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GEOLOGI STRUKTUR

 Arti, kegunaan, perkembangan geologi struktur


dan kaitannya dengan geologi.
 Prinsip2 mekanik, kinematika, dan dinamika
genesis geologi struktur dan tektonik
 Deformasi plastis-Pelipatan, folds
 Deformasi brittle-fracture, joints,faults
 Analisis dan rekonstruksi elemen2 struktural dan
tektonik
Concept of Detailed Structural
Analysis (DSA)
Concept of Detailed Structural Analysis (DSA)

Detailed structural analysis - with particular


emphasis on strain analysis is the basis of
structural geology. It is predicated on the notion
that most structures contain in, or adjacent to
them, is the information necessary to decipher
them.
There are 3 fundamental parts to DSA :
Concept of Detailed Structural Analysis (DSA)

1. Descriptive Analysis: is the most important


and most fundamental aspect of DSA. It
consists of identifying and accurately
describing the location, attitude/orientation,
and geometries of structures.
• This is generally done in the field, although
remote sensing is also used.
Concept of Detailed Structural Analysis (DSA)
Concept of Detailed Structural Analysis (DSA)
Concept of Detailed Structural Analysis (DSA)

2. Kinematics Analysis : this consists of


determining the direction and magnitude (if
possible) of the motions that were
responsible for the deformation.
• It is concerned with basic motions -
translations, rotations, distortions, and
dilations
Concept of Detailed Structural Analysis (DSA)
Concept of Detailed Structural Analysis (DSA)
Concept of Detailed Structural Analysis (DSA)

3. Dynamic Analysis: is concerned with the forces


and stresses involved with deformation.
• Generally the most interpretive aspect of DSA,
but is based on rock mechanics and materials
theory, and should ultimately be based on
natural observations.
• Often done by applying theory and/or analog
and/or numerical models.
Concept of Detailed Structural Analysis (DSA)

1. Descriptive Analysis:
It’s the heart of structural geology. It focuses on the
exact details of geometry: 3D spatial and angular
relationships.
Angles between lines and planes - orientation of a
lines, and of the intesection between 2 planes -
changes in lengths of lines…
This leads to the use of orthographic and
stereographic projection - so called ‘sick fun’
Concept of Detailed Structural Analysis (DSA)

Descriptive Analysis:
Should ideally be done free of interpretation - w/out
preconceived notions of what (we think) should
be there.
On the other hand, our experience, and our
knowledge of tectonics and structural style will
often guide or investigation...
Concept of Detailed Structural Analysis (DSA)
Concept of Detailed Structural Analysis (DSA)

• Scale of observation is incredibly important to


descriptive analysis.
• Different features have different relative
importance depending on the scale of
observation.
It is important to match our observations to the
scale of the phenomena we are trying to address.
Concept of Detailed Structural Analysis (DSA)
Concept of Detailed Structural Analysis (DSA)
Concept of Detailed Structural Analysis (DSA)

Structural Elements :
Every structure we encounter is composed of
structural elements, which must be identified and
described in order to carry out descriptive analyisis.
There are 2 types:
1. Physical Elements: these are real and tangible -
like fold limbs or fault surfaces - which have
measurable geometries and orientations.
2. Geometric Elements: are imaginary lines and
planes (that can also be measured) which help us
describe a structure’s geometry.
Concept of Detailed Structural Analysis (DSA)
Concept of Detailed Structural Analysis (DSA)
Concept of Detailed Structural Analysis (DSA)

Structural Elements :
By careful observation of specific features and by
their systematic plotting graphically, we can
identify sets of features that might have a
common orientation or appearance. A number
of sets of structures can define a system of
structures.
Concept of Detailed Structural Analysis (DSA)

2. Kinematic Analysis : takes off where descriptive


analysis leaves off.
• Kinematic analysis deals with the recognition of
changes in shape, angle, area/volume, and location
of materials during deformation - specifically:
Translation : rigid-body motion from A to B;
Rotation : about a pole or series of poles;
Distortion : changes in angular relationships, and;
Dilation : area/volume loss or gain during deformation
Kinematic Analysis:
• The goal of kinematic analysis is to
determine the deformation path - the
series of translations, rotations, distortions
and dilations that take the structure from
its original to its defortmed state.
• This is done at all scales - from plate-
tectonic motions, down to the grain-scale
in a thin section.
Strain Analysis is one aspect
of kinematic analysis that
focuses on changes of shape
and size of deformed
objects.
Penetrative Deformation :
How we treat a specific area kinematically
often depends on whether or not the
deformation is penetrative, at the scale of
observation.
For structures to be penetrative, they must be
closely spaced enough to appear to be
everywhere - clearly this is a notion that is
closely tied to that of scale of observation
The notion of penetrative deformation is strongly SCALE dependent
Slip and Flow : scale dependent descriptions
The phenomena of flow, that is, the continuous (no
discontinuities) shearing of material, may at a
closer scale of observation, in fact be
accommodated upon a series of (relatively) small
slip surfaces or faults.
This can be seen at the grain and sub-grain scale in
mylonitic rocks, and at the outcrop scale in large
mountain belts.
Modest systematic movements on relatively close-
spaced slip surfaces can produce significant
distortions of a rock mass.
Concept of Detailed Structural Analysis (DSA)

3. Dynamic Analysis : interprets the forces,


stresses and mechanics that produce
structures.
• A major goal is to determine the magnitude
and orientation of stresses that produce
structures, and the mechanical response of the
rock mass to those stresses.
Concept of Detailed Structural Analysis (DSA)

This is done using:


• Physical or analog models - where physical
models of natural processes are made using
either actual rock materials, or rock analogs -
clay, gelatin, silly-putty, sand, butter, wax, etc.
Concept of Detailed Structural Analysis (DSA)

This is also done using:


• Analytical theoretical modeling - a
mathematical exercise where a solution is
derived from mechanical theory.
• Numerical models - these are ‘computer
models’, systems of differential equations that
are numerically solved to simulate natural
phenomena.
Distinct-Element Models :
Thrust Faults, Normal Faults, and the Big One
Luther M. Strayer
Cal State University, Hayward
lstrayer@csuhayward.edu
Distinct-Element Particle Model

Sand Model
0% Seds

25% Seds

50% Seds

75% Seds

100% Seds
Detailed Structural Analysis

The Famous Pizza Model


San Manuel Ore Body