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W riting

W riting TITLES

Descriptive Writing
Expository Writing
Narrative Writing
Persuasive Writing

Three Watson
Irvine, CA 92618-2767
Copyright © 2005 by Saddleback Educational Publishing. All rights reserved. No part of this
book may be reproduced in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including
photocopying, recording, or by any information storage and retrieval system, without the
written permission of the publisher.

ISBN 1-56254-753-4
Printed in the United States of America
11 10 09 08 07 06 05 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1
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To the Teacher
“Practice is the best of all instructors.”
—Publilius Syrus, Maxim

Let’s face it: Most students need to improve their writing skills.
All too often, student work is blemished by poorly composed sentences, misspelled
words, and punctuation errors. The meaning the student writer intended to convey
is unclear, if not downright confusing. What’s the solution? The venerable old Roman
got it right more than 2,000 years ago: practice, practice, and more practice!
Saddleback’s WRITING 4 series links writing to purpose. Each of the four
specifically focuses on one particular “reason for writing.” Each workbook contains
21 applications lessons and seven basic skills practice lessons. Relevant applications
include drafting personal and business letters, narrating an historical event, and
reviewing a movie. Specific skills taught include analyzing your audience, recognizing
propaganda, creating tone, and sorting fact and opinion. Fundamental skills and
concepts such as main idea, supporting details, and writing introductions and
conclusions are reviewed in all four workbooks.

Periodic checks of student workbooks are highly recommended. If possible, assign
peer tutors to coach remediation.

To reinforce and enrich the workbook exercises, you may want to assign “extra credit”
activities such as the following:
◗ write step-by-step instructions for some task that individual students know how
to do, e.g., make a salad, repair a flat tire, etc.
◗ record the stories they write, or read them aloud to students in other classrooms
◗ write independent descriptions of the same event or object; then compare and
contrast, discussing viewpoint, vocabulary, and level of detail
◗ bring in “letters to the editor” from newspapers and magazines to analyze and
discuss in class
◗ write employment reference letters for each other
◗ critique TV commercials or ads they’ve seen in the print media
◗ write directions for walking or driving from one point to another, e.g., home to
school, library to home, etc.
◗ interview a parent or a school employee, and then “write up” the interview for
an article in the school newspaper

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Answer Key

For most lessons, answers will vary widely. 5. fragment

When evaluating students’ answers and POSSIBLE ANSWER: The paintings
narratives, look for accuracy and creativity are an incredible record of
in following the prompts. Some lessons Native American culture.
require specific answers, as follows: 6. run-on
POSSIBLE ANSWER: Catlin portrayed
LESSON 1: Friendly Letter (pp. 6–7) American Indians as fellow
A. Student responses will vary. human beings rather than as
savages. He was one of the few
B. Check students’ friendly letters for
artists to do so.
adequate amount of details, some
use of figurative language, and 7. run-on
proper letter form and punctuation. POSSIBLE ANSWER: Catlin’s own
mother had been abducted by
BASIC SKILLS PRACTICE: Prewriting: Brainstorming the Iroquois in 1778, but she
(pp. 12–13) was released unharmed.
Check for at least three story ideas under 8. fragment
each of eight topics. POSSIBLE ANSWER: She often told
her son about her experience.
LESSON 5: Travelogue (pp. 16–17) 9. run-on
A. Student responses will vary. POSSIBLE ANSWER: Catlin showed his
B. Check for detailed description early portraits to General William
of people and places as well as Clark. He asked for Clark’s help in
personal (writer’s) commentary. contacting Indians in the West.
10. fragment
BASIC SKILLS PRACTICE: Sentences: Fragments and POSSIBLE ANSWER:At first General
Run-Ons (pp. 20–21) Clark was skeptical.
1. fragment 11. fragment
stood in the center of the field. convinced by Catlin that he
2. run-on was serious.
12. run-on
paintings are on the walls. The POSSIBLE ANSWER: Clark took Catlin
artist would have been proud. 400 miles up the Mississippi River,
3. fragment where several tribes were having a
POSSIBLE ANSWER:We saw the show, council.
which highlights the work of 13. run-on
George Catlin. POSSIBLE ANSWER: Catlin began
4. fragment painting. He was there for six
POSSIBLE ANSWER: Catlin’s work years. He painted 300 portraits
was exhibited at the Smithsonian and about 175 landscapes and
American Art Museum in ritual scenes.
Washington, D.C.

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LESSON 7: “One Thing I’ll Always Remember” 5. a Union camp during the Civil War
(pp. 22–23)
6. The author refers to “a camp of
A. Student responses will vary. Union army soldiers.”
B. Suggest classmates exchange memoirs
B. Check student-written “setting” paragraph
and critique each other’s work.
for adequate details of time and place.

BASIC SKILLS PRACTICE: Grammar: Parts of Speech

BASIC SKILLS PRACTICE: Mechanics: Spelling
(pp. 28–29)
(pp. 36–37)
A. 1. pronoun 7. adjective
A. 1. young 8. velvet, frantic
2. verb 8. adjective
2. enough 9. apron
3. noun 9. adverb
3. courage, system 10. wondered
4. preposition 10. verb
4. biscuit, friend 11. correct
5. noun 11. interjection
5. correct 12. activity
6. conjunction
6. seashore 13. commercial
B. 1. from (or in); preposition
7. cities, enemies 14. occurred
2. dipped (or immersed); verb
B. 1. summit 9. approached
3. She; pronoun
2. completed 10. recruited
4. so (or and); conjunction
3. ascent 11. elegant
5. was; verb
4. frontiers 12. learned
6. greatest (or best or strongest); adjective
5. separates 13. injured
7. hit (or struck or pierced or injured or
6. expedition 14. amateur
wounded); verb
7. attempts 15. commercially
8. Alas!; interjection
8. foreigners
9. ever; adverb
10. expression; noun
LESSON 13: Dialogue (pp. 38–39)

LESSON 11: Using Setting as a Springboard A. and B. Check student-written dialogues for
(pp. 32–33) coherence and correct punctuation.

A. 1. on Mars
LESSON 14: Conflicts in a Narrative (pp. 40–41)
2. the future; we know this because
A. 1. no conflict
humans have traveled to Mars
by rocket. 2. conflict
3. The setting is the ocean, near a 3. conflict
rocky, rugged coast. B. Check student-written conflicts for
4. Details that suggest the story coherence and believability.
takes place in the past include the
fact that many animals were on LESSON 15: Climax (pp. 42–43)
the ship. Today, animals like these A. 1. King Midas
would not be shipped this way,
2. The conflict is that King Midas wished
since they are already available all
for the “golden touch,” but it backfired
over the world.
when he could not eat or drink or even
hug his daughter.

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3. The climax is the point at which 3. POSSIBLE ANSWERS: fluttering,
King Midas’s daughter turns excitement, skipped, dancing,
to gold. cheerful, gleamed, hope, delighted

B. Suggest classmates exchange stories for 4. Answers will vary.

mutual suggestions; allow students to read
their stories aloud. LESSON 17: Style (pp. 48–49)
Suggest student volunteers read their
BASIC SKILLS PRACTICE: Vocabulary (pp. 44–45) paragraphs aloud as a stimulus to class
A. Definitions follow. Students’ sentences
will vary. LESSON 18: Video Script (pp. 50–51)
1. astute: having a keen mind; Suggest students exchange video scripts for
shrewd mutual suggestions and comments.
2. commodity: something that is
bought and sold BASIC SKILLS PRACTICE: Modifiers: Adjectives
and Adverbs (pp. 52–53)
3. effigy: a crude, often stuffed figure
of a person who is disliked
1. Devon thought immediately of a
4. grandiose: very grand and
haunting photo he had seen.
magnificent; imposing
Adverb immediately tells when;
5. inducement: something that
adjective haunting tells what kind.
persuades; incentive
2. The interesting picture was
6. consensus: agreement of all or
apparently of a mother and her
most on some opinion
7. jargon: the special words and
Adjective interesting tells what
phrases used by people doing the
kind; adverb apparently tells how.
same kind of work
3. The sorrowful woman had recently
8. oblivious: not conscious or aware
lost her husband.
9. quire: a group of 24 or 25 sheets
Adjective sorrowful tells what kind;
of paper of the same size and kind
adverb recently tells when.
10. expatriate: a person who leaves
4. The young children were very
his or her country to live in
Adjective young tells what kind;
11. umbrage: a feeling of resentment
adverb very tells to what extent.
or offense
5. The extremely famous photo gave
12. chivalry: the way of life followed by
an impression of the Great
the knights of the Middle Ages
Depression era.
B. Suggest students read their example Adverb extremely tells to what
sentences aloud.
extent; adjective famous tells what
LESSON 16: Tone and Mood (pp. 46–47)
6. A photographer can accurately
1. POSSIBLE ANSWERS:bitterness, dark, reveal information about a certain
trudged, dim, gray, wept, sorrow, time in history.
Adjective certain tells what kind;
2. Answers will vary. adverb accurately tells how.

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7. The farmers bravely facing a 2. George did not really enjoy
drought had terrible problems. gyms. Even so, he joined
Adverb bravely tells how; Danielle’s gym.
adjective terrible tells what kind. 3. The gym offered aerobics classes.
8. Loss of a farm could certainly In addition, it offered yoga classes.
bring disaster to a poor family. 4. Danielle was interested in yoga.
Adverb certainly tells how; For this reason, she attended a
adjective poor tells what kind. few classes.
9. The determined spirit of the 5. Danielle practiced yoga for several
people clearly shines through months. Also, she lifted weights.
the photograph. 6. George signed up for yoga.
Adjective determined tells However, he didn’t enjoy it.
what kind; adverb clearly 7. He thought yoga was boring.
tells how. On the other hand, he thought
10. Sometimes pictures can speak basketball was fun.
louder than mere words. 8. Danielle enjoyed swimming.
Adverb Sometimes tells how often; Unlike Danielle, George did not.
adjective mere tells what kind. 9. Lynne was an excellent yoga
instructor. For example, she
LESSON 19: Brainstorming a Sequel (pp. 54–55) emphasized the importance of
A. Student responses will vary.
10. George thought Lynne’s class was
B. Suggest student volunteers share their
silly. In comparison, he thought
sequel summaries with the class.
the weight room was much more
LESSON 20: Fast Forward (pp. 56–57)
A. Student responses will vary.
FINAL PROJECT: Eyewitness Account: The First
B. Suggest class discussion of imaginative Thanksgiving (pp. 62–64)
predictions when read aloud by various Precede final project with discussion of first
students. Thanksgiving; peer review of completed
narratives; facilitate “Publishing” options as
LESSON 21: Historical Narrative (pp. 58–59) outlined on page 64.
Suggest class discussion of student


Transitional Words and
Phrases (pp. 60–61)

1. Danielle decided to become

physically fit. Therefore, she
joined a gym.

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