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Teaching Literacy Strategies for Content Area Reading Lesson Plan

Your Name: Laurie Shapiro Grade Level: 3


Content Area: Science Theme/Topic: Simple Machines

Bibliographic Entry for Text Used in this Lesson


(2017). All About Simple Machines. The Rosen Group. Retrieved from

http://www.pkphysicalscience.com/article/427/all-about-simple-machines

Excerpt from text selection:

“A long time ago, when our clothes got dirty, we had to wash them by hand. This work took a lot of energy.
Today we have washing machines to wash our clothes. Machines make our lives easier!

Some machines have many parts. For example, the cars, buses, and trains that take us where we need to go have
lots of parts. Machines with many parts are called compound machines or complex machines. Other machines
are made of just a few parts. These are called simple machines. Like other machines, these machines make our
lives easier. Levers, pulleys, and wedges are just a few kinds of simple machines.

Scientists define work as the force that acts on an object so that it can be moved some distance. When we push,
pull, and lift objects, we are doing work. Over time, people and some other animals have found that using tools
makes work easier. A shovel helps us dig in the earth. A flat board can be used to slide a heavy box from the
ground to a shelf. The most basic kinds of tools that help us do work are simple machines.”

Techniques Selected
Name, and provide the reference for, each of the three different techniques you will be using.

Name of Reference for Technique (book & page # or website)


Technique
Before Quick Stephens, E. C. & Brown, J.E. A Handbook of Content Literacy
Write Strategies, 2nd ed.
Chapter 5
Durin Question http://www.readingrockets.org/strategies/question_answer_relatio
g Answer nship
Relationshi
p
After Sketching Daniels, H. & Zemelman, S. Subjects Matter.
My Way Chapter 5
Through
The Text
Before Reading:
Purpose

A quick write is a great way to support students as they prepare to read, as it helps to activate their prior
knowledge. This helps prepare them to learn about the topic. In allowing students time to process and share
their ideas, teachers foster the creation of connections to previous learning experiences.

Additionally, what students write during their quick write can also be used as an informal assessment, as it is a
great indicator of what students know or don’t know about the subject. Therefore, this can be used to guide
instruction.

General Literacy Objectives

After this lesson, the student will:

The student will be able to use prior knowledge as context for new learning by sharing one idea with a partner
or with the class.

Assessment of Objectives

Rubric for Quick Write: The students can earn up to 3 points for this assignment, based on the following
criteria.
3 2 1
The student wrote one prior The student wrote either one prior The student did not write down
knowledge idea for moving the knowledge idea or one idea using any ideas for moving the blocks.
stack of blocks. the simple machines.
The student did not share any of
Student wrote one idea for moving Student shared with their idea with their ideas with a partner or with
the blocks using the simple either a partner or a class. the class.
machine

Student shared one of their ideas


with a partner and the class.

Procedure
Place a large stack of heavy blocks in the middle of the classroom. The teacher should make sure they are too
large and heavy to move with ease. Then, ask students to use what they know to write about how they think
they should move the large stack of blocks to the other side of the room. Give them 2-3 minutes to write down
their ideas.

Bring out examples of the six different simple machines, and place them next to the stack of blocks. Then, ask
students to think about how they might use these to move the stack of blocks. Give them 4-5 minutes to write
down their ideas.

When the time is up, allow students to share their ideas with partners and then with the class. Give them time to
express how their ideas for moving the blocks changed once they were shown the simple machines.
During Reading:
Purpose

Having students answer questions that pertain to question answer relationships helps to supports them as they
read. This because it helps them interact with the information being presented. This helps integrate new content
into their schema. Each question serves as a check point for students to evaluate what they have read, and apply
their new understanding to their answer. Additionally, the formatting of QAR provides scaffolding, as it
engages students in different levels of thinking. Questions require more independent and application based
thinking as they progress.

General Literacy Objectives

After this lesson, the student will:

The student will be able to answer comprehension questions that relate to the purpose and use of simple
machines with 85% accuracy.

Assessment of Objectives

Rubric for Questions: The students will be graded out of 12 points, using the following criteria.

3 2 1
Right There The student answers all The student answers less The student answers
nine questions correctly. than nine questions none of the questions
correctly. correctly.
Think and Search The student answers all The student answers less The student answers
of the seven questions than seven of the none of the questions
correctly. questions correctly. correctly.
Author and You The student answers six The student answers less The student answers
of the questions than six of the questions none of the questions
correctly. correctly. correctly
On My Own The student answers both The student answers both The student does not
questions, and gives questions, but provides answer any questions.
details supporting their no detail supporting their
answer. answers.
The student answers one
of the two questions.
Procedure

To implement this technique, students will answer the following questions as they read.

Right there:

How do scientists define work?


What are simple machines?
What are the six simple machines?
How does a lever work?
What is a wheel and axle?
What is a pulley?
What is an inclined plane?
What is a wedge? How is it created?
What is a screw?

Think and search:

How do simple machines make our lives easier?


Why is a lever classified as a simple machine?
Why is a wheel and axle classified as a simple machine?
How is a pulley a simple machine?
Why is an inclined plane a simple machine? How does it make life easier?
Why is a wedge a simple machine?
Why is a screw a simple machine?

Author and you:

Can you think of an example of a lever that you use in your daily life?
What is an example of a wheel and axle that you use in your life?
Give an example of something that would require the help of a pulley.
What is an example of an inclined plane?
Where have you seen a wedge used outside of school?
Give an example of a screw that you use in your daily life.

On my own:

What is your opinion of using machines to help do work?

What do you think our world would be like and look like without machines to help us?
After Reading:
Purpose

Sketching their way through the text supports students after they have read. This is because it is a great way to
review their answers from the during portion of the read. Creating sketches of simple machines and their uses is
an excellent way of illustrating their understanding. It is an engaging summary, and serves to display what they
know. This helps them visualize what they have read, and helps them understand the main idea, which is an
effective reading strategy.

General Literacy Objectives

The student will be able to compare and contrast the uses and benefits of the six different simple machines by
drawing them with 85% accuracy.

Assessment of Objectives

Rubric for Sketches: The student can earn up to 3 points, using the following criteria.

3 2 1
The student drew an example of The student drew an example of The student did not draw an
each of the six different simple less than six of the simple example of any of the simple
machines. machines. machines.

Procedure

After reading, students should individually draw an example of each type of simple machine.

They will be placed into six groups, each assigned to a different simple machine. With their group members,
they will come up with a presentation. They can choose some or all the pictures of their assigned simple
machine to display to the class. During their presentation, they will describe how the simple machine is useful,
explain their examples drawn, explain how it is similar and different from other simple machines. In this way,
students are given an opportunity to share what they have learned and the ways in which they have applied their
new knowledge to their drawings.
Additional Sections
Other Materials Needed
To complete the before portion of the lesson, teachers will need to have blocks, or something else that is heavy and not
easily moved. Additionally, teachers will need to have physical examples of the six simple machines present in the
classroom.

To complete the during reading portion of the lesson, students will need access to computers, as the reading is in the form
of an online article. If access to computers and/ or internet is not available, teachers may print copies of the article for
students to read at their desks.

To complete the after portion of the lesson, students will need access to pencil, paper, and crayons or colored pencils.

Adaptations

Students in special education may receive the following adaptations to complete the lessons:

Before: Students that have documented difficulties in writing may verbally express their ideas instead of writing
them quickly. They may also draw their ideas and verbally explain them rather than completing a quick write.

During: Students may type their answers to the questions on a computer instead of writing them on paper. Or,
they may verbally communicate their understanding of the material by answering the questions orally.
Additionally, students may have an educator read the article aloud, or read the article together chorally.

After: Students can choose which of the six simple machines that they would like to draw.

Assessment Charts

Special education students may be graded on the following adapted rubrics for each portion of the lesson.

Before:
Rubric for Quick Write: The students can earn up to 3 points for this assignment, based on the following
criteria.
3 2 1
The student expressed one prior The student expressed either one The student did not express any
knowledge idea for moving the prior knowledge idea or one idea ideas for moving the blocks.
stack of blocks verbally or through using the simple machines
a drawing. verbally or with a drawing.

Student expressed one idea for


moving the blocks using the
simple machine either verbally or
with a drawing.
During: No changes to this rubric were required, as students will still be answering each question. They are not graded on
the manner in which they acquire the information or answer the questions.
Rubric for Questions: The students will be graded out of 12 points, using the following criteria.

3 2 1
Right There The student answers all The student answers less The student answers
nine questions correctly. than nine questions none of the questions
correctly. correctly.
Think and Search The student answers all The student answers less The student answers
of the seven questions than seven of the none of the questions
correctly. questions correctly. correctly.
Author and You The student answers six The student answers less The student answers
of the questions than six of the questions none of the questions
correctly. correctly. correctly
On My Own The student answers both The student answers both The student does not
questions, and gives questions, but provides answer any questions.
details supporting their no detail supporting their
answer. answers.
The student answers one
of the two questions.

After:

Rubric for Sketches: The student can earn up to 3 points, using the following criteria.

3 2 1
The student drew an example of The student partially drew an The student did not draw an
one of the six different simple example of one of the simple example of any of the simple
machines. machines. machines.