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dan kaitannya dengan geologi.

Prinsip2 mekanik, kinematika, dan dinamika

genesis geologi struktur dan tektonik

Deformasi plastis-Pelipatan, folds

Deformasi brittle-fracture, joints,faults

Analisis dan rekonstruksi elemen2 struktural dan

tektonik

Concept of Detailed Structural

Analysis (DSA)

Concept of Detailed Structural Analysis (DSA)

emphasis on strain analysis is the basis of

structural geology. It is predicated on the notion

that most structures contain in, or adjacent to

them, is the information necessary to decipher

them.

There are 3 fundamental parts to DSA :

Concept of Detailed Structural Analysis (DSA)

and most fundamental aspect of DSA. It

consists of identifying and accurately

describing the location, attitude/orientation,

and geometries of structures.

• This is generally done in the field, although

remote sensing is also used.

Concept of Detailed Structural Analysis (DSA)

Concept of Detailed Structural Analysis (DSA)

Concept of Detailed Structural Analysis (DSA)

determining the direction and magnitude (if

possible) of the motions that were

responsible for the deformation.

• It is concerned with basic motions -

translations, rotations, distortions, and

dilations

Concept of Detailed Structural Analysis (DSA)

Concept of Detailed Structural Analysis (DSA)

Concept of Detailed Structural Analysis (DSA)

and stresses involved with deformation.

• Generally the most interpretive aspect of DSA,

but is based on rock mechanics and materials

theory, and should ultimately be based on

natural observations.

• Often done by applying theory and/or analog

and/or numerical models.

Concept of Detailed Structural Analysis (DSA)

1. Descriptive Analysis:

It’s the heart of structural geology. It focuses on the

exact details of geometry: 3D spatial and angular

relationships.

Angles between lines and planes - orientation of a

lines, and of the intesection between 2 planes -

changes in lengths of lines…

This leads to the use of orthographic and

stereographic projection - so called ‘sick fun’

Concept of Detailed Structural Analysis (DSA)

Descriptive Analysis:

Should ideally be done free of interpretation - w/out

preconceived notions of what (we think) should

be there.

On the other hand, our experience, and our

knowledge of tectonics and structural style will

often guide or investigation...

Concept of Detailed Structural Analysis (DSA)

Concept of Detailed Structural Analysis (DSA)

descriptive analysis.

• Different features have different relative

importance depending on the scale of

observation.

It is important to match our observations to the

scale of the phenomena we are trying to address.

Concept of Detailed Structural Analysis (DSA)

Concept of Detailed Structural Analysis (DSA)

Concept of Detailed Structural Analysis (DSA)

Structural Elements :

Every structure we encounter is composed of

structural elements, which must be identified and

described in order to carry out descriptive analyisis.

There are 2 types:

1. Physical Elements: these are real and tangible -

like fold limbs or fault surfaces - which have

measurable geometries and orientations.

2. Geometric Elements: are imaginary lines and

planes (that can also be measured) which help us

describe a structure’s geometry.

Concept of Detailed Structural Analysis (DSA)

Concept of Detailed Structural Analysis (DSA)

Concept of Detailed Structural Analysis (DSA)

Structural Elements :

By careful observation of specific features and by

their systematic plotting graphically, we can

identify sets of features that might have a

common orientation or appearance. A number

of sets of structures can define a system of

structures.

Concept of Detailed Structural Analysis (DSA)

analysis leaves off.

• Kinematic analysis deals with the recognition of

changes in shape, angle, area/volume, and location

of materials during deformation - specifically:

Translation : rigid-body motion from A to B;

Rotation : about a pole or series of poles;

Distortion : changes in angular relationships, and;

Dilation : area/volume loss or gain during deformation

Kinematic Analysis:

• The goal of kinematic analysis is to

determine the deformation path - the

series of translations, rotations, distortions

and dilations that take the structure from

its original to its defortmed state.

• This is done at all scales - from plate-

tectonic motions, down to the grain-scale

in a thin section.

Strain Analysis is one aspect

of kinematic analysis that

focuses on changes of shape

and size of deformed

objects.

Penetrative Deformation :

How we treat a specific area kinematically

often depends on whether or not the

deformation is penetrative, at the scale of

observation.

For structures to be penetrative, they must be

closely spaced enough to appear to be

everywhere - clearly this is a notion that is

closely tied to that of scale of observation

The notion of penetrative deformation is strongly SCALE dependent

Slip and Flow : scale dependent descriptions

The phenomena of flow, that is, the continuous (no

discontinuities) shearing of material, may at a

closer scale of observation, in fact be

accommodated upon a series of (relatively) small

slip surfaces or faults.

This can be seen at the grain and sub-grain scale in

mylonitic rocks, and at the outcrop scale in large

mountain belts.

Modest systematic movements on relatively close-

spaced slip surfaces can produce significant

distortions of a rock mass.

Concept of Detailed Structural Analysis (DSA)

stresses and mechanics that produce

structures.

• A major goal is to determine the magnitude

and orientation of stresses that produce

structures, and the mechanical response of the

rock mass to those stresses.

Concept of Detailed Structural Analysis (DSA)

• Physical or analog models - where physical

models of natural processes are made using

either actual rock materials, or rock analogs -

clay, gelatin, silly-putty, sand, butter, wax, etc.

Concept of Detailed Structural Analysis (DSA)

• Analytical theoretical modeling - a

mathematical exercise where a solution is

derived from mechanical theory.

• Numerical models - these are ‘computer

models’, systems of differential equations that

are numerically solved to simulate natural

phenomena.

Distinct-Element Models :

Thrust Faults, Normal Faults, and the Big One

Luther M. Strayer

Cal State University, Hayward

lstrayer@csuhayward.edu

Distinct-Element Particle Model

Sand Model

0% Seds

25% Seds

50% Seds

75% Seds

100% Seds

Detailed Structural Analysis

San Manuel Ore Body

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