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2009 International Conference on Industrial Mechatronics and Automation

Research on Active Control of Diesel Engine Based on Wavelet Neural Network

Yanmei CUI, Xianzhang FENG, Li LIU,Tao HOU Cai LIU


School of Mechatronics Engineering Rolling Mill Institute
Zhengzhou Institute of Aeronautical Industry Management Yanshan University
Zhengzhou, China Qinhuangdao, China
e-mail: phdfxz@163.com e-mail: phdfxz@163.com

Abstract—The vibration of diesel engine transmitting mainly capacity of nonlinear approximation and strong system
from base to outside, the double-layer isolation vibration identifying, concurrent processing, self-adapting syntony.
system of diesel engine was simplified into a double-freedom Wavelet NN combines the self-learning of NN with local
spring-mass systematic model. The vibration of diesel engine characteristic of wavelet. It has the self-adapting resolving
transmission upon the base tending to zero, the optimum power and approved fault toleration which is a feed forward
control force was imposed on the middle-mass by the vibration network based on wavelet analysis. The thesis sets up the
signal of the middle-mass of the trend toward zero and active vibration isolation control system model of diesel
characteristics of wavelet and neural network, from which engine based on wavelet NN and does related theory
active control model was obtained based on wavelet neural
analysis, experimental study.[5-7]
network system. The model is applied to the double-layer
isolation vibration of diesel engine isolating effectively the II. CONTROL OBJECT MODEL
transmission of low-frequency vibration to the base and
compensating the shortcomings of passive double-layer Vibration propagation of diesel engine is from base to
vibration systems, which expands frequency-band of isolation outside. In order to simplify the problem, only vertical
vibration of diesel engine on passive isolation vibration until vibration is considered. Diesel engine double layer vibration
the vertical speed of the middle-mass within the allowable isolating system is simplified to a two-degree of freedom
value range. It can achieve the purposes of isolation and spring quality system. m1 represents the quality of diesel
reduction vibration and active control and guides the design engine, m2 represents the middle quality, represents the
and test of self-adaptive active control by the method. vertical exciting force that is produced by diesel engine as
worked, and Fk represents control force achieved by the
Keywords-diesel engine; vibration; activecontrol; hydraulic actuator which is built between intermediate
artificial neural network quality and diesel engine. k1 and k2 show the stiffness of
upper-layer and bottom-layer absorber respectively. c1 and
I. INTRODUCTION c2 show damping coefficient of upper-layer and bottom-
layer absorber respectively, as shown in Figure.1.
The power system of Diesel engine is a complex system
that oil supply system, valve mechanism, lubricating system, Fg
cooling system work together. In order to carry out the active x1
control of Diesel engine, one of major jobs is to set up the m1
mathematical model of diesel engine. But the running
procedure mechanism of diesel engine is very complex and k C1
Fk
the system takes on nonlinearity and time variation, passive
control obviously cannot meet the demands and
m2 X2
simultaneously physical method setting up the model is very
difficult. Literature [1] adopts adaptive control theory based
on linear system to study vibrating active control of double k2 C2
layer vibration isolation system which apply LMS algorithm
to identify the system error channel. Because neural network
is equipped for nonlinear approximation and strong
concurrent processing, it has powerful life in practical Figure 1. Model of isolation vibration system
engineering applications [2,3]. Literature [4] apply three
layers BP (Back Propagation) network technique on diesel The coordinate are x1 and x2, so the vibration equation is:
engine double layer vibration isolation system to construct a ⎡m1 0 ⎤ ⎧ x1 ⎫ ⎡ c1 −c 2 ⎤ ⎧ x1 ⎫
kind of vibrating active control(AVC) system. The major job ⎢ ⎥⎨ ⎬ + ⎢ ⎥⎨ ⎬
⎣0 m 2 ⎦ ⎩ x 2 ⎭ ⎣− c1 c1 + c 2 ⎦ ⎩ x 2 ⎭
of the paper is to fulfill active control of diesel engine, which (1)
adopts wavelet NN controlled active control frame of double ⎡k − k1 ⎤ ⎧ x1 ⎫ ⎧ F g ⎫
layers system. This system frame is simple and is easy to +⎢ 1 ⎥⎨ ⎬=⎨ ⎬
⎣ − k1 k1 + k 2 ⎦ ⎩ x 2 ⎭ ⎩ Fk ⎭
achieve active control. Wavelet analysis. NN itself have the

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Because the vibration of diesel engine is transmitted from adaptive the certain or uncertain system, deal with the
base to outside, just according to vibration signal of knowledge of quantitative and qualitative in same time.
intermediate quality to computer necessary optimum control Neural network has neurons in three layers, the top is input
force Fk applied to the middle quality when vibration tends layer, middle is the hidden layer, and the lower is output
to be zero, the vibration transmitted to base will tend to be layer. Adjacent layers connect each other in network, the
zero. The aim of damping and vibration isolation is same layers have no connection, and there is no direct
realized.[8-10] connection between input layer and output layer. Input unit
receive information from the external environment, output
III. WAVELET NEURAL NETWORK MODEL units gives the effect of neural network system on the
external environment. Hidden unit element locate in neural
A. Wavelet analysis modell networks, receive input information within the network, the
Wavelet function constructed from the basic wavelet output can affect Other processing units in neural network
ψ (x) with a definition finite range, a group of system. Using wavelet ϕ a ,b ( x) is following fitting[11].
wavelet {ψ a,b ( x)} can generate by basic wavelet ψ (x) scaling ∧ N x − bk
and translation. yi = f i ( x ) = ∑ wkϕ ( ak
) (7)
{
ψ a ,b ( x) = ⎣a ⎦−1 / 2ψ {( x − b) / a} (2) } K =1

Where: wk was weight coefficient ( k = 1, 2, …, 15); ak


Where: a, b R, a≠0, a was the scaling factor, express was the translation factor of wavelet function; bk was
function of scale (or width); b was shift factor, detect Scaling factor of wavelet function
translational position along x-axis. The hidden unit plays a very important role in the system.
Under the condition a=2j, b=ia,1-D wavelet and the Accordance the required, hidden layer nodes can be freely
function sequence is: set to approximate any continuous function with arbitrary
ϕ i, j ( x) = 2 − jj / 2 ϕ (2 − j x − i) or ϕ i, j ( x) = 2 jj / 2 ϕ (2 j x − i) precision using 3 neural networks. As shown in Figure 2,
(3) artificial neural network has many nodes, also known as
Where: i was the translational parameters, j was the processing unit, it can form a network topology among nodes
scaling factor. through direction connect. This network topology is the
neural network interconnection model. Different neural
Assumed the vibration signal f ( x) ∈ L2 ( R) , ψ (x) as the
networks have different network structure and the
base wavelet function, f (x ) is continuous wavelet transform interconnection model, outside part of the neural network is
based on wavelet ψ (x) ,as the Inner product of environment. Neural network receive information from the
{ }
f (x) and  ψ a,b ( x) .In the real function space L2 ( R ) with environment, information processing, then added to the
output environment, as shown in Figure.2.
square integral, its wavelet transform can be expressed:
1 +∞ ⎛ x−b⎞
(W F )(b, a ) = ∫−∞ f (x )ψ ⎜⎜ ⎟dx

(4)
a ⎝ a ⎠
Inverse transform of continuous wavelet:
+∞ −2
f ( x ) = 2 / Cψ ∫−∞ ( f ,ψ a,b )ψ a,b ( x)a d a db (5)
Where: c is permit conditions of Wavelet-base dϕ (x)
+∞
Cψ = ∫ ψ (ω ) / ω dω < ∞
−∞ F
Where: ψ F (ω is the Fourier transform ϕ (ω ) , but ϕ (ω ) s
the real function space L2(R) with square integral.
During the continuous wavelet transform, only
discretions the scale parameters with binary(a=1/2j, j Z, Figure 2. Model of three-layer neural network
then Translational parameters maintain continuous(b R),
so we can obtain semi-discrete Forms for wavelet change. Neural network has the mapping ability of from input to
⎧⎪ j
[ ⎫⎪
Wf ( 1 j , b) = ∫ f ( x)⎨2 2 ψ 2 j ( x − b) ⎬dx
2 ⎪⎩ ⎪⎭
] (6)
output through gradually study or training, in the process of
neural network dynamics learning, connection weights will
be adjusted among Neurons in keeping with environmental
B. Neural network modell information. Before study, a neural network does not
immediately give the required output or the target output for
Neural networks are proposed from the foundation of an input, by learning methods of the minimum variance
modern neuroscience, its features including: full gradient descent, according to generalized rules to change
approximation approximate any complex non-linear weights, neural network automatically correct all levels of
relationship; a large number of high-speed calculating by the inter-network interconnection weights and neuron values on
method of parallel distributed processing; learning and each layer. Gradually narrow the error between actual output

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and target output through multiple repeated training Learn 1
samples and the use the steepest descent method, weights x= (13)
1 + e− y
change along the negative of error function, and converges to then
the smallest point, then the process of revise weight repeated 1
training, until the error are within the permit scope between x (j2) = (14)
− y (j2 )
The actual output and the target output, using the radial 1+ e
basis function (RBF)of neural network, study shows that Out put layer:
RBF network better than BP network in the nonlinear ∧ n x (j2) − bk
approximation ability, sorting ability and learning speed. y = f i ( x) = ∑ w jϕ ( ak
) (15)
j =1
Network output of RBF
N Where: w j was connection weights between output
yi = f i ( x ) = ∑ wik ϕ k ( x − ck 2
) (8) intermediate layer and No.j layer, take non-linear mapping
K =1
function is x= y, that is
Radial basis function
⎡ 2 ⎤ Fk = y (3) = x (3) (16)
x − ck
ϕ k = exp ⎢− ⎥ (9) According to gradient descent, take target function is
⎢ 2σ k2 ⎥ 1 2
⎣ ⎦ J= y 2 , and learning rate is 0.1-2.0
2
C. Wavelet neural network model
Using wavelet ϕa ,b ( x) is following fitting[6] V. DOUBLE-ISOLATION TESTING OF D IESEL ENGINE
∧ N System hydraulic dynamometer as a load of diesel engine
x − bk
yi = f i ( x ) = ∑ wkϕ ( ak
) (10) for double-layer vibration isolation, 4 hydraulic cylinders are
K =1 distributed between the middle objects and diesel engine, the
Where: wk was weight coefficient( k = 1, 2, …, 15); ak entire control system block diagram as shown in Figure 4.
was the translation factor of wavelet function; bk was
Scaling factor of wavelet function.
IV. CONTROLLER DESIGN
The whole control system structure as shown in Figure 3.

Figure 4. Block diagram of active vibration isolating system

In Figure 4, in order to simplify the control process, only


considering the vertical vibration, excitation signal of exciter
can generator vertical vibration force, acting on objects
(m1), and using simulation the working condition for diesel
Figure 3. Structure diagram of control system engine. Control signals of actuators 1 and 2 generate
controlling force of vibration of intermediate object, the
Input layer take the speed of intermediate object as the speed sensor collected vertical velocity of intermediate
network input in time between the moment and before object, after the charge amplifier, low pass and A/D
moment(m-1), the law is: converter, then input into the computer. Relative vibration
[ x1(1) x2(1) (1) T
… xm ] signal wavelet is decomposed by the wavelet analysis
(11) instrument. After extraction of the band signal eigen value,
= [ y 2( k ) y2( k −1) … y 2( k − m +1) ]T characteristics of the amount of data will be sent to delphi
Input layer: applications by DFE, pass by the trained RBF, network
∧ m xi(1) − bk output, A/D converter, low-pass and power amplifiers,
y (j2) = f j ( x) = ∑ w jiϕ ( ) (12) espectively, into the actuator 1 and actuator 2, actuators
i =1 ak
generates a vertical control force under effect of control
Where: w ji was connection weights between No.j signals, acting on intermediate object. The process is to
intermediate layer and No.i input layer, take non-linear implement the controlling, achieve the purposes to dynamic
mapping function is: controlling, until the scope of vertical speed is permit for
intermediate object.

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VI. CONCLUSION
Double-layer vibration isolation system of diesel engine is
simplified to a two-degree of freedom spring-quality system
model. Vibration transmits from base to outside. the REFERENCES
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