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Research on Active Control of Diesel Engine Based on Wavelet Neural Network

Research on Active Control of Diesel Engine Based on Wavelet Neural Network

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School of Mechatronics Engineering Rolling Mill Institute

Zhengzhou Institute of Aeronautical Industry Management Yanshan University

Zhengzhou, China Qinhuangdao, China

e-mail: phdfxz@163.com e-mail: phdfxz@163.com

Abstract—The vibration of diesel engine transmitting mainly capacity of nonlinear approximation and strong system

from base to outside, the double-layer isolation vibration identifying, concurrent processing, self-adapting syntony.

system of diesel engine was simplified into a double-freedom Wavelet NN combines the self-learning of NN with local

spring-mass systematic model. The vibration of diesel engine characteristic of wavelet. It has the self-adapting resolving

transmission upon the base tending to zero, the optimum power and approved fault toleration which is a feed forward

control force was imposed on the middle-mass by the vibration network based on wavelet analysis. The thesis sets up the

signal of the middle-mass of the trend toward zero and active vibration isolation control system model of diesel

characteristics of wavelet and neural network, from which engine based on wavelet NN and does related theory

active control model was obtained based on wavelet neural

analysis, experimental study.[5-7]

network system. The model is applied to the double-layer

isolation vibration of diesel engine isolating effectively the II. CONTROL OBJECT MODEL

transmission of low-frequency vibration to the base and

compensating the shortcomings of passive double-layer Vibration propagation of diesel engine is from base to

vibration systems, which expands frequency-band of isolation outside. In order to simplify the problem, only vertical

vibration of diesel engine on passive isolation vibration until vibration is considered. Diesel engine double layer vibration

the vertical speed of the middle-mass within the allowable isolating system is simplified to a two-degree of freedom

value range. It can achieve the purposes of isolation and spring quality system. m1 represents the quality of diesel

reduction vibration and active control and guides the design engine, m2 represents the middle quality, represents the

and test of self-adaptive active control by the method. vertical exciting force that is produced by diesel engine as

worked, and Fk represents control force achieved by the

Keywords-diesel engine; vibration; activecontrol; hydraulic actuator which is built between intermediate

artificial neural network quality and diesel engine. k1 and k2 show the stiffness of

upper-layer and bottom-layer absorber respectively. c1 and

I. INTRODUCTION c2 show damping coefficient of upper-layer and bottom-

layer absorber respectively, as shown in Figure.1.

The power system of Diesel engine is a complex system

that oil supply system, valve mechanism, lubricating system, Fg

cooling system work together. In order to carry out the active x1

control of Diesel engine, one of major jobs is to set up the m1

mathematical model of diesel engine. But the running

procedure mechanism of diesel engine is very complex and k C1

Fk

the system takes on nonlinearity and time variation, passive

control obviously cannot meet the demands and

m2 X2

simultaneously physical method setting up the model is very

difficult. Literature [1] adopts adaptive control theory based

on linear system to study vibrating active control of double k2 C2

layer vibration isolation system which apply LMS algorithm

to identify the system error channel. Because neural network

is equipped for nonlinear approximation and strong

concurrent processing, it has powerful life in practical Figure 1. Model of isolation vibration system

engineering applications [2,3]. Literature [4] apply three

layers BP (Back Propagation) network technique on diesel The coordinate are x1 and x2, so the vibration equation is:

engine double layer vibration isolation system to construct a ⎡m1 0 ⎤ ⎧ x1 ⎫ ⎡ c1 −c 2 ⎤ ⎧ x1 ⎫

kind of vibrating active control(AVC) system. The major job ⎢ ⎥⎨ ⎬ + ⎢ ⎥⎨ ⎬

⎣0 m 2 ⎦ ⎩ x 2 ⎭ ⎣− c1 c1 + c 2 ⎦ ⎩ x 2 ⎭

of the paper is to fulfill active control of diesel engine, which (1)

adopts wavelet NN controlled active control frame of double ⎡k − k1 ⎤ ⎧ x1 ⎫ ⎧ F g ⎫

layers system. This system frame is simple and is easy to +⎢ 1 ⎥⎨ ⎬=⎨ ⎬

⎣ − k1 k1 + k 2 ⎦ ⎩ x 2 ⎭ ⎩ Fk ⎭

achieve active control. Wavelet analysis. NN itself have the

414

Because the vibration of diesel engine is transmitted from adaptive the certain or uncertain system, deal with the

base to outside, just according to vibration signal of knowledge of quantitative and qualitative in same time.

intermediate quality to computer necessary optimum control Neural network has neurons in three layers, the top is input

force Fk applied to the middle quality when vibration tends layer, middle is the hidden layer, and the lower is output

to be zero, the vibration transmitted to base will tend to be layer. Adjacent layers connect each other in network, the

zero. The aim of damping and vibration isolation is same layers have no connection, and there is no direct

realized.[8-10] connection between input layer and output layer. Input unit

receive information from the external environment, output

III. WAVELET NEURAL NETWORK MODEL units gives the effect of neural network system on the

external environment. Hidden unit element locate in neural

A. Wavelet analysis modell networks, receive input information within the network, the

Wavelet function constructed from the basic wavelet output can affect Other processing units in neural network

ψ (x) with a definition finite range, a group of system. Using wavelet ϕ a ,b ( x) is following fitting[11].

wavelet {ψ a,b ( x)} can generate by basic wavelet ψ (x) scaling ∧ N x − bk

and translation. yi = f i ( x ) = ∑ wkϕ ( ak

) (7)

{

ψ a ,b ( x) = ⎣a ⎦−1 / 2ψ {( x − b) / a} (2) } K =1

Where: a, b R, a≠0, a was the scaling factor, express was the translation factor of wavelet function; bk was

function of scale (or width); b was shift factor, detect Scaling factor of wavelet function

translational position along x-axis. The hidden unit plays a very important role in the system.

Under the condition a=2j, b=ia,1-D wavelet and the Accordance the required, hidden layer nodes can be freely

function sequence is: set to approximate any continuous function with arbitrary

ϕ i, j ( x) = 2 − jj / 2 ϕ (2 − j x − i) or ϕ i, j ( x) = 2 jj / 2 ϕ (2 j x − i) precision using 3 neural networks. As shown in Figure 2,

(3) artificial neural network has many nodes, also known as

Where: i was the translational parameters, j was the processing unit, it can form a network topology among nodes

scaling factor. through direction connect. This network topology is the

neural network interconnection model. Different neural

Assumed the vibration signal f ( x) ∈ L2 ( R) , ψ (x) as the

networks have different network structure and the

base wavelet function, f (x ) is continuous wavelet transform interconnection model, outside part of the neural network is

based on wavelet ψ (x) ,as the Inner product of environment. Neural network receive information from the

{ }

f (x) and ψ a,b ( x) .In the real function space L2 ( R ) with environment, information processing, then added to the

output environment, as shown in Figure.2.

square integral, its wavelet transform can be expressed:

1 +∞ ⎛ x−b⎞

(W F )(b, a ) = ∫−∞ f (x )ψ ⎜⎜ ⎟dx

⎟

(4)

a ⎝ a ⎠

Inverse transform of continuous wavelet:

+∞ −2

f ( x ) = 2 / Cψ ∫−∞ ( f ,ψ a,b )ψ a,b ( x)a d a db (5)

Where: c is permit conditions of Wavelet-base dϕ (x)

+∞

Cψ = ∫ ψ (ω ) / ω dω < ∞

−∞ F

Where: ψ F (ω is the Fourier transform ϕ (ω ) , but ϕ (ω ) s

the real function space L2(R) with square integral.

During the continuous wavelet transform, only

discretions the scale parameters with binary(a=1/2j, j Z, Figure 2. Model of three-layer neural network

then Translational parameters maintain continuous（b R）,

so we can obtain semi-discrete Forms for wavelet change. Neural network has the mapping ability of from input to

⎧⎪ j

[ ⎫⎪

Wf ( 1 j , b) = ∫ f ( x)⎨2 2 ψ 2 j ( x − b) ⎬dx

2 ⎪⎩ ⎪⎭

] (6)

output through gradually study or training, in the process of

neural network dynamics learning, connection weights will

be adjusted among Neurons in keeping with environmental

B. Neural network modell information. Before study, a neural network does not

immediately give the required output or the target output for

Neural networks are proposed from the foundation of an input, by learning methods of the minimum variance

modern neuroscience, its features including: full gradient descent, according to generalized rules to change

approximation approximate any complex non-linear weights, neural network automatically correct all levels of

relationship; a large number of high-speed calculating by the inter-network interconnection weights and neuron values on

method of parallel distributed processing; learning and each layer. Gradually narrow the error between actual output

2

415

and target output through multiple repeated training Learn 1

samples and the use the steepest descent method, weights x= (13)

1 + e− y

change along the negative of error function, and converges to then

the smallest point, then the process of revise weight repeated 1

training, until the error are within the permit scope between x (j2) = (14)

− y (j2 )

The actual output and the target output, using the radial 1+ e

basis function （RBF）of neural network, study shows that Out put layer:

RBF network better than BP network in the nonlinear ∧ n x (j2) − bk

approximation ability, sorting ability and learning speed. y = f i ( x) = ∑ w jϕ ( ak

) (15)

j =1

Network output of RBF

N Where: w j was connection weights between output

yi = f i ( x ) = ∑ wik ϕ k ( x − ck 2

) (8) intermediate layer and No.j layer, take non-linear mapping

K =1

function is x= y, that is

Radial basis function

⎡ 2 ⎤ Fk = y (3) = x (3) (16)

x − ck

ϕ k = exp ⎢− ⎥ (9) According to gradient descent, take target function is

⎢ 2σ k2 ⎥ 1 2

⎣ ⎦ J= y 2 , and learning rate is 0.1-2.0

2

C. Wavelet neural network model

Using wavelet ϕa ,b ( x) is following fitting[6] V. DOUBLE-ISOLATION TESTING OF D IESEL ENGINE

∧ N System hydraulic dynamometer as a load of diesel engine

x − bk

yi = f i ( x ) = ∑ wkϕ ( ak

) (10) for double-layer vibration isolation, 4 hydraulic cylinders are

K =1 distributed between the middle objects and diesel engine, the

Where: wk was weight coefficient( k = 1, 2, …, 15); ak entire control system block diagram as shown in Figure 4.

was the translation factor of wavelet function; bk was

Scaling factor of wavelet function.

IV. CONTROLLER DESIGN

The whole control system structure as shown in Figure 3.

considering the vertical vibration, excitation signal of exciter

can generator vertical vibration force, acting on objects

(m1), and using simulation the working condition for diesel

Figure 3. Structure diagram of control system engine. Control signals of actuators 1 and 2 generate

controlling force of vibration of intermediate object, the

Input layer take the speed of intermediate object as the speed sensor collected vertical velocity of intermediate

network input in time between the moment and before object, after the charge amplifier, low pass and A/D

moment(m-1), the law is: converter, then input into the computer. Relative vibration

[ x1(1) x2(1) (1) T

… xm ] signal wavelet is decomposed by the wavelet analysis

(11) instrument. After extraction of the band signal eigen value,

= [ y 2( k ) y2( k −1) … y 2( k − m +1) ]T characteristics of the amount of data will be sent to delphi

Input layer: applications by DFE, pass by the trained RBF, network

∧ m xi(1) − bk output, A/D converter, low-pass and power amplifiers,

y (j2) = f j ( x) = ∑ w jiϕ ( ) (12) espectively, into the actuator 1 and actuator 2, actuators

i =1 ak

generates a vertical control force under effect of control

Where: w ji was connection weights between No.j signals, acting on intermediate object. The process is to

intermediate layer and No.i input layer, take non-linear implement the controlling, achieve the purposes to dynamic

mapping function is: controlling, until the scope of vertical speed is permit for

intermediate object.

3

416

VI. CONCLUSION

Double-layer vibration isolation system of diesel engine is

simplified to a two-degree of freedom spring-quality system

model. Vibration transmits from base to outside. the REFERENCES

vibration of diesel engine transmitted to base tends to zero,

[1] YANG Tiejun, LIU Zhigang, ZHANG W enp ing, etal. Ivestigation in

that is, the vibration signal of the middle-mass tends to active vibrationiso lation based on x -RLMS algo rithm . Tran saction

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the middle-mass was obtained. [2] Y.M. Song. Neural networks based active vibration control of flexible

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[7] CHEN J, SHI Y, SHI S. Noise analysis of digital ultrasonic nondest

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ACKNOWLEDGMENT [8] DRAI R , BENAMMAR A , BENCHAALA A. Signal processing for

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