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Activity No.

6
DISTINGUISHING ACIDS AND
BASES

Objectives
At the end of the activity, students
will be able to:
differentiate acids from bases based on
color changes in the presence of
indicator dyes and paper indicator
determine the reactivity of acids and
bases based on their reactions with
metals and carbonates
determine the conductivity of acids
and bases using an improvised
conductivity apparatus

MATERIALS NEEDED
 Reaction vessel/paint palette
 Lemon juice
 Limewater
 Purple cabbage indicator
 Aspirin powder
 0.1 M HCl
 0.1 M NaOH
 Ammonia containing solution
 Chalk powder
 Acetic acid/vinegar
 Sodium bicarbonate
 Distilled water
 Conductivity apparatus
 Aluminum foil

PROCEDURE

Setup 1: Observation of Color Change of Indicators
1. Prepare the reaction vessel (figure 6-1):
2. For the preparation of cabbage indicator, please refer to Appendix 2.
3. On the first well of the palette, place 10 drops of lemon juice.
4. Fill the second well with limewater.

2. Add 10 drops of ammonia containing household solution on the fourth well.5. Record all your observations in table 6-1. 2. Record all observations in table 6-2. Add 10 drops of NaOH on the sixth well. Test the substances with previously prepared red cabbage indicator solution. Figure 6-1. Add two drops of red cabbage indicator and observe for changes in color of the solutions. Setup 2: Effect of Acids on metals 1. 12. 8. On well 1 of the palette. The Reaction Vessel: A Paint Palette . Add 10 drops of HCl on the fifth well. 7. Perform the same procedure on well 2 using magnesium ribbon instead of iron. 11. 9. 10. put 1 small spatula of iron powder and add 10 drops of HCl. On the third well. add a small spatula of aspirin powder.

12. connect the LED’s cathode to one of the aluminum foil strips. Disconnect the wires from the two strips. Via a third wire. 3. Add three drops of 1 M HCl to well 1. On the reaction vessel. 5.5 cm to form the electrodes.Limewater Strip 5 . 1. A pH indicator paper may be prepared by soaking strips of Whatman 40 filter paper to the previously prepared red cabbage solution in setup 1. 2. 3. connect the other strip of foil to the negative terminal of the battery. With the second wire. fill well 1 with one small spatula of chalk powder and add 5 drops of 1 M HCl. 4. allow the strips to dry. 5. 8. On the table top. 2. . Setup 4: Using pH Indicator Paper 1. 6.Setup 3: Effect of Acids on Carbonates 1. Setup 5: Conductivity of Acids and Bases The experiment will follow the setup in figure 6-2. well spaced out. Record your observations in table 6-5. Bend 2 new strips into well 2 of the reaction vessel and attach them on the table. 2. Connect the wires to the ends of the new strips and drop by drop. 11. add sodium hydroxide solution in well 2 until the ends of the aluminum strips are covered. Record all your observations in 6-3. 9. connect the positive terminal of the battery with the anode of the LED. bend two strips of foil into well 1. Cut four strips of aluminum foil measuring 6 cm x 0. Determine the pH (refer to Appendix 2) and record in table 6-4. Using one of the wires.distilled water. Fill well 2 with one small spatula of sodium bicarbonate and add 5 drops of 1 M HCl. 10. 6. Lay the indicator strips on the white sheet. 3. Attach the strips to the table with a sticky tape to prevent them from moving. On the reaction vessel. 4. 7. place paper towel and lay down white bond paper. Record relevant results. Drop the test solutions on each strip Strip 1 -vinegar Strip 2 -HCl Strip 3 -NH4OH Strip 4 . After 30 minutes of soaking.

Figure 6-2. Improvised Conductivity Apparatus for Acids and Bases .

students will be able to:  Differentiate acids from bases based on color changes in the presence of indicator dyes and paper indicator  Determine the reactivity of acids and bases based on their reactions with metals and carbonates  Determine the conductivity of acids and bases using an improvised conductivity apparatus II. Objectives At the end of the activity. 6 DISTINGUISHING ACIDS AND BASES I. Color Changes of Different Substances in the Presence of Dye Solution Color Substance Before After Acid or Base? Lemon juice Lime water Aspirin Powder Ammonia-containing compound HCl NaOH Table 6-2. Name :_________________________________ Date of Experiment: ___/___/___ Section :_________________________________ Date Submitted: ___/___/___ Group # :_________________________________ Score:________________________ Activity No. Effect of Acids on Metal Metal Acid Observations . Data and Results Table 6-1.

Effect of Acids on Carbonates Carbonate Acid Observations Chalk Powder 5 drops 1M HCl Sodium bicarbonate 5 drops 1M HCl Table 6-4. Discussion Guide questions for discussion: 1. which of the substances are acids? which are bases? ________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________ 3. What causes the change in color of the sample in the presence of dye indicator? ________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________ 2. Based on your observations. Using pH Paper Indicator Substance Color of pH Paper pH Vinegar Hydrochloric Acid Ammonium Hydroxide Limewater Distilled Water Table 6-5. How do acids react with metals? with carbonates? ________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________ . Conductivity of Acids and Bases Substance Did light turn on?(Yes/No) Conductor or Nonconductor Acid (HCl) Base (NaOH) III.Table 6-3.

________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________ 5. differentiate acids from bases. What happened to the paper indicator when it came in contact with the samples? Explain the changes observed. ________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________ 4. it can be concluded that ______________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________ . Based on the results of the experiment. ________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________ IV. Conclusion Based on the results of the experiment. Which of the samples is a conductor of electricity? a nonconductor? ________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________ 6.