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Linkin Park Aff

TRIGGER WARNING: This Aff talks about suicide and depression.


*Use this to screw over opponents*
Part 1 is Linkin Park.
July 20, 2017 – Chester Bennington, lead singer of the rock band Linkin Park, took his
own life by hanging himself.
Here are some lyrics sang by Chester:
“Crawling” – 2000:
[Chester Bennington:] Crawling in my skin These wounds they will not heal Fear is how I fall Confusing
what is real There's something inside me that pulls beneath the surface Consuming confusing This lack of self-control I fear is never
ending Controlling I can't seem [Chester Bennington (Mike Shinoda):] To find myself again My walls are closing in (without a sense of
confidence and I'm convinced that there's just too much pressure to take) I've felt this way before So insecure [Chester Bennington:] Crawling
in my skin These wounds they will not heal Fear is how I fall Confusing what is real Discomfort endlessly has pulled itself upon me Distracting
reacting Against my will I stand beside my own reflection It's haunting how I can't seem [Chester Bennington (Mike Shinoda):] To find myself
again My walls are closing in (without a sense of confidence and I'm convinced that there's just too much pressure to take) I've felt this way
before So insecure Crawling in my skin These wounds they will not heal Fear is how I fall Confusing what is real Crawling in my skin These
wounds they will not heal Fear is how I fall Confusing confusing what is real There's something inside me that pulls beneath the surface
consuming Confusing what is real This lack of self-control I fear is never ending controlling Confusing what is real

“Somewhere I Belong” – 2003:


[Mike Shinoda (Chester Bennington):] (When this began) I had nothing to say And I'd get lost in the nothingness inside of me (I was confused)
And I let it all out to find That I'm not the only person with these things in mind (Inside of me) But all the vacancy the words revealed Is the only
real thing that I've got left to feel (Nothing to lose) Just stuck, hollow and alone And the fault is my own, and the fault is my own [Chester
Bennington:] I
wanna heal, I wanna feel what I thought was never real I wanna let go of the pain I've
felt so long (Erase all the pain 'til it's gone) I wanna heal, I wanna feel like I'm close to
something real I wanna find something I've wanted all along Somewhere I belong [Mike Shinoda
(Chester Bennington):] And I've got nothing to say I can't believe I didn't fall right down on my face (I was confused) Looking everywhere only to
find That it's not the way I had imagined it all in my mind (So what am I?) What do I have but negativity 'Cause I can't justify the way, everyone
is looking at me (Nothing to lose) Nothing to gain, hollow and alone And the fault is my own, and the fault is my own [Chester Bennington:] I
wanna heal, I wanna feel what I thought was never real I wanna let go of the pain I've felt so long (Erase all the pain 'til it's gone) I wanna heal, I
wanna feel like I'm close to something real I wanna find something I've wanted all along Somewhere I belong I will never know myself until I do
this on my own And I will never feel anything else, until my wounds are healed I will never be anything 'til I break away from me I will break
away, I'll find myself today I wanna heal, I wanna feel what I thought was never real I wanna let go of the pain I've felt so long (Erase all the pain
'til it's gone) I wanna heal, I wanna feel like I'm close to something real I wanna find something I've wanted all along Somewhere I belong I
wanna heal, I wanna feel like I'm somewhere I belong I wanna heal, I wanna feel like I'm somewhere I belong Somewhere I belong

“Leave Out All The Rest” – 2007:


I dreamed I was missing You were so scared But no one would listen 'Cause no one else cared After my dreaming I woke with this fear What am
I leaving When I'm done here? So if you're asking me I want you to know When
my time comes Forget the wrong that
I've done Help me leave behind some Reasons to be missed And don't resent me And when
you're feeling empty Keep me in your memory Leave out all the rest Leave out all the rest Don't be
afraid I've taken my beating I've shared what I've made I'm strong on the surface Not all the way through I've never been perfect But neither
have you So if you're asking me I want you to know When my time comes Forget the wrong that I've done Help me leave behind some Reasons
to be missed Don't resent me And when you're feeling empty Keep me in your memory Leave out all the rest Leave out all the rest Forgetting all
the hurt inside You've learned to hide so well Pretending someone else can come And save me from myself I can't be who you are When my
time comes Forget the wrong that I've done Help me leave behind some Reasons to be missed Don't resent me And when you're feeling empty
Keep me in your memory Leave out all the rest Leave out all the rest Forgetting all the hurt inside You've learned to hide so well Pretending
someone else can come And save me from myself I can't be who you are I can't be who you are

“Heavy” – 2017:
[Chester Bennington:] I don't like my mind right now Stacking up problems that are so unnecessary Wish that I could slow things down I wanna
let go but there's comfort in the panic And I drive myself crazy Thinking everything's about me Yeah I drive myself crazy 'Cause I can't escape
the gravity I'm holding on Why is everything so heavy? Holding on To so much more than I can
carry I keep dragging around what's bringing me down If I just let go, I'd be set free Holding on
[Kiiara:] Why is everything so heavy? You say that I'm paranoid But I'm pretty sure the world is out to get me It's not like I
make the choice To let my mind stay so fucking messy I know I'm not the center of the universe But you keep spinning round me just the same I
know I'm not the center of the universe But you keep spinning round me just the same I'm holding on Why is everything so heavy? Holding on
To so much more than I can carry I keep dragging around what's bringing me down If I just let go, I'd be set free Holding on Why is everything so
heavy? [Chester Bennington:] I know I'm not the center of the universe But you keep spinning round me just the same [Kiiara:] I know I'm not
the center of the universe But you keep spinning round me just the same And I drive myself crazy Thinking everything's about me [Chester
Bennington:] I'm holding on Why is everything so heavy? Holding on [Chester Bennington and Kiiara]: To so much more than I can carry I keep
dragging around what's bringing me down If I just let go, I'd be set free Holding on Why is everything so heavy? Why is everything so heavy?
[Chester Bennington:] Why is everything so heavy?

All of the success in the world – multiple best-selling albums, an economic fortune,
and a happy family with a wife and children – couldn’t stop Chester. In the end, it
didn’t even matter how much money he had, how famous he was, or how many
albums he sold. His demons lived in his head, and no amount of external success could
change that. Depression isn’t conquerable with a policy. It can’t be resolved with a
plan. It can’t be changed with fiat. It can't be outfought, it can't be outdone, it can't be
outmatched, it can't be outrun.
Moras 17 [Ryan Moras, Entrepreneur, Founder Of Capitalism.com, and Host Of Freedom Fast Lane, September 26, 2017, "Chester
Bennington and Success Without Fulfillment," Freedom Fast Lane, https://freedomfastlane.com/chester-bennington-success-without-
fulfillment/] JS

Success is the accomplishment of goals. Chester


accomplished more goals by age 40 than most people do in a
lifetime. He was beloved around the world. He had six kids. He had plenty of money. Chester
was incredibly successful, but he still felt deep pain. It was evident in the lyrics that he sang.
Pain drives people to do something different. But the “something different” does not usually solve
our underlying pain. For example, most standup comics have dark demons that drive them to use comedy as an escape. But even
Robin Williams was not able to escape his demons. Most entrepreneurs, including myself and Elon Musk, often feel a
deep sense of loneliness that drives them to seek achievement as a way to connect with others. But as they get more successful, they often feel
more lonely than ever. Many bodybuilders or athletes feel insecure because they were picked on, and it drives them to cover it up with physical
ability. That’s healthy, until it drives them to use copious amounts of steroids or to destroy their bodies in the process. We believe that if
certain conditions are met, our pain will go away. “If I am rich, then I will stop feeling a lack of purpose.” “If I have muscles, people will respect
me.” But the conditions don’t usually change how we FEEL. When the way that we feel is dependent upon an outside condition, then we are a
slave to it. We often become addicted to the result of our actions, rather than the actions themselves. For example, Chester’s pain drove him to
create, which is healthy. However, his last album was poorly received, and his critics let him know. He source of anesthesia – love or respect for
his art – was taken away. Shortly after, he took his own life. As result, people can be successful without experiencing
any fulfillment. Tony Robbins says fulfillment is an art. I think it’s a science. More on that later. No one likes to experience pain, and that
is why pain drives us. Pain is the most motivating driver ever created. It is more powerful than money,
sex or drugs… in fact, all of those things are only addictive because they are viewed as possible solutions to pain. Pain moves us
to create, to innovate, to invent, and to write. To numb the pain would be to numb our greatest
motivator and our greatest source of creativity. We want the creativity without the pain, but we do not get one without
the other. I would go as far to say that Chester would never have been a success if he did not experience
pain as a young man. Your greatest accomplishments often came BECAUSE of pain. Your proudest
moments often came in the response to pain. To try to escape your pain is to escape your greatest
gift. Amongst your darkest moments come your greatest opportunities. Pain tells us that something is wrong, and it is the agent for change.
This is, by the way, why it is a terrible idea to attempt to use government to relieve pain, or for doctors
to prescribe something to cover it up. (I’m looking at you, Mark Zuckerberg. Please go back to coding and out of universal
basic income.) It is pain that drives us to do something different or to create new solutions. But doesn’t pain also drive us to overeat, to cut, and
to take our own lives? Yes, which is why what
we need is not to eliminate pain, but to develop a better way
of dealing with it and responding to it. Pain drives us to find solutions. It becomes dangerous
when those solutions become addictions rather than an outlet for the energy. Pain can drive us to
create a new business. But when we seek money to cover up our insecurity, no amount of
money will be enough. Loneliness can drive us to connect with no people, but when we use sex
as a way to cover up loneliness, no amount of sex can be enough.
Part 2 is framing.
Depression is a rampant problem among teens that’s underreported and ignored. This
Aff is a call for the debate community to step up because this isn’t some new or even
recent problem, and I demand an answer – someone tell me what the fuck is wrong.
Nobody should feel powerless to their own fate, but talks of depression fall on deaf
ears because nobody’s listening.
Koplewicz 02 [Harold S. Koplewicz, medical director of a medical clinic, president of a foundation he launched in 2009, director in two
development-stage pharmaceutical and medical device companies, and editor-in-chief of a journal of psychopharmacology, “More than Moody:
Recognizing and Treating Adolescent Depression,” The Brown University Child and Adolescent Behavior Letter, Vol. 18, No. 12, December 2002,
http://daveneefoundation.org/wp-content/uploads/More-than-Moody-Adolescent-Depression.pdf] JS

Upwards of 40 million Americans suffer from depression, and approximately 3.5 million of them
are children and teenagers, according to a 1999 report by the United States Surgeon General.
The studies indicate that as you read this, between 10 and 15 percent of the child and adolescent population
show some signs of depression. It is still relatively rare among preteens and young children, so the vast majority of
those affected are teenagers. Significantly, studies estimate that in a given year as many as 8.3 percent of
the adolescent population will begin exhibiting signs of major depression—compared with only 5.3 percent
for adults. And while adults are much more apt to recognize their depression and be treated, most teenagers will not receive
the help they need. As a group, perhaps the most affected are college students. Studies suggest that significant percentages of them
have bouts of depression in which they feel hopeless and even suicidal. On the other hand, the widespread use of antidepressants means that
some young people who might have been too debilitated to go to college in earlier years can now attend and succeed. In either case, parents
today need to be especially alert to what depression in adolescents looks and feels like, and to be capable of helping their children perhaps
long-distance. Young people with depression don’t suffer every day, or all their lives, or with the same intensity with each episode, but they do
suffer. Whether they are entering middle school or finishing college, the pain of depression can seriously erode their
capacity for joy and curiosity and for facing the developmental hurdles they must overcome to
take their places as happy, productive adults. And at its worst, depression can lead to severe
isolation and even suicide or violence toward others. In 2002, five thousand young people in
the United States will kill themselves. That’s more adolescents than will die from all other
illnesses—from cancer to AIDS—combined. Only traffic accidents and homicides take more adolescents than suicide.
What is perhaps even more frightening are studies suggesting that every single day, in every single high school in
America, teenagers are thinking about suicide or making actual attempts. The most recent survey on youth
risk behavior from the Centers for Disease Control reports that annually teenagers (19 percent or 3 million of all U.S. high-
schoolers) had thought of suicide, and over 2 million of them made plans to carry it out. And some
400,000 made actual suicide attempts requiring medical attention. That comes to an average of
more than 1,000 attempts a day nationwide, every day of the year. With a reasonable degree of confidence,
we know that depression plays at least some role in most of them.

People choose to turn a blind eye to depression because it’s so much easier to run
than to confront the stigma. I don’t give a shit why you don’t do anything – just know
that you’re guilty all the same by refusing to pay attention, but I cannot take this
anymore. I'm saying everything I've said before.
Wolpert 01 [Lewis Wolpert, developmental biologist, author, and broadcaster; Wolpert is recognized for his work on the intracellular
positional information that guides cellular development; in addition to his scientific and research publications, he has written about his own
experience of clinical depression, 3-1-2001, "Stigma of depression – a personal view," British Medical Bulletin, Volume 57, Issue 1, 1 March
2001, Pages 221–224, https://doi.org/10.1093/bmb/57.1.221, https://academic.oup.com/bmb/article/57/1/221/301582] JS

My first serious depression occurred 6 years ago. I had never before experienced so terrible a
set of feelings and was hospitalised because of my suicidal intentions. When I recovered, due to
antidepressants and cognitive therapy, I found out that my wife, Jill Neville, had not told anyone that I had been
depressed. She said that she was embarrassed about my being depressed and told friends and
colleagues that I was exhausted and was suffering from a minor heart condition. She was also
very worried that if the truth were known it would have a serious effect on my career. This was
my first experience of stigma and I found it upsetting as I believed that I had had a serious
illness and it was nothing to be ashamed of. But my position was not that straight-forward. I was convinced that my
depression had a purely biological cause and was induced by the drug flecanide which I was taking to control my atrial fibrillation. I did not think
that there was any psychological basis for my depression though my wife thought otherwise. I very much preferred a biological explanation.
This is probably because then I was not really responsible for the condition, it was like a physical rather than a mental illness. It was not unlike
having a diagnosis of post-traumatic stress disorder, which carries no stigma because the cause is so clearly an external one. But what then was
my problem with a psychological basis for the depression? I have had to come to accept that I too stigmatise depression when the basis is
psychological and that my public declarations that depression is a serious illness and should carry no stigma are not as honest as I would like
them to be. In trying to understand stigma, it is essential to recognise the effect that depression has on those
associated with the depressed individual. Depressives are both negative and self involved. For
the carer it can often be extremely difficult to understand why their partner should be in such a
condition. My wife found it incomprehensible that I should be depressed as we were happily married, I had a fine job at the University,
and I had no serious physical illness. Worse still, depressives are almost totally negative in all their attributions
and also obsessively self-involved which makes them unattractive company. In an experimental
study, subjects were asked to speak on a telephone with a patient who, unknown to them, was
depressed. Their reports on their conversation were, not surprisingly, negative. Other studies
confirm that depressed individuals have a negative impact on those with whom they interact , for
example, at work. When in a position of power, they tend to exploit their position and in subordinate roles tend to blame others. I recall, now
with some guilt, that before my own experience with depression, I had employed on a temporary basis an assistant to work in the laboratory
who turned out to be very good at her work but was on the edge of a severe depression. Her effect on the group in the laboratory was so bad
that they had great difficulty working, not only with her but even near her, and so I had to let her go. I hope I would now handle it better but it
would still not be easy. There can be no doubt that there is considerable stigma associated with depression. I am
repeatedly congratulated for being so brave, even courageous, in talking so openly about my
depression. I, in fact, am a 'performer' and there is no bravery, but these comments show how
others view depression and that it is highly stigmatised. An example of how stigma can present a particularly
difficult problem for sportsmen is provided by the case of a professional footballer, Stan Collymore who played for England.
He had a severe depression and his career went into a rapid decline. He says that he can never
forgive the Aston Villa manager for the way he reacted to his depression. He told him to pull his
socks up and that his idea of depression was that of a woman living on a 20th floor flat with
kids. The Sun newspaper said that he should be kicked out of football as how could anyone be
depressed when he is earning so much money. He bitterly remarks that if you suffer from an
illness that millions of others suffer from, but it is a mental illness which leads many to take
their own lives, then you are called spineless and weak. Just as important , perhaps more so, is the self
stigmatisation of those with depression as it can have serious effects on how individuals deal
with their illness. My experience in talking to others who have had a depression has provided
me with numerous accounts of just how much those with depression see it as something to be
ashamed of, and so kept secret. One young woman cannot even tell her father who is a
psychiatrist and another woman could not confide in her brother or sister who knew nothing of
her suicide attempts. While I have no difficulty talking about my depression when I have recovered, when I am in it I must admit I
hesitate. One reason is that whoever you tell is embarrassed and does not know quite what to say.
There is also a sense of failure in not having handled it. That is why depressives can talk so openly to each other
about their experience. The shame and stigma associated with depression can prevent those with the
illness admitting they are ill. It is remarkable how it is sometimes possible to conceal one's
depression. It was chilling to hear a mother relate to me how she could talk cheerfully to her
son while at the same time composing, in her own mind, the suicide note that she would leave
him. There is also the stigma of taking antidepressant medication which is perceived as mind
altering and addictive. Stigma may also cause somatic symptoms as it is more acceptable to talk
of stomach ache and fatigue than mental problems. A major difficulty in overcoming stigma, and indeed probably one
of the causes, is that it is very hard, perhaps impossible, for those who have not experienced depression to understand what the individual with
depression is experiencing. I have colleagues who openly admit that they just cannot understand what I am talking about. As Styron wrote
‘the pain of severe depression is quite unimaginable to those who have not suffered it’. The
experience is almost impossible to describe and the situation is not helped by the almost total absence of good
descriptions of depression in English novels – I know of none. Writers have described their own depression but none in novels; Virginia Woolf,
herself a depressive, never does. Perhaps it is just too difficult. It may be that if you can describe your severe depression
you have not really had one.

The debate community is numb to this internal suffering, and these wounds, they will
not heal. We have hundreds of rounds on Wilderson, Deleuze, and even fucking
Baudrillard, but people read “strategic” arguments so that they can win bids instead
of reading arguments that actually try to create change in the debate space. No
change will be created within this community as long as that mindset persists because
each word gets lost in the echo instead of being taken seriously.
Hendrickson 13 [Hendrickson, Ed, debated for 4 years at The Meadows School, 9-30-2013, "Depression and an Invisible Community,"
Briefly, http://www.vbriefly.com/2013/09/30/20139depression-and-an-invisible-community/] JS

It’s common debate parlance to say that a tournament is depressing. We joke that it’s killing us, running us threadbare—that is, the continuous
cycle of cutting cards and debating, weekend after weekend, month after month, year after year. Admittedly, debate is a highly time consuming
activity. Many debaters complain that between the sleep deprivation, malnourishment, and mental competition, they can’t seem to feel much
else besides fatigue. At the end of the year, there’s the usual chatter of quitting, but most everyone serious returns next year to endure the
grind again. The soul-sucking exhaustion doesn’t seem stratified, either: people from the lowest brackets of tournaments and highly seeded
grandmasters stagger like equals through this haze of debate-weariness, but for most, I think the struggle is largely metaphorical. The
frustration and depression of debate take on no realized form and are cast off soon after the
tournament is over. But this isn’t the case for all of us. The trouble with depression is that it can
be made invisible so easily by those afflicted. When asked, “how was your day?” the depressed
person need only say “fine” to immediately dismiss any suspicion that, in fact, their day was not
fine. This is made especially easy in debate room chatter, where words like depressed and
exhausted and dead and beat are all tossed together in a mélange of pseudo-psychiatric self-
evaluations. Here, the depressed person can blend in. For me, blending in was an effort to
avoid detection—to go under the radar of nosy friends and adversaries and teachers so that I
might avoid the public humiliation of being labeled a downer or a loser. Culturally, we treat
mental disorders like they’re something to be ashamed of. Worse still, the word itself,
depression, has been cheapened by overuse, where everything from a losing record to a lay
judge is depressing. Stuck in the language, I lost sight of whether I was actually depressed or
not—whether I was sad all the time only because debate was emotionally demanding or
whether I had developed a legitimate disorder. I have since confirmed that I am not alone in
this regard. I couldn’t tell you whether debaters have a particular depressive streak or not (this, however, would be a very interesting bit
of research, perhaps for some time in the future), but my purpose here is not statistical; I’m only speaking to my personal experience. I’ve
met many debaters who are struggling with or have struggled with serious depression, though
countless others remain unfamiliar to me, I’m sure. Some are undiagnosed or refusing
treatment, while others are self-diagnosed and self-medicating (through counterproductive
mediums like alcohol), and others still are receiving medication and struggling. They’ve
experienced a range of reactions, from familial exile to warm embraces to moments of quiet
solitude—some are lucky, others not. Sources of anxiety and stress are just as varied: some are
the survivors of abuse, some are struggling with their gender identity, some can’t see
themselves getting out of bed tomorrow, some never feel smart enough, some can’t begin to
see themselves as pretty, and some still don’t have a reason—they just know that something is
missing. Some are suicidal; some are not. I would also like to make note of the fact that, although I’ve been speaking
strictly of depression, many of the same conditions of silence exist for those who suffer from other, legitimate psychological disorders.
Depression has been my experience, so I’m speaking to it specifically, but I know people who regularly struggle with dissociative disorders,
anxiety, OCD, ADD, ADHD, among others. I’m sure there are more still who I will never know. The problem I wish to address here, to be
absolutely clear, is the twofold problem of silence: there are those who remain silent about their depression,
and there are those who refuse to acknowledge the invisibility of their peers, and thereby
participate in its continuity. What’s important to recognize is not that depressed people exist,
because to most people, especially in a liberal and open community like debate, that’s just a fact of life; rather, we should direct our
attention to the pervasive unconsciousness to the emotional and psychological well being of
other people. We need to be good to one another in a way that transcends phatic conversation
in the hallways, and we need to have at the forefront of our minds the idea that the subjects of
our conversations (be it online on a blog, in a post-round rant about and RFD, or in an actual debate) are very real, often
vulnerable people. Anyone could be depressed. The moral of the story is not ‘be nice,’ but
instead ‘be aware.’ Consciousness begins with openness and dialogue. This can be hard, most definitely, and
I’ll be the first to admit that I’m not always available myself, and I know for a fact that an activity like debate can be trying for a lot of people,
physically, mentally, and emotionally. Of course, that’s when our awareness is needed the most. When it’s quiet is when it’s important to listen.

Thus, the role of the ballot is to vote for the best methodology to reconstruct debate
to make it accessible for people struggling with depression and the role of the judge is
to be a pervasive intellectual that engages in that reconstruction.
You are not endorsing a speech, but a speech act. It’s not what we say; it’s how we
say it.
Vincent 13 – (Christopher [Debate Coach, former college NDT debater] “Re-Conceptualizing Our Performances: Accountability In Lincoln
Douglas Debate”

Charles Mills argues that “the moral concerns of African Americans have centered on the assertion of their personhood, a personhood that
could generally be taken for granted by whites, so that blacks have had to see these theories from a location outside their purview.” For
example, I witnessed a round at a tournament this season where a debater ran a utilitarianism disadvantage. His opponent argued that this
discourse was racist because it ignores the way in which a utilitarian calculus has distorted communities of color by ignoring the wars and
violence already occurring in those communities. In the next speech, the debater stood up, conceded it was racist, and argued that it was the
reason he was not going for it and moved on, and still won the debate. This is problematic because it demonstrates exactly what Mill’s
argument is. For the black debater this argument is a question of his or her personhood within the debate space and the white debater was not
held accountable for the words that are said. Again for debaters of color, their performance
is always attached to their body
which is why it is important that the performance be viewed in relation to the speech act. Whites are
allowed to take for granted the impact their words have on the bodies in the space. They take for granted this notion of personhood and ignore
the concerns of those who do not matter divorced from the flow. It is never a question of “should we make arguments divorced from our
ideologies,” it is a question of is it even possible. It is my argument that our performances, regardless of what justification we provide, are
always a reflection of the ideologies we hold. Why should a black debater have to use a utilitarian calculus just to win a round, when that same
discourse justifies violence in the community they go back home to? Our
performances and our decisions in the round,
reflect the beliefs that we hold when we go back to our communities. As a community we must re-
conceptualize this distinction the performance by the body and of the body by re-evaluating the role
of the speech and the speech act. It is no longer enough for judges to vote off of the flow anymore.
Students of color are being held to a higher threshold to better articulate why racism is bad, which is the problem in a space that we deem to be
educational. It is here where I shift my focus to a solution. Debaters
must be held accountable for the words they say in
the round. We should no longer evaluate the speech. Instead we must begin to evaluate the speech
act itself. Debaters must be held accountable for more than winning the debate. They must be held
accountable for the implications of that speech. As educators and adjudicators in the debate space we also
have an ethical obligation to foster an atmosphere of education. It is not enough for judges to offer predispositions
suggesting that they do not endorse racist, sexist, homophobic discourse, or justify why they do not hold that belief, and still offer a rational
reason why they voted for it. Judges have become complacent in voting on the discourse, if the other debater does not provide a clear enough
role of the ballot framing, or does not articulate well enough why the racist discourse should be rejected. Judges must be willing to foster a
learning atmosphere by holding debaters accountable for what they say in the round. They must be willing to vote against a debater if they
endorse racist discourse. They must be willing to disrupt the process of the flow for the purpose of embracing that teachable moment.
The
speech must be connected to the speech act. We must view the entire debate as a performance of the
body, instead of the argument solely on the flow. Likewise, judges must be held accountable for what
they vote for in the debate space. If a judge is comfortable enough to vote for discourse that is racist, sexist, or homophobic, they
must also be prepared to defend their actions. We as a community do not live in a vacuum and do not live isolated from the larger society. That
means that judges must defend their actions to the debaters, their coaches, and to the other judges in the room if it is a panel. Students of color
should not have the burden of articulating why racist discourse must be rejected, but should have the assurance that the educator with the
ballot will protect them in those moments. Until we re-conceptualize the speech and the speech act, and until judges are comfortable enough to
vote down debaters for a performance that perpetuates violence in the debate space, debaters and coaches alike will remain complacent in
their privilege. As
educators we must begin to shift the paradigm and be comfortable doing this. As a
community we should stop looking at ourselves as isolated in a vacuum and recognize that the
discourse and knowledge we produce in debate has real implications for how we think when we leave
this space. Our performances must be viewed as of the body instead of just by it. As long as we continue to
operate in a world where our performances are merely by bodies, we will continue to foster a climate of hostility and violence towards students
of color, and in turn destroy the transformative potential this community could have.
Part 3 is the advocacy.
I advocate for using music as a method to break the stigma of depression.
Metal music functions as an escape from the shadow of the day. It appeals to
adolescents dealing with emotional problems as it’s employed as a coping mechanism.
Shafron and Karno 13 [Gavin Ryan Shafron, Columbia University & Mitchell P. Karno, University of California, Los Angeles, “Heavy
Metal Music and Emotional Dysphoria Among Listeners,” Psychology of Popular Media Culture, 2013, Vol. 2, No. 2, 74–85] JS

Historically, heavy metal music has appealed to adolescent populations. The potential
relationships between the music and dysphoric emotion and aggression are especially
significant, given that adolescence has always been a time known for drastic changes resulting
in emotional strain. Ge, Lorenz, Conger, Elder, and Simmons (1994) and Larson and Ham (1993) reported that the transition
into adolescence is known to be marked by a “pileup” of stressful and challenging events and
situations. In recent years, increasing interest in an “epidemic” of adolescent emotional problems,
specifically revolving around depression, has flooded media and empirical research. One BBC headline
reported “teen depression on the increase” noting that the number of young individuals suffering from depression
has risen in the last 10 years (BBC, 2004). Additionally, Safer, Zito, & DosReis, (2003) reported an
increased number of prescriptions for antidepressants given to adolescents and children alike.
Furthermore, a study of three British cohorts assessed at ages 15 to 16 years in 1974, 1986, and
1999 found a trend toward increasing levels of “emotional problems” (Collishaw, Maughan, Goodman, &
Pickels, 2004). Epidemiological data reflecting prevalence rates indicate that although prevalence of emotional
dysphoria among adolescents may not reflect the majority of those between childhood and emerging adulthood, a prominent
minority of adolescent youth experience clinical or subclinical levels of emotional dysphoria
(Costello, Mustillo, Erkanli, Keeler, & Angold, 2003; Kessler & Walters, 1998; Lewinsohn & Essau, 2002). Indeed, Lewinsohn & Essau (2002)’s
survey of six epidemiological studies place prevalence rates for adolescent Major Depressive Disorder (MDD) at between 1.9% and 4%.
Similarly, the National Comorbidity Survey places adolescent MDD prevalence rates at 14% within the United States (Kessler & Walters, 1998).
Significant subclinical prevalence rates reveal even higher numbers, up to 20% for minor depression, and up to 50% for significant
symptomatology (Kessler, Avenevoli, & Merikangas, 2001; Kessler & Walters, 1998). The
emotionally charged quality of
heavy metal music may, indeed, reflect the difficult transitional nature of adolescence.

My solvency is empirically proven – fans of genres of music like metal have higher
rates of anxiety and depression, and there’s a proven correlation that this music is
more than just pollution manifested in perpetual sound.
Shafron and Karno 2 [Gavin Ryan Shafron, Columbia University & Mitchell P. Karno, University of California, Los Angeles, “Heavy
Metal Music and Emotional Dysphoria Among Listeners,” Psychology of Popular Media Culture, 2013, Vol. 2, No. 2, 74–85] JS

Descriptive statistics on depression, anxiety, and trait anger scores for the heavy metal and
non-heavy metal preference groups are shown in Table 1. Overall, we observed higher mean
scores for depression, anxiety, and trait anger in the heavy metal-listening group. Results from the
ANOVAs indicated that after controlling for age and gender, the heavy metal listeners had significantly
higher anxiety compared with the non-heavy metal listeners, F(1, 541) = 6.5, p < .01. The heavy metal
group also was significantly higher on depression (F(1, 541) = 4.1, p < .05). The two groups did not reliably differ on trait
anger (p < .10). Age and gender were found to be associated with anxiety but not with either depression or trait anger. Younger participants
were higher in anxiety (overall F(3, 541) = 10.0, p < .05), and females were higher than males in anxiety, F(1, 541) = 9.9, p < .05. These results
are shown in Table 2. Analysis of effects of quantity and frequency of listening showed that increased quantity of listening to heavy metal music
was associated with higher levels of anxiety (F(3, 541) = 3.0, p < .05). Post hoc contrasts using Tukey’s Honestly Significant Difference test
indicated that participants who listened to heavy metal 6 to 8 hr per day were higher in anxiety than nonlisteners(p < .05).Quantity of listening
was not associated with higher levels of depression or trait anger. Results of these analyses are shown in Table 3. With regard to frequency of
listening, we
did not observe any significant differences in depression, anxiety, or trait anger as a
function of how often participants listened to heavy metal music. The association of frequency of listening with
anxiety approached significance (p < .07). These results are shown in Table 4. The final analyses examined depression, anxiety, and trait anger
for specific subgenres of heavy metal musical preference. The subgenres and number of participants with preference for each subgenre were as
follows: Classic Heavy Metal (n = 226), Death Metal (n = 105), Emo (n = 202), Hardcore (n = 168), Metalcore (n = 145), Nu Metal (n = 138), and
Screamo (n = 98). See Appendix in online supplemental materials. Respondents were allowed to indicate preference for multiple subgenres of
heavy metal music; thus, the sample size total across all of the subgenres is more than the original heavy metal group (n 315). Each analysis
included a single subgenre (i.e., preference group vs. no-preference group) along with age and gender as covariates. Results indicated
statistically significant results for the subgenres of Hardcore, Screamo, Emo, and Classic Heavy Metal. Specifically, listeners to the Hardcore
subgenre were higher on depression, F(1, 541) = 4.5, p < .05; anxiety, F(1, 541) = 8.0, p < .05; and trait anger, F(1, 541) = 3.9, p < .05 as
compared with participants who did not listen to Hardcore. Listeners to the Screamo subgenre scored higher on anxiety, F(1, 541) = 7.3, p < .05
and trait anger, F(1, 541) = 4.1, p < .05. Results approached significance for Screamo listeners scoring higher on depression, F(1, 541) = 3.3, p <
.10. Listeners to the Emo subgenre were higher on depression, F(1, 541) = 5.0, p < .05 and anxiety, F(1, 541) = 12.0, p < .05, but they were not
higher on trait anger. Classic heavy metal listeners reported higher levels of anxiety, F(1, 541) =5.5, p < .05 and trait anger, F(1, 541) = 6.3, p <
.05 as compared with other participants who did not listen to classic heavy metal. Results approached significance for classic heavy metal
listeners scoring higher on depression, F(1, 541) 3.7, p .10. No significant differences were
observed in the mood states between listeners and nonlisteners of the Death Metal, Metalcore, and Nu Metal subgenres. For these groups,
there were some differences that approached significance at the p < .10 level, including depression for listeners of Death Metal and Nu Metal
and trait anger for listeners of Death Metal. Results for the subgenre analyses are presented in Table 5. The first prominent element of note in
early analysis of this sample was the large amount of participants who indicated heavy metal/hard rock listening. Of the 551 participants, 315
reported listening to heavy metal/hard rock music. The reasons for this majority might be the result of a confluence of factors. It is feasible to
surmise that the geographic location of the data collection impacted the degree of listening. The prominence of the music scene intertwined
with the heightened availability of exposing oneself to a myriad of musical genres and stylings in the Los Angeles area may make this study’s
participants more likely to have exposure and thereby preference for heavy metal and hard rock music. Similarly, the unique prominence of the
hard rock, hardcore, and heavy metal music scenes in nearby Orange County, California (All Music Guide, 2011), may have also directly
influenced the popularity of heavy metal and hard rock music within this sample. Whether similar findings from the current study would
replicate among heavy metal listeners in places where the music is less popular remains to be seen. Although those participants who did and
did not prefer heavy metal music reported subclinical levels of emotional dysphoria, findings
from the present study of
musical preference and mood suggest that listeners who prefer heavy metal/hard rock music
indicate somewhat higher levels of emotional dysphoria, specifically within the realms of anxiety
and depression. The early research of Lester and Whipple (1996) stated that those who prefer
heavy metal music were likely to have contemplated suicide in the past, implying a history of
depression or dysphoric mood. This study supports this suggestion in that the heavy metal-
listening group reported higher overall depression and anxiety than those in the non-heavy
metal group.
Underview
Second, if I win a counter-interpretation to T or theory, vote aff. Time-pressed
rebuttals means the aff needs the ability to collapse to theory in order to overcome
the inequity of the speech times. Otherwise the 2NR would also moot a large portion
of the 1AR by kicking theory. Prefer time skew to other links to fairness because it’s
quantifiable and verifiable.
Third, reasonability and drop the argument on T. The briteline is if it’s been disclosed
provides link and impact turn ground, and has a CX concession spike. Prefer: a) Only
the aff has the burden of meeting topicality, so it’s nonreciprocal to hold it to the
same standards as other theory, b) mutually exclusive legitimate T interps—I have to
choose one but you could read T no matter what which skews my strat—best possible
interpretation is a bad standard, c) research skills—incentivizes the neg to actually
prep out slightly more obscure affs instead of reading T which outweighs since it’s one
of the foremost educational benefits of debate, d) time skew—it’s nearly impossible
to invest enough time on T in the 1AR to win under a normal paradigm without
undercovering everything else—makes a 2NR collapse way too easy.
Fourth, neg abuse outweighs aff abuse. a) Some aff abuse is necessary to overcome
neg side bias and time skew, b) aff speaks in the dark while the neg is reactive, which
means when assessing whether their arguments are abusive they can compare
directly with the circumstances of the round—I have to do so hypothetically.
Fifth, presume aff. 7-4-6-3 time skew means a) if we’re tied, I’ve done the better
debating and b) It’s fairer to give the aff the advantage of being able to win by
eliminating all offense than the neg.
Sixth, no 2NR theory or new neg RVI arguments. 2:1 time trade-off between the 2NR
and the 2AR means giving them the ability to uplayer in the last speech is devastating
to me. It’s also too late to start that debate—usually becomes irresolvable.
Seventh, neg may only read 1 T or theory shell. Multiple shells spread out the 1AR and
allow the 2NR to collapse to whichever shell was undercovered, meaning I wasn’t
given a fair shot at justifying my practice. Multiple rounds solve your offense since we
can check lots of abusive practices over time.