copper deposit. Locate the deposit and find its
depth and compare your result with the depths obtained by three other methods as
given hereunder.

Depth in (m) obtained from three different methods are:


1. Depth z = 53.8 (Yungal, 1950)
2. Depth z = 30.0 (Bhattacharya & Roy, 1980)
3. Depth z= 52.3 ( Sundararajan & Chary, 1993)

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VIII. Following are the 3 layers VES curves and their model description with interpreted
resistiviities and thickness. Identify their types. Also, comment on the possible favorite
zones for availability of ground water (GW) based on the resistivities.
*******
IX. Electrical resistivity soundings have resulted the following four different VES
curves that were interpreted and drilled. Identify the types of these 4 layer VES
curves over four different boreholes. Check the favorable zones for GW occurrence if
any.

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